WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong public opposition

  1. Exploring and Contextualizing Public Opposition to Renewable Electricity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin K. Sovacool

    2009-01-01

    This article explores public opposition to renewable power technologies in the United States. It begins by discussing the genesis of environmental ethics, or how some Americans have come to place importance on the protection of the environment and preservation of species, ecosystems, and the biosphere. As result, renewable power systems have become challenged on ethical and environmental grounds and are occasionally opposed by local communities and environmentalists. The article finds that, h...

  2. The rise and fall of public opposition in specific social movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, P.J.; Mazur, A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of four 'specific' social movements which involve aspects of technological controversy: Fluoridation, the ABM, Nuclear Power Plants, and Legalized Abortion. A theoretical model of the rise and fall of public opposition in these movements over time is suggested. Quantitative indicators are developed and applied to this historical model. Rise and fall of controversy follows a regular sequence: Activities of protest leaders increase during periods of great national concern over issues that are complementary to the movement; during these periods, social and economic resources are relatively available to the movement. As the activity of protest leaders increases, mass media coverage of their activities increases. As mass media coverage increases, opposition to the technology among the wider public increases. As the activity of the leaders wanes, mass media coverage declines, and so does opposition among the wider public. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relevance of this perspective for making predictions about the future course of 'specific' social movements. (author)

  3. A structural model analysis of public opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.; Burns, W.

    1991-09-01

    Studies show that most Nevada residents and almost all state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Surveys of the public show that individual citizens view the Yucca Mountain repository as having high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, believe the risks are very low. Policy analysts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and increased economic benefits for accepting a repository. The model developed in this study is designed to examine the relationship between public perceptions of risk, trust in risk management, and potential economic impacts of the current repository program using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that perceptions of potential economic gains have little relationship to opposition to the repository. On the other hand, risk perceptions and the level of trust in repository management are closely related to each other and to opposition. The impacts of risk perception and trust in management on opposition to the repository result from a combination of their direct influences as well as their indirect influences operating through perceptions that the repository would have serious negative impacts on the state's economy due to stigmatization and reduced tourism

  4. Policy, law, and public opposition: the prospects for abyssal ocean waste disposal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L.; Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di

    1998-05-01

    The ocean is one of several media available for the disposal of society's wastes. Recently, its use for this purpose has been curtailed sharply. In this paper, we describe the potential role of the ocean in an economically optimal multimedia waste disposal framework, review international agreements and U.S. laws regulating ocean disposal, and discuss the role of public perceptions and environmental agendas in present policies governing ocean disposal. Our focus is on the disposal in the abyssal ocean of wastes such as sewage sludge. We conclude that while the U.S. ban on ocean waste disposal may be reasonable in view of uncertainties about environmental costs, the effective ban on limited disposal for research purposes is more difficult to justify. A restoration of public trust in government institutions and in the waste management industry is a likely prerequisite for the relaxation of public opposition to any change in the present prohibitions.

  5. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Opposite Shores: A Case Study of Environmental Perception and Social Representations of Public School Teachers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Silva, Jailson A.; Colagrande, Elaine A.; Arroio, Agnaldo

    2018-01-01

    This present study was aimed at analyzing the environmental perception of teachers from two Brazilian public schools located on opposite shores of a socio-environmentally vulnerable area by means of drawings as well as the data collected from questionnaires. The 2010 Brazilian Census reported that nearly 2.7 million people live in such conditions…

  7. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: Germany: “Elite precaution” alongside continued public opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Marion

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany is the EU member state with the most difficult situation (besides Austria for marketing genetically modified (GM crops and food. At the same time, it shows the least administrative effort to respond to the reasons for this situation - public suspicion and protest. Regulators advocate specific precaution-related measures, including market-stage monitoring; these measures, however, do not relate to the primary demands of critics and opponents. The administration’s claim to prioritize scientific evidence over politics constructs the administration and the public as two separate worlds without real mediation. This conflicts with the ever-growing demands for public participation. Participation in a broader sense, however, is not dependent on formal opportunities. In this conflict, NGOs bring up issues of democracy, transparency and precaution through public mobilization. This strategy results in an anticipated consumer boycott and thereby a commercial blockage of GM products. These dynamics can be analysed as “reflexive modernization”, which implies greater public aversion to externally imposed risks. The politico-administrative system responds with a legalistic-scientistic approach in order to increase safety but without participatory measures to overcome predictive uncertainty and value conflicts. Environmental and consumer protest has led the technology providers to revise their political strategies in the biotechnology conflict. Thus, in Germany reflexive modernization takes place without reflexive politics.

  8. Opposition Redirected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The discursive arena known as qualitative inquiry initially took shape in opposition to the epistemology and politics associated with philosophies of logical positivism and empiricism and the doctrine of value-free science. An identity of resistance and antagonism continues to characterize many who identify with this arena of activity. This paper…

  9. Multi-causal pathways of public opposition to dam projects in Asia: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Charles, Katrina J.; Walton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars overwhelmingly adopt the case study method when analyzing causal conditions inducing anti-dam-protests. We have carried out the first medium-N-study on this topic analyzing public opposition to 12 dam projects in Asia. For this purpose, we employ a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

  10. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza, Vanessa; D'Souza, Clare; Echebarria, Carmen; Barrutia, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  11. Public opinion about nuclear energy is in a change process: we have moved from opposition to the consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, P.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear sector in Spain is making huge affords towards improving public acceptance. the common trend is rigorous and professional diffusion and information regarding nuclear issues. The goal, besides informing on the excel ent results and impeccable performance of nuclear power plants, is for effective communication to offer society information on current activities. (Author)

  12. Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Jaeger, Geert; Braeckman, Johan; Van Montagu, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation. We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of public health information in assistance to populations living in opposition and contested areas of Syria, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Welsch, Wilhelmina; Sullivan, Richard; Alkema, Gerbrand; Warsame, Abdihamid; Wafai, Mais; Jasem, Mohammed; Ekzayez, Abdulkarim; Cummings, Rachael; Patel, Preeti

    2017-01-01

    The Syrian armed conflict is the worst humanitarian tragedy this century. With approximately 470,000 deaths and more than 13 million people displaced, the conflict continues to have a devastating impact on the health system and health outcomes within the country. Hundreds of international and national non-governmental organisations, as well as United Nations agencies have responded to the humanitarian crisis in Syria. While there has been significant attention on the challenges of meeting health needs of Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries such as Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, very little has been documented about the humanitarian challenges within Syria, between 2013 and 2014 when non-governmental organisations operated in Syria with very little United Nations support or leadership, particularly around obtaining information to guide health responses in Syria. In this study, we draw on our operational experience in Syria and analyse data collected for the humanitarian health response in contested and opposition-held areas of Syria in 2013-4 from Turkey, where the largest humanitarian operation for Syria was based. This is combined with academic literature and material from open-access reports. Humanitarian needs have consistently been most acute in contested and opposition-held areas of Syria due to break-down of Government of Syria services and intense warfare. Humanitarian organisations had to establish de novo data collection systems independent of the Government of Syria to provide essential services in opposition-held and contested areas of Syria. The use of technology such as social media was vital to facilitating remote data collection in Syria as many humanitarian agencies operated with a limited operational visibility given chronic levels of insecurity. Mortality data have been highly politicized and extremely difficult to verify, particularly in areas highly affected by the conflict, with shifting frontlines, populations, and allegiances. More

  14. Strong lens search in the ESO public Survey KiDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Covone, G.; Roy, N.; Tortora, C.; Barbera, F. La; Radovich, M.; Getman, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Colonna, A.; Paolillo, M.; Kleijn, G. A. Verdoes; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Valentijn, E; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Longo, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Paolillo, Maurizio; Lodice, Enrichetta

    2015-01-01

    We have started a systematic search for strong lens candidates in the ESO public survey KiDS based on the visual inspection of massive galaxies in the redshift range 0. 1 < z < 0. 5. As a pilot program we have inspected 100 deg2, which overlap with SDSS and where there are known lenses to use as a

  15. Weak and strong publics: drawing on Nancy Fraser to explore parental participation in neonatal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Lewando‐Hundt, Gillian; Blaxter, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims  We draw on the work of Nancy Fraser, and in particular her concepts of weak and strong publics, to analyze the process of parental involvement in managed neonatal network boards. Background  Public involvement has moved beyond the individual level to include greater involvement of both patients and the public in governance. However, there is relatively little literature that explores the nature and outcomes of long‐term patient involvement initiatives or has attempted to theorize, particularly at the level of corporate decision making, the process of patient and public involvement. Methods  A repeated survey of all neonatal network managers in England was carried out in 2006–07 to capture developments and changes in parental representation over this time period. This elicited information about the current status of parent representation on neonatal network boards. Four networks were also selected as case studies. This involved interviews with key members of each network board, interviews with parent representatives, observation of meetings and access to board minutes. Results  Data collected show that a wide range of approaches to involving parents has been adopted. These range from decisions not to involve parents at this level to relatively well‐developed systems designed to link parent representatives on network boards to parents in neonatal units. Conclusion  Despite these variations, we suggest that parental participation within neonatal services remains an example of a weak public because the parent representatives had limited participation with little influence on decision making. PMID:22040481

  16. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  17. Three Dimensions of Oppositionality in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris; Goodman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in youth is a strong predictor of mental illness yet the wide range of associations with psychiatric disorders remains largely unexplained. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the identification of irritable, headstrong and hurtful dimensions within youth oppositionality would clarify…

  18. Understanding the opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Current debates about sex selection start from a paradox: on the one hand, the 'liberal' argument in favour of sex selection is often thought to be sound; but on the other hand there is widespread public opposition to sex selection. So it is worth spending some time examining the arguments against sex selection. Four different types of argument are identified: (i) religious arguments; (ii) consequentialist arguments, mainly concerning disturbance to the sex ratio; (iii) arguments to the effect that sex selection involves a failure to respect the autonomy of a child; (iv) arguments to the effect that the motivation for sex selection brings with it an instrumental attitude to children not compatible with a child's need for unconditional acceptance and love. In the end the conclusion is reached that none of these arguments provide decisive arguments against the liberal thesis that sex selection ought to be permitted, especially where 'family balancing' is envisaged. In the light of this conclusion the issue of fetal sexing followed by selective feticide as a method of sex selection is discussed. It is argued that sex selection is not in general a good reason for abortion, but that this practice may become unstoppable. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Oppositional defiant disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with oppositional defiant disorder grow up to have conduct disorder as teenagers or adults. In some cases, children ... Moseley LR, DeMaso DR. Disruptive, imulse-control, and conduct disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, ...

  20. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  1. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  2. Building and Sustaining Strong Public Health Agencies: Determinants of Workforce Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshaban, Deena; Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Shih, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Workforce shortages have been identified as a priority for US public health agencies. Voluntary turnover results in loss of expertise and institutional knowledge as well as high costs to recruit and train replacement workers. To analyze patterns and predictors of voluntary turnover among public health workers. Descriptive analysis and linear probability regression models. Employees of state health agencies in the United States who participated in the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Intended retirement and voluntary departure; pay satisfaction; job satisfaction. Nearly 25% of workers reported plans to retire before 2020, and an additional 18% reported the intention to leave their current organization within 1 year. Four percent of staff are considering leaving their organization in the next year for a job at a different health department. There was significant heterogeneity by demographic, socioeconomic, and job characteristics. Areas such as administration/management, health education, health services, social services, and epidemiology may be particularly vulnerable to turnover. The strongest predictors of voluntary departure were pay and job satisfaction, which were associated with 9 (P intention to leave. Our findings suggest that if all workers were satisfied with their job and pay, intended departure would be 7.4%, or less than half the current 18% rate. Controlling for salary levels, higher levels of education and longer work experience were associated with lower pay satisfaction, except for physicians, who were 11 percentage points (P = .02) more likely to be satisfied with their pay than employees with doctoral degrees. Several workplace characteristics related to relationships with supervisors, workplace environment, and employee motivation/morale were significantly associated with job satisfaction. Our findings suggest that public health agencies may face significant pressure from worker retirement and voluntary departures in

  3. Weak and Strong Compensation for the Prioritization of Public Investments: Multidimensional Analysis for Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Mare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic crisis still heavily affecting most of Europe, a possible resumption can be found in the revitalization of public and private investments. These investments should be directed not only towards the strategic areas of infrastructures and production, but also to those which allow for a higher level of the quality of life (sports facilities, parks, etc.. In such cases, the need to balance the reasons of financial sustainability with environmental and social profiles is even more evident. Thus, multicriteria techniques, supporting complex assessments, should be implemented together with a monetary feasibility study (cost-benefit analysis. Multidimensional methods allow for the aggregation of different profiles into overall indicators. This study gives an account of how the application and comparison of multi-criteria approaches based on tools characterized by a higher or lower level of compensation between criteria can broaden the spectrum of analysis of the problems and lead to a more subtle logic of funding for public works and works of public utility, with a more current and mature sharing of profitability between private investors and users of community infrastructures.

  4. The Synthesis of Binary Oppositions «Two in One», «Three in One» and «Five Against Four» in D.Merezhkovsky’s Religious Publicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashkevych Mykola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a differentiation of connotations for the following numbers: one, two, three, four and five from the Dmytro Merezhkovsky’s journalistic program. The implicative nature of the numbers is already established. On its basis there is the synthesis of binary oppositions with religious and philosophical directions and additional extrapolation of the number system into Russian political and cultural areas in the first half of 20th century. The purpose of this article is to differentiate multiple connotations of author’s images and to demonstrate examples of their use. The subject of this study is also to show the ways of reality reflection in the symbolist journalism. The article presents numerical symbols in D. Merezhkovsky’s publicism.

  5. What's Up? Use the night sky to engage the public through amateur astronomy in IYA; What's Up monthly astronomy themed podcasts; Annual Saturn Observation Night worldwide celebration of Saturn Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Jones, Jane

    2008-09-01

    Abstract What's Up video podcasts: connecting "astronomy for everyone" monthly astronomical views with related NASA missions, science, images and handson education. Background: What's Up Podcasts are 2 minute video podcasts available through RSS feed, You tube, and NASA websites every month. They feature an astronomy related viewing target in the sky each month, targets visible to everyone, from city or country, just by looking up! No telescope is required to view these objects. Summary: Expand and broaden the scope of the existing "What's Up" public astronomy themed video podcasts. NASA builds partnerships and linkages between Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics formal and informal education providers. What's Up podcasts provides a link between astronomical views and events, or "what's up in the night sky this month" with current NASA missions, mission milestones and events, space telescope images or press releases. These podcasts, plus supporting star charts, hands-on activities, standards-based educational lessons and mission links will be used by museums, planetariums, astronomy clubs, civic and youth groups, as well as by classrooms and the general public. They can be translated to other languages, too. Providing the podcasts in high definition, through the NASA websites, You Tube, iTunes and other web video sharing sites reaches wide audiences of all ages. Third Saturn Observation Night - May 18, 2008 Centered on Saturn Opposition, when the Sun and Saturn are on opposite sides of the Earth, all IYA participants - in all countries around the world - will be encouraged to take their telescopes out and share the planet Saturn with their communities. NASA's International Saturn Observation Campaign network of astronomy enthusiasts has now conducted a Saturn Observation Night event for the past 2 years, and it succeeds by building an international community all sharing Saturn. This celebration has been successfully conducted in hundreds of locations

  6. When Do Children Understand "Opposite"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine I; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions in a novel opposite task. Children's language and working memory skills were assessed, and parents provided information about children's access to learning materials about opposites. In the opposite task, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, demonstrated acquisition of the concept of opposite. Children demonstrated this understanding only when asked for the "opposite" one, suggesting that antonymy was not made salient by stimulus properties alone. Children's accuracy was not significantly related to their language or working memory skills, to their child care experience, or to whether parents reported having books or games about opposites or playing opposite word games with children. Eye gaze analyses provided no evidence for early implicit understanding of the concept of opposite. Children with typical development have a concept of opposite by 4 years of age.

  7. Moving opposites in the self. A Heraclitean approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, H J

    1993-10-01

    Theory and method are presented for the investigation of opposites in personal experience, with particular attention to their unification. The strategy is to invite people to relate actively two strongly contrasting experiences (meaning units) and to combine these into a third unit. Three idiographic studies are reported showing that the third meaning unit, created by the subjects, shifts towards another pair of polar opposites. This phenomenon, called the phenomenon of 'moving opposites', is discussed in view of the relationship between the field of personality and social psychology and the field of clinical psychology and psychotherapy. The phenomenon is also discussed with reference to Aristotle's and Heraclitus' conflicting views on opposites.

  8. Oppositional defiant disorder: current insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek Ghosh,1 Anirban Ray,2 Aniruddha Basu1 1Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India Abstract: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD is diagnosed broadly on the basis of frequent and persistent angry or irritable mood, argumentativeness/defiance, and vindictiveness. Since its inception in the third Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, epidemiological and longitudinal studies have strongly suggested a distinct existence of ODD that is different from other closely related externalizing disorders, with different course and outcome and possibly discrete subtypes. However, several issues, such as symptom threshold, dimensional versus categorical conceptualization, and sex-specific symptoms, are yet to be addressed. Although ODD was found to be highly heritable, no genetic polymorphism has been identified with confidence. There has been a definite genetic overlap with other externalizing disorders. Studies have begun to explore its epigenetics and gene–environment interaction. Neuroimaging findings converge to implicate various parts of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. Alteration in cortisol levels has also been demonstrated consistently. Although a range of environmental factors, both familial and extrafamilial, have been studied in the past, current research has combined these with other biological parameters. Psychosocial treatment continues to be time-tested and effective. These include parental management training, school-based training, functional family therapy/brief strategic family therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Management of severe aggression and treatment of co-morbid disorders are indications for pharmacotherapy. In line with previous conceptualization of chronic

  9. The 2009 Health Confidence Survey: public opinion on health reform varies; strong support for insurance market reform and public plan option, mixed response to tax cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment

  10. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  11. ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of 131 children with ADHD (101 males, 30 females; mean age 5 years, range 3 to 7 years with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD was determined in a prospective study at the University of Goteborg, Sweden.

  12. Qualitative investigation of the reasons behind opposition to water fluoridation in regional NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Knox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate reasons behind strong opposition to water fluoridation in regional New South Wales, Australia, and to make recommendations to improve community engagement. Importance: Few studies have used qualitative methodologies to understand the reasons for strong antifluoridation views. An understanding of these reasons could be useful when designing public campaigns to combat the strong antifluoridation message. Methods: The qualitative study used semistructured interviewing and thematic analysis. Ten participants were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling methods until data saturation was reached. Thematic analysis and graphical representation of themes assisted in analysing the data for logical connections and relationships. Results: Six dominant themes and numerous subthemes were identified. Five of the major themes were reasons for opposition: scepticism, health effects, ethics, environmental impacts and economics. Each of these was inextricably linked to a sixth major theme: alternatives to fluoridation. Conclusions: All participants had strongly held antifluoridation views, and provided a unique insight into their perceptions and reasons for opposing water fluoridation. Concerns about ‘fraudulent research’ and the influence of industry on government bodies were novel themes. The concerns raised could be used to inform future population health campaigns, research, public education and resource-allocation decisions. Open community consultation may be able to address the issues raised in a nonjudgemental and collaborative manner.

  13. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  14. Success of opposition against Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1989-01-01

    A first success for the anti-nuclear movement emerges: the Czechoslovakian government renounces of blocks 3 and 4, 1000 MW each, in Temelin. Although lack of money is admitted as a partial cause, the main cause is the broad opposition of the population, especially in Austria, says the author. Therefore the author appeals to the coworkers to double their efforts in the signature collection against Temelin. The slogan is: we shall make Temelin too. (qui)

  15. Combating opposition in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, A B

    1996-01-01

    The Philippine family planning movement has been in existence for 25 years. The Catholic Church, however, has launched a smear campaign against it with the shibboleths of antichild, antifamily, antilife, and pro-abortion that had to be countered by the association. At the Pro-Life's First Training Congress on Love, Life, and Family held in 1995 at the country's oldest Catholic university in Manila (University of Santo Tomas), charges were leveled against it and the International Planned Parenthood Federation as owners of multinational companies that manufacture infant formulas, contraceptives, and abortion machines. At the IPPF Members' Assembly in 1995 this anti-family planning campaign escalated with charges that the IPPF was the agent of free sex, promiscuity, and low morality. All this in the face of IPPF's strong commitment to reproductive rights embodied in the Cairo and Beijing conference concluding documents on reproductive health. The President of the Philippines also addressed this meeting and voiced his support for family planning as an integral part of national development. The major issues in this arena are the gender relations between men and women; prevailing cultural norms and beliefs; lack of information and education; inadequate health care delivery; and poverty. In this climate Pro-Life, Philippines and Human Life International are outspoken in their 1996-98 advocacy campaign to: 1) capture key local government positions and promote their anti-FP agenda; 2) to undertake grassroots education through the Church's Family Life Apostolate; and 3) to campaign for the removal of population education currently being introduced in public schools and replace them with anti-FP and anti-population control education modules. This campaign poses a major challenge for the Philippine FP organization to work toward: 1) changing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women and couples toward FP; 2) changing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of decision

  16. Oppositely charged colloids out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, T.

    2010-11-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the range of a few nanometers up to several micrometers. Similar to atomic and molecular systems, they can form gases, liquids, solids, gels and glasses. Colloids can be used as model systems because, unlike molecules, they are sufficiently large to be studied directly with light microscopy and move sufficiently slow to study their dynamics. In this thesis, we study binary systems of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) colloidal particles suspended in low-polar solvent mixtures. Since the ions can still partially dissociate, a surface charge builds up which causes electrostatic interactions between the colloids. By carefully tuning the conditions inside the suspension, we make two kinds of particles oppositely charged. To study our samples, we use Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The positively and negatively charged particles can be distinguished by a different fluorescent dye. Colloids constantly experience a random motion resulting from random kicks of surrounding solvent molecules. When the attractions between the oppositely charged particles are weak, the particles can attach and detach many times and explore a lot of possible configurations and the system can reach thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, colloidal ‘ionic’ crystals consisting of thousands to millions of particles can form under the right conditions. When the attractions are strong, the system can become kinetically trapped inside a gel-like state. We observe that when the interactions change again, crystals can even emerge again from this gel-like phase. By using local order parameters, we quantitatively study the crystallization of colloidal particles and identify growth defects inside the crystals. We also study the effect of gravity on the growth of ionic crystals by using a rotating stage. We find that sedimentation can completely inhibit crystal growth and plays an important role in crystallization from the gel-like state. The surface

  17. The opposition of Mars, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, R. J.

    1991-10-01

    This report is a discussion of 3,441 observations of the 1988 perihelic opposition covering the period 1987 November to 1989 June. The widespread utilisation of CCD techniques by both amateurs and professionals led to the detection of the finest surface details ever recorded from Earth. Of the albedo features, the Huygens crater was still visible as a dark spot in Iapigia, while Nepenthes continued to be faint or invisible. Solis Lacus, as in 1986 was large and complex, with Phasis (fading) and Gallinaria Silva nearby. The Acampsis 'canal' reappeared, and there was a secular darkening of part of the Memnonia desert. Mare Serenum was again shortened at its W end, and the Aetheria darkening persisted. Oxia Palus, Achilles Fons and Idaeus Fons were all large and dark. Around opposition the Martian atmosphere was very transparent, with a pronounced Blue Clearing. No global dust storm occurred at perihelion on August 11, but two important local storms were followed. One began in Hellas in June, and another started in Thaumasia in November. The earlier storm caused a sudden darkening of Mare Serpentis, Pandorae Fretum and the E end of Sinus Sabaeus. The N limb was marked by the N polar hood for most of the apparition: a N polar cap emerged in 1989. The S polar cap recession was in close accord with Slipher's mean curve, differing slightly but significantly from 1986, when the cap had been slightly smaller than average over the period Ls=210-250 . The fragmentation of the cap was studied in detail.

  18. Government without official opposition: The case of Lesotho 1993 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1993 to 1998, Lesotho was governed without an official opposition in parliament. This situation destabilised the country's fragile democracy. The paper speculates that the country's stability, public policies and development programmes suffered adversely because of the problem of one dominant party governing alone.

  19. Political Cycles : The Opposition Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Pascal; Soubeyran, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two dimensional infinite horizon model of public consumption in which investments are decided by a winner-take-all election. Investments in the two public goods create a linkage across periods and parties have different specialities. We show that the incumbent party vote share decreases the longer it stays in power. Parties chances of winning do not converge and, when the median voter is moderate enough, no party can maintain itself in power for ever. Finally, the more parties ar...

  20. Public opinion about nuclear energy is in a change process: we have moved from opposition to the consideration; La opinion publica sobre la energia nuclear esta en proceso de cambio: hemos pasado del rechazo a la consideracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, P.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear sector in Spain is making huge affords towards improving public acceptance. the common trend is rigorous and professional diffusion and information regarding nuclear issues. The goal, besides informing on the excellent results and impeccable performance of nuclear power plants, is for effective communication to offer society information on current activities. (Author)

  1. Development and implementation of public relations strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.; Stritar, A.; Isteni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the strong public opposition after the announcement of the results of possible site selections for the final low and intermediate waste repository in Slovenia in 1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management has completely revised its public information strategy. The information and education programs, that should lead to greater public acceptance, are described. At present the bulletin, leaflets, booklet, permanent exhibition and lectures in the Nuclear Training Centre are applied. (author)

  2. Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition

    CERN Document Server

    Béziau, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    aiThe theory of oppositions based on Aristotelian foundations of logic has been pictured in a striking square diagram which can be understood and applied in many different ways having repercussions in various fields: epistemology, linguistics, mathematics, psychology. The square can also be generalized in other two-dimensional or multi-dimensional objects extending in breadth and depth the original theory of oppositions of Aristotle. The square of opposition is a very attractive theme which has been going through centuries without evaporating. Since 10 years there is a new growing interest for

  3. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chibing Gong

    2016-01-01

    A fireworks algorithm (FWA) is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA) proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA). The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL) to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based a...

  4. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Strong Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new multi-use Public Affairs Center houses administrative offices, academic offices, conference areas, and classrooms as well as food service facilities. Other features are a studio theater, a 2,200 seat auditorium, and simulation gaming facilities. (Author/MLF)

  6. Opposition to nuclear power: a review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrey, J.; Huggett, C.

    1976-12-01

    This paper examines the rise of opposition to nuclear power in the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, and Japan. It explores the course that opposition has taken, the issues on which it has focused, the factors that have influenced it, and the problems it poses for public decision making. Opinions differ about the causes of nuclear opposition. Indeed, it is probable that a variety of factors have contributed, including cultural and political values regarding continued economic and energy growth and fears of deliberate large-scale violence with the spread of radioactive materials, the protest movements against nuclear weapons testing, the upsurge in environmental concern in the 1960s, the movement towards greater social responsibility in science, and a growing distrust of ''the Establishment''--particularly in the USA because of Watergate. The upsurge in concern was reflected in greater attention to environmental matters in the mass media, schools, universities, and the international agencies. It is important to recognize that this concern cuts across conventional left-right divisions of politics. Radicals, communists, and conservatives can be found among both the proponents and the critics. These difficulties facing the policy maker are accentuated by the amorphous nature both of the opposition and the issues which have received attention and by the evidence of many opinion surveys: that more people are in favor of nuclear power than oppose it, but the majority are uncertain and do not understand the issues. For purposes of analysis it is useful to distinguish between three types of opposition--nuclear-specific, site-specific, and that related to planning and consent procedures. (MCW)

  7. [Opposition to Myriad Genetics patents and their total or partial revocation in Europe: early conclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Maurice; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings instituted against three European patents held by the US company Myriad Genetics, on the BRCA1 gene and the breast cancer diagnosis gene, resulted in the total or partial revocation of these patents. These decisions put an end to the legal monopoly claimed by Myriad Genetics on the BRCA1 gene and on breast cancer gene tests, and left the field open to European geneticists to develop and implement their test methods within the framework of a clinical not-for-profit organization. The opposition procedure, through which any actor is allowed to challenge European patents, was used by geneticists doctors in Europe to refuse the emergence of an industrial monopoly on a medical service offered in a clinical context. The decision to revoke or strongly limit these patents was based on the European Patent Office's refusal to establish an invention priority on a sequence that had errors at the time the application was filed by the patent holder, in September 1994. The patent holder was granted an invention priority only on 24 March 1995, when it filed an application for a corrected sequence of the gene. But by then the BRCA1 gene sequence had already been divulged in a public data base, Genbank, from October 1994, notably by Myriad. Myriad Genetics' patents were thus victims of the patent race that prompted the firm to file multiple patent applications on insufficiently validated sequences, and of the conflict between diffusion in the public domain and the novelty requirement. Opposition to the patents, undertaken by a coalition of medical institutions, human genetic societies, two States, Holland and Austria, an environmental protection organization (Greenpeace), and the Swiss Labour Party, made it possible to preserve and develop the clinical economy of genetic tests in Europe. It resulted in amendments to intellectual property laws in France and thus extended the possibility of using compulsory licences for public health purposes to in vitro diagnosis.

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  9. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  10. Understanding opposition in green advertising: The opposite does not always attract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; Hubner, Arlette; Fenko, Anna; Warlop, L.; Muylle, S.

    2015-01-01

    Opposition (contrasting images and/or verbal cues) is acknowledged as a powerful tool to increase ads recall. Yet, no evidence exists whether opposition may be efficiently used in green advertising. The current study addresses this issue. European consumers (N=120) were exposed to print ads. Type of

  11. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  12. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Guide for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of a group of behavioral disorders called disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). These disorders are called this because children who have these disorders tend to disrupt those around them. ODD is one of the more common mental health disorders found in children and adolescents. This paper discusses the…

  13. Interaction between opposite river bank dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilla Porras, J.A.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies regarding bank erosion  and accretion can be found in the literature, it is  not common to find works studying the interaction  between opposite banks. Some existing  morphodynamic models describe bank erosion as  an event that depends on

  14. Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct, and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1996-01-01

    The link between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) was evaluated in 140 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 120 normal controls examined at baseline and 4 years later, in midadolescence, at the Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

  15. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Information for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcalow, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder, one of the disruptive behavior disorders, has far-reaching consequences for the individual, family, school, community, and society. Early recognition allows interventions geared toward promotion of prosocial behaviors, possibly halting progression to the more deviant conduct disorder. Awareness of this disorder and…

  16. What is the opposite of cat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Leron, Uri

    2016-01-01

    the open and interactive teaching approach needed to achieve students' active participation and reflection. To demonstrate these challenges, and our experience of trying to cope with them, we have chosen the concept of "inverses" as used in group theory, and its common sense precursor "opposites". We...

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  19. Russia and Human Rights: Incompatible Opposites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bowring

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Article raises in his article “Russia and human rights: incompatible opposites?” the question, if the currently complicated relations between Russia and the CoE concerning Russia’s obligations under the ECHR are at breaking-point. In regard to this issue he gives a description of the history of law in Russia to prove the pre-existing tradition of argument about human rights.

  20. Impulsore Chresto. Opposition to Christianity in the Roman Empire c. 50-250 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    Impulsore Chresto reassesses opposition to Christianity AD 50-250. The Roman authorities' persecutions have caught the attention of both the public, intrigued by martyrs, and scholars, arguing that executions were relatively rare. The latter is not challenged, but the executions are placed...... in context as the most dramatic aspect of a spectrum of opposition including rumors, polemic, harassment and accusations. Such opposition was taken for granted and rarely described. But studying the preserved texts on trials against Christians it appears that even here the roles of relatives, plaintiffs......, spectators or local officials were crucial. There were as many reasons for opposition as opponents, but some motives reappear in clusters: Christians were perceived as superstitious and ungodly, as endangering peace with the gods and social order....

  1. APPRAISING THE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED IMPACTS TO CHOOSE THE MODE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Madhuwanthi; Ashuboda Marasinghe; Shusaku Nomura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a model to evaluate the probability of choosing the mode of public transport with finding most significant aspects related to the characteristic of the journey, characteristic of the traveler and the personal behavior of the traveler. The study area was focused on eleven Divisional Secretariat Divisions of the Colombo Metropolitan Area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. This area has the most economically advanced functions as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The cu...

  2. The opposite of republican: polarization and political categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Nicholson, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined the typicality structure of contrasting political categories. In Experiment 1, two separate groups of participants rated the typicality of 15 individuals, including political figures and media personalities, with respect to the categories Democrat or Republican. The relation between the two sets of ratings was negative, linear, and extremely strong, r = -.9957. Essentially, one category was treated as a mirror image of the other. Experiment 2 replicated this result, showing some boundary conditions, and extending the result to liberal and conservative categories. The same method was applied to two other pairs of contrasting categories, healthy and junk foods, and male and female jobs. For those categories, the relation between contrasting pairs was weaker and there was less of a direct trade-off between typicality in one category versus typicality in its opposite. The results are discussed in terms of implications for political decision making and reasoning, and conceptual representation. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Classes of oppositional-defiant behavior: Concurrent and predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. Althoff (Robert); A.V. Kuny-Slock (Ana); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.J. Hudziak (James); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has components of both irritability and defiance. It remains unclear whether children with variation in these domains have different adult outcomes. This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of classes of oppositional

  4. The Loyal Opposition & The Practice of Aikido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller-Lane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions regarding martial arts often focus on the unique manner in which different styles respond to a set of common attacks. Indeed, it is in these unique responses that most martial arts distinguish themselves. However, this paper examines the role of the aggressor during training; specifically, in the martial art of Aikido and draws an analogy between the role of an aggressor during Aikido practice and the actions of a member of the loyal opposition in a democracy. A commitment to a set of rules that govern and protect the participants and a commitment to maintain a rich, creative tension mark both the vibrant interactions of an Aikido dojo and democratic life in a multicultural society.

  5. Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongSeok Jho

    Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.

  6. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  7. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners’ Oppositional Subscale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuny, A.V.; Althoff, R.R.; Copeland, W.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Baer, J.; Hudziak, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of

  8. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  9. The square of opposition a cornerstone of thought

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.

  10. Suburban Opposition to District Reorganization: The 1968 Spainhower Commission and Metropolitan Kansas City and St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Donna; Rury, John L.

    2014-01-01

    The 1968 Spainhower Commission planned extensive changes in the organization of public education in Missouri, proposing larger, comprehensive districts throughout the state. Intended to increase efficiency and reduce inequities, its reform proposals spurred widespread opposition from both rural and suburban communities. In the suburbs hostility…

  11. Narrowing the Gap: Explaining the Increasing Competitiveness of the Venezuelan Opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, A.P.M.; Kutiyski, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why electoral support for the Venezuelan opposition has increased substantially, using Venezuelan public opinion survey data from LAPOP and an opt-in sample collected through the online vote advice application Brújula Presidencial Venezuela. It analyzes why Venezuelans

  12. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    to its policy position when it took office in 2001, the right-wing government turned green and adopted a series of green policy initiatives. The vehement and persistent criticism from the left-wing opposition of the government provides an explanation, this article argues. Taking media coverage, public...

  13. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  14. Political opposition as an integral component of a democratic society and legal state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Morar

    2014-06-01

    The conclusion is made, that today the political process in Ukraine requires improvement of the legal base for the functioning of political parties and the need for a normative definition of the political opposition in the framework of public law and political science.

  15. Parlementaires debout : l'interface de l'opposition politique pendant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    espace médiatique dans la lutte qui opposa singulièrement le pouvoir (Mobutu) et l'opposition (Tshisekedi) entre 1990 et 1997. L'expérience congolaise de Parlement debout ne pourrait servir de modèle à la gestion de l'espace public africain qu'à ...

  16. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: in opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, David S

    2004-06-01

    At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable.

  17. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  18. Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Ahmed, Sana; Locke, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper and are often disobedient and defiant toward others. There are no tools specifically designed for diagnosing ODD, but multiple questionnaires can aid in diagnosis while assessing for other psychiatric conditions. ODD is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. Behavioral therapy for the child and family members improves symptoms of ODD. Medications are not recommended as first-line treatment for ODD; however, treatment of comorbid mental health conditions with medications often improves ODD symptoms. Adults and adolescents with a history of ODD have a greater than 90% chance of being diagnosed with another mental illness in their lifetime. They are at high risk of developing social and emotional problems as adults, including suicide and substance use disorders. Early intervention seeks to prevent the development of conduct disorder, substance abuse, and delinquency that can cause lifelong social, occupational, and academic impairments.

  19. Firearm homicide and firearm suicide: opposite but equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Schwab, C William

    2004-01-01

    Homicide and suicide are intentional acts of violence that disproportionately involve firearms. Much more effort has been devoted to the ecological study of homicide; methods that have been developed to better understand and subsequently prevent homicide may be applicable to suicide. The purpose of the present study was to compare the occurrence of firearm homicide and firearm suicide using routine activity theory as a framework for analysis. Detailed mortality data pertaining to decedents, their neighborhoods, and use of firearms were collected from 1994 to 1998 for the counties containing and surrounding three small to medium-sized U.S. cities. Data from a total of 468 neighborhoods that collectively experienced 1,025 intentional deaths from firearms (396 firearm homicides and 629 firearm suicides) were analyzed. Firearm homicide was consistently associated with out-of-home, nighttime activity in neighborhoods where many people were likely to be coming and going. In an opposite-but-equal fashion, firearm suicide was consistently associated with in-home, daytime activity in out-of-the-way neighborhoods. Firearm homicide and firearm suicide were found to be consistently associated with markers of routine activity in all three cities, albeit in an opposite-but-equal manner. Because firearm suicides very often occur as lonely events in lonely neighborhoods, they may go under-noticed relative to firearm homicides. More awareness and additional public health studies of firearm suicide, in tandem with firearm homicide, should be pursued to better identify individuals and neighborhoods that are at greatest risk of experiencing each event.

  20. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  1. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Dinno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. CONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  2. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  3. The Political Opposition: notes for a theoretical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barrientos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Opposition is a role that, in democracies, is usually played by political parties. Its importance is that it is the controlling factor of the governments in turn and they are the alternative for the formation of new governments. But the opposition gets wider connotations depending on the position that particular groups take across the political system. This paper presents an analytical model to distinguish the opposition types in political systems with special attention to Western democracies.

  4. For a strong international public service

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The importance of international organizations in Europe The numerous international and European organizations based in Europe employ together many tens of thousands of international and European civil servants. The members of personnel of these organizations are subject to various legal regimes and have to appeal against administrative decisions before different administrative tribunals (e.g., ILOAT, UNAT, EUCST, OECDAT). CERN being one of the larger European organizations, it is important that we stay abreast of the latest developments in this area. Therefore, the Staff Association sent two representatives to a colloquium “New developments in the legal protection of international and European civil servants”, held in Luxembourg the 1st and 2nd of April 2011.  This is not the place to review in detail the different aspects of the recent evolution in the various legal systems, which were presented there (the proceedings can be consulted in the Secretariat of the Staff Associatio...

  5. The Attractiveness of Opposites: Agonists and Antagonists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Tony

    2015-02-02

    ABSTRACT Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, of which constipation is the most common aspect, is a major limiting factor in the use of opioids for pain management. The availability of an oral, long-acting formulation of oxycodone and naloxone represents a highly significant development in pain management. The combination of an opioid analgesic with an opioid antagonist offers reliable pain control with a significant reduction in the burden of opioid-induced constipation. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 3, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http:\\/\\/www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.

  6. An international comparative analysis of public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Minki

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, public acceptance of nuclear power is a crucial factor for governmental establishment of a nuclear energy program. Therefore, it is important to understand the determinants of public acceptance of nuclear power. This study examines the effects of knowledge, trust, risk, and benefit related factors on public acceptance of nuclear power across 19 countries. We consider three levels of public acceptance – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – and classify countries into four groups according to the ratio of those three levels of public acceptance. Our results indicate that knowledge of nuclear inspection is more effective than trust in inspection authorities in creating stronger public acceptance among people in the countries with a high level of reluctant acceptance and a low level of strong acceptance, while trust in inspection authorities is more important than knowledge of nuclear inspection for the selection between opposition and reluctant acceptance in countries with a low level of reluctant acceptance and a high level of strong acceptance. Without grouping the countries, we found that trust in inspection authorities is crucial for the decision between opposition and reluctant acceptance. Additionally, the generation of electricity has the most positive effect on public acceptance of nuclear power. - Highlights: • We examine public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power across 19 countries. • Three levels of PA – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – are considered. • Knowledge is most effective in creating stronger PA. • Trust is effective in shifting PA from opposition to reluctant acceptance. • Low risk and benefit of electricity generation enhance PA the most

  7. Opposition Politics and Electoral Democracy in Cameroon, 1992-2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to assess the impact of electoral democracy in Cameroon especially in terms of the performance of the Opposition between 1992 and 2007, evaluate the internal shortcomings of opposition parties, and make a projection regarding a vibrant democratic space that will go beyond routine elections to speak to ...

  8. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  9. Four nuclear paradoxes which affect Japanese public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Four major paradoxes - sociological, political, economic and psychological - are described with respect to the contemporary use of nuclear energy, drawing attention to Japan. Sociologically nuclear energy is a paradox because it is an irreversible social process; politically because it discriminates between the 'have' and 'have not' countries, making rich countries richer and poor countries poorer (political power); economically because, despite strong opposition for various reasons, there are also strong economic incentives for localities and individuals (stronger opposition may bring about greater profit in the long run); psychologically, because its acceptance or rejection tends to depend on the emotional 'psycho-logic' which seems to operate in the psychological process of individuals. Public acceptance seems to be both an institutional and a psychological process; consequently a close examination of the cross-pressures, resulting from all the influences is needed, to achieve public acceptance. Finally, it seems important to take into consideration cultural uniqueness as well as cross-cultural similarities. (author)

  10. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    (Holmström 2005a, Luhmann 1993). Sixth, the growing interdependence and consequently growing sensitivity between different societal forms and cultures with globalisation leads to the demand for global decision premises to be local: being truly global means understanding local cultural and societal forms...... filters. Bakken, T., & Hernes, T. (Eds.). (2003). Auopoietic organization theory. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press. Baraldi, C. (2006). New forms of intercultural communication in a globalized world. International Communi-cation Gazette, 68(1), 53–69. Holmström, S. (1997...... and Principle in the Market Place, Ashgate, UK. Holmström, S. (2010b) Reflective Management: Seeing the Organization as if From Outside. In R. Heath (ed) Sage Handbook of Public Relations, New York, Sage. Holmström, S., Falkheimer, J., & Gade Nielsen, A. (2010). Legitimacy and strategic communication in globali-zation...

  11. Anxiety and oppositional behavior profiles among youth with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Rachele A; Kearney, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating condition in which a child does not speak in social situations where speech is expected. The clinical conceptualization of SM has been debated historically, with evidence pointing partly to anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Behavioral characteristics were examined in a clinical sample of 57 youth formally diagnosed with selective mutism. Parents rated children across internalizing and externalizing behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist. Eighteen highly rated items were subjected to exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Anxiety and oppositional behavior factors were derived. The anxious behavior profile was associated with social anxiety disorder symptoms, social problems, and aggressive behaviors but not oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. The oppositional behavior profile was associated with aggressive behaviors, oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, social problems, and inversely to social anxiety disorder symptoms. Results are consistent with emerging research regarding subgroups of children with SM. Behavior profiles are discussed as well with respect to assessment and treatment implications. Readers will learn about the nature of children with selective mutism as well as behaviors that differentiate anxious and oppositional behavior profiles. Items that comprise anxious and oppositional behavior profiles are presented. These item profiles may have ramifications for assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the critics : a case study of opposition to wind power initiatives in Europe and North America. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheverry, J.

    2005-01-01

    The causes behind public opposition to wind power projects were examined. A summary of factors identified in existing literature as affecting public perception of wind farms included physical, contextual, political, and socio-economic concerns. It was suggested that opposition to wind projects was correlated with the types of institutional policies used in a country to support development of the renewable energy sector. Explicit policy choices directly affect the type of project ownership as well as public acceptance and opposition of wind power projects. A review of international wind power policies and development was presented. While Denmark pioneered advanced renewable tariffs (ARTs) and remain fourth in the world, with over 3177 MW, public opposition to wind power is developing due to an increasing shift in ownership from co-operatives to individuals. Germany uses ARTs and has become leader in the world with over 17,000 MW. Canada uses tendering and ranks fourteenth in the world, with 570 MW. Opposition to wind power is increasing in some provinces who argue that it poses a threat to tourism opportunities and presents a visual intrusion to the landscape. Opposition in the United Kingdom has existed for decades. However, the United Kingdom ranks ninth in the world, with 880 MW and has one of Europe's best wind regimes. Spain uses ARTs and now ranks second in the world with 8263 MW with a new target of 20,000 MW by 2011. Some locations in Spain have been declared out of bounds for wind power development, and opposition is developing against proposed offshore facilities. It was concluded that the wind power industry needs to advocate for community power policy initiatives, listen to local people and maximize local participation, as well as accepting that some areas will remain out of bounds for development. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  14. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  15. Paired fuzzy sets and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez, Daniel; Tinguaro Rodríguez, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts that are ...... sets” is then proposed together with the notion of sub-antonym, to be considered as a particular case of opposition relationship....

  16. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  17. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Martin, Eleonora; Zani, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (Caldara et al., 2004), little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women) who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection). The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP) to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA) showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21) and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24) had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  18. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  19. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  20. Block-Matching Distortion Correction of Echo-Planar Images With Opposite Phase Encoding Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedouin, Renaud; Commowick, Olivier; Bannier, Elise; Scherrer, Benoit; Taquet, Maxime; Warfield, Simon K; Barillot, Christian

    2017-05-01

    By shortening the acquisition time of MRI, Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) enables the acquisition of a large number of images in a short time, compatible with clinical constraints as required for diffusion or functional MRI. However such images are subject to large, local distortions disrupting their correspondence with the underlying anatomy. The correction of those distortions is an open problem, especially in regions where large deformations occur. We propose a new block-matching registration method to perform EPI distortion correction based on the acquisition of two EPI with opposite phase encoding directions (PED). It relies on new transformations between blocks adapted to the EPI distortion model, and on an adapted optimization scheme to ensure an opposite symmetric transformation. We present qualitative and quantitative results of the block-matching correction using different metrics on a phantom dataset and on in-vivo data. We show the ability of the block-matching to robustly correct EPI distortion even in strongly affected areas.

  1. Strong advocacy led to successful implementation of smokefree Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To describe the approval process and implementation of the 100% smokefree law in Mexico City and a competing federal law between 2007 and 2010. Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. Strong efforts by tobacco control advocacy groups and key policymakers in Mexico City in 2008 prompted the approval of a 100% smokefree law following the WHO FCTC. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas. These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico City. Despite interference, the City law increased public support for 100% smokefree policies and decreased the social acceptability of smoking. In September 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in 2008 but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Advocates should utilise the Supreme Court's ruling to promote 100% smokefree policies outside Mexico City. Strong advocacy for the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  2. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  3. Paired fuzzy sets and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez, Daniel; Tinguaro Rodríguez, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts that are ......In this paper we stress the relevance of those fuzzy models that impose a couple of simultaneous views in order to represent concepts. In particular, we point out that the basic model to start with should contain at least two somehow opposite valuations plus a number of neutral concepts...... that are generated from the semantic relationship between those two opposites. Such a basic model should be distinguished from some other similar approaches that can be found in the literature, and that may bring some difficulties in intuition, partially because of their denomination. The general term “paired fuzzy...

  4. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis: Principles and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackney, Donna M; Foley, Joe P

    2017-03-01

    Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is suppressed to allow all ions to reach the detector quickly. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the effective length that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. This review discusses the principles, applications, and limitations of dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis. Common misconceptions regarding DOI-CE are clarified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Symmetry breaking in clogging for oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Tobias; Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    The clogging behavior of a symmetric binary mixture of colloidal particles that are driven in opposite directions through constrictions is explored by Brownian dynamics simulations and theory. A dynamical state with a spontaneously broken symmetry occurs where one species is flowing and the other is blocked for a long time, which can be tailored by the size of the constrictions. Moreover, we find self-organized oscillations in clogging and unclogging of the two species. Apart from statistical physics, our results are of relevance for fields like biology, chemistry, and crowd management, where ions, microparticles, pedestrians, or other particles are driven in opposite directions through constrictions.

  6. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  7. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun; Cha, Yoon Ki

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain

  8. Peculiarities of functioning of opposition political parties in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Malyavin

    2017-07-01

    It has been proven that the political opposition does not take into account the mentality of Russians, their aspiration not to the mild model of Western democracy but to the host leader, the defender of the Motherland from external threat. Whereas, the ruling elite and its leader successfully and effectively implement this image in practice, and despite the deterioration of economic indicators, they get the support among the population. Consequently, the political opposition of Russia is immature and primary controlled by the current government.

  9. Beliefs and practices of the parents of violent and oppositional adolescents: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Glaser, Brian A; Calhoun, Georgia B; Bates, Jeffrey M

    2006-05-01

    Parenting is a transactional process, influenced by the child's behavior and the environmental context. The present study explores the beliefs and practices of parents of aggressive and oppositional adolescents to understand better the relation among parenting practices, context, and youth violence. Parents of juvenile offenders (N=203) completed assessments of youths' violent and oppositional behaviors, community violence exposure, and their own beliefs and parenting behaviors and perceptions of the juvenile justice system. Parents of youth with the highest levels of violent and oppositional behavior problems reported elevated feelings of hopelessness regarding the child's future, inadequacy as a parent, fear of physical harm by the child, anger toward the child, as well as difficulty monitoring the child. All parents reported relatively high levels of perceived support by the justice system. Parental stress was also examined as a possible influence on the parents' beliefs and behaviors regarding the child. Results suggest that parents' emotional and behavioral responses should be addressed when intervening with juvenile offenders. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present evidence to suggest that parents' perceptions of hopelessness/inadequacy and their fear for their child's safety are both by-products of life with an aggressive child as well as contributing factors to that aggressive behavior. Thus, successful interventions must both target the parents as change agents in the youth's life but also include a strong parental support component, so that parents will have an opportunity to orchestrate positive impacts in high-risk environments.

  10. From Situation to opposition: the welfare reform of the Lula’s government from the perspective of the PSDB deputies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Corral de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the defeat in the 2002 elections, the PSDB was characterized as the "strong opposition" to the government of the PT. He reached the command of the Executive in 2003, implemented a reform in Social Security, thus constituting the first time the opposition PSDB. Thus, the objective of this work is to understand the discursive behavior of federal PSDB deputies, held during the sessions of the Great Expedient of the Federal Chamber, when dealing with this reform. For the analysis, the theoretical and methodological aspects of discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe were used. It was possible to identify that the new political context has changed the identities of PT and PSDB, but kept the antagonistic relationship. Moreover, because it is the first time opposition, the PSDB did not build hegemonic discourse against the reform, but critical of its formatting.

  11. Perspectives on Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Psychopathic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Burke, Jeffrey; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a few perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and early forms of psychopathy. The developmental changes and stability of each, and the interrelationship between the three conditions are reviewed, and correlates and predictors are highlighted. The paper also examines effective interventions…

  12. Burnout and Work Engagement: Independent Factors or Opposite Poles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Roma, Vicente; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Lloret, Susana

    2006-01-01

    Burnout researchers have proposed that the conceptual opposites of emotional exhaustion and cynicism (the core dimensions of burnout) are vigor and dedication (the core dimensions of engagement), respectively (Maslach & Leiter, 1997; Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma, & Bakker, 2002). We tested this proposition by ascertaining whether two sets of…

  13. Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Ion pairing is the main driving force in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, which find widespread use in micellar assemblies, drug carriers, and coatings. In this paper we examine the actual ion pairing forces in a polyelectrolyte complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte

  14. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: An Overview and Strategies for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that affects approximately 3.3% of the population across cultures. In this article, the author discusses symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and treatments for the disorder. Although most empirically supported treatments of ODD are based on parent--child training and therapy, there are some…

  15. Racial Threat and White Opposition to Bilingual Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Lynn M.; Dowling, Julie A.; Boardman, Jason D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines local contextual conditions that influence opposition to bilingual education among non-Hispanic Whites, net of individual-level characteristics. Data from the Texas Poll (N = 615) are used in conjunction with U.S. Census data to test five competing hypotheses using binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Our…

  16. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    site sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the C. versicolor. [Shanbhag B A, Radder R S and Saidapur S K 2002 Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence in the lizard Ca- lotes versicolor (Agamidae); J. Biosci. 27 529–537]. 1. Introduction. Reproduction in vertebrates involves successful ...

  17. Colloids from oppositely charged polymers: reversibility and surface activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the formation, solution properties, and adsorption of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of at least one diblock copolymer with a neutral and a charged block and either an oppositely charged homopolyelectrolyte or a diblock copolymer, with a neutral

  18. Paired structures and other opposite-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    , that we will assume dependent on a specific negation, previously determined. In this way we can define a paired fuzzy set as a couple of opposite valuation fuzzy sets. Then we shall explore what kind of new valuation fuzzy sets can be generated from the semantic tension between those two poles, leading...

  19. Resistance Theories: Exploring the Politics of Oppositional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Scot

    2000-01-01

    Special educators have historically used psychological theories to explain students' disruptive and oppositional behavior. Sociological research and theories have played a secondary or even nonexistent role. The sociology of education tradition within general education has developed an extensive literature examining student misbehavior. This…

  20. Will the Real Tunisian Opposition Please Stand Up?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This contribution examines the reasons behind the failure of Tunisia’s opposition to forge effective coordination and collaborative links during Ben Ali’s reign, focusing specifically on the inability and unwillingness of political parties to act in concert in order to challenge his auth...

  1. Assassinating political opposition: An "Albatross" and aberration-the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logicians, though they are not mathematicians, do challenge mathematicians to prove that one plus one is equal to two; so also it appeals to governance and especially the democratic system, where the judiciary and legislature act as watch dogs to the executive; so is the opposition party to the ruling party. This is what the ...

  2. Bioethanol production from tension and opposite wood of Eucalyptus globulus using organosolv pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudio; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    During tree growth, hardwoods can initiate the formation of tension wood, which is a strongly stressed wood on the upper side of the stem and branches. In Eucalyptus globulus, tension wood presents wider and thicker cell walls with low lignin, similar glucan and high xylan content, as compared to opposite wood. In this work, tension and opposite wood of E. globulus trees were separated and evaluated for the production of bioethanol using ethanol/water delignification as pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Low residual lignin and high glucan retention was obtained in organosolv pulps of tension wood as compared to pulps from opposite wood at the same H-factor of reaction. The faster delignification was associated with the low lignin content in tension wood, which was 15% lower than in opposite wood. Organosolv pulps obtained at low and high H-factor (3,900 and 12,500, respectively) were saccharified by cellulases resulting in glucan-to-glucose yields up to 69 and 77%, respectively. SSF of the pulps resulted in bioethanol yields up to 35 g/l that corresponded to 85-95% of the maximum theoretical yield on wood basis, considering 51% the yield of glucose to ethanol conversion in fermentation, which could be considered a very satisfactory result compared to previous studies on the conversion of organosolv pulps from hardwoods to bioethanol. Both tension and opposite wood of E. globulus were suitable raw materials for organosolv pretreatment and bioethanol production with high conversion yields.

  3. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  4. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  5. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  6. Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...... than women consented to a sexual invitation. Specifically, significantly more men than women consented to the ``come to my place'' and ``go to bed with me'' conditions. For female subjects, higher ratings of confederate attractiveness were found to significantly increase the odds of consenting...

  7. Regaining the Square of Opposition in Formal Ontology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Use of formal ontologies is becoming widespread in information systems. Forerunners of formal ontologies are scientific classification systems such as the Linnaean biological ones. Unlike biological classifications modern formal ontologies are often non-hierarchical. A formal ontology in its basic...... relationship induces a partial order relation corresponding to the relationship "all P are Q" in the square of opposition. Accordingly, so far, formal ontologies provide only assertions of the form "all P are Q". However, it is our contention that the three other assertion forms in the square of opposition...... be held simply in the case that "all P are Q" does not hold. These default rules are routinely adopted in ontology development without mentioning. Appealing to these conventions, the 4 sentence forms in the square are effectively made at disposal. We discuss a first order metalogical formalization...

  8. Mechanism of the cooperative adsorption of oppositely charged nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiakov, Konstantin V; Bishop, Kyle J M; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Jaiswal, Archana; Poggi, Mark A; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2009-04-23

    Quartz crystal microbalance experiments were performed to study the kinetics of surface adsorption from solutions containing oppositely charged nanoparticles. A theoretical model was developed according to which formation of dense nanoparticle (NP) monolayers is driven by a cooperative process, in which the already-adsorbed NPs facilitate adsorption of NPs from solution. The kinetic rate constants change with the NP solution concentration and can be used to backtrack adsorption free energies. These energies agree with the predictions of a simple DLVO model.

  9. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrah, Hassen Taher

    2013-01-01

    With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway) graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is...

  10. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  11. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  12. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  13. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  14. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  15. Analysis of the field-assisted permanent assembly of oppositely charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Findenegg, Gerhard H; Velev, Orlin D

    2014-06-10

    We characterize experimentally and analyze analytically a novel electric-field-assisted process for the assembly of permanent chains of oppositely charged microparticles in an aqueous environment. Long chains of oppositely charged particles are rapidly formed when an external electric field is applied and break up into permanent linear fragments upon switching off the field. The resulting secondary chains are stabilized by attractive electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between the particles. We find that the length of the permanent chains is strongly dependent on the relative size (microsphere diameter D) of small and large particles and can be tuned by varying the particle size ratio s = Dsm/Dlg and particle number ratio r = Nsm/Nlg. Three latex microsphere systems of different particle size ratio, s = 0.9, 0.45, and 0.225, were characterized at different particle number ratios r by determining experimentally the length distribution of the permanent chains. The results are compared with statistical models based on a one-step or two-step process of forming the primary chains. We find that the one-step model is applicable to the system of similarly sized particles (s = 0.9) and the two-step chaining model is applicable to the system of dissimilarly sized particles (s = 0.225), where the large particles form chains first and the small ones serve as binders, which are later drawn in the junctions. Long permanent chains are formed only from particles of dissimilar size for which our model predicts a linear increase in the mean chain length with increasing r. On the basis of these results, we formulate a set of assembly rules for permanent colloidal chain formation by oppositely charged particles. The results make possible the precise large-scale formation of particle chains of any length, which can serve as components in new gels, biomaterials, and fluids with controlled rheology.

  16. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  17. Three dimensions of oppositionality in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Roughan, Laura; Skuse, David

    2014-02-01

    In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common but poorly understood. DSM-5 has adopted a tripartite model of ODD, parsing its features into 'angry and irritable symptoms' (AIS), 'argumentative and defiant behavior' (ADB) and 'vindictiveness'. This was based on findings in non-autistic populations that each of these dimensions of oppositionality has a distinct constellation of associations with internalising and externalising psychopathology. We applied the tripartite DSM-5 ODD model to ASD to test its generalisability beyond non-ASD populations; and to elucidate the nature of ODD symptoms in ASD. Participants were 216 verbally-fluent young people (mean age = 9.6 years, range 3.0 to 16.2 years, 82 % male) with ASD. Cross-sectional parent-and teacher-report data were analysed using bootstrap multiple regression to test the following predictions, derived from studies of non-ASD young people: (1) AIS will be the main predictor of internalising problems; (2) ADB will be the main predictor of ADHD symptoms; (3) all ODD traits will independently predict conduct disorder symptoms; (4) vindictiveness will be the main predictor of aggressive conduct problems. Our findings using both parent and teacher data were consistent with the non-ASD ODD literature. AIS were associated with internalising but not externalising problems; ADB and vindictiveness were associated with externalising but not internalising problems; and vindictiveness was the main predictor of aggression. The DSM-5 tripartite model of ODD appears to be generalisable to ASD: for people with an autistic disorder, AIS, ADB and vindictive dimensions of oppositionality have distinct associations with concurrent psychopathology, suggesting the need to assess them as separate constructs.

  18. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is logically conceived that system behavior changes rate has not accidentally happened, but is relatively influenced at the point of progress by the associated direct system consolidity index corresponding to the acting on-the-spot varying environments or effects. Such conceptual graph represents a real research advancement indicating that we have to move opposite to current systems building practices for solving many real life enigmatic problems. It is illustrated using stabilization of inverted pendulum problem that it is amenable by cleverly manipulating systems structure and parameters to attain new designed systems with aggregates of superiority of consolidity, stability and controllability principle. It is recommended that we have to seek new generation of innovative non-conventional systems structures moving opposite to conventional built-as-usual system practices that can enable providing directly such three aggregates of superiority requirements as their built-in self property. This will open the door towards solving many real life challenging dilemmas in various sciences and disciplines, such as engineering, space sciences, medicine, pharmacology, biology, ecology, life sciences, economy, operations research, humanities and social sciences that are believed to be attributed due to their systems inferior consolidity.

  19. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  20. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  1. Electrostatic self-assembly in polyelectrolyte-neutral block copolymers and oppositely charged surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berret, J.-F.Jean-Francois; Oberdisse, Julian

    2004-01-01

    We report on small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) of colloidal complexes resulting from the electrostatic self-assembly of polyelectrolyte-neutral copolymers and oppositely charged surfactants. The polymers are double hydrophilic block copolymers of low molecular weight (between 5000 and 50 000 g/mol). One block is a polyelectrolyte chain, which can be either positively or negatively charged, whereas the second block is neutral and in good solvent conditions. In aqueous solutions, surfactants with an opposite charge to that of the polyelectrolyte interact strongly with these copolymers. The two species associate into stable 100 nm-colloidal complexes which exhibit a core-shell microstructure. For different polymer/surfactant couples, we have shown that the core is constituted from densely packed surfactant micelles connected by the polyelectrolyte chains. The outer part of the complex is a corona formed by the neutral soluble chains. Using a model of aggregation based on a Monte-Carlo algorithm, we have simulated the internal structure of the aggregates. The model assumes spherical cages containing one to several hundreds of micelles in a closely packed state. The agreement between the model and the data is remarkable

  2. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  3. The Pythagorean table of opposites, symbolic classification, and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Owen

    2015-06-01

    At Metaphysics A 5 986a22-b2, Aristotle refers to a Pythagorean table, with two columns of paired opposites. I argue that 1) although Burkert and Zhmud have argued otherwise, there is sufficient textual evidence to indicate that the table, or one much like it, is indeed of Pythagorean origin; 2) research in structural anthropology indicates that the tables are a formalization of arrays of "symbolic classification" which express a pre-scientific world view with social and ethical implications, according to which the presence of a principle on one column of the table will carry with it another principle within the same column; 3) a close analysis of Aristotle's arguments shows that he thought that the table expresses real causal relationships; and 4) Aristotle faults the table of opposites with positing its principles as having universal application and with not distinguishing between those principles that are causally prior and those that are posterior. Aristotle's account of scientific explanation and his own explanations that he developed in accordance with this account are in part the result of his critical encounter with this prescientific Pythagorean table.

  4. Opposite brain laterality in analogous auditory and visual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Leif; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding. Brain Cogn, 53(2), 393-397] found opposite laterality for visual and auditory language tasks. We adapted an experimental paradigm based on a dichotic listening and VHF approach, and applied the combined language paradigm in two separate experiments, including fMRI in the second experiment to measure brain activation in addition to behavioural data. The first experiment showed a right-ear advantage for the auditory task, but a left half-field advantage for the visual task. The second experiment, confirmed the findings, with opposite laterality effects for the visual and auditory tasks. In conclusion, we replicate the finding by Voyer and Boudreau (2003) and support their interpretation that these visual and auditory language tasks measure different cognitive processes.

  5. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  6. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  7. Universal properties of complexes formed by two oppositely charged flexible polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Roland G

    2004-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations for systems with two flexible, oppositely charged polymer chains are presented. It is shown that the chains aggregate into densely packed structures. The universal properties of the formed complexes are investigated as a function of chain length and interaction strength. For weakly interacting systems, a chain length-dependent effective interaction strength is obtained which governs the initiation of the aggregation process. At intermediate interaction strengths, the formed complexes exhibit a scaling behaviour with respect to molecular weight typically for chain molecules in a bad solvent. An unusual weak dependence of the radius of gyration on the interaction strength is found in this regime. Finally, for strong interactions, tightly packed globules are obtained. The radii of gyration and the densities of the complexes are discussed

  8. Understanding public perception of hydraulic fracturing: a case study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D; Pereira, V; Góis, J; Danko, A; Fiúza, A

    2017-12-15

    Public acceptance is crucial for the implementation of energy technologies. Hydraulic fracturing is a technology widely used in the USA for natural gas production from shale formations, but currently finds strong public opposition worldwide, especially in Europe. Shale gas exploitation and exploration have the potential to significantly reduce import dependency in several countries, including Spain. To better understand public opinion on this issue, this article reports a survey targeting both the entire Spanish population and the inhabitants of the province of Burgos, the location where shale gas exploration permits have already been issued. Results demonstrate that half of the Spanish population opposes shale gas, and this opposition increases in autonomous communities that are closer to possible exploration sites. The results also show that socio-demographic aspects are not strong predictors of opposition. In addition, Burgos' population show different behaviours toward shale gas that demonstrates that proximity and prospect of shale gas development affects opinion. Finally, there is still a great level of unfamiliarity with high volume hydraulic fracturing and shale gas in both populations sampled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  10. Suppression of Heating of Coronal Loops Rooted in Opposite Polarity Sunspot Umbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    EUV observations of active region (AR) coronae reveal the presence of loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 Å images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect plage or a sunspot of one polarity to an opposite-­polarity plage region. The AIA 94 Å images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the Heliosesmic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. The NLFFF model, validated by comparison of calculated model field lines with observed loops in AIA 193 and 94 Å, specifies the photospheric roots of the model field lines. Some model coronal magnetic field lines arch from the dim umbral area of the positive-polarity sunspot to the dim umbral area of a negative-polarity sunspot. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.

  11. Modern Models of Urban Development: From Opposition to Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a systematic review of empirical models of urban development. The authors identify eight key modern models (service, comfortable (amenities-oriented, compact, ‘green’, studying, creative, ‘smart’ and social city which are traditionally considered by developers of urban strategies as alternatives. The researchers prove the necessity of combinatory use of mentioned models instead of their opposition, i. e. priority directions of modern cities’ development can be used as a universal empirical framework (‘a coordinate system’. The analysis allows the authors to conclude that large cities are complex, adaptive systems developing with a high stochastic component and path dependence, which are characterized by multi-industry economical structure and extremely heterogeneous social structure of the population. This objectively requires the use of a system approach to strategic planning and management of such cities’ development

  12. NMR studies on an oligodeoxynucleotide containing 2-aminopurine opposite adenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazakerley, G.V.; Sowers, L.C.; Eritja, R.; Kaplan, B.E.; Goodman, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    A heteroduplex containing the mismatch 2-aminopurine (AP)-adenine has been synthesized and studied by proton NMR. The mismatch was incorporated into the sequence d[CGG(AP)GGC] x d-(GCCACCG). One-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect measurements in H 2 O and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectra in D 2 O show AP x A base pairs in a wobble structure in which both bases are in the anti conformation. The adenine is stacked well in the helix, but the helix twist between the adenine and neighboring cytosine in the 3' direction is unusually small. As a result, the aminopurine on the opposite strand is somewhat pushed out of the helix. From the measurements of the imino proton line widths, the two adjacent G x C base pairs are not found to be significantly destabilized by the presence of the purine-purine wobble pair

  13. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  14. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  15. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  16. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Is There an Oppositional Culture among Immigrant Adolescents in the Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank; van Gaans, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically…

  18. Dimensions of Oppositionality in a Brazilian Community Sample: Testing the "DSM-5" Proposal and Etiological Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Fernanda Valle.; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Goodman, Robert; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro; Stahl, Daniel; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigating dimensions of oppositional symptoms may help to explain heterogeneity of etiology and outcomes for mental disorders across development and provide further empirical justification for the "DSM-5"-proposed modifications of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). However, dimensions of oppositionality have not…

  19. Pouvoir et opposition en Algérie : vers une transition prolongée ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamadouche, Louisa Dris-Aït; Zoubir, Yahia H.

    2012-01-01

    Dans le système politique algérien, l’opposition organisée et structurée demeure soumise aux évolutions, blocages, avancées et reculs du régime politique en place. L’ouverture amorcée entre 1989 et 1991 a permis l’émergence d’une opposition plurielle et dynamique, s’exprimant à travers une soixantaine de « formations à caractères politiques » et des dizaines de journaux privés et publics. Sur le terrain, les débats politiques souvent intenses et contradictoires sont relayés par des manifestat...

  20. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  1. Severe catastrophes and public reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, Vitaly

    2002-01-01

    nuclear opposition. Economical basis of nuclear energy stagnation is in not very successful competition of nuclear engineering with fossil energy production technologies. Much money has been spent for improvement of safety of NPPs. Social roots of the opposition are linked with a bad experience of the public with demonstration of the nuclear energy- The explosion of atomic bombs, some contamination of the territories after nuclear arm tests, misfortunes with TMI-2 and Chernobyl have created a stable enmity and non-acceptance of the all connected with 'atom'. The mass media have strongly promoted the dissemination of the fear of radiation exposures. There is also an influence on that attitude the radiation protection regulation via the declaration of the linear no-threshold dependence of the radiation detriments and dose of exposure. Such concept ignores the adoptive features of all living. But modem studies have showed that protracted irradiation at the same dose is much less dangerous compared with sharp one. It could change public attitude to nuclear energy in the society. Role of nuclear communication for public informing: The reactions of public on various technological and man-made events differ significantly and are being determined not scales of catastrophes but the mental impression and a multiplication of psychological stresses in the society by mass -media. In present situation a nuclear community has to improve the contacts with the pubic, to launch more effective campaign for explanation of real adventures of nuclear power. It needs to compare the risks of climate warming and health detriments from different electricity production technologies and to show that nuclear power is a single alternative all fossil burning techniques of electricity production. It's the truth the nuclear power is a real method of fight for suppression of emission the greenhouse gases, isn't it? (author)

  2. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  3. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  4. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  5. The Pluto System in the Post-New Horizons Era: Opposition Effects, Rotations, and Orbital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiscer, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Following the New Horizons flyby in 2015, we propose a two-cycle program to observe Pluto and its five moons in the post-encounter era, building on the rich legacy of observations obtained during and prior to the historic flyby. At opposition in Cycles 25-26, the Pluto system is visible at the smallest solar phase angle in 87 years. The system will be at true opposition when it crosses the line of nodes in July 2018, and as seen from Pluto, Earth will transit the solar disk. Such rare planetary alignments enable the characterization of small-scale surface texture and porosity as well as the direct measurement of the geometric albedo, rather than an estimation of its value from photometric models. Any variation among the regolith properties of Pluto's moons will test the long-standing hypothesis that ejecta exchange between the moons has altered their surfaces. We will also follow up on the surprising result from New Horizons and HST that the small moons are spinning rapidly and with high obliquities. Styx, Nix, and Hydra show hints of being in strong spin-orbit couplings with Charon, but confirmation requires the additional precision in measurements of their spin rates and polar precession rates proposed here. In addition, we will obtain new astrometry of the small moons, making it possible to determine their masses and bulk densities with much higher precision. Results from this program will enhance the scientific return from the New Horizons mission, providing images complementary to those obtained by the spacecraft on approach and achieving science objectives that cannot be met by either HST or New Horizons alone.

  6. Who's your nanny? Choice, paternalism and public health in the age of personal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F; Berman, Micah L; Blanke, Doug

    2013-03-01

    A belief that the government does (and should) have broad authority to protect and improve health, coupled with an understanding that collective action is often necessary to address public health challenges effectively, is central to the public health mindset. But many are questioning whether this vision of a strong government role is applicable to non-communicable disease threats and the social determinants of health. Arguments about public health paternalism are playing a role in political opposition to new law and policy interventions and in legal challenges aimed at striking down existing public health laws. This article explores the forces behind the cultural and political resonance of concerns about public health paternalism, "personal responsibility," and the "nanny state" and attempts to outlines a potential path forward from here. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Learning to argue as a biotechnologist: disprivileging opposition to genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-03-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ studies of how the debate about science appears in learning situations at the university level have been undertaken. In the present study an introductory course in biotechnology was observed during one semester, lectures and small group supervision concerning GM food were videotaped and student's reports on the issue were collected. The ethnographic approach to Discourse analysis was conducted by means of a set of carefully selected and representative observations of how a group of students learn to argue and appropriate views held in the Discourse they are enculturated into. While socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are often associated with achieving scientific literacy in terms of "informed decisions" involving "rational thought and Discourse" this study shows that SSI in practice, in the context studied here, is primarily concerned with using scientific language to privilege professional understandings of GMOs and discredit public worries and concerns. Scientific claims were privileged over ethical, economical and political claims which were either made irrelevant or rebutted. The students were seen to appropriate a Discourse model held in the biotechnological community that public opposition towards GMO is due to "insufficient knowledge". The present study offers insights into biotechnology students' decision making regarding socio-scientific issues, while also demonstrating the utility of Discourse analysis for understanding learning in this university context. Implications for reflection on the institutional Discourse of science and teaching of controversial issues in science are drawn and the study contributes to the

  8. Postcolonial Powers of Opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Amer JubouriAl_Ogaili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine postcolonial powers of opposition in Octavia Butler’s Kindred (1979; through Homi Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship. By using these concepts, this research aims to unravel how the colonized and the colonizer perceive each in the selected works. It will offer an in-depth analysis of the thematic and ideological characteristics of selected works. Thus, the focus will mainly be on the theme of the mutual relationship between the colonized and the colonizer in the selected works. This relationship is specified to the concept of ambivalence. This concept incarnates the dual, yet, uncontrolled relationship between the colonized and the colonizer. Nevertheless, the colonized considers the colonizer as oppressive but an envious power; and the colonizer judges the colonized as inferior but indigenous. The colonial relationship will also be revealed by using the concept of self-other. Such concept scrutinizes the way the colonized and the colonizer perceive and resist each other. Accordingly, the research’s main focus point is the power relationship developed in the light of colonial ambivalence and self-other continuum. The research’s methodology relies on Bhabha’s concept of ambivalence and Edward Said’s self-other relationship.  In The Location of Culture (1994, Bhabha maintains that the concept of ambivalence conveys “the exercise of colonialist authority, however, requires the production of differentiations, individuations, identity effects through which discriminatory practices can map out subject populations that are tarred with the visible and transparent mark of power” (111. Edward Said, in his discussion of self-other relationship in Orientalism (1979, argues that self-other relationship is “the vacillation [inconstancy] between the familiar [self] and the alien [other]” (72.

  9. Problems in siting low level radioactive wastes: A focus on public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Public participation programs must develop a means to enlist meaningful public feedback. Besides the traditional public meetings, which generally mobilize the opposition, careful surveys can be done of a representative spectrum of the public getting their judgments about specific criteria. These judgments can be used to shape siting policy. Such an approach would help avoid the criticism that public input is not taken into account. While the suggestions included in this paper go far in dealing with public fear and distrust they cannot guarantee siting success. There are a number of uncontrollable contingencies that can affect any siting program. Another energy crises, for example, may increase the prestige of the nuclear industry and make LLRW siting less onerous. Or, new broadcasts of waste site failures or of nuclear accidents could make LLRW siting more problematic. The problems of waste siting will not disappear nor are the solutions easy ones. They demand serious consideration by talented scientists of all kinds. Waste siting difficulties certainly rank near the top of challenges facing advanced industrial societies. Attempts to site wastes of all kinds have foundered because of strong public opposition. LLRW siting attempts are certain to meet similar problems. Local communities tend to see little or no benefits but high costs in hosting waste sites. Fear of pollution, the unknown aspects of radiation risks, a lack of confidence in governmental agencies, are all factors promoting public resistance. Compounding these problems has been the failure of citizen participation programs to fulfill the functions for which they were designed. Instead of fostering more open communication, regulating conflict, and generating better ideas, participation programs dealing with waste siting tend to generate more conflict and mobilize determined opposition

  10. Opposite Worlds, Singular Mission: Teaching as an ITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Consolata Nthemba

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an autoethnography of an international graduate teaching assistant (ITA) at two universities (in a midsize state university in the eastern United States and a large public research university in the southwestern United States). Standpoint and muted group theories are utilized to discuss the experiences of being a female ITA…

  11. Nuclear wastes and public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Slovic, P.

    1993-01-01

    Citing public fear and mistrust, strong opposition to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, and less-than-exemplary performance by the Department of Energy (DOE), two private researchers believe present high-level radioactive waste-disposal plans may have to be scrapped. Government and the nuclear industry may have to start over. Policy makers should seek to develop new relationships with communities and states where suitable disposal sites exist. These relationships may require that citizen groups and local institutions be given unprecedented authority in locating and operating such facilities. Contrary to popular impressions, there is still time to take a new approach. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission says present on-site storage arrangements offer a safe alternative for 100 years or more. The sense of immediate crisis and cries for immediate solutions should be calmed and a more considered strategy brought to the public debate. For starters, the researchers propose that the problems of defense waste be separated from the problems of commercial waste. They also suggest that DOE be assigned responsibility for defense waste and a new agency be created to handle high-level commercial waste

  12. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  13. 76 FR 40686 - Public Input for the Launch of the Strong Cities, Strong Communities Visioning Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Energy, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S..., infrastructure, and economic and social resources (e.g., industry clusters, workforce development), and economic...., significant population loss, long-term economic decline, high levels of poverty and unemployment, low property...

  14. The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Linguistic Representation of the Category of Oppositeness in English Folk Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Владимировна Соловьева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study manifestations of the category of oppositeness at all language levels in order to establish a classification of textual oppositions found in folktales. Achieving this goal requires using integrated multi-disciplinary research methods such as hypothetical-deductive, inductive, descriptive, comparative and classification methods. The study also involves specifically linguistic research procedures: the method of phonological oppositions which served as the methodological basis for further research into morphological and grammatical oppositions, transformational and component analyses to describe the semantic content of the considered language units, the logical and semantic procedures in text analysis. English is used as the basis for the research, the theoretical principles are illustrated by the data included in The Oxford Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, and The Collins Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, the collection of folktales edited by J. Jacobs serves as the material for the empirical analysis. The category of oppositeness is seen as a phenomenon represented by phonological, semantic and grammatical oppositions and their subclasses. The textual oppositions under consideration are based on semantic and grammatical oppositions and represent the opposed spatial images, the opposed characters and the opposed beginning and ending of a folktale. The phenomenon of neutralization, which is the removal of the opposition in certain positions, is found at all levels of the language system, manifesting itself on the textual level in the ambivalent nature and the contradictory functional roles of certain folktale characters.

  16. The opposition effect in Saturn's main rings as seen by Cassini ISS: 4. Correlations of the surge morphology with surface albedos and VIMS spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déau, Estelle; Dones, Luke; Mishchenko, Michael I.; West, Robert A.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matt M.; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we continue our analysis of the saturnian ring opposition effect seen by Cassini ISS. The ring opposition effect is a peak in the rings' reflectivity caused as the directions from a spot on the rings to the observer and to the light source, respectively, converge toward zero degrees. So far, the exact origin of the ring's opposition effect is still a matter of debate. In our previous work (Déau, et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 591-603), we compared the opposition effect morphology with the rings' optical depth and found that only the slope of the linear part of the rings' phase curves was strongly correlated with the optical depth. We interpreted this as an indication of the predominant role of interparticle shadowing at moderate phase angles (α ∼ 10-40o). More recently (Déau, 2015, Icarus, 253, 311-345), we showed that interparticle shadowing cannot explain the behavior at low phase angles (α microscopic scale of the regolith, and there is a growing body of evidence that regolith grain size, porosity, roughness, and composition control the opposition surge behavior for α < 1o. To test this hypothesis, we compare the opposition surge morphology to the regolith albedo and other spectral properties related to the regolith, such as water ice band depths and spectral slopes derived from Cassini VIMS data (Hedman et al., 2013, Icarus, 223, 105-130). Indeed, it has been recently proven that coherent backscattering affects the water ice band depth variations with phase angle for icy saturnian regoliths (Kolokolova et al., 2010, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 711, L71-L74). We find that the opposition surge morphology is strongly correlated with the water ice band depth and the regolith albedo. We interpret this finding as an indication that coherent backscattering plays a role in affecting both the water ice band depths and the opposition surge at low phase angles (α < 1o). As the regolith albedo and spectral properties are related to the grain size

  17. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  18. Predictors of Extradyadic Sexual Involvement in Unmarried Opposite-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox Shaw, Amanda M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of unmarried individuals in opposite-sex romantic relationships that was representative of the United States (N = 933), the current study prospectively evaluated predictors of extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) over 20-months. Data were collected with self-report questionnaires via U.S. mail. Participants were 18–35 years old and were 34.9% male. Variables tested as predictors included involved-partner factors such as demographic characteristics, sexual history, and mental health, as well as relationship-related factors including communication, sexual dynamics, and aspects of commitment. Future ESI was significantly predicted by lower baseline relationship satisfaction, negative communication, aggression, lower dedication, absence of plans to marry, suspicion of partner’s ESI, and partner’s ESI. It was not predicted by sexual frequency, sexual dissatisfaction, or cohabitation status. Although more problems with alcohol use, more previous sex partners, and having parents who never married one another predicted future ESI, there were many involved-partner demographic factors that did not predict later ESI (e.g., gender, age, education, religiosity, having divorced parents, and having children). None of the results were moderated by gender. These results suggest that compared to demographic characteristics, relationship dynamics and negative interactions are more strongly predictive of future ESI. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22524318

  19. Predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Waldman, Irwin; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-11-01

    Data are presented from 3 studies of children and adolescents to evaluate the predictive validity of childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992). The present analyses strongly support the predictive validity of these diagnoses by showing that they predict both future psychopathology and enduring functional impairment. Furthermore, the present findings generally support the hierarchical developmental hypothesis in DSM-IV that some children with ODD progress to childhood-onset CD, and some youth with CD progress to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Nonetheless, they reveal that CD does not always co-occur with ODD, particularly during adolescence. Importantly, the present findings suggest that ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for ODD, which treat CD symptoms as ODD symptoms when diagnostic criteria for CD are not met, identify more functionally impaired children than the more restrictive DSM-IV definition of ODD. Filling this "hole" in the DSM-IV criteria for ODD should be a priority for the DSM-V. In addition, the present findings suggest that although the psychopathic trait of interpersonal callousness in childhood independently predicts future APD, these findings do not confirm the hypothesis that callousness distinguishes a subset of children with CD with an elevated risk for APD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Opposite effects of microchimerism on breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    data were obtained during 1993-1997 when all women were cancer-free. In 2006 all women were followed up for incident breast and colon cancer in national registers. In blinded analyses, we analysed buffy coat DNA for Y chromosome (DYS14) as a marker of male microchimerism. RESULTS: We detected male...... microchimerism in 70% of 272 cancer-free women, 40% of 89 women who later developed breast cancer, and 90% of 67 women who later developed colon cancer. The corresponding odds ratios were 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.52) for breast, and 3.9 (95%CI 1.6-9.5) for colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Detection...... of male microchimerism was strongly associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer and also the increased risk of developing colon cancer. Confirmatory findings based on an improved study design, failure to identify important confounders and the strength of the associations lead us to believe...

  1. Tuning structure of oppositely charged nanoparticle and protein complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Callow, P.

    2014-04-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the structures of anionic silica nanoparticles (LS30) and cationic lyszyme protein (M.W. 14.7kD, I.P. ˜ 11.4) by tuning their interaction through the pH variation. The protein adsorption on nanoparticles is found to be increasing with pH and determined by the electrostatic attraction between two components as well as repulsion between protein molecules. We show the strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticles and protein molecules leads to protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles which are characterized by fractal structures. At pH 5, the protein adsorption gives rise to nanoparticle aggregation having surface fractal morphology with close packing of nanoparticles. The surface fractals transform to open structures of mass fractal morphology at higher pH (7 and 9) on approaching isoelectric point (I.P.).

  2. Tuning structure of oppositely charged nanoparticle and protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Callow, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, DS/LSS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-04-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the structures of anionic silica nanoparticles (LS30) and cationic lyszyme protein (M.W. 14.7kD, I.P. ∼ 11.4) by tuning their interaction through the pH variation. The protein adsorption on nanoparticles is found to be increasing with pH and determined by the electrostatic attraction between two components as well as repulsion between protein molecules. We show the strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticles and protein molecules leads to protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles which are characterized by fractal structures. At pH 5, the protein adsorption gives rise to nanoparticle aggregation having surface fractal morphology with close packing of nanoparticles. The surface fractals transform to open structures of mass fractal morphology at higher pH (7 and 9) on approaching isoelectric point (I.P.)

  3. Tuning structure of oppositely charged nanoparticle and protein complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Callow, P.

    2014-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the structures of anionic silica nanoparticles (LS30) and cationic lyszyme protein (M.W. 14.7kD, I.P. ∼ 11.4) by tuning their interaction through the pH variation. The protein adsorption on nanoparticles is found to be increasing with pH and determined by the electrostatic attraction between two components as well as repulsion between protein molecules. We show the strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticles and protein molecules leads to protein-mediated aggregation of nanoparticles which are characterized by fractal structures. At pH 5, the protein adsorption gives rise to nanoparticle aggregation having surface fractal morphology with close packing of nanoparticles. The surface fractals transform to open structures of mass fractal morphology at higher pH (7 and 9) on approaching isoelectric point (I.P.)

  4. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) us...

  5. Predicting Alcohol Consumption: The Influences of Perceived Opposite-Sex Peer Expectancies and Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Debra K.; Gilbert, Brenda O.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the relationship between personal and perceived opposite-sex peer expectations and drinking behavior. As compared to themselves, participants believed that their opposite-sex best friend had greater expectations for the effects of alcohol. Perceived peer expectancies added to the prediction of self-reported drinking beyond that which is…

  6. Adolescent Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Best Friend Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Cami K.; Field, Tiffany

    1997-01-01

    Videotaped 48 11th graders during interactions with their best same-sex and opposite-sex friends. Analysis reveals that females felt more comfortable during same-sex interactions than during opposite-sex ones. Females rated their same-sex partner more positively than did males, and females exhibited more playful states during same-sex…

  7. Linking Oppositional Behaviour Trajectories to the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Khrista; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder in childhood is a predictor of later mood disorders. This study assessed whether groups of children can be identified by their course of co-occurring oppositional and depressive symptoms in childhood using group based trajectory modeling. Participants were a cohort of 932 4 or 5 year old offspring of women…

  8. How to Speed up Optimization? Opposite-Center Learning and Its Application to Differential Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Erdbrink, C.D.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new sampling technique called Opposite-Center Learning (OCL) intended for convergence speed-up of meta-heuristic optimization algorithms. It comprises an extension of Opposition-Based Learning (OBL), a simple scheme that manages to boost numerous optimization methods by

  9. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  10. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  11. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  12. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  13. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  14. The Yami's opposition to the Lanyu LLW storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1982, the solidified low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in Taiwan, regardless of the origins, have been sent to Lanyu for interim storage. Lanyu is a small island located 80 kilometers southeast of Taiwan. Its unique Polynesian cultural characteristics make it an attractive tourist spot. Dissatisfaction of being the commonly neglected powerless minority, in addition to the political claims from the outside environmental activists made the majority of the Lanyu residents oppose the operation of the storage facility. Approximately 80,000 drums of these wastes have been sent to Lanyu. Although the radiological monitoring results demonstrated that the current operation causes negligible impact on the environment. Accounting for the fast changing social and political situations in Taiwan today, without a good public acceptance program for both sides, the continuous operation of the Lanyu LLW storage facility until the year 2002, at which time the LLW disposal facility will be commissioned, could be in limbo

  15. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  16. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over 'disguised protectionism' and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue.

  17. The ugly underbelly of the MIS movement: in opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron G

    2007-06-01

    The relatively high complication rates associated with early prostheses and techniques eventually led to the improvement of implants and refinement of the surgical procedures. Almost all surgical techniques improve over time by leading to less invasive approaches. The modern era's communications technologies, coupled with more sophisticated marketing techniques, has dramatically influenced the speed with which new techniques are recognized, popularized, and thus demanded by an easily influenced public. Debate over the appropriate moral underpinnings of marketing medical practice is far from concluded, and the moral issue of when new technologies "should" be adopted is complex and challenging. Although the autonomy of medical practitioners and their ability to accurately assess the "scientific validity" of any given medical procedure have been gradually transferred over time from the bench, bedside, and consulting room to institutional formularies, clinical pathways, and federal authorities, it is likely that an appropriate balance of oversight, such as currently exists with Food and Drug Administration regulation, and the traditional autonomy of the physician are appropriate answers to the dilemma raised.

  18. Complexation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in gene delivery and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklovskii, Boris

    2009-03-01

    Charge inversion of a DNA double helix by a positively charged flexible polymer (polyelectrolyte) is widely used to facilitate DNA contact with negative cell membranes for gene delivery. Motivated by this application in the first part of the talk I study the phase diagram a solution of long polyanions (PA) with a shorter polycations (PC) as a function the ratio of total charges of PC and PA in the solution, x, and the concentration of monovalent salt. Each PA attracts many PCs to form a complex. When x= 1, the complexes are neutral and condense in a macroscopic drop. When x is far away from 1, complexes are strongly charged and stable. PA are overcharged by PC at x > 1 and undercharged by PC at x < 1. As x approaches 1, PCs attached to PA disproportionate between complexes. Some complexes become neutral and condensed in a macroscopic drop while others become even stronger charged and stay free. The second part of the talk deals with biological example of PA -PC complexes namely self-assembly of vegetable viruses from long ss-RNA molecule paying role of scaffold and identical capsid proteins with long positive tails. I show that optimization Coulomb energy of the virus leads to the charge of RNA twice larger than the total charge of the capsid, in agreement with the experimental data. Then I discuss kinetics of the Coulomb complexation driven virus self-assembly. Capsid proteins stick to unassembled chain of ss RNA (which we call ``antenna'') and slide on it towards the assembly site. I show that at excess of capsid proteins such one-dimensional diffusion accelerates self-assembly more than ten times. On the other hand at excess of ss-RNA, antenna slows self-assembly down. Several experiments are proposed to verify the role of ss-RNA antenna in self-assembly.

  19. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men's Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M Perla

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men's volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men's European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men's volleyball training processes.

  20. Cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices reflected by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Gu, Feng; Zhang, Xiliang; Yang, Lizhuang; Chen, Lijun; Wei, Zhengde; Zha, Rujing; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Human voice is a gender discriminating cue and is important to mate selection. This study employed electrophysiological recordings to examine whether there is specific cerebral activity when presented with opposite-sex voices as compared to same-sex voices. Male voices and female voices were pseudo-randomly presented to male and female participants. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to determine the gender of each voice. A late positivity (LP) response around 750 ms after voice onset was elicited by opposite-sex voices, as reflected by a positive deflection of the ERP to opposite-sex voices than that to same-sex voices. This LP response was prominent around parieto-occipital recording sites, and it suggests an opposite-sex specific process, which may reflect emotion- and/or reward-related cerebral activity. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to press a key when hearing a non-voice pure tone and not give any response when they heard voice stimuli. In this task, no difference were found between the ERP to same-sex voices and that to opposite-sex voices, suggesting that the cerebral activity to opposite-sex voices may disappear without gender-related attention. These results provide significant implications on cognitive mechanisms with regard to opposite-sex specific voice processing.

  1. Successful Aging and Frailty: Opposite Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jean; Leung, Jason; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-09-01

    Operational definitions of successful aging place a strong emphasis on functional capacity, and strategies for successful aging include many factors common to frailty research. We explore the hypothesis that frailty and successful aging are two sides of the same coin and that walking speed may be an objective indicator of successful aging. Observational study of two Chinese cohorts using one to define "fast walkers" and applying this criteria to another cohort to examine associated factors. Community survey in cities in China. A total of 1929 men and women aged 25 to 89 years of age in four cities in China and 4000 men and women 65 years old in Hong Kong SAR China. The top 25th percentile of walking speed for the whole cohort of 1929 men was determined, and the cutoff value was used to define "fast walkers." This value was applied to the Hong Kong Chinese population to examine factors associated with fast walking speed. These factors include age, gender, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, medical history, quality of life, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, body mass index, body composition, and telomere length. Fast walkers had better self-rated health, lower prevalence of stroke, hypertension, cataracts, osteoporosis, and impaired cognitive function. They were more likely to be current alcohol users, more physically active, consumed more vegetables, had better physical component of health-related quality of life, and received more education. They also had lower body mass index, percentage whole body fat as well as appendicular fat, and higher appendicular muscle mass index. In multivariate analysis, the significant contributing variables were age, gender, current alcohol use, physical activity level, vegetable intake, quality of life, and appendicular fat. The area under the curve value on receiver-operating characteristic analysis was 0.77 for these seven variables. Frailty and successful aging may be considered two sides of the same entity, and fast

  2. Identification of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new category of fuzzy inference systems with the aid of a multiobjective opposition-based space search algorithm (MOSSA. The proposed MOSSA is essentially a multiobjective space search algorithm improved by using an opposition-based learning that employs a so-called opposite numbers mechanism to speed up the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In the identification of fuzzy inference system, the MOSSA is exploited to carry out the parametric identification of the fuzzy model as well as to realize its structural identification. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy models.

  3. Public understanding of solar radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, A M; Keith, D W; Sharp, J D

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the first large-scale international survey of public perception of geoengineering and solar radiation management (SRM). Our sample of 3105 individuals in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom was recruited by survey firms that administer internet surveys to nationally representative population samples. Measured familiarity was higher than expected, with 8% and 45% of the population correctly defining the terms geoengineering and climate engineering respectively. There was strong support for allowing the study of SRM. Support decreased and uncertainty rose as subjects were asked about their support for using SRM immediately, or to stop a climate emergency. Support for SRM is associated with optimism about scientific research, a valuing of SRM's benefits and a stronger belief that SRM is natural, while opposition is associated with an attitude that nature should not be manipulated in this way. The potential risks of SRM are important drivers of public perception with the most salient being damage to the ozone layer and unknown risks. SRM is a new technology and public opinions are just forming; thus all reported results are sensitive to changes in framing, future information on risks and benefits, and changes to context.

  4. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  5. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  6. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  7. Comparison Between DNS Data and Resolvent Model Prediction of Opposition Control with a Phase Shift Between Sensor and Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedtli, Simon; Luhar, Mitul; McKeon, Beverley

    2017-11-01

    In a recent study, Luhar et al. analyzed the opposition control scheme within the resolvent analysis framework and demonstrated that their low-order model is able to qualitatively reproduce results from previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) studies. The model further predicts that introducing a phase shift between the sensor measurement and the actuator response strongly affects the attainable drag reduction and has the potential to improve the control effectiveness. The present study validates these predictions by means of a parametric DNS study and demonstrates that the response of the full nonlinear system to opposition control with various phase shifts between sensor and actuator very closely follows the low-order model. The good agreement between model prediction and DNS demonstrates for the first time the predictive capabilities of the resolvent analysis framework and suggests that it is a suitable low-order model to systematically design and optimize flow control schemes. This work is made possible by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through AFOSR Grant Number FA 9550-16-1-0361.

  8. Experimental characterization of the opposition surge in fine-grained water-ice and high albedo ice analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, B.; Pommerol, A.; Poch, O.; Gundlach, B.; Leboeuf, M.; Dadras, M.; Blum, J.; Thomas, N.

    2016-01-01

    We measured the bidirectional reflectance in the VIS-NIR spectral range of different surfaces prepared from small-grained spherical water-ice particles over a wide range of incidence and emission geometries, including opposition. We show that coherent backscattering is dominating the opposition effect on fresh sample material, but its contribution decreases when particles become more irregularly shaped and the bulk porosity increases. Strong temporal evolution of the photometric properties of icy samples, caused by particle sintering and resulting in a decrease of backscattering, is shown. The sintering of the ice particles is documented using cryo-SEM micrographs of fresh and evolved samples. To complement the photometric characterization of ices, multiple high albedo laboratory analogs were investigated to study the effects of shape, grain size distribution, wavelength and surface roughness. In addition to the main backscattering peak, the phase curves also display the effect of glory in the case of surfaces of granular surfaces formed by either spherical ice or glass particles. We show that the angular position of the glory can be used to determine accurately the average size of the particles. Reflectance data are fitted by the Hapke photometric model, the Minnaert model and three morphological models. The resulting parameters can be used to reproduce our data and compare them to the results of other laboratory experiments and astronomical observations.

  9. The Influence of Reflective Opposite-Sex Norms and Importance of Opposite-Sex Approval on Adjudicated Student Drinking: Theoretical Extensions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lac, Andrew; Louie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the salience and influence of reflective norms regarding opposite- sex friends, dating, and sexual partners on drinking behaviors of heterosexual college students sanctioned for violating the campus alcohol policy (i.e., adjudicated students). Results revealed that the level of importance placed on approval from the opposite…

  10. Masculinization of the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular canines in opposite sex twin girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Harila, Virpi; Tapanainen, Juha S; Alvesalo, Lassi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of prenatal androgenization on the clinical eruption of permanent teeth expressing dimorphism and bimaturism. The eruption curves of permanent teeth (except third molars), including those that make up the canine complex (permanent canines, lower first premolars), are compared among opposite sex twins (OS twins) relative to single-born boys and girls. The comparisons are made with regard to three phases of eruption (pierced mucosa, half- erupted, and completely erupted) from a cross-sectional sample of dental casts, using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyzes. The casts were collected from 2159 school children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, including 39 pairs of OS-twins, of which 12 pairs (30.8%) were Euro-Americans and 27 pairs (69.2%) were of African-American ancestry. The eruption patterns of the incisors, upper first molars, and lower canines were found to be significantly masculinized (delayed) among OS twin girls. The differences in most other teeth were either not significant, or the number of observations of active eruption phases were too few, such as in the upper first molars and incisors, to yield strong evidence and meaningful results. The masculinization of the tooth eruption pattern in OS twin girls is intriguing because of the lower canine responses during puberty, as well as canine primordial formation during early fetal androgenization of their co-twin during the 8th to 14th gestational weeks. The present results offer a challenge for future research exploring tooth eruption mechanisms, and may also highlight some cases of delayed or ectopic canines, which are biased toward females. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  12. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  13. Opposition and resistance: Governance challenges around urban growth in China and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sturzaker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that, different though they are, the processes of urban development in China and the UK can be analytically compared by looking at the commonly occurring opposition and resistance to that development. Such opposition and resistance can delay and limit the development of land in and immediately surrounding cities. The paper firstly reviews literature on opposition and resistance to development in both the UK and China, before going on to suggest that this opposition and resistance can in part be explained by a common cause – resentment at opaque and top-down/centralised planning processes. Consequently, the paper concludes that a common solution may applicable in both contexts – increasing participation and building institutional/civic capital amongst communities – and considers the likelihood of implementing this solution, particularly in China.

  14. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  15. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P

  16. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Altered functioning in three mental domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, W.C.H.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to

  17. Risk factors differ according to same-sex and opposite-sex interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J Richard; Chantala, Kim

    2005-07-01

    Are risk behaviours in adolescence differentiated according to same-sex vs opposite-sex interest? For all respondents a five-point scale of interest in each sex used information from both of the first two in-home waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Logistic regression predicted the probability of experiencing each risk behaviour from the same-sex and opposite-sex interest scores. Same-sex interests have more effect on emotional risk, and opposite-sex interests have more effect on substance use. Nevertheless, all risk variables except boys' depression are responsive to both same-sex and opposite-sex interest. The same-sex interest component of risk is attributed to the emotional strain of living with an anomalous sex interest in a heterosexual society.

  18. Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people's mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type of relationship is process-specific.

  19. Small Combat Arms Unit Leader Training Techniques: Rules of Play for Infantry Field Opposition Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Opposition Exercise) originally represented a translation of the EFFTRAIN TOX - Tactical Opposition (Infantry Map Game) Exercise - to a field environment...symbols and grid tick marks). lie first plots the impact location per grid coordinate or registration adjustment request. He than translates the...understanding of those risks andt a knowlodge of what has boon success- ful (or unsuccessful) In similar situations. 46 ANNEX A MINIMUM FOX

  20. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  1. Creative mood swings: divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari Chermahini, Soghra; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that emotions affect cognitive processes. Recent approaches have also considered the opposite: that cognitive processes might affect people’s mood. Here we show that performing and, to a lesser degree, preparing for a creative thinking task induce systematic mood swings: Divergent thinking led to a more positive mood, whereas convergent thinking had the opposite effect. This pattern suggests that thought processes and mood are systematically related but the type o...

  2. Parliamentary Behaviour of the Members of Opposition Political Parties in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Fuzi Omar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In a hegemonic consociational system practised in Malaysia, the Opposition can hardly play a dominant role in making democracy work. Nevertheless, a content analysis of the debates in the House of Representatives from 1982 to 2003 show that the opposition members have contributed to the process of check and balance in the government by asking questions to relevant ministries and by initiating adjournment motions. In the process, they not merely attacked the government for their fail...

  3. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, Wim

    2016-11-30

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms. In agreement with predictions, results reveal a negative association between CU traits and empathic sadness, particularly strong for ODD/CD boys with low levels of ASD symptoms. Results also reveal a negative association between ASD symptoms and cognitive empathy. Findings suggest that CU traits and ASD symptoms are associated with distinct empathy deficits with poor empathic sadness being more typical of CU traits than ASD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Apparently opposite postulates of Ehrlich (Horror autotoxicus) and Metchnikoff (physiological autoimmunization) are not irreconcilable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighiero, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1900, the group from Metchnikoff suggested the concept of autoimmunization by demonstrating the presence of autoantibodies in normal conditions; which was opposed to the concept of horror autotoxicus raised by Ehrlich. Landsteiner's description of the transfusion compatibility rules and 50 year-later work from Burnett's and Medawar's groups lead to the clonal deletion theory as a general explanation of tolerance and autoimmunity. However, more recent work succeeded demonstrating that autoreactive B cells constitute a substantial part of the B-cell repertoire and that this autoreactive repertoire secretes the so-called natural autoantibodies (NAA) characterized by their broad reactivity mainly directed against very well conserved public epitopes. They fulfill the definition of an autoantibody since they are self-reactive, but they are not self-specific. As yet, NAA directed against determinants of polymorphism have not been reported. The presence of this repertoire in normal conditions challenges the clonal deletion theory as a unique explanation for self-tolerance. However, if we take into account that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is not self-specific, this contradiction may not be a real one opposition. Indeed, the Lansteiner's rule that a subject belonging to group A will never produce anti-A antibodies and will always produce natural antibodies against the B-cell group, could never be challenged. Clonal deletion is probably accounting for this phenomenon. However, the serum of healthy adult individuals frequently exhibits low titers of anti-I antibodies, which is a precursor molecule of AB0 antigen system. The mechanism accounting for deletion of B cells directed against critical determinants like antigens A and B in the red blood cell system and allowing the production of autoantibodies against I remains elusive.

  5. COOBBO: A Novel Opposition-Based Soft Computing Algorithm for TSP Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzheng Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel definition of opposite path. Its core feature is that the sequence of candidate paths and the distances between adjacent nodes in the tour are considered simultaneously. In a sense, the candidate path and its corresponding opposite path have the same (or similar at least distance to the optimal path in the current population. Based on an accepted framework for employing opposition-based learning, Oppositional Biogeography-Based Optimization using the Current Optimum, called COOBBO algorithm, is introduced to solve traveling salesman problems. We demonstrate its performance on eight benchmark problems and compare it with other optimization algorithms. Simulation results illustrate that the excellent performance of our proposed algorithm is attributed to the distinct definition of opposite path. In addition, its great strength lies in exploitation for enhancing the solution accuracy, not exploration for improving the population diversity. Finally, by comparing different version of COOBBO, another conclusion is that each successful opposition-based soft computing algorithm needs to adjust and remain a good balance between backward adjacent node and forward adjacent node.

  6. Methylphenidate in children with oppositional defiant disorder and both comorbid chronic multiple tic disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2008-09-01

    Our primary objective was to determine if immediate-release methylphenidate is an effective treatment for oppositional defiant disorder diagnosed from mother's report in children with both chronic multiple tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children (n = 31) aged 6 to 12 years received placebo and 3 doses of methylphenidate twice daily for 2 weeks each under double-blind conditions and were assessed with ratings scales and laboratory measures. Results indicated significant improvement in both oppositional and ADHD behaviors with medication; however, the magnitude of treatment effect varied considerably as a function of disorder (ADHD > Oppositional behaviors), informant (teacher > mother), assessment instrument, and specific oppositional behavior (rebellious > disobeys rules). Drug response was comparable with that in children (n = 26) who did not have diagnosed oppositional defiant disorder, but comorbidity appeared to alter the perceived benefits for ADHD according to mother's report. Methylphenidate is an effective short-term treatment for oppositional behavior in children with comorbid ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder.

  7. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  8. Public Works: The Legacy of New Deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the New Deal public works program as combining the short-term goal of unemployment relief with the long-term goal of regional economic development. Discusses the planning, implementation, and political opposition of the New Deal's many public works programs including the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Works Progress…

  9. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  10. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  13. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  14. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  15. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  16. Opposite Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruya Tuncturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  17. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  18. The Comparison of Emotion Regulation Strategies in Adolescents with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasempour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotion regulation strategies were of affection factors in disruptive behavior disorders. The aim of the study was to comparison emotion regulation strategies in boy adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder and normal in Amol town. Materials and Methods: A causative- comparative design and the study statistical population was all boy student of Amol town high school. The study sample comprised 36 people (18 people with oppositional defiant and 18 people normal who were selected by single- stage cluster sampling. Data was collected using Achenbach Youth Self-Report Scale (YSR and Garnefski & Kraaij emotional regulation questionnaire. To analyze the data, multi-vitiate analyze of variance (MANOVA was used. Results: The mean age of the adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder was 15/16±0/51and normal 15/11±0/67 years. The results of this study showed that adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder have negative emotion regulation strategies and adolescents normal have positive emotion regulation strategies. Conclusion: These findings highlighted the importance of positive and negative emotion regulation strategies in given oppositional defiant disorder in adolescents.

  19. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  20. The public information imperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Public approval hinges not only on delivering the information the public wants but on providing tangible evidence that we are listening to public concerns. We must respond. Public acceptance depends on making real change which speaks to people's concerns. The message that the public wants to hear is that government are listening and acting on what they hear. In Canada, the nuclear regulator is increasingly active in the public arena. We held cross-country consultations as we prepared Canada's strong new Act and regulations. We have developed information vehicles such as the Radiation Index and our web site. We continue to extensively involve the public in our licensing process. All licensing hearings are open to the public. Nothing is harder to capture than public trust. This conference marks a substantial investment in learning and in our common future. We can work to build our credibility as regulators who acts on public concerns. (N.C.)

  1. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  2. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  4. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  5. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  6. Surfactant selection principle for reducing critical micelle concentration in mixtures of oppositely charged gemini surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhang; Fan, Yaxun; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Ruijuan; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2014-07-15

    Cationic quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)CH2CHCHCH2(CH3)2N(+)C(n)H(2n+1)2Br(-) (C(n)C4C(n), n = 12, 8, 6) with alkyl spacers, C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)CH2CHOHCHOHCH2(CH3)2N(+)C(n)H(2n+1)2Br(-) (C(n)C4(OH)2C(n), n = 12, 8, 6, 4) with two hydroxyl groups in alkyl spacers, and cationic ammonium single-chain surfactants C(n)H(2n+1)(CH3)2N(+)Br(-) (C(n)TAB, n = 12, 8, 6) have been chosen to fabricate oppositely charged surfactant mixtures with anionic sulfonate gemini surfactant C12H25N(CH2CH2CH2SO3(-))CH2CH2CH2(CH3)2N(CH2CH2CH2SO3(-))C12H252Na (C12C3C12(SO3)2). Surface tension, electrical conductivity, and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) were used to study their surface properties, aggregation behaviors, and intermolecular interactions. The mixtures of C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 12, 8) and C12C3C12(SO3)2/C12C4C12 show anomalous larger critical micelle concentration (CMC) than C12C3C12(SO3)2, while the mixtures of C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 6, 4), C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)C4(OH)2C(n) (n = 6, 4), and C12C3C12(SO3)2/C(n)TAB (n = 12, 8, 6) exhibit much lower CMC than C12C3C12(SO3)2. The results indicate that strong hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains assisted by strong electrostatic attractions between the headgroups and hydrogen bonds between the spacers lead to the formation of less surface active premicellar aggregates in bulk solution, resulting in the increase of CMC. If these interactions are weakened or inhibited, less surface active premicellar aggregates are no longer formed in the mixtures, and thus the CMC values are reduced. The work reveals that the combination of two surfactants with great self-assembling ability separately may have strong intermolecular binding interactions; however, their mixtures do not always generate superior synergism properties. Only moderate intermolecular interaction can generate the strongest synergism in CMC reduction.

  7. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  8. Understanding Death Penalty Support and Opposition Among Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sethuraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.

  9. THE METAPHORICAL OPPOSITION UP – DOWN AS A WAY OF LANGUAGE INTERPRETATION OF REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryeva Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the peculiarities of one of the key metaphorical oppositions up – down as an axiological marker in the process of evaluating the reality. She describes the design features of the oposition's semantic space, and the special attention is paid to its symbolic level which is important for understanding complex axiological processes. On the basis of data from modern explanatory dictionaries and texts of Russian National Corpus, the author distinguishes some regularities of using up – down antonymic dyad for the enterpretation of emotional, ethical, social, religious, gnoseological events in the life of people and society. The author comes to the conclusion that the studied binary opposition fits into the general system of world oulook coordinates, consisting of spatial, temporal, parametric, taste, color and other opposites that help a person to orient in the world.

  10. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  11. The new <Strong Italian Earthquakes>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valensise

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new catalogue of strong ltalian earthquakes that the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in collaboration with SGA, has recently made available to the international scientific community and to the general public. The new catalogue differs from previous efforts in that for each event the usual seismic parameters are complemented by a list of intensity rated localities, a complete list of relevant references, a series of synoptic comments describing different aspects of the earthquake phenomenology. and in most cases even the text of the original written sources. The printed part of the catalogue has been published as a special monograph which contains also a computer version of the full database in the form of a CD-ROM. The software package includes a computer program for retrieving, selecting and displaying the catalogue data.

  12. Oppositionality and socioemotional competence: interacting risk factors in the development of childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Skuse, David; Steer, Colin; St Pourcain, Beate; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2013-07-01

    Oppositional behavior in childhood is a probabilistic risk factor for the subsequent development of more serious conduct problems characteristic of conduct disorder (CD). The capacity to understand the subjective states of others (socioemotional competence) helps regulate antisocial behavior in typical development. We hypothesized that socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between oppositionality and CD symptoms, such that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms pose the greatest risk for subsequent CD symptoms in children with poor socioemotional competence. Parent-report data were collected for 6,218 children at 7 and 10 years of age. Bootstrap multiple regression predicting CD symptoms at age 10 was used to test for an interaction between socioemotional competence and ODD symptoms, while also accounting for direct effects and controlling for sex, maternal education, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and CD symptoms at 7 years. We further tested whether the interaction applied to both males and females, and to both aggressive and rule-breaking CD symptoms. A significant interaction was found between ODD and socioemotional competence: the association between oppositionality at 7 years and CD traits at 10 years was strongest for children with poor socioemotional capacities. As predicted, this moderation effect was significant in a model predicting aggression, but it was not significant for rule-breaking CD symptoms. Socioemotional competence moderates the developmental relationship between mid-childhood oppositionality and more serious conduct problems in later childhood. A capacity to understand the subjective states of others may buffer the risk posed by oppositionality for later CD symptoms, including aggression. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals.

  14. Public acceptance in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Heerden, A. van

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)

  15. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  16. Reassuring the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1999-01-01

    The first site selection, which was performed in Slovenia between 1990 and 1993, was unsuccessful. The representatives of local municipalities which were identified in the siting process were alarmed and had shown extremely high opposition to everything linked to radioactive waste. To learn by previous mistakes, the RAO Agency decided to conduct a public opinion poll on those locations, with the main objective of obtaining information on the present opinion of the local communities, and to use the experiences in the preparation of a new site selection procedure. The results of this poll and the starting-points for the new siting process are presented in this paper.(author)

  17. Same-sex and opposite-sex best friend interactions among high school juniors and seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, B; Field, T; McBride, C; Field, T; Largie, S

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen adolescents were videotaped during same-sex and opposite-sex interactions in the eleventh and twelfth grades. In both grades, females felt more comfortable during same-sex interactions than during opposite-sex interactions, and they rated their same-sex partners more positively than did males. Females in both grades and males in eleventh grade showed more peer intimacy than did males in twelfth grade. Eleventh-grade females showed the most playful behaviors (the most engaged state). More synchrony (matching of behavior) was found for the animated state in the twelfth grade as compared with the eleventh grade.

  18. Parliamentary Behaviour of the Members of Opposition Political Parties in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fuzi Omar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a hegemonic consociational system practised in Malaysia, the Opposition can hardly play a dominant role in making democracy work. Nevertheless, a content analysis of the debates in the House of Representatives from 1982 to 2003 show that the opposition members have contributed to the process of check and balance in the government by asking questions to relevant ministries and by initiating adjournment motions. In the process, they not merely attacked the government for their failure but also suggested alternative policies some of which were implemented by the ruling coalition.

  19. Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, D.; Hartung, A.; Eckart, S.; Trinter, F.; Kalinin, A.; Schöffler, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Kunitski, M.; Dörner, R.

    2018-01-01

    The spin polarization of electrons from multiphoton ionization of Xe by 395 nm circularly polarized laser pulses at 6 ×1013 W /cm2 has been measured. At this photon energy of 3.14 eV the above-threshold ionization peaks connected to Xe+ ions in the ground state (J =3 /2 , ionization potential Ip=12.1 eV ) and the first excited state (J =1 /2 , Ip=13.4 eV ) are clearly separated in the electron energy distribution. These two combs of above-threshold ionization peaks show opposite spin polarizations. The magnitude of the spin polarization is a factor of 2 higher for the J =1 /2 than for the J =3 /2 final ionic state. In turn, the data show that the ionization probability is strongly dependent on the sign of the magnetic quantum number.

  20. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists in the VTA and RMTg have opposite effects on morphine-induced locomotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Dhillon, Ekamjeet S; Sharma, Natasha; Ludwig, Jessica

    2017-04-14

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) each contribute to opiate reward and each receive inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the two principle brainstem cholinergic cell groups. We compared the contributions of VTA or RMTg muscarinic cholinergic receptors to locomotion induced by morphine infusions into the same sites. VTA co-infusion of atropine completely blocked VTA morphine-induced locomotion providing additional support for the important role of VTA muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the stimulant effects of opiates. By contrast, RMTg co-infusion of atropine increased RMTg morphine-induced locomotion. Furthermore, RMTg co-infusion of the M3-selective antagonist 4-DAMP, but not the M4-selective antagonist Tropicamide, strongly increased RMTg morphine-induced locomotion. RMTg infusions of 4-DAMP, but not of Tropicamide, by themselves strongly increased drug-free locomotion. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the RMTg thus also contribute to the stimulant effects of morphine, but in a way opposite to those in VTA. We suggest that the net effect of endogenous cholinergic input to the RMTg on drug-free and on RMTg morphine-induced locomotion is inhibitory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  2. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  3. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveteig, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana. A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software. Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in the GDHS

  4. Fear, opposition, ambivalence, and omission: Results from a follow-up study on unmet need for family planning in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Staveteig

    Full Text Available Despite a relatively strong family planning program and regionally modest levels of fertility, Ghana recorded one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning on the African continent in 2008. Unmet need for family planning is a composite measure based on apparent contradictions between women's reproductive preferences and practices. Women who want to space or limit births but are not using contraception are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. The study sought to understand the reasons behind high levels of unmet need for family planning in Ghana.A mixed methods follow-up study was embedded within the stratified, two-stage cluster sample of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS. Women in 13 survey clusters who were identified as having unmet need, along with a reference group of current family planning users, were approached to be reinterviewed within an average of three weeks from their GDHS interview. Follow-up respondents were asked a combination of closed- and open-ended questions about fertility preferences and contraceptive use. Closed-ended responses were compared against the original survey; transcripts were thematically coded and analyzed using qualitative analysis software.Among fecund women identified by the 2014 GDHS as having unmet need, follow-up interviews revealed substantial underreporting of method use, particularly traditional methods. Complete postpartum abstinence was sometimes the intended method of family planning but was overlooked during questions about method use. Other respondents classified as having unmet need had ambivalent fertility preferences. In several cases, respondents expressed revised fertility preferences upon follow-up that would have made them ineligible for inclusion in the unmet need category. The reference group of family planning users also expressed unstable fertility preferences. Aversion to modern method use was generally more substantial than reported in

  5. What the public want in nuclear use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This article described public opinion poll by the web in October 2011 and considered human behavior facing a danger to understand silent majority's opinion change and what safety was required from the public. Web's social investigation showed (1) opposition to nuclear power with great anxiety (no admission and necessity of nuclear power was strong enough at east Japan (Tohoku, Niigata and Tokyo area)), (2) trust on electric utilities and government was lost and accident was thought manmade, and (3) as for radioactivity contamination, residents at east Japan were more acceptable than at west Japan (Osaka and Kyushu) (radiation hazards were scientifically better understood at east Japan). Human behavior facing a danger such as accident or natural disaster could be predicted by two factors: controllability and extend of damage. If recognized as controllable and damage was slightly greater than threshold, cost vs. benefit action or rational response might be taken. If recognized as controllable and damage were far beyond threshold, psychological excessive reaction would be taken. If recognized not controllable, apathy, patience and resignation would prevail dependent on extent of damage evaluation. Also 'confidence bias' would occur at facing a danger. Results of web poll and public opinion of silent majority were analyzed from these psychological aspect of human mind facing a danger. After the Fukushima accident, the public might require appropriate measures to assure (1) security not to allow the accident, (2) safety to minimize accident damage and (3) resilience for efficient and swift restoration from the damage. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Optic chiasm in the species of order Clupeiformes, family Clupeidae: optic chiasm of Spratelloides gracilis shows an opposite laterality to that of Etrumeus teres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazue; Misawa, Kazuya; Utsunomiya, Kentaro; Kawada, Yuta; Yamazaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shigeo; Toyoizumi, Ryuji

    2009-09-01

    In most teleost fishes, the optic nerves decussate completely as they project to the mesencephalic region. Examination of the decussation pattern of 25 species from 11 different orders in Pisces revealed that each species shows a specific chiasmic type. In 11 species out of the 25, laterality of the chiasmic pattern was not determined; in half of the individuals examined, the left optic nerve ran dorsally to the right optic nerve, while in the other half, the right optic nerve was dorsal. In eight other species the optic nerves from both eyes branched into several bundles at the chiasmic point, and intercalated to form a complicated decussation pattern. In the present study we report our findings that Spratelloides gracilis, of the order Clupeiformes, family Clupeidae, shows a particular laterality of decussation: the left optic nerve ran dorsally to the right (n=200/202). In contrast, Etrumeus teres, of the same order and family, had a strong preference of the opposite (complementary) chiasmic pattern to that of S. gracilis (n=59/59), revealing that these two species display opposite left-right optic chiasm patterning. As far as we investigated, other species of Clupeiformes have not shown left-right preference in the decussation pattern. We conclude that the opposite laterality of the optic chiasms of these two closely related species, S. gracilis and E. teres, enables investigation of species-specific laterality in fishes of symmetric shapes.

  7. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  8. Moral Absolutism, Self-Deception, and Moral Self-Concept in Men Who Commit Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study With an Opposite Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina, María L; Chacón, F; Pérez-Viejo, J M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show compatible data with the idea that men who commit intimate partner violence are uninhibited about the moral consequences of their behaviors, probably because they feel certainty about the rightness of their moral values and they strongly deceive themselves to maintain a good moral self-concept, and thus a good level of well-being. To do that, we compare their scores with those obtained by an opposite sample regarding the use of violence, made up of professional male psychologists who work in the social field trying to teach others alternative strategies to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  10. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  11. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  12. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  13. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  14. In defense of tradition: Religiosity, conservatism, and opposition to same-sex marriage in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, J.; Jost, J. T.; Packer, D. J.; Noorbaloochi, S.; van Bavel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual

  15. Opposite-side flavour tagging of $B$ mesons at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with $B^+ \\to J/ \\psi K^+$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^{*0}$ and $B^0 \\to D^{*-} \\mu^+ \

  16. Band Formation in Mixtures of Oppositely Charged Colloids Driven by an ac Electric Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, T.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present experiments on pattern formation in a Brownian system of oppositely charged colloids driven by an ac electric field. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we observe complete segregation of the two particle species into bands perpendicular to a field of sufficient strength when the

  17. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Herbert, Sharonne D.; Fanton, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of family experiences in the early development and maintenance of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in preschool-age children with behavior problems. Method: Participants were 199 3-year-old children with behavior problems who took part in 4 annual child and family assessments. Results:…

  18. Solitary Wave Generation from Constant Continuous Wave in Asymmetric Oppositely Directed Waveguide Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazantseva E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a model which describes asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear coupler it was observed in numerical simulations a phenomenon of solitary wave generation from the input constant continuous wave set at the entrance of a waveguide with negative refraction. The period of solitary wave formation decreases with increase of the continuum wave amplitude.

  19. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  20. Does beauty catch the eye?: Sex differences in gazing at attractive opposite-sex targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, I.; Holland, R.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  1. Assessment and etiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in boys and girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Hudziak, J.; Neale, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and

  2. Assessment and etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Eske M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Neale, Michael C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and

  3. Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Weeda, Wouter D.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is highly prevalent in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Individuals with both ADHD and ODD (ADHD + ODD) show a considerably worse prognosis compared with individuals with either ADHD or ODD. Therefore, identification of risk factors for ADHD + ODD

  4. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, J.D.; Loeber, R.; Birmaher, B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Method: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. Results: Research on ODD and CD during the past decade has addressed the complexity involved in identifying the

  5. Associative cortico-cortical plasticity may affect ipsilateral finger opposition movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, V; Bove, M; Naro, A

    2011-01-01

    transcranial stimuli to the right and left primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)) at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms. We studied the after effects of cc-PAS on the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements of different complexity on both hands using a sensor-engineered glove. A quantitative...

  6. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009 does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative grounds for trademark registration refusal but does so ex officio, thus preventing the holders of trademark rights from benefiting from a relatively inexpensive and effective opposition procedure regarding the registration of a second trademark which violates their previously established rights. In contrast to our trademark laws, EU Council Regulation 207/2009 on Community Trademarks of February 26, 2009 (CTMR -Community trademark regulation enforces opposition proceedings as the most important phase in the process of trademark registration. European experience shows that opposition proceedings carry significant benefits for the process of trademark application. First of all, they allow the holders of previously established trademark rights to avoid long and costly court proceedings whose purpose is to dispute trademarks that violate the owner's rights. Also, state agencies authorizing in trademark approval no longer need to monitor registered trademarks.

  7. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  8. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is…

  9. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  10. Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…

  11. pH Reversible Encapsulation of Oppositely Charged Colloids Mediated by Polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Evers, Chris H J; Kegel, Willem K

    2017-05-09

    We report the first example of reversible encapsulation of micron-sized particles by oppositely charged submicron smaller colloids. The reversibility of this encapsulation process is regulated by pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) present in solution. The competitive adsorption between the small colloids and the poly(acrylic acid) on the surface of the large colloids plays a key role in the encapsulation behavior of the system. pH offers an experimental knob to tune the electrostatic interactions between the two oppositely charged particle species via regulation of the charge density of the poly(acrylic acid). This results in an increased surface coverage of the large colloids by the smaller colloids when decreasing pH. Furthermore, the poly(acrylic acid) also acts as a steric barrier limiting the strength of the attractive forces between the oppositely charged particle species, thereby enabling detachment of the smaller colloids. Finally, based on the pH tunability of the encapsulation behavior and the ability of the small colloids to detach, reversible encapsulation is achieved by cycling pH in the presence of the PAA polyelectrolytes. The role of polyelectrolytes revealed in this work provides a new and facile strategy to control heteroaggregation behavior between oppositely charged colloids, paving the way to prepare sophisticated hierarchical assemblies.

  12. Efficient and accurate optimal linear phase FIR filter design using opposition-based harmony search algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Dutta, R; Choudhury, R; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.

  13. Efficient and Accurate Optimal Linear Phase FIR Filter Design Using Opposition-Based Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, opposition-based harmony search has been applied for the optimal design of linear phase FIR filters. RGA, PSO, and DE have also been adopted for the sake of comparison. The original harmony search algorithm is chosen as the parent one, and opposition-based approach is applied. During the initialization, randomly generated population of solutions is chosen, opposite solutions are also considered, and the fitter one is selected as a priori guess. In harmony memory, each such solution passes through memory consideration rule, pitch adjustment rule, and then opposition-based reinitialization generation jumping, which gives the optimum result corresponding to the least error fitness in multidimensional search space of FIR filter design. Incorporation of different control parameters in the basic HS algorithm results in the balancing of exploration and exploitation of search space. Low pass, high pass, band pass, and band stop FIR filters are designed with the proposed OHS and other aforementioned algorithms individually for comparative optimization performance. A comparison of simulation results reveals the optimization efficacy of the OHS over the other optimization techniques for the solution of the multimodal, nondifferentiable, nonlinear, and constrained FIR filter design problems.

  14. Simultaneous adaptation of the thumb and index finger of the same hand to opposite prism displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Willemijn D; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    It only takes a few goal-directed hand movements to adapt one's movements to a prism-induced displacement of the visual scene. Adaptation to the displacement leads to errors in the opposite direction from the initial displacement when the prisms are removed. Such aftereffects are thought to arise

  15. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  16. The Role of the Opposition Political Parties in facilitating Change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper that was influenced by the Gramscian Model of Hegemony intended to establish whether the opposition parties were necessary in Zimbabwean politics in as far as influencing democracy is concerned. The paper had been necessitated by the pressure from the civil society and the electorate on government to ...

  17. Family Correlates of Oppositional and Conduct Disorders in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; McBurnett, Keith; Rathouz, Paul J.; Judice, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidities among children with ADHD are key determinants of treatment response, course, and outcome. This study sought to separate family factors (parental psychopathology and parenting practices) associated with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) from those associated with Conduct Disorder (CD) among children with Attention…

  18. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Inner-City Children: Prospective Prediction and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Bubier, Jennifer; Chen, Diane; Price, Julia; Lanza, H. Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We examined prospective prediction from parent- and teacher-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms to parent-reported ODD, conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and whether child executive functioning abilities moderated these relations among an urban, low-income sample of…

  19. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  20. Promoting Sustainability in a College Café by Opposite-Sex Cashiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tifferet, Sigal; Rosenblit, Niv; Shalev, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: People engage in green consumption for many reasons, both conscious and unconscious. This paper aims to draw on evolutionary psychology to propose that hard-wired mating strategies encourage both men and women to increase their green consumption in the presence of members of the opposite sex. Design/methodology/approach: Observations were…

  1. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder as Predictors of Depression and Conduct Disorder in Preadolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) rather than CD may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine if an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression.

  2. Temperament Differences among Children with Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Diana; Oakland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Temperament-based learning style preferences of 80 children, ages 8 to 17, 40 with conduct disorder (CD) and 40 with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were examined using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). The SSQ measures four dimensions of learning style preferences based on temperament theory (Extroverted-Introverted, Thinking-Feeling,…

  3. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  4. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  5. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  6. Repulsion between oppositely charged rod-shaped macromolecules: Role of overcharging and ionic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S.; Van Tassel, Paul R.; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between two oppositely charged rod-shaped macro-ions in a micro-ion solution is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model. The focus is on the asymmetry in rod and/or ion charge, i.e., conditions where oppositely charged objects can repel one another. For equally and oppositely charged rods with asymmetric z:1 micro-ions, repulsion may be induced by overcharging one of the rods with the z valent ions. For asymmetrically charged rods in a symmetric z:z micro-ion solution, a repulsive interaction—at separation of the order of one ion diameter—can arise via an unbalanced osmotic pressure contribution from the ionic atmosphere in the inter-rod space, and an attractive interaction—at a smaller separation—may occur due to a "squeezing out" of the micro-ions from the space between the rods (with a consequent gain in entropy). The thermodynamics of each mechanism is investigated in terms of rod charge and size and micro-ion valence, size, and concentration. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex role of charge asymmetry on the interaction of, for example, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, functionalized nanotubes, and rod-like biomolecules, e.g., viruses.

  7. Initial Opposition--Won't Portfolio Assessment Take Away Teacher Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marcia

    Unacknowledged and untended opposition can lead the "resistance" to destroy even the best planned of portfolio systems. The greatest cause of initial resistance to portfolio assessment is the fear that teachers will lose their autonomy and/or authority in the classroom. Writing instructors need to ask themselves about issues of control and…

  8. The transformation of consequential functions in accordance with the relational frames of same and opposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-09-01

    Although the literature on reinforcement in behavioral psychology is extensive, few studies have examined the derived transformation of reinforcing functions in accordance with equivalence classes, and no published research has yet examined the derived transformation of consequential functions in accordance with nonequivalence relations. In the present study, which consisted of four experiments, the basic preparation was as follows. First, an arbitrary stimulus, B2, was established as a conditioned punisher, using direct stimulus pairing. Following nonarbitrary relational training, designed to establish SAME and OPPOSITE contextual cues, subjects were exposed to arbitrary relational training using these contextual cues to establish A1 as the same as B1 and C1, and as opposite to B2 and C2. Subsequently, C2 (based on its Same relation with B2) functioned as a punisher and C1 (based on its Opposite relation with B2) functioned as a reinforcer in a simultaneous discrimination task. Critically, the C1 stimulus acquired reinforcing functions, based on the derived relation of Opposite, although no such function had actually been established for any member of the network. Furthermore, these effects were observed across ABA reversals in the baseline contingencies.

  9. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  10. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...

  11. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  13. APPROACHES TO PUBLIC INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Roxana ULMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both concepts, integrity and public integrity, are always asked qualities in the social and economic environment, but they are never well defined. In this context, finding precise definitions and offering an ample explanation of the concepts are desired and useful for both economic theoretical and practical levels and become the aim of the present paper. Without a good understanding of a concept, no one is capable to attain it. In this context, it is impossible to ask for a public sector of integrity if both public actors and the citizens do not know what it really means. Therefore, the public actors first have to understand what integrity really supposes, and, then, to be capable to respect its principles. Taking into consideration the effects of public integrity or, on its opposite, of the divergence from it, especially represented by the phenomenon of corruption, on the economy at the macro, but also, on the micro level, public integrity in itself becomes a real economic problem that is aimed to be extensively analyzed through our interdisciplinary approach.

  14. To drill or not to drill? An econometric analysis of US public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Deep; Rahman, Mohammad Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Offshore drilling in the United States (US) has been the subject of public and political discourse due to multiple reasons which include economic impact, energy security, and environmental hazard. Consequently, several polls have been conducted over time to gauge public attitude towards offshore drilling. Nevertheless, the economic literature on this issue is sparse. This paper contributes to the literature and analyzes support for offshore drilling based on demographic, economic, social, belief, and shock (e.g. spill) factors. The data is taken from ten nationwide surveys conducted before, during and after the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill and analyzed within the framework of discrete choice model. The results from an ordinal probit model demonstrate that age, annual household income, affiliation to Republican Party, and residence in oil-rich states positively affect the probability of strong support and reduce the probability of strong opposition for offshore drilling. In contrast, the female gender, higher education, association to Democratic Party, and environmental concern affect opinion in opposite direction. Marginal effects show that belief about environmental consequences of drilling has the highest impact on opinion. Binary probit model also yields a similar result and suggests that BP oil disaster resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling. - Highlights: •US public opinion on offshore drilling is analyzed based on ten national polls. •Ordinal and binary probit models are utilized to identify the underlying factors that shape public opinion. •Belief about environmental cost of drilling and educational attainment have the highest negative impact on opinion. •Age, income, affiliation to Republican party and oil-rich states positively affect support for drilling. •BP oil spill resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling.

  15. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Steeber, Jennifer; McBurnett, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder with significant functional impairment. ADHD is frequently complicated by oppositional symptoms, which are difficult to separate from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and aggressive symptoms. This review addresses the impact of oppositional symptoms on ADHD, disease course, functional impairment, clinical management, and treatment response. Oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder may be comorbid in more than half of ADHD cases and are more common with the combined than with the inattentive ADHD subtype. Comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in patients with ADHD can have a significant impact on the course and prognosis for these patients and may lead to differential treatment response to both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Assessment of oppositional symptoms is an essential part of ADHD screening and diagnosis and should include parental, as well as educator, input. Although clinical evidence remains limited, some stimulant and nonstimulant medications have shown effectiveness in treating both core ADHD symptoms and oppositional symptoms. Oppositional symptoms are a key consideration in ADHD management, although the optimum approach to treating ADHD complicated by such symptoms remains unclear. Future research should focus on the efficacy and safety of various behavioral and medication regimens, as well as longitudinal studies to further clarify the relationships between ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

  16. Home care in Italy: a system on the move, in the opposite direction to what we expect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Cristiano

    2012-05-01

    For a long time, the international literature has described the Italian public system of home care for frail elderly people as underfunded and mostly cash-oriented; a system, thus, relying almost entirely on informal care provided by the family and, more recently, by migrant workers. Abroad and in Italy, most experts have long shared the expectation that, if and when, public expenditure devoted to home care was to increase, the outcome would be an expansion in the provision of services in kind. This study analyses how the provision of home care actually has changed in the last decade. The analysis reveals that indeed public expenditure has risen. However, while the system of home-care provision also has changed, it has done so in the opposite direction to that expected. In fact, most of the additional resources have funded an increase in the number of users of the companion payment [Indennità di Accompagnamento (IA)], a cash benefit of €487 per month. In this respect, the Italian welfare system is more cash-oriented than it was 10 years ago. This article discusses the reasons behind the increased uptake of the IA, namely: an increase in the needs and demands of older people; the traits of the Italian welfare system; and the peculiar features of the companion payment itself. The article then looks at why services in kind rose to a lesser degree, pinpoints the main reason as being based on the politics of social care at national level, and finally focuses on the challenges that the Italian home-care system has to face within the changed policy environment with respect to quality of care, carers' conditions and support for users with high-level needs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Publications | Page 520 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5191 - 5200 of 6380 ... As the diagnostic arm of public health, epidemiology is caught in the crossfire of oppositional social values and demands. The article reviews constructions of epidemiology within viewpoints of power, class and determination for instance, and then locates it in a particular Latin American.

  18. Supermolecular bent configuration composed of achiral flexible liquid crystal trimers exhibiting chiral domains with opposite handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Haruna; Takanishi, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Jun; Yoshizawa, Atsushi

    2015-03-26

    Chirality's effects on physical properties of materials and how chirality arises have persisted as attractive issues in chemistry. We prepared a homologous series of achiral liquid crystal trimers in which three phenylpyrimidine units are connected via flexible heptamethylene spacers. An equimolecular mixture of a trimer with a nematic (N) phase and that with smectic A (SmA), smectic C (SmC), and smectic B phases was found to exhibit an N phase, a SmC phase, and a B4 phase composed of chiral domains with opposite handedness. The chiral characteristics of the B4 phase were confirmed by uncrossing the polarizers in opposite directions. XRD measurements reveal that both SmC and B4 phases have an interdigitated layer structure. That molecular interdigitation might form a supermolecular bent configuration that can produce saddle splay curvature to drive the B4 phase.

  19. Performance Assessment in a Heat Exchanger Tube with Opposite/Parallel Wing Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiamsa-ard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermohydraulic performance in a tube containing a modified twisted tape with alternate-axes and wing arrangements is reported. This work aims to investigate the effects of wing arrangements (opposite (O and parallel (P wings at different wing shapes (triangle (Tri, rectangular (Rec, and trapezoidal (Tra wings and on the thermohydraulic performance characteristics. The obtained results show that wing twisted tapes with all wing shape arrangements (O-Tri/O-Rec/O-Tra/P-Tri/P-Rec/P-Tra give superior thermohydraulic performance and heat transfer rate to the typical twisted tape. In addition, the tapes with opposite wing arrangement of O-Tra, O-Rec, and O-Tri give superior thermohydraulic performances to those with parallel wing arrangement of P-Tra, P-Rec, and P-Tri around 2.7%, 3.5%, and 3.2%, respectively.

  20. Opposite-side flavour tagging of B mesons at the LHCb experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with B + → J / ψK + , B 0 → J / ψK ∗0 and B 0 → D ∗- μ + ν μ decay modes with 0.37 fb -1 of data collected in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] during the 2011 physics run. The opposite-side tagging power is determined in the B + → J / ψK + channel to be (2.10±0.08±0.24) %, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  1. Opposition-Based Improved PSO for Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch and Voltage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An opposition-based improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (OIPSO is presented for solving multiobjective reactive power optimization problem. OIPSO uses the opposition learning to improve search efficiency, adopts inertia weight factors to balance global and local exploration, and takes crossover and mutation and neighborhood model strategy to enhance population diversity. Then, a new multiobjective model is built, which includes system network loss, voltage dissatisfaction, and switching operation. Based on the market cost prices, objective functions are converted to least-cost model. In modeling process, switching operation cost is described according to the life cycle cost of transformer, and voltage dissatisfaction penalty is developed considering different voltage quality requirements of customers. The experiment is done on the new mathematical model. Through the simulation of IEEE 30-, 118-bus power systems, the results prove that OIPSO is more efficient to solve reactive power optimization problems and the model is more accurate to reflect the real power system operation.

  2. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  3. How siblings resolve their conflicts: the importance of first offers, planning, and limited opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael; Stein, Nancy; Trabasso, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four sibling dyads (4-12 years old; 61% males; 83% European-American) were asked to resolve an ongoing conflict. Older siblings provided leadership by suggesting, modifying, justifying, and requesting assent to plans for conflict resolution. Younger siblings countered and disagreed, but also contributed to planning and agreed to their siblings' plans. Compromises were associated with first offers that met both children's goals, future-oriented planning, and limited opposition. Win-loss outcomes followed offers favoring only one child and arguments over older siblings' plans. Conflicts were unresolved when negotiations included frequent accusations and opposition, but little planning. Thus mutually beneficial conflict resolution required that children shift focus from debating past wrongs to developing plans to meet their unrealized goals in future interaction.

  4. Comparing Tense Systems: the Primacy of the Pres/Past Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Borik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A way of improving on the description of the English tense system in Reichenbach [1947] is achieved by changing its matrix 3x3 design into a 2x2x2 set up, formed by 3 basic oppositions: • present vs. past • synchronous vs. posterior • incompleted vs. completed action The advantages of the binary system over the Reichenbachian ternary system are the following: • the binary system is completely compositional; • there is no tripartition between Past, Present and Future, but only the basic opposition between Past and Present remains. As we intend to show later, this is empirically supported by the Russian and Polish data; • some concrete problems, for instance, the ambiguity of past perfect with temporal adverbials or more then one configuration for the same tense form [Future Perfect [will have written] or Past Future tense [would write

  5. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threat to the region as well as to international security on a global scale. Furthermore, Al-Assad denies the armed opposition its Syrian grassroots by portraying them as outside aggressors fighting for foreign interests. They are also depicted as “enemies of the Syrian people”, responsible for all the atrocities and human suffering committed during the Syrian civil war.' ' '

  6. Mismeasurement and the resonance of strong confounders: correlated errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J R; Hastrup, J L; Ross, J S

    1999-07-01

    Confounding in epidemiology, and the limits of standard methods of control for an imperfectly measured confounder, have been understood for some time. However, most treatments of this problem are based on the assumption that errors of measurement in confounding and confounded variables are independent. This paper considers the situation in which a strong risk factor (confounder) and an inconsequential but suspected risk factor (confounded) are each measured with errors that are correlated; the situation appears especially likely to occur in the field of nutritional epidemiology. Error correlation appears to add little to measurement error as a source of bias in estimating the impact of a strong risk factor: it can add to, diminish, or reverse the bias induced by measurement error in estimating the impact of the inconsequential risk factor. Correlation of measurement errors can add to the difficulty involved in evaluating structures in which confounding and measurement error are present. In its presence, observed correlations among risk factors can be greater than, less than, or even opposite to the true correlations. Interpretation of multivariate epidemiologic structures in which confounding is likely requires evaluation of measurement error structures, including correlations among measurement errors.

  7. Wavefront sensing and adaptive optics in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ruth; Dainty, Christopher

    2005-06-01

    When light propagates through the atmosphere the fluctuating refractive index caused by temperature gradients, humidity fluctuations and the wind mixing of air cause the phase of the optical field to be corrupted. In strong turbulence, over horizontal paths or at large zenith angles, the phase aberration is converted to intensity variation (scintillation) as interference within the beam and diffraction effects produce the peaks and zeros of a speckle-like pattern. At the zeros of intensity the phase becomes indeterminate as both the real and imaginary parts of the field go to zero. The wavefront is no longer continuous but contains dislocations along lines connecting phase singularities of opposite rotation. Conventional adaptive optics techniques of wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction do not account for discontinuous phase functions and hence can only conjugate an averaged, continuous wavefront. We are developing an adaptive optics system that can cope with dislocations in the phase function for potential use in a line-of-sight optical communications link. Using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator (FLC SLM) to generate dynamic atmospheric phase screens in the laboratory, we simulate strong scintillation conditions where high densities of phase singularities exist in order to compare wavefront sensors for tolerance to scintillation and accuracy of wavefront recovery.

  8. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  9. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  10. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  11. A Unified Guide to Two Opposite Size Effects in Nano Elastic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Zhe, Tang; Zhi-Jun, Zheng; Meng-Fen, Xia; Yi-Long, Bai

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural variation near surface of nano elastic materials is analyzed based on different potentials. The atomic/molecular mechanism underlying the variation and its effect on elastic modulus are such that the nature of long-range interactions (attractive or repulsive) in the atomic/molecular potentials essentially governs the variation near surface (looser or tighter) and results in two opposite size effects (decreasing or increasing modulus) with decreasing size

  12. Parenting practices as mediating variables between parents' psychopathology and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Trepat de Ancos, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is very frequent in preschoolers. The severity and the long-term negative outcomes make the understanding of this disorder a priority. The goal in this study was to assess the mediating role of parenting practices in the relationship between parents’ psychopathology and ODD in preschoolers. Method: A community sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at age 3 and age 5. Parents reported on children’s psychopathology through a diagnosti...

  13. Elite Opposition-Based Water Wave Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiuli; Zhou, Yongquan; Lu, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    Water wave optimization (WWO) is a novel metaheuristic method that is based on shallow water wave theory, which has simple structure, easy realization, and good performance even with a small population. To improve the convergence speed and calculation precision even further, this paper on elite opposition-based strategy water wave optimization (EOBWWO) is proposed, and it has been applied for function optimization and structure engineering design problems. There are three major optimization s...

  14. Differences of “Traditional Marketing” in Opposition to “Electronic Marketing”

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2012-01-01

    This paper initially seeks to document and review Differences of traditional marketing in opposition to Electronic marketing.Nowadays; the methods of business conduction have been changed by the revolution of information communication technology (ICT) that most of the transactions are related to internet. Execution of Electronic marketing all over the world can transform the forms of transactions due to the rapid proliferation of the Internet. The World Wide Web, online communication skills h...

  15. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  16. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  17. "The Opposite Ends of Supersymmetry and their Implications for the LHC" (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    There have been many predictions for the mass patterns of superpartners. In these lectures I discuss two interesting opposite-end approaches to supersymmetry breaking that determine the superpartner masses: zero scalar mass supersymmetry (no scale, gaugino mediation, etc.) and heavy scalar mass supersymmetry (split susy, PeV-scale susy, etc.). We will step through the theory motivations for each scenario, and detail the rich phenomena that each implies for LHC discovery.

  18. Reflections on twin relationships: twins reared apart and twins of opposite gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2012-12-01

    The complexities of twin relationships posed by separate rearing and by opposite sex are considered. Unusual cases may highlight unique social-interactional processes and outcomes occurring in these pairs. Research reviews include recent twin studies on second language acquisition, political behavior, and multiple birth rates. Items of more general interest include twin 'cousins' reared apart, indistinguishable monozygotic quadruplets, a genetic testing dilemma, and a performance about separated twins.

  19. Opposite Effects of Stimulant and Antipsychotic Drugs on Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltschko, Alexander B; Pettibone, Jeffrey R; Berke, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants and typical antipsychotic drugs have powerful but opposite effects on mood and behavior, largely through alterations in striatal dopamine signaling. Exactly how these drug actions lead to behavioral change is not well understood, as previous electrophysiological studies have found highly heterogeneous changes in striatal neuron firing. In this study, we examined whether part of this heterogeneity reflects the mixture of distinct cell types present in the striatum, by di...

  20. Vascular Wall Imaging of Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms with a Hybrid of Opposite-Contrast MR Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, T; Akiyama, Y; Okazaki, T; Shinagawa, K; Ichinose, N; Awai, K; Kurisu, K

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation and degeneration of the intracranial saccular aneurysm wall play a major role in aneurysm formation, development and subsequent rupture. The aim of this study was to characterize the walls of unruptured intracranial aneurysms by using a hybrid of opposite-contrast MRA at 3T. Fourteen consecutive patients with 17 unruptured intracranial aneurysms who initially underwent clipping surgery were prospectively evaluated. All aneurysms were scanned preoperatively by using a hybrid of opposite-contrast MRA in 3T high-resolution MR imaging. We classified intraoperative findings of atherosclerotic plaques in the aneurysms into 3 grades: grade A (major plaques), grade B (minor plaques), and grade C (no plaques). The contrast ratio of the high-intensity area was also measured relative to the background low-intensity area inside the carotid artery. Findings from preoperative plaque imaging of the aneurysm corresponded to the intraoperative findings in 15 of 16 aneurysms (excluding 1 that was impossible to visualize in its entirety due to anatomic reasons). Overall sensitivity and specificity of the hybrid of opposite-contrast MRA were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. During the operation, 4 aneurysms were classified as grade A; 5, as grade B; and 7, as grade C. The means of the contrast ratio for grades A, B, and C were 0.72 ± 0.03, 0.34 ± 0.30, and -0.02 ± 0.09, respectively. The hybrid of opposite-contrast MRA can detect visible atherosclerotic plaques in the unruptured aneurysm wall, and the contrast ratio in intracranial aneurysms correlated with their presence and extent. A study including a larger series is needed to validate the diagnostic potential of this imaging technique. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G G; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-10-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) population, we show that natural selection acts in opposite ways on two maternally derived androgens, yolk androstenedione (A4) and yolk testosterone (T). High yolk A4 concentrations are associated with higher fitness, whereas high yolk T concentrations are associated with lower fitness. Natural selection thus favours females that produce eggs with high A4 and low T concentrations. Importantly, however, there exists a positive (non-genetic) correlation between A4 and T, which suggests that females are limited in their ability to reach this adaptive optimum. Thereby, these results provide strong evidence for an adaptive value of differential maternal androgen deposition, and a mechanistic explanation for the maintenance of variation in maternal investment in the wild. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Depressive-like history alters persistent pain behavior in rats: Opposite contribution of frontal cortex and amygdala implied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei-Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that pain perception is strongly influenced by depression. However, very few studies have examined whether pain perception is altered in the remission period of depression, and what role the fronto-limbic circuits may play in the behavioral changes associated with remission. Using an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) animal model of depression, the present study investigated pain-related behaviors in rats with prior exposure to a UCMS stimulus. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist muscimol was microinjected bilaterally into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to examine the modulation of pain by these brain regions in the recovery state. Rats with a depression-like history displayed increased ongoing pain behavior in the formalin test, although their thermal pain thresholds were unchanged. Intra-BLA muscimol during the recovery phase dramatically decreased formalin-induced pain behavior and also significantly increased rats' sucrose preference. By contrast, in the mPFC, muscimol produced the opposite effect, suggesting different, perhaps opposing, roles of the BLA and mPFC in mediating the influence of prior UCMS exposure on pain perception. Taken together, these results demonstrated that a depressive experience may cause long-term alterations in limbic circuit excitability and thus lead to long-lasting changes in pain perception.

  3. Binding of Coumarin 334 with β-Cyclodextrin and with C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene: Opposite Fluorescence Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Sowrirajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the structure of the host-guest complexes of Coumarin 334 (C334 with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and with C-hexylpyrogallol[4]arene (C-HPA and the effect of acidity on the neutral-cation equilibrium of C334 in water and in the presence of the host molecules. The structures of the host-guest complexes are proposed on the basis of the change of fluorescence on the addition of β-CD or C-HPA to C334 and by 2D ROESY spectroscopy. Opposite fluorescence behaviors, that is, quenching of fluorescence in β-CD and enhancement of fluorescence in C-HPA are observed. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis is done for the complexation, and biexponential decay pattern is observed. The possible strong inclusion complexation with C-HPA is explained. The ground and the excited state pKa values for the protonation equilibrium of C334 in water and the difficulty of protonation in the presence of the host molecules are discussed.

  4. OsLOX2, a rice type I lipoxygenase, confers opposite effects on seed germination and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiexue; Cai, Maohong; Long, Qizhang; Liu, Linglong; Lin, Qiuyun; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Saihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Rice production and seed storage are confronted with grain deterioration and loss of seed viability. Some members of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family function in degradation of storage lipids during the seed germination, but little is known about their influence on seed longevity during storage. We characterized the role of rice OsLOX2 gene in seed germination and longevity via over-expression and knock-down approaches. Abundant expression of OsLOX2 was detected in panicles, roots, and stems, but not in leaves. Moreover, OsLOX2 was highly induced during germination. OsLOX2 protein, located in the cytoplasm, showed a wide range of temperature adaptation (20-50 °C) and a substrate preference to linoleic acid. Lines over-expressing OsLOX2 showed accelerated seed germination under normal condition and lower seed viability after accelerated aging. RNA interference (RNAi) of OsLOX2 caused delayed germination and enhanced seed longevity. RNAi lines with strongly repressed OsLOX2 activity completely lost the capability of germination after accelerated aging. More lipid hydroperoxide were found in OE15 than the control, but less in RNAi lines than in the WT Nipponbare. Therefore, OsLOX2 acts in opposite directions during seed germination and longevity during storage. Appropriate repression of the OsLOX2 gene may delay the aging process during the storage without compromising germination under normal conditions.

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Program and Mothers of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Hojati abed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Present study is designed to investigate the effect of stress management training by using cognitive behavioral method on stress of mothers of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Methods: The study was done in a quasi-experiment designed as pre-post-test with control group. The participants were 20 mothers of oppositional defiant disorder children, ages from 4 to7 years old. They were randomized to experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. The experimental group trained stress management program with method of cognitive-behavioral during 10 sessions, once a week. During this period, the control group did not receive any intervention. Both groups were assessed by Parental Stress Index in pretest and posttest. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference between the mean of stress of two groups in posttest in both child and parent domains and the stress scores were significantly decreased in experimental group after intervention. Discussion: Regarding to the positive effects of stress management by using cognitive-behavioral method can be suggested as an effective method for mothers with Oppositional Defiant Disorder children to reduce their stress and control their child’ behavior.

  6. Troubles of infrared camera for monitoring NBI opposite surface and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazawa, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    The JT-60 NBI has carried out the beam injection operation since 1986 as the main heating facility for attaining the core level plasma. When beam is injected in JT-60 plasma, in the case of low density target plasma, by the piercing of the beam through the plasma, the NBI opposite surface is subjected to high thermal load. Also at the time of plasma vanishment, incident beam directly hits the NBI opposite surface, and is to cause large damage. Accordingly together with the temperature monitoring using thermocouples, also infrared cameras monitor the opposite surface so as to keep its temperature below 2000degC so that plasma is not affected by the released gas from the first wall. The change with time lapse of the NBI power that plasma actually absorbed was calculated by measuring the change with time lapse of the amount of piercing-through beam. The detection part and camera head of the infrared camera and the constitution of one camera system are described. The measurement of piercing-through beam and the detection of alarm are explained. The troubles of the infrared cameras were the failure of rotating mirrors and synchronizing signal sensors, and the countermeasures are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Coherent Backscattering and Opposition Effects Observed in Some Atmosphereless Bodies of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of photometric and polarimetric observations carried out for some bright atmosphere-less bodies of the Solar system near the zero phase angle reveal the simultaneous existence of two spectacular optical phenomena, the so-called brightness and polarization opposition effects. In a number of studies, these phenomena were explained by the influence of coherent backscattering. However, in general, the interference concept of coherent backscattering can be used only in the case where the particles are in the far-field zones of each other, i.e., when the scattering medium is rather rarefied. Because of this, it is important to prove rigorously and to demonstrate that the coherent backscattering effect may also exist in densely packed scattering media like regolith surface layers of celestial bodies. From the results of the computer modeling performed with the use of numerically exact solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations for discrete random media with different packing densities of particles, we studied the origin and evolution of all the opposition phenomena predicted by the coherent backscattering theory for low-packing-density media. It has been shown that the predictions of this theory remain valid for rather high-packing densities of particles that are typical, in particular, of regolith surfaces of the Solar system bodies. The results allow us to conclude that both opposition effects observed simultaneously in some high-albedo atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system are caused precisely by coherent backscattering of solar light in the regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.

  8. Friends with benefits: the evolved psychology of same- and opposite-sex friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David M G; Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Al-Shawaf, Laith; Raja, Annia; DeKay, Todd; Buss, David M

    2011-12-08

    During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121) categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs) and opposite-sex friends (OSFs) according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  9. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  10. Perceptual ratings of opposite spatial properties: do they lie on the same dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Ivana; Savardi, Ugo; Burro, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The issue of unidimensionality is dealt with in various research areas in the field of Psychology (e.g. conceptual spaces, semantic modeling, psychometrics) and always involves spatial modeling. An investigation of the dimensionality of opposite spatial scales (even basic) has however not yet been carried out. In this paper we look at whether opposite judgments of height, size, width and length (high/low, large/small, wide/narrow, and long/short) imply underlying unidimensional continua. In three experiments, independent ratings for the 8 above mentioned properties were elicited with participants looking at photographic representations of various objects (Study 1), real life objects (Study 2) and spatial extensions in object-independent conditions (Study 3). Explorative and confirmative factor analysis and Andrich Extended Rating Scale Models were applied in order to determine whether the ratings referred to opposite scales on the same linear continuum. Results from the three studies consistently revealed that this is not the case. A joint analysis of the data showed interesting interactions between the spatial properties analyzed suggesting a possible explanation for the lack of unidimensionality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder as predictors of depression and conduct disorder in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) rather than conduct disorder (CD) may explain the comorbidity between behavioral disorders and depression; to test whether distinct affective and behavioral dimensions can be discerned within the symptoms of ODD; and to determine whether an affective dimension of ODD symptoms is specifically predictive of later depression. The dimensions of ODD and their prediction to later CD and depression were examined in a community sample of 2,451 girls between the ages of 5 and 8 years, followed up annually over a 5-year period, using parent, child, and teacher questionnaire ratings of the severity of symptoms of psychopathology. Dimensions of negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior were found within ODD symptoms. Negative affect predicted later depression. Oppositional and antagonistic behavior predicted CD overall, and for Caucasian girls, negative affect also predicted later CD. CD was not predictive of later depression, controlling for comorbid conditions. ODD plays a key role in the early development of psychopathology. It is central in the comorbidity between internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, which may be caused by a dimension of negative affective symptoms within ODD. How this dimension relates to later CD appears to vary by race.

  12. Silver-Russell Syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: Opposite Phenotypes with Heterogeneous Molecular Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Õunap, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are 2 clinically opposite growth-affecting disorders belonging to the group of congenital imprinting disorders. The expression of both syndromes usually depends on the parental origin of the chromosome in which the imprinted genes reside. SRS is characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with various additional clinical features such as hemihypertrophy, relative macrocephaly, fifth finger clinodactyly, and triangular facies. BWS is an overgrowth syndrome with many additional clinical features such as macroglossia, organomegaly, and an increased risk of childhood tumors. Both SRS and BWS are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and for clinical diagnosis, different diagnostic scoring systems have been developed. Six diagnostic scoring systems for SRS and 4 for BWS have been previously published. However, neither syndrome has common consensus diagnostic criteria yet. Most cases of SRS and BWS are associated with opposite epigenetic or genetic abnormalities in the 11p15 chromosomal region leading to opposite imbalances in the expression of imprinted genes. SRS is also caused by maternal uniparental disomy 7, which is usually identified in 5-10% of the cases, and is therefore the first imprinting disorder that affects 2 different chromosomes. In this review, we describe in detail the clinical diagnostic criteria and scoring systems as well as molecular causes in both SRS and BWS. PMID:27587987

  13. Phase-space dynamics of opposition control in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongyun; Ibrahim, Joseph; Yang, Qiang; Doohan, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The phase-space dynamics of wall-bounded shear flow in the presence of opposition control is explored by examining the behaviours of a pair of nonlinear equilibrium solutions (exact coherent structures), edge state and life time of turbulence at low Reynolds numbers. While the control modifies statistics and phase-space location of the edge state and the lower-branch equilibrium solution very little, it is also found to regularise the periodic orbit on the edge state by reverting a period-doubling bifurcation. Only the upper-branch equilibrium solution and mean turbulent state are significantly modified by the control, and, in phase space, they gradually approach the edge state on increasing the control gain. It is found that this behaviour results in a significant reduction of the life time of turbulence, indicating that the opposition control significantly increases the probability that the turbulent solution trajectory passes through the edge state. Finally, it is shown that the opposition control increases the critical Reynolds number of the onset of the equilibrium solutions, indicating its capability of transition delay. This work is sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) in the UK (EP/N019342/1).

  14. Friends with Benefits: The Evolved Psychology of Same- and Opposite-Sex Friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.G. Lewis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During human evolution, men and women faced distinct adaptive problems, including pregnancy, hunting, childcare, and warfare. Due to these sex-linked adaptive problems, natural selection would have favored psychological mechanisms that oriented men and women toward forming friendships with individuals possessing characteristics valuable for solving these problems. The current study explored sex-differentiated friend preferences and the psychological design features of same- and opposite-sex friendship in two tasks. In Task 1, participants (N = 121 categorized their same-sex friends (SSFs and opposite-sex friends (OSFs according to the functions these friends serve in their lives. In Task 2, participants designed their ideal SSFs and OSFs using limited budgets that forced them to make trade-offs between the characteristics they desire in their friends. In Task 1, men, more than women, reported maintaining SSFs for functions related to athleticism and status enhancement and OSFs for mating opportunities. In Task 2, both sexes prioritized agreeableness and dependability in their ideal SSFs, but men prioritized physical attractiveness in their OSFs, whereas women prioritized economic resources and physical prowess. These findings suggest that friend preferences may have evolved to solve ancestrally sex-linked adaptive problems, and that opposite-sex friendship may directly or indirectly serve mating functions.

  15. Quantifying the molecular origins of opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Vagenende

    Full Text Available Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments.

  16. Multi-directional thrusting using oppositely traveling waves in knifefish swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curet, Oscar; Maciver, Malcolm; Patankar, Neelesh

    2009-11-01

    Apteronotus albifrons, also known as the black ghost knifefish, generate a weak electric field for omnidirectional sensing. This is matched by an extraordinary multi-directional swimming ability that is achieved by undulating a ribbon-like anal fin. Forward or backward motion is generated by a traveling wave on the ribbon fin. We have discovered that, for hovering and vertical swimming, the knifefish use two oppositely traveling waves on the ribbon fin. To understand the hydrodynamic mechanism of hovering and heave we performed fully resolved simulations of self-propulsion of the knifefish. We used kinematic inputs based on experimental observations. We found that the counter propagating waves generate two opposite streamwise jets along the bottom edge of the ribbon fin. These two jets meet approximately at the mid-section along the fin length and are deflected downward. The resultant downward momentum imparted to the fluid creates an upward force on the fish body which can be used for hovering or vertical swimming. There is a vortex ring pair of opposite directions at the middle of the fin that is associated with this fluid flow. Further insight into how the knifefish control heave and hovering was obtained from the measurements of force generated by a robotic ribbon fin for different wave parameters.

  17. The effect of the promiscuity stereotype on opposition to gay rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie G

    2017-01-01

    Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype. We found that the manipulation interacted with short-term mating orientation (STMO) to predict opposition to gay rights, such that low-STMO individuals (i.e. more averse to casual sex) exhibited more support for gay rights when assigned to read the stereotype-refuting article compared to the stereotype-confirming article, whereas high-STMO individuals (i.e. less averse to casual sex) were not significantly influenced by the manipulation. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of antigay attitudes, as well as for recent societal changes in acceptance of homosexuality.

  18. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think of these systems? Existing research suggests widespread US public opposition, but focused on support for autonomous weapons in a vacuum. This paper uses two survey experiments to test the conditions in which public opposition rises and falls. The results demonstrate that public opposition to autonomous weapons is contextual. Fear of other countries or non-state actors developing these weapons makes the public significantly more supportive of developing them. The public also becomes much more willing to actually use autonomous weapons when their use would protect US forces. Beyond contributing to ongoing academic debates about casualty aversion, the microfoundations of foreign policy, and weapon systems, these results suggest the need for modesty when making claims about how the public views new, unknown technologies such as autonomous weapons.

  19. Mother-Son Interactions in Families of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder with and without Oppositional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipp, Carla M.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Parenting responsiveness and over-reactivity were assessed among 25 mothers of 7-9-year-old sons with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior (Oppositional Defiant, OD), 24 mothers of sons with ADHD only, and 38 mothers of nonproblem sons. Responsiveness was observed during mother-son play and clean-up…

  20. Solitary Toy Play and Time Out: A Family Treatment Package for Children with Aggressive and Oppositional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahler, Robert G.; Fox, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of four boys who were referred for oppositional, rule violating, and aggressive behaviors was assessed by direct observation and parent reports. Changing contract behavior to solitary toy play resulted in reduced oppositional behavior during the observation sessions, fewer reports from the parents of low-rate problem behaviors, and…

  1. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at...

  2. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  3. Becoming Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    temporary occupations and spaces of resistance play in Sao Paulo based on field research carried out in summer 2012-13. With the temporary intervention Bolha Immobiliaria (by Muda Coletivo and Basurama Brazil) as illustrative examples, I will argue that in opposition to political social movements...

  4. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...

  5. Private and public decisions in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houser, Daniel; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2012-01-01

    impulse for several minutes in order to benefit others. In Public Condition children make decisions in public view of the group of other participants, while in Private Condition they have the possibility to decide privately. We find that children aged 9 and higher are better able to resist selfish...... impulses in public environments. Younger children, however, display no such effect. Further, we find self-control substantially impacted by group size. When decisions are public, self-control is better in larger groups, while in private condition the opposite holds....

  6. Social aspects of the nuclear energy. Public acceptance. Preliminary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report approaches the social aspects of the nuclear energy an public acceptance. It presents the following main topics: historical of the public opposition to the nuclear energy; emergency planning; legislation related to the popular participation; best strategies to acceptance; insurance of nuclear risks; protection of the population and the environment in the licensing; and organization of the licensing system

  7. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  8. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  9. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  10. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  11. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government's decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state's opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE's progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada's opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE's activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE's radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE's low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department's past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials

  12. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  13. Peer relationships and adolescents' academic and non-academic outcomes: same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of school engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  15. Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumzadeh, N.; Oklay, N.; Kolokolova, L.; Sierks, H.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Tubiana, C.; Güttler, C.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Mottola, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Feller, C.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Gicquel, A.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hall, I.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We aim to explore the behavior of the opposition effect as an important tool in optical remote sensing on the nucleus of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), using Rosetta-OSIRIS images acquired in different filters during the approach phase, July-August 2014 and the close flyby images on 14 of February 2015, which contain the spacecraft shadow. Methods: We based our investigation on the global and local brightness from the surface of 67P with respect to the phase angle, also known as phase curve. The local phase curve corresponds to a region that is located at the Imhotep-Ash boundary of 67P. Assuming that the region at the Imhotep-Ash boundary and the entire nucleus have similar albedo, we combined the global and local phase curves to study the opposition-surge morphology and constrain the structure and properties of 67P. The model parameters were furthermore compared with other bodies in the solar system and existing laboratory study. Results: We found that the morphological parameters of the opposition surge decrease monotonically with wavelength, whereas in the case of coherent backscattering this behavior should be the reverse. The results from comparative analysis place 67P in the same category as the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos, which are notably different from all airless bodies in the solar system. The similarity between the surface phase function of 67P and a carbon soot sample at extremely small angles is identified, introducing regolith at the boundary of the Imhotep-Ash region of 67P as a very dark and fluffy layer.

  16. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  17. Variables that Predict Serve Efficacy in Elite Men’s Volleyball with Different Quality of Opposition Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Álvaro; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; González-Silva, Jara; Claver, Fernando; Moreno, M. Perla

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men’s volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men’s European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men’s volleyball training processes. PMID:29599869

  18. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social...... society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping...

  20. Adversarial Framing: President Bashar al-Assad’s Depiction of the Armed Syrian Opposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Merz

    2014-01-01

    'This paper evaluates how Syrian president Bashar al-Assad is framing his opponents in the context of the Syrian civil war. The question is addressed by conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of 13 interviews he gave to international television news networks and newspapers between March and November 2013. It is found that Al-Assad consequently labels the armed opposition as “terrorists” preponderantly composed of groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda. The “terrorists” are framed as posing a threa...

  1. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the opposition’s opportunities to influence policy; a topic that has been neglected in existing party-policy research. The idea that is developed is applied to a remarkable policy development on the environment during the Danish right-wing government in the 2000s. Contrary...... opinion, carbon dioxide emissions, and the government’s approval ratings into account, the empirical estimation based on unique quarterly data shows that opposition criticism had a systematic impact on the pro-environmental policy development. The implications for party-policy research are important...

  2. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  3. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on Peter Ping Li’s understanding of Zhong-Yong balancing, presented in his article titled “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management.” Seeing his understanding....... Originality/value This commentary contributes to the “West meets East” discourse by debunking Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang balancing is superior as a solution to paradox management and his prescription that balancing between Yin-Yang opposites must be asymmetric. It also contributes to the Chinese...

  4. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Bucci, L.

    2000-01-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood [it

  5. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Out in the Open: The Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence for Victims in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Krista S; Vaske, Jamie C

    2015-08-27

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. While our understanding of this form of violence has grown substantially over the past several decades, the majority of research involving victims of IPV has focused almost exclusively on female heterosexual victims. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to how this form of violence affects specific populations, such as gay and lesbian victims. It is possible that gay and lesbian victims may experience more maladaptive outcomes as a result of unique components of same-sex IPV, their sexual minority status in American society, and the lack of appropriate services tailored to victims of this violence. Using data from the second wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study contributes to the research on gay and lesbian victims of IPV by investigating same-sex and opposite-sex adolescent victims' experiences with depression, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use, violent delinquency, and property delinquency. Results indicate that opposite-sex victims experienced more depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and marijuana use than non-victims and engaged in higher levels of violent and property delinquency than non-victims. IPV within the context of same-sex relationships led to more depressive symptoms and greater involvement in violent delinquency, with the impact of IPV on violent delinquency being greater for victims of same-sex IPV compared with opposite-sex IPV. The implications of this study could inform interventions for victims of same-sex IPV and lead to more comprehensive services to address the needs of gay and lesbian victims of this violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  8. Public-private partnerships in transportation infrastructure : survey of experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The use of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for transportation infrastructure delivery has increased in : the U.S. However, concerns about and opposition to these agreements exist due to a variety of factors. : This paper explores the perceptions t...

  9. Polarized Couples in Therapy: Recognizing Indifference as the Opposite of Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G

    2017-01-02

    How can a couple "fall in love" and then subsequently "stumble out of love"? For centuries, this question has perplexed partners, researchers, and therapists alike. Unlike falling out of love, which may be a long-term gradual decline in love, falling in love may occur without much deliberation like the famous "love at first sight." During a developing love relationship, couples are more susceptible to ignoring a myriad of factors that will eventually influence their relationship. These ignored personal and general factors become increasingly conspicuous after the relationship is established. When facing relationship difficulties, the presence or absence of mutual love and intimacy steers the couple's relationship toward continuity or termination. Emotional indifference (which is the opposite of love) diminishes love and care; the terms marital disaffection and romantic disengagement are used synonymously to represent emotional indifference in couples. Marital disaffection is one of the central concerns of couples entering therapy. Nevertheless, spouses may enter therapy with divergent goals that may be polar opposites. Therefore, treatment of polarized or different agenda couples is challenging because disaffected spouses may be seeking counseling to break the bond at a safe venue, while their partners may still be obliviously hoping for the rebirth of their lost love. This article reviews marital disaffection/romantic disengagement and discusses counseling options for polarized couples.

  10. Recombinant pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) catalyze opposite enantiospecific conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Gang, D R; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1999-01-08

    Although the heartwood of woody plants represents the main source of fiber and solid wood products, essentially nothing is known about how the biological processes leading to its formation are initiated and regulated. Accordingly, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-guided cloning strategy was employed to obtain genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as a means to initiate the study of its heartwood formation. (+)-Pinoresinol-(+)-lariciresinol reductase from Forsythia intermedia was used as a template for primer construction for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifications, which, when followed by homologous hybridization cloning, resulted in the isolation of two distinct classes of putative pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase cDNA clones from western red cedar. A representative of each class was expressed as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase and assayed for enzymatic activity. Using both deuterated and radiolabeled (+/-)-pinoresinols as substrates, it was established that each class of cDNA encoded a pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase of different (opposite) enantiospecificity. Significantly, the protein from one class converted (+)-pinoresinol into (-)-secoisolariciresinol, whereas the other utilized the opposite (-)-enantiomer to give the corresponding (+)-form. This differential substrate specificity raises important questions about the role of each of these individual reductases in heartwood formation, such as whether they are expressed in different cells/tissues or at different stages during heartwood development.

  11. The effect of interface hopping on inelastic scattering of oppositely charged polarons in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bing; Wang Ya-Dong; Zhang Ya-Lin; An Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of oppositely charge polarons in polymer heterojunctions is believed to be of fundamental importance for the light-emitting and transport properties of conjugated polymers. Based on the tight-binding SSH model, and by using a nonadiabatic molecular dynamic method, we investigate the effects of interface hopping on inelastic scattering of oppositely charged polarons in a polymer heterojunction. It is found that the scattering processes of the charge and lattice defect depend sensitively on the hopping integrals at the polymer/polymer interface when the interface potential barrier and applied electric field strength are constant. In particular, at an intermediate electric field, when the interface hopping integral of the polymer/polymer heterojunction material is increased beyond a critical value, two polarons can combine to become a lattice deformation in one of the two polymer chains, with the electron and the hole bound together, i.e., a self-trapped polaron—exciton. The yield of excitons then increases to a peak value. These results show that interface hopping is of fundamental importance and facilitates the formation of polaron—excitons

  12. Optimization of submerged arc welding process parameters using quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R. Venkata; Rai, Dhiraj P.

    2017-01-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is characterized as a multi-input process. Selection of optimum combination of process parameters of SAW process is a vital task in order to achieve high quality of weld and productivity. The objective of this work is to optimize the SAW process parameters using a simple optimization algorithm, which is fast, robust and convenient. Therefore, in this work a very recently proposed optimization algorithm named Jaya algorithm is applied to solve the optimization problems in SAW process. In addition, a modified version of Jaya algorithm with oppositional based learning, named “Quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm” (QO-Jaya) is proposed in order to improve the performance of the Jaya algorithm. Three optimization case studies are considered and the results obtained by Jaya algorithm and QO-Jaya algorithm are compared with the results obtained by well-known optimization algorithms such as Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and Teaching learning based optimization (TLBO).

  13. Extradyadic sex and union dissolution among young adults in opposite-sex married and cohabiting unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Wenger, Marin R.; Kreager, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates extradyadic sex (EDS) among contemporary opposite-sex married and cohabiting young adults and examines how EDS is associated with union dissolution. By analyzing data from 8301 opposite-sex spouses and cohabiters in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we estimate the prevalence of self-reported EDS, reports of partners’ EDS, and reports of mutual EDS (i.e., both partners’ engagement in EDS). Roughly 1 in 4 respondents reported that either they, their partner or both engaged in EDS. Young men were more likely than women to self-report EDS, while young women were more likely to report partners’ EDS. Relative to no EDS, partners’ EDS was associated with union dissolution, but self-reported EDS and mutual EDS were not. A partner’s EDS was also associated with union dissolution relative to self-reported EDS. Associations between a partner’s EDS and dissolution were consistent among spouses and cohabiters and among men and women. PMID:28126106

  14. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A.; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H.; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  15. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Eldine Morton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called Hemisity, a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC as revealed by a 3 minute MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new.Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05 for 47 of the 107 either-or, forced choice type preference questionnaire items. Hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. They were in: a. logical orientation, b. type of consciousness, c. fear level and sensitivity, d. social-professional orientation, and e. pair bonding-spousal dominance style.Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their either-or type of behavioral preferences.

  16. From heresy to dogma in accounts of opposition to Howard Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2002-01-01

    In 1964 the Wisconsin virologist Howard Temin proposed the DNA provirus hypothesis to explain the mechanism by which a cancer-producing virus containing only RNA infects and transforms cells. His hypothesis reversed the flow of genetic information, as ordained by the central dogma of molecular biology. Although there was initial opposition to his hypothesis it was widely accepted, after the discovery of reverse transcriptase in 1970. Most accounts of Temin's hypothesis after the discovery portray the hypothesis as heretical, because it challenged the central dogma. Temin himself in his Nobel Prize speech of 1975 narrates a similar story about its reception. But are these accounts warranted? I argue that members of the virology community opposed Temin's provirus hypothesis not simply because it was a counterexample to the central dogma, but more importantly because his experimental evidence for supporting it was inconclusive. Furthermore, I propose that these accounts of opposition to the DNA provirus hypothesis as heretical, written by Temin and others after the discovery of reverse transcriptase, played a significant role in establishing retrovirology as a specialized field.

  17. Binary Opposition Sociolinguistic Picture of the World (on the Material of Modern English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is topical due to the interest of scientists to the problems of interaction of society and language and the role of language in constructing and reconstructing political reality. The authors of the article introduce the notion of the sociolinguistic picture of the world. This picture reflects different aspects of the phenomenon «society» with the help of words which may be called «sociolinguisms». The words in question cover such spheres of society as economical, social, political and spiritual ones. The authors put forward the idea that binary oppositions are typical of the sociolinguistic picture of the world because social phenomena usually contain interdependent and at the same time mutually excluding each other sides which are revealed by the conscience and reflecteded in the language. Unfortunately only some of these oppositions are represented in the dictionaries of synonyms and antonyms. The authors stress that their range is much wider and can be described on the basis of different types of general and explanatory dictionaries with the help of linguistic methods of investigation. Special attention is paid to national peculiarities and axiological properties of antonyms-sociolinguisms.

  18. How do Major, Violent and Nonviolent Opposition Campaigns, Impact Predicted Life Expectancy at birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stoddard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of major violent and nonviolent opposition campaigns for regime change, on predicted life expectancy at birth. The study measured life expectancy five and ten years after the campaign ended, so that deaths which occurred during the campaign would not be included in the metric, and thus enabling the study of changes made in the state on the social determinants affecting longevity, after the campaign was over. Life expectancy is one of the best reported World Development Indicators and is considered to be a good indication of the overall health and general living conditions of the state and therefore is an ideal indicator to reflect the changes made in the state following a major campaign. The results of this analysis showed that states have a hard time recovering from a major opposition campaign and initially drop behind the growth trend in the world average for predicted life expectancy at birth. But, the type of campaign that was waged and whether it was successful, greatly affects the state’s ability to recover. Encouragingly by a decade after the campaign ends, states that experienced a nonviolent campaign that was successful had caught up to the world average and inched ahead of it. This shows that on this important development indicator, new governments that were ushered into power by nonviolent social movements, had made positive changes in the state that enabled it to surpass world averages.

  19. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  20. Pressure induced by the interaction of water waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pellet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present second-order expressions for the free-surface elevation, velocity potential and pressure resulting from the interaction of surface waves in water of arbitrary depth. When the surface waves have nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions, a second-order pressure can be felt all the way to the sea bottom. There are at least two areas of applications: reflective structures and microseisms. Microseisms generated by water waves in the ocean are small vibrations of the ground resulting from pressure oscillations associated with the coupling of ocean surface gravity waves and the sea floor. They are recorded on land-based seismic stations throughout the world and they are divided into primary and secondary types, as a function of spectral content. Secondary microseisms are generated by the interaction of surface waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions. The efficiency of microseism generation thus depends in part on ocean wave frequency and direction. Based on the second-order expressions for the dynamic pressure, a simple theoretical analysis that quantifies the degree of nearness in amplitude, frequency, and incidence angle, which must be reached to observe the phenomenon, is presented.

  1. Opposite Displacement of Helix F in Attractant and Repellent Signaling by Sensory Rhodopsin-Htr Complexes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Tsai, Ah-lim; Spudich, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Two forms of the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I distinguished by differences in its photoactive site have been shown to be directly correlated with attractant and repellent signaling by the dual-signaling protein. In prior studies, differences in the photoactive site defined the two forms, namely the direction of light-induced proton transfer from the chromophore and the pKa of an Asp counterion to the protonated chromophore. Here, we show by both in vivo and in vitro measurements that the two forms are distinct protein conformers with structural similarities to two conformers seen in the light-driven proton transport cycle of the related protein bacteriorhodopsin. Measurements of spontaneous cell motility reversal frequencies, an in vivo measure of histidine kinase activity in the phototaxis system, indicate that the two forms are a photointerconvertible pair, with one conformer activating and the other inhibiting the kinase. Protein conformational changes in these photoconversions monitored by site-directed spin labeling show that opposite structural changes in helix F, distant from the photoactive site, correspond to the opposite phototaxis signals. The results provide the first direct evidence that displacements of helix F are directly correlated with signaling and impact our understanding of the sensory rhodopsin I signaling mechanism and the evolution of diverse functionality in this protein family. PMID:21454480

  2. Opposite displacement of helix F in attractant and repellent signaling by sensory rhodopsin-Htr complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Tsai, Ah-lim; Spudich, John L

    2011-05-27

    Two forms of the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I distinguished by differences in its photoactive site have been shown to be directly correlated with attractant and repellent signaling by the dual-signaling protein. In prior studies, differences in the photoactive site defined the two forms, namely the direction of light-induced proton transfer from the chromophore and the pK(a) of an Asp counterion to the protonated chromophore. Here, we show by both in vivo and in vitro measurements that the two forms are distinct protein conformers with structural similarities to two conformers seen in the light-driven proton transport cycle of the related protein bacteriorhodopsin. Measurements of spontaneous cell motility reversal frequencies, an in vivo measure of histidine kinase activity in the phototaxis system, indicate that the two forms are a photointerconvertible pair, with one conformer activating and the other inhibiting the kinase. Protein conformational changes in these photoconversions monitored by site-directed spin labeling show that opposite structural changes in helix F, distant from the photoactive site, correspond to the opposite phototaxis signals. The results provide the first direct evidence that displacements of helix F are directly correlated with signaling and impact our understanding of the sensory rhodopsin I signaling mechanism and the evolution of diverse functionality in this protein family.

  3. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. The neurobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: altered functioning in three mental domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses neurobiological studies of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder within the conceptual framework of three interrelated mental domains: punishment processing, reward processing, and cognitive control. First, impaired fear conditioning, reduced cortisol reactivity to stress, amygdala hyporeactivity to negative stimuli, and altered serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission suggest low punishment sensitivity, which may compromise the ability of children and adolescents to make associations between inappropriate behaviors and forthcoming punishments. Second, sympathetic nervous system hyporeactivity to incentives, low basal heart rate associated with sensation seeking, orbitofrontal cortex hyporeactiviy to reward, and altered dopamine functioning suggest a hyposensitivity to reward. The associated unpleasant emotional state may make children and adolescents prone to sensation-seeking behavior such as rule breaking, delinquency, and substance abuse. Third, impairments in executive functions, especially when motivational factors are involved, as well as structural deficits and impaired functioning of the paralimbic system encompassing the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, suggest impaired cognitive control over emotional behavior. In the discussion we argue that more insight into the neurobiology of oppositional defiance disorder and conduct disorder may be obtained by studying these disorders separately and by paying attention to the heterogeneity of symptoms within each disorder.

  5. Executive Function Features in Drug-naive Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manfei; Jiang, Wenqing; DU, Yasong; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2017-08-25

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that is characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, and disruptive behavior in younger children has been regarded as disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), together with conduct disorder (CD). However, in contrast to CD, ODD does not include severe aggressive or antisocial behavior. This study aimed to examine executive function (EF) features of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Cross sectional design was used in this study. The EF of children with ODD and pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with children without a psychiatric disorder, using the Stroop Color-Word Tests A and B, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Fourth Edition; WISC-IV), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) corrected for age. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for EF deficits characteristic of ODD and ADHD. The ODD group exhibited significantly lower scores in both Stroop Color-Word Tests, the backwards digital span of the WISC-IV, and the categories completed and perseverative responses of the WCST, and significantly higher scores in spatial working memory (SWM) between errors, and the strategy in SWM of the CANTAB compared with the control group. When the ODD group was designated as 1 and the ADHD group was designated as 0, digital span (X1) fit the regression equation very well. Children with ODD perform substantially worse in EF tasks. Responsive inhibition appears to be uniquely associated with ODD development, while responsive inhibition and working memory appear to be associated with ADHD.

  6. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-05

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  7. Optimization of submerged arc welding process parameters using quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R. Venkata; Rai, Dhiraj P. [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2017-05-15

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is characterized as a multi-input process. Selection of optimum combination of process parameters of SAW process is a vital task in order to achieve high quality of weld and productivity. The objective of this work is to optimize the SAW process parameters using a simple optimization algorithm, which is fast, robust and convenient. Therefore, in this work a very recently proposed optimization algorithm named Jaya algorithm is applied to solve the optimization problems in SAW process. In addition, a modified version of Jaya algorithm with oppositional based learning, named “Quasi-oppositional based Jaya algorithm” (QO-Jaya) is proposed in order to improve the performance of the Jaya algorithm. Three optimization case studies are considered and the results obtained by Jaya algorithm and QO-Jaya algorithm are compared with the results obtained by well-known optimization algorithms such as Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and Teaching learning based optimization (TLBO).

  8. Australian medical students have fewer opportunities to do physical examination of peers of the opposite gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Silas; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), by which junior medical students learn physical examination skills before practicing on patients, is a widely implemented and accepted part of medical curricula. However, the ethical implications of PPE have been debated, since issues including student gender impact on its acceptability. Research has previously demonstrated the phenomenon of 'attitude-behavior inconsistency' showing that students' predictions about their participation in PPE differ from what they actually do in practice. This study asks whether gender and student self-ratings of outlook affect engagement in PPE. This study gathered data from students who had completed PPE with the objective of determining what factors have the greatest impact on the actual practice of PPE by students. Data were used to derive the number of opportunities students had to examine a peer, for various body parts. Respondent gender and self-ratings of outlook were recorded. Responses from 130 students were analysed: 74 female (57%) and 56 male (43%). Students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender; this is statistically significant for all body parts when male students examine female peers. Gender is the factor of overriding importance on whether these peer interactions actually occur, such that students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender, particularly male students examining female peers. Student outlook has little impact. We speculate that the more acceptable PPE is to participants, paradoxically, the more complicated these interactions become, possibly with implications for future practice.

  9. Elite Opposition-Based Water Wave Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water wave optimization (WWO is a novel metaheuristic method that is based on shallow water wave theory, which has simple structure, easy realization, and good performance even with a small population. To improve the convergence speed and calculation precision even further, this paper on elite opposition-based strategy water wave optimization (EOBWWO is proposed, and it has been applied for function optimization and structure engineering design problems. There are three major optimization strategies in the improvement: elite opposition-based (EOB learning strategy enhances the diversity of population, local neighborhood search strategy is introduced to enhance local search in breaking operation, and improved propagation operator provides the improved algorithm with a better balance between exploration and exploitation. EOBWWO algorithm is verified by using 20 benchmark functions and two structure engineering design problems and the performance of EOBWWO is compared against those of the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has faster convergence speed, higher calculation precision, with the exact solution being even obtained on some benchmark functions, and a higher degree of stability than other comparative algorithms.

  10. Oppositional Identities: Dissimilarities in How Women and Men Experience Parent versus Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    As stereotypes of social groups undergo change, group members gain access to previously denied social and cultural roles. Although such access is desirable, to the extent that the behavior, traits, and attitudes required to succeed in a new role are in opposition to those required to do well in a still-valued old role, conflict in the self-concept may ensue. Specifically, the individual must necessarily fall short in social comparisons of the self to the ideal group member in one or both roles, threatening self-integrity. Examining the specific case of oppositional identities between career and mom roles, we argue that women respond to this conflict by shifting back and forth between activation of whichever identity is relevant in a given situational context in a way that men do not. This shifting of self-associations is hypothesized to deplete scarce cognitive resources, interfering with performance on a task that requires executive function capacity. In addition, to the extent the identities are viewed as trading off against one another, failure in one domain may be responded to by activating the alternate identity in an effort to restore self-integrity, again in a way that is not true for men. These hypotheses are explored across four studies, utilizing both college students in the midst of formulating – and working parents in the midst of negotiating – these PMID:23713699

  11. Peptide-microgel interactions in the strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Per; Bysell, Helena; Månsson, Ronja; Malmsten, Martin

    2012-09-06

    The interaction between lightly cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) microgels and oppositely charged peptides was investigated as a function of peptide length, charge density, pH, and salt concentration, with emphasis on the strong coupling regime at high charge contrast. By micromanipulator-assisted light microscopy, the equilibrium volume response of single microgel particles upon oligolysine and oligo(lysine/alanine) absorption could be monitored in a controlled fashion. Results show that microgel deswelling, caused by peptide binding and network neutralization, increases with peptide length (3 attraction between the network chains is described using an exponential force law, and the network elasticity by the inverse Langevin theory. The model was used to calculate the composition of microgels in contact with reservoir solutions of peptides and simple electrolytes. At high electrostatic coupling, the calculated swelling curves were found to display first-order phase transition behavior. The model was demonstrated to capture pH- and electrolyte-dependent microgel swelling, as well as effects of peptide length and charge density on microgel deswelling. The analysis demonstrated that the peptide charge (length), rather than the peptide charge density, determines microgel deswelling. Furthermore, a transition between continuous and discrete network collapse was identified, consistent with experimental results in the present investigations, as well as with results from the literature on microgel deswelling caused by multivalent cations.

  12. Strong double layer in the downward current region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E.; Newman, D.; McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    A direct observation of a strong double layer has been recorded in detail by the FAST satellite in the downward current region of the aurora. This presentation concentrates on a particular compelling example in which both the electric field and particle measurements clearly illustrate the detail characteristics of the double layer. Electrons with initial energies of about 50 eV are observed to be accelerated through the double layer into a beam of more than 750 eV. This beam is rapidly plateaued by intense wave turbulence into a extended power law distribution. This process forms accelerated `flat-top' electron distributions, which are represented of energized distributions in the downward current region. Ions are also observed to be accelerated by the double layer in the opposite direction of the electron beam. Ion conics on the low potential side of the double layer are trapped between the double layer and their mirror points. The double layer is observed to move up the magnetic field line, in the direction of the electron beam. In front of it, an ion population moves with the speed of the double layer suggesting an overshoot in the potential ramp. The intense wave turbulence on the high potential side is seen to transform into electron phase-space holes far away from the double layer.

  13. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  14. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  15. Superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian Beams in Strongly Nonlocal Left-handed Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Wang Liyang; Belic, Milivoj; Huang Tingwen

    2010-01-01

    We present beam solutions of the strongly nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation in left-handed materials (LHMs). Different Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) necklace beams, such as symmetric and asymmetric single layer and multilayer necklace beams are created by the superposition of two single beams with different topological charges. Such superpositions are then propagated through LHMs, displaying linear diffraction. It is found that the superposition of two LG nm beams with opposite topological charges does not show rotational behavior and that there exists rotation for other topological charge combinations. Our theory predicts that the accessible solitons cannot exist in LHMs. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. [Nature and severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder as they occur together or separately in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalme, Mélanie; Déry, Michèle

    2009-09-01

    Co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms are particularly common, which could be related to the greater severity (number and nature of symptoms) of each disorder. Our study aims to determine if oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms vary when they occur together or separately in children. Our study was conducted with 406 children (aged 6 to 13 years) divided in 4 groups (oppositional disorder only, conduct disorder only, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder, control) with no age or sex difference. Structured diagnostic interviews conducted with one parent and each child separately led to assessing the average number of symptoms for each disorder as well as the onset frequency of each symptom. When occurring together, oppositional disorder and conduct disorder appear more severe than when they occur separately, considering the number and nature of symptoms shown. Further, children with an oppositional disorder only or a conduct disorder only also have more frequent symptoms of the other disorder, compared with children in the control group. These results suggest taking into account, at the time of assessment and potential intervention, the presence of both disorders.

  17. Trades Between Opposition and Conjunction Class Trajectories for Early Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary; Komar, David R.; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2014-01-01

    Candidate human missions to Mars, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0, have focused on conjunction-class missions with long crewed durations and minimum energy trajectories to reduce total propellant requirements and total launch mass. However, in order to progressively reduce risk and gain experience in interplanetary mission operations, it may be desirable that initial human missions to Mars, whether to the surface or to Mars orbit, have shorter total crewed durations and minimal stay times at the destination. Opposition-class missions require larger total energy requirements relative to conjunction-class missions but offer the potential for much shorter mission durations, potentially reducing risk and overall systems performance requirements. This paper will present a detailed comparison of conjunction-class and opposition-class human missions to Mars vicinity with a focus on how such missions could be integrated into the initial phases of a Mars exploration campaign. The paper will present the results of a trade study that integrates trajectory/propellant analysis, element design, logistics and sparing analysis, and risk assessment to produce a comprehensive comparison of opposition and conjunction exploration mission constructs. Included in the trade study is an assessment of the risk to the crew and the trade offs between the mission duration and element, logistics, and spares mass. The analysis of the mission trade space was conducted using four simulation and analysis tools developed by NASA. Trajectory analyses for Mars destination missions were conducted using VISITOR (Versatile ImpulSive Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizeR), an in-house tool developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Architecture elements were evaluated using EXploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), a parametric modeling tool that generates exploration architectures through an integrated systems model. Logistics analysis was conducted using

  18. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  19. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  20. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  1. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  2. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  3. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  4. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  5. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Search for supersymmetry in opposite-sign dilepton final states with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Niklar

    2011-10-11

    A search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with opposite-sign isolated lepton pairs accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy is presented. This signature is a typical signature in many supersymmetric models. In a study based on simulation the discovery potential and possible parameter extraction of a specific supersymmetric model is evaluated. The search is then performed using hadron-hadron data from the LHC recorded with the CMS detector during 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb{sup -1}. No evidence for an anomalous event yield beyond Standard Model expectations is found. An upper limit on the non Standard Model contribution in the signal region is deduced from the experimental results. This limit is interpreted in the constrained minimal supersymmetric model. Additional information is provided to allow testing the exclusion of other specific models of physics beyond the SM.

  7. Dialectical behavioural therapy for oppositional defiant disorder in adolescents: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, José Heliodoro; García-Palacios, Azucena; Botella, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterised as a recurrent pattern of defiant behaviour towards authority figures, irritability and difficulties in regulating emotions. ODD in adolescents presents similar symptomatology to borderline personality disorder (BPD). A treatment programme that has been shown to be effective for treating problems related to emotion dysregulation such as BPD is dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT). The aim of this article is to outline a case series in which we applied DBT to two adolescents diagnosed with ODD, in addition to psychiatric comorbidity and parasuicidal behaviours. We applied a training programme of 24 sessions in DBT skills, along with individual therapy. The results showed a decrease in impulsive behaviours, maladaptive behaviours to regulate affect, self-mutilation behaviour, number of hospitalisations, anger and depressive symptoms. The data also showed an increase in positive emotions. These results suggest that DBT can be an alternative for the treatment of ODD in adolescents with psychiatric comorbidity and parasuicidal behaviours.

  8. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  9. Optimization of Tungsten Carbide Opposite Anvils Used in the In Situ High-Pressure Loading Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of anvils, finite element method is used to simulate two kinds of structures, one of which has a support ring but the other one does not. According to the simulated results, it is found that the maximum value of pressure appears at the center of culet when the bevelled angle is about 20°. Comparing the results of these two kinds of structures, we find that the efficiency of pressure transformation for the structure without support ring is larger than that for the structure with support ring. Considering the effect of von Mises stress, two kinds of tungsten carbide opposite anvils have been manufactured with bevelled angle of 10°. The experimental results for these two anvils are in good agreement with the simulation.

  10. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Shows Cocaine and Methylphenidate Have Opposite Effects on Major Lipids in Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Mai H; Phan, Nhu T N; Fletcher, John S; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew G

    2018-03-20

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules on the fly with a spatial resolution of ∼3 μm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both. Principal components image analysis revealed that changes occurred mainly for phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols. When the lipid changes caused by cocaine were compared with those induced by methylphenidate, it was shown that these drugs exert opposite effects on the brain lipid structure. We speculate that this might relate to the molecular mechanism of cognition and memory.

  11. Same sign versus opposite sign dileptons as a probe of low scale seesaw mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arindam; Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the ratio Rℓℓ of same sign (SS) to opposite sign (OS) dileptons in type I and generalized inverse seesaw models and show that it can be anywhere between 0 and 1 depending on the detailed texture of the right-handed neutrino mass matrix. Measurement of Rℓℓ in hadron colliders can therefore provide a way to probe the nature of seesaw mechanism and also to distinguish between the two types of seesaw mechanisms. We work within the framework of left-right symmetric model as an example. We emphasize that coherence of the final states in the WR decay is crucial for this discussion and it requires the right-handed neutrinos to be highly degenerate. We isolate the range of parameters in the model where this effect is observable at the LHC and future colliders.

  12. Search for supersymmetry in opposite-sign dilepton final states with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Niklar

    2011-01-01

    A search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with opposite-sign isolated lepton pairs accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy is presented. This signature is a typical signature in many supersymmetric models. In a study based on simulation the discovery potential and possible parameter extraction of a specific supersymmetric model is evaluated. The search is then performed using hadron-hadron data from the LHC recorded with the CMS detector during 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb -1 . No evidence for an anomalous event yield beyond Standard Model expectations is found. An upper limit on the non Standard Model contribution in the signal region is deduced from the experimental results. This limit is interpreted in the constrained minimal supersymmetric model. Additional information is provided to allow testing the exclusion of other specific models of physics beyond the SM.

  13. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  14. Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one's own versus opposite-gender peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2012-07-01

    Human peer relations provide tangible benefits, including food and protection, as well as emotional benefits. While social exclusion poses a threat to all of these benefits, the psychological threat is particularly susceptible to modulation by the relation of the excluders to the excluded person. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of manipulating the gender relation of participants to their excluders during an interactive ball-toss game. Ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was higher during exclusion by same-gender peers, while right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation negatively correlated with self-reported distress in other-gender exclusion. Results imply that exclusion by one's own gender is fundamentally different from exclusion by the opposite gender, and suggest a regulatory role for ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to out-group exclusion. Individual differences in implicit gender attitudes modulated neural responses to exclusion. The importance of these findings to investigations of social cognition is discussed.

  15. Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Bryan Thean Howe; Sayampanathan, Andrew A; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon "re-rupture" at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex) inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130° and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.

  16. Multi-domain predictors of oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in preschool children: cross-informant differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, John V; Dahl, Katharine P; Gouze, Karen R; LeBailly, Susan A; Hopkins, Joyce

    2015-04-01

    Existing research suggests that parent and teacher reports of children's behavior problems are often discrepant. The current study examined whether contextual (stress and family conflict), parent (depression), parenting (hostility, support, and scaffolding), and child factors (receptive vocabulary; negative affect, NA; effortful control, EC; inhibitory control, IC; attachment; and sensory regulation, SR) are related to parent-teacher reporting discrepancies. Participants included a community sample of 344 4-year-old children. A multi-informant approach was used to assess contextual, parent, parenting, and child factors. Parents and teachers completed the Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) scale of the Child Symptom Inventory. Consistent with previous data, there was poor agreement between parents and teachers (r = .17). After correcting for multiple comparisons, child effortful control, parent hostility, and family conflict were significant predictors of parent-rated symptoms of ODD symptoms but not teacher-rated ODD symptoms. Only family conflict was a significant predictor of discrepancies in parent and teacher ratings.

  17. Factors predicting future time orientation for romantic relationships with the opposite sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, B

    2001-07-01

    The author examines the possible connection of predictors of future time orientation to romantic relationships with the opposite sex using the Future Time Orientation in Romantic Relationships Scale (FTORR; B. Oner, 2000b). The variables suggested as correlates with FTORR scores in B. Oner's (2000a) study were subjected to regression analysis. The results indicated that relationship satisfaction and an eagerness to break up negative relationships were negatively related to FTORR scores, whereas being a woman, experiencing jealousy, and the degree of selectivity in choosing a dating partner were positively related to FTORR scores. Caution and relationship commitment both predicted FTORR scores through the mediating effect of relationship satisfaction. The author discusses the implications of the findings.

  18. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  19. Study of opposite-sign dimuon production in high-energy neutrino-nucleon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, B.; Bofill, J.; Friedman, J. I.; Fuess, S.; Goodman, M. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kistiakowsky, V.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L. S.; Pitt, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F. E.; Bogert, D.; Koizumi, G.; Stutte, L.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; Cobau, W.; Hatcher, R.; Owen, D.; Perkins, G.; Tartaglia, M.; Weerts, H.; Belusevic, R.; Walker, J. K.; White, A.; Womersley, J.

    1991-05-01

    Results are presented of a study of opposite-sign dimuon events observed in a fine-grained neutrino detector exposed to the Fermilab Tevatron wide-band neutrino beam. A total of 300 background-corrected μ+μ- events induced by incident neutrinos and antineutrinos with energies up to 500 GeV were accumulated. The data were analyzed in terms of a model based on charm-quark production followed by semileptonic decay of the charmed meson. The Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix terms were found to be ||Ucd||2=0.0378+/-0.0127 (stat)+0.0099-0.0082 (syst), and κ||Ucs||2=0.391+/-0.076 (stat)+0.097-0.066 (syst). The ratio of the strange to nonstrange sea in the nucleon, κ=2S/(U¯+D¯), was measured to be 0.407+/-0.075 (stat)+0.103-0.069 (syst).

  20. We are the opposite of you! Mirroring of national, regional and ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Tegdes, Tamás; Brezina, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The content of stereotypes can be shaped by multiple mechanisms, one of them possibly being the "mirroring effect." Mirroring describes a phenomenon whereby people rate their ingroup characteristics as opposite to characteristics typical of a relevant outgroup. The aim of our study was to explore mirroring in three intergroup contexts-in national, regional, and ethnic stereotypes. In Study 1, 2,241 participants rated national ingroup stereotype and outgroup stereotypes of five Central European countries. In Study 2, 741 Czech participants rated regional ingroup and outgroup stereotypes of people living in two distinct parts of the Czech Republic. In Study 3, 463 majority and Hungarian minority participants in Slovakia rated ethnic ingroup and outgroup stereotypes. The results showed a clear presence of mirroring in all three contexts.

  1. Review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a practitioner review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurring with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) encompassing aetiological factors, associated factors, assessment, treatment and prognosis. ADHD and ODD have both shared and unique genetic influences. Persistence of ADHD and ODD in adolescence is linked with an increased risk of delinquent behaviour, substance dependence, anxiety, depression, and possibly bipolar disorder. The diagnostic work up for ADHD must include screening for ODD, which may be achieved through targeted questioning or the use of standard symptom checklists. Treatment requires management of the core symptoms of ADHD plus, in many cases, augmentation with other treatment to address the ODD. Mild cases may respond to behaviour management alone, or monotherapy with stimulant medication or atomoxetine. Moderate to severe cases usually require a combination of pharmacotherapy, which may include clonidine, and behaviour management. Severe or refractory cases may require the introduction of an atypical antipsychotic such as risperidone.

  2. Like Mother, Like Daughter?: Matrilineal Opposition in African American Mulatta Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pochmara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article juxtaposes representations of mothers and daughters in selected African American novels that feature near-white female protagonists: W. W. Brown’s Clotel, Or the President’s Daughter (1853, Frances E. W. Harper’s Iola Leroy (1892, Charles Chesnutt’s The House behind the Cedars (1900, and Pauline Hopkins’s Hagar’s Daughter (1902. It explores the matrilineal opposition through a formalist close analysis of the melodramatic poetics of the texts and examines the political significance of such aesthetic choices. The novels expose the American history of interracial relations through their foregrounding of the mulatta protagonists and numerous scenes of anagnorisis of their multiracial identities. Simultaneously, their “erotics of politics” rewards the choice of a black spouse and thus celebrates the emergence of the self-determined black community.

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectivesstrong>

    <strong>Abstract>

    <strong>Background: strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectivesstrong> <strong>Abstract> <strong>Background: strong>Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first

  5. Structural evaluation of fast reactor core restraint with irradiation creep-swelling opposition effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation creep and swelling correlations are derived from primary loading in-reactor experiments in which irradiation creep and swelling act in the same direction. When correlation uncertainty bands are applied in core restraint evaluations, significant variability in sub-assembly behavior is predicted. For example, sub-assemblies in the outer core region where neutron flux and duct temperature gradients are significant exhibit bowing responses ranging from a creep dominated outward bow to a swelling dominated inward bow. Furthermore, solutions based on upper bound and lower bound correlation uncertainty combinations are observed to cross-over indicating that such combinations are physically unrealistic in the assessment of creep-swelling opposition effects. In order to obtain realistic upper and lower bound sub-assembly responses, judgement must be applied in the selection of creep-swelling equation uncertainty combinations. Experimental programs have been defined which will provide the needed basic as well as prototypic creep-swelling opposition data for reference and advanced sub-assembly duct alloys. The first of these is an irradiation of cylindrical capsules subjected to a through-wall temperature gradient. This test which is presently underway in the EBR-II reactor will provide the data needed to refine irradiation creep and swelling correlations and their associated uncertainties when applied to core restraint evaluations. Restrained pin and duct bowing experiments in FFTF have also been defined. These will provide the prototypic data necessary to verify irradiated duct bowing methodology. The results of this experimental program are expected to reduce creep and swelling uncertainties and permit better definition of the design window for load plane gaps. (orig.)

  6. Goldstone Radar Observations of the 1999 Mars Opposition and other Observing Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, M. A.

    1997-07-01

    As part of the International Mars Watch, Goldstone radar observations of Mars are planned during the 1999 Opposition ( Feb.'99-Aug'99). While some observing time is already allocated, a number of tracks could be made available for well-focused scientific objectives. Since the Deep Space Network plans far in advance, now is the time to develop your plans. During the next Mars opposition, the sub-Earth latitudes are in Mars' Northern hemisphere over the most northerly terrain accessible, which has not been previously examined with current sensitivity. The North residual ice cap is of particular interest. As a reminder to the Planetary Science community, observing proposals from any scientist with peer-reviewed planetary funding are solicited and should be forwarded to Martin.A.Slade@jpl.nasa.gov by email. Data reduction can, in principle, be carried out over the Internet. A graduate student or postdoctoral fellow resident at JPL for short period is recommended, however, to become familiar with suite of software for data analysis. Unfortunately, JPL cannot guarantee travel reimbursement due to funding limitations. We urge your consideration of becoming involved with the acquisition and analysis of Goldstone radar data. In the recent past, P.I.'s or co-I.s from Cornell, Arecibo/NAIC, Washington State University, Univ. Cal. Berkeley, Harvard -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Univ. of Chicago, the DLR, Kashima SRC, ISAS, the Russian Academy of Science, the Russian Space Agency, and the USGS, have participated in radar experiments with Goldstone transmitting. This work is supported by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  7. NMR studies of abasic sites in DNA duplexes: Deoxyadenosine stacks into the helix opposite acyclic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnik, M.W.; Chang, Chienneng; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.; Patel, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton and phosphorus NMR studies are reported for two complementary nonanucleotide duplexes containing acyclic abasic sites. The first duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-P-C-A-T-G), contains an acyclic propanyl moiety, P, located opposite a deoxyadenosine at the center of the helix (designated AP P 9-mer duplex). The second duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C-)·d(G-T-A-C-E-C-A-T-G), contains a similarly located acyclic ethanyl moiety, E (designated AP E 9-mer duplex). The ethanyl moiety is one carbon shorter than the natural carbon-phosphodiester backbone of a single nucleotide unit of DNA. The majority of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable base and sugar protons in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes, including those at the abasic site, have been assigned by recording and analyzing two-dimensional phase-sensitive NOESY data sets in H 2 O and D 2 O solution between -5 and 5 degree C. These spectroscopic observations establish that A5 inserts into the helix opposite the abasic site (P14 and El14) and stacks between the flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 Watson-Crick base pairs in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes. Proton NMR parameters for the Ap P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes are similar to those reported previously. These proton NMR experiments demonstrate that the structures at abasic sites are very similar whether the five-membered ring is open or closed or whether the phosphodiester backbone is shortened by one carbon atom. Phosphorus spectra of the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes (5 degree C) indicate that the backbone conformation is similarly perturbed at three phosphodiester backbone torsion angles

  8. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  9. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  10. Fra ydelse til service - New Public Management i Kvalitetsreformen

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Kasper Viktor von Würden; Nielsen, Kathrine Louise Lyneborg; Nielsen, Helene Lind Kryger; Svendsen, Jesper Thunberg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze the Danish government’s initiative to a reform of the public sector; Kvalitetsreformen, publicized August 2007. Under the influence of the scientific theory critical realism, this will be carried out by pointing out which New Public Management-methods the Kvalitetsreform represents, and then querying this philosophy’s premises and methodical use in the Kvalitetsreformen. Under the influence of an oppositional scientific theory, constructivism, the Kval...

  11. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think o...

  12. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  13. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  14. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  15. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  16. [Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (Pdeaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.

  17. Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

  18. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  19. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  20. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  1. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  2. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  3. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  4. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  5. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  6. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  7. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  8. Knowing values and public inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); M. Gattinger (Malvin); Y. Wang (Yanjing)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe present a basic dynamic epistemic logic of “knowing the value”. Analogous to public announcement in standard DEL, we study “public inspection”, a new dynamic operator which updates the agents’ knowledge about the values of constants.We provide a sound and strongly complete

  9. Public Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  10. Engagement militant et politisation des mobilisations au sein des oppositions urbaines à Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Petit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La Municipalité du Grand Istanbul met en œuvre depuis quelques années une « politique de transformation urbaine » pour faire d’Istanbul une ville moderne et compétitive sur la scène mondiale. Les mobilisations locales et les mouvements protestataires se multiplient pour infléchir une politique qui domine aujourd’hui l’agenda urbain « néolibéral » et empêcher les démolitions et déplacements de population escomptés. Au-delà de la distance au politique généralement affichée – condition de légitimité dans le système sécuritaire mis en place en Turquie après le coup d’État de 1980 – ces « oppositions urbaines » sont traversées par des débats sur la place du politique dans la mobilisation. À partir de l’étude sociologique de deux associations de quartiers et de deux mouvements de « professionnels urbains », cette contribution analyse le travail de définition des cadrages et répertoires d’action propres à chaque mouvement. Elle fait apparaître le rôle de ces professionnels urbains dans la requalification politique du désaccord qui divise les oppositions urbaines entre une stratégie « experte » et une stratégie plus politique. L’analyse met néanmoins en évidence le caractère dynamique et relatif – en termes de contextes et d’échelles – des stratégies d’appropriation des politiques publiques locales et des processus de politisation des « mouvements urbains ».The Istanbul Greater Municipality has been implementing for a few years numerous ‘urban renewal projects’ to change Istanbul into a modern and competitive city on the global scene. Reacting to the demolitions and evictions of entire neighbourhoods caused by these projects, some inhabitants and ‘urban professionals’ mobilize within new movements and neighbourdhood associations. Beyond the distance they usually show towards politics – a condition of legitimacy in the securitarian system introduced in

  11. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  12. Moçambique Para Todos (? Mozambique and Political Violence The Opinions of the Opposition Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Portatadino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws inspiration from a case of political violence in Mozambique to present the results of a six-month fieldwork research in the Mozambican capital city Maputo. The research targets were the members of the youth leagues affiliated to the two main opposition parties, Renamo and MDM. Specifically, the author investigated the motivations of these youths to participate in the political opposition despite the peril of political violence. Following an essential résumé of the histories of the assessed youth leagues, the author provides the drivers behind his decision to analyze such topics. Through the different types of violence as defined by Johan Galtung, the author argues that the present case study might be a degeneration of cultural political violence, embedded in the history of Mozambique since the years of its independence. In the present day, such violence has been threatening more and more directly an already fragile democracy. Moreover, since the present case study revolves around opinions of youths, the assessed theoretical framework includes studies violence in general and a particularly intriguing assessment of the present condition of youths in Mozambique and, even more specifically, in its capital city, Maputo. Successively, the author summarizes the emerging of structural political violence in post-independence Mozambique. As it concerns the main corpus of the research, the author used a qualitative methodology that combines a historical and ethnographic approach. The findings reveal that the interviewed members of the considered youth leagues have an idea of political violence, which goes beyond the mere politics. Further, they demonstrated a quite straightforward consideration on the reasons why a lingering political violence is still present in Mozambique. Further, the interviewees also expressed their own point of view on the consequences of such political violence on themselves and on Mozambican youth in general

  13. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  14. OGJ200 companies posted strong financial year in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Companies on the OGJ200 list of publicly traded oil and gas producers in the US posted a second straight strong financial year in 1997. Net income slipped but was still at the second highest level on record. Most other indicators of financial and operating performance remained at high levels or posted increases in 1997. As always, data for this year's list reflect the prior year's operations. The paper discusses and presents data for the following: assets, revenue, stockholder's equity, drilling activity, financial performance, group operation, changes in the group, the top 20 companies, and the fastest growing companies

  15. On the Energy Spectrum of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Perez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence attracts interest due to its fundamental importance and its relevance for interpreting astrophysical data. Here we present measurements of the energy spectra from a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence with a strong guide field and for increasing Reynolds number. The presented simulations, with numerical resolutions up to 2048^{3} mesh points and statistics accumulated over 30 to 150 eddy turnover times, constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest statistical sample of steady state magnetohydrodynamics turbulence to date. We study both the balanced case, where the energies associated with Alfvén modes propagating in opposite directions along the guide field, E^{+}(k_{⊥} and E^{-}(k_{⊥}, are equal, and the imbalanced case where the energies are different. In the balanced case, we find that the energy spectrum converges to a power law with exponent -3/2 as the Reynolds number is increased, which is consistent with phenomenological models that include scale-dependent dynamic alignment. For the imbalanced case, with E^{+}>E^{-}, the simulations show that E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2} for all Reynolds numbers considered, while E^{+} has a slightly steeper spectrum at small Re. As the Reynolds number increases, E^{+} flattens. Since E^{±} are pinned at the dissipation scale and anchored at the driving scales, we postulate that at sufficiently high Re the spectra will become parallel in the inertial range and scale as E^{+}∝E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2}. Questions regarding the universality of the spectrum and the value of the “Kolmogorov constant” are discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of Storytelling Therapy on the Reduction of Aggression and Stubbornness in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of storytelling therapy on the reduction of aggression and stubbornness among children (age 7 to 9 suffering from oppositional defiant disorder who were attending junior high schools in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: From among available schools, Khansari school was chosen as the convenience sample. Thus 14 were chosen as the sample of the study. The instrument applied in this study included Behavioural Assessment Disorder questionnaire, Aggression questionnaire, Stubbornness questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results: Data analysis showed that there was a significant reduction of aggression among children suffering from oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion: Finally storytelling therapy could be considered as one of the effective therapies in these kinds of disorders, such as aggression, stubbornness and oppositional defiant in children.

  17. Longing for the country's good old days: National nostalgia, autochthony beliefs, and opposition to Muslim expressive rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Four studies tested the prediction that feelings of national nostalgia (i.e. nostalgia on the basis of one's national ingroup membership) result in more opposition towards expressive rights for Muslim immigrants, because they strengthen the belief that a place belongs to its original inhabitants, and that they are therefore more entitled (i.e. autochthony). Study 1 found that national nostalgia can be distinguished from personal nostalgia, and that national (rather than personal) nostalgia was related to more opposition to Muslim rights via stronger endorsement of autochthony. This latter result was replicated in another survey study (Study 2) and in an experiment (Study 3) in which national nostalgia was manipulated. Study 4 provided preliminary evidence that the salience of autochthony increases opposition to Muslim rights. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Posterior Orbitofrontal and Anterior Cingulate Pathways to the Amygdala Target Inhibitory and Excitatory Systems with Opposite Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; Höistad, Malin; John, Yohan; Barbas, Helen

    2017-05-17

    The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys, we found that the anterior cingulate cortex innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal. By contrast, a pathway from pOFC to IM exceeded all other pathways to the amygdala by density and size and proportion of large and efficient terminals. Moreover, whereas pOFC terminals in IM innervated each of the three distinct classes of inhibitory neurons, most targeted neurons expressing dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+), known to be modulated by dopamine. The predominant pOFC innervation of DARPP-32+ neurons suggests activation of IM and inhibition of CeM, resulting in modulated autonomic function. By contrast, inhibition of DARPP-32 neurons in IM by high dopamine levels disinhibits CeM and triggers autonomic arousal. The findings provide a mechanism to help explain how a strong pOFC pathway, which is poised to moderate activity of CeM, through IM, can be undermined by the high level of dopamine during stress, resulting in collapse of potent inhibitory mechanisms in the amygdala and heightened autonomic drive, as seen in chronic anxiety disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala allows thoughts and emotions to influence actions. The posterior orbitofrontal cortex sends a powerful pathway that targets a special class of amygdalar intercalated mass (IM) inhibitory neurons, whose wiring may help

  19. WPPSS, now in technical default, moves to mothball nuclear unit 3 amidst opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1983-01-01

    Involved in a number of lawsuits and court challenges, the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) executive board voted in late May to suspend construction on nuclear unit 3 (underwritten by Bonneville Power Administration) unless additional funding were obtained. (Unit 1 previously was mothballed, and units 4 and 5 are canceled.) WPPSS also failed to pay its $15.6 million May bill to the bond trustee of units 4 and 5. With this monthly amount, the trustee aggregates funds to pay investor's interest of $93.6 million twice a year. Some of the 88 public power participants oppose paying the bond interest of $93.6 million twice a year. Some of the 88 public power participants oppose paying the bond interest and have gone to court. The trustee has been restrained from declaring WPPSS in default. The future of the units will be affected by the Washington Supreme Court decision on the contracts between public utility participants and WPPSS

  20. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D’Alessandro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin maximum principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and nonsingular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator. (paper)

  1. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  2. Opposite replication polarities of transcribed and nontranscribed histone H5 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trempe, J.P.; Lindstrom, Y.I.; Leffak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors used an in vitro nuclear runoff replication assay to analyze the direction of replication of the active and inactive histone H5 genes in avian cells. In embryonic erythrocytes the transcribed histone H5 gene displayed sensitivity to endogenous nuclease cleavage. In contrast, this gene was insensitive to endogenous nuclease digestion under the same conditions in nuclei of the lymphoblastoid cell line MSB-1, and histone H5 gene transcripts were not detectable by dot-blot analysis of MSB-1 cell RNA. When nuclei were isolated from embryonic erythrocyctes and incubated with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate, runoff replication from endogenous nuclease cleavage sites led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 3' end of the histone H5 gene in the density-labeled DNA. In nuclei of MSB-1 cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts, however, runoff replication from restriction enzyme-cut sites (or induced endogenous nuclease-cut sites in MSB-1 nuclei) led to a relative enrichment for fragments near the 5' end of the H5 gene in dense DNA. Based on the enhanced incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into origin-distal regions of DNA during the in vitro runoff replication assay, the authors conclude that the active histone H5 gene in embryonic erythrocytes is preferentially replicated in the transcriptional direction from an origin in the 5'-flanking DNA, whereas its inactive counterparts in MSB-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts are preferentially replicated in the opposite direction

  3. The Effect of Mood on Opposite-Sex Judgments of Males' Commitment and Females' Sexual Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikkiah de Quadros-Wander

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in perceptions of sexual intent and commitment have been the subject of formal and informal inquiry for considerable time. One evolutionary theory, Error Management Theory (EMT, predicts that opposite-sex perceptions of female sexual intent and male commitment intent reflect intrinsic biases that minimize gender-specific evolutionary costs. The results supporting these hypotheses were obtained from subjects regardless of mood. We hypothesized that mood would influence ratings of sexual and commitment intent. Sixty participants (30 males, 30 females were recruited and exposed to a positive and negative mood condition in counterbalanced groups using video stimuli. Preliminary analyses found an unexpected effect of order of mood induction, necessitating separate analyses of the Positive-Negative (PN and Negative-Positive (NP groups. Contrary to the original study, there were no gender effects. Positive moods led to increased ratings of both sexual and commitment intent across genders. Further, negative to positive mood-change was associated with significantly increased ratings. Both males and females attributed significantly higher sexual intent to same-sex rivals than themselves, but only males assessed themselves as having significantly higher commitment intent than same-sex rivals. The EMT model may require adaptation to acknowledge effects of variables such as mood on its predictions of gender-specific biases.

  4. Should Organic Agriculture Maintain Its Opposition to GM? New Techniques Writing the Same Old Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fern Wickson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is diversifying rapidly through the development and application of new approaches to genome editing and ongoing research into synthetic biology. Proponents of biotechnology are enthusiastic about these new developments and have recently begun calling for environmental movements to abandon their campaigns against Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs and for organic agriculture to reconsider its exclusion of Genetic Modification (GM. In this article, we begin by describing the diversity of practices that cluster under both the terms GM and organic and show that although there is a clash of different cultures of agriculture at stake, there is also a spectrum of practices existing between these two poles. Having established the terms of the debate, we then go on to analyse whether the organic movement should reconsider its position on GM in light of new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs, using the criteria highlighted as important by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM in their 2016 draft revised position on GMOs. Through this analysis, we suggest that given the in-context-trajectory of biotechnology development, the continued narrow framing of agricultural problems and the ongoing exclusion of important socio-economic, political and cultural dimensions, the organic movement is justified in maintaining its opposition to GM in the face of NPBTs.

  5. Early Development of Comorbidity Between Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates two prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  6. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  8. Quasi-asymmetric response of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall to opposite phases of the IOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Swadhin K; Ratnam, J V

    2018-01-09

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation has been traditionally linked to the extremes in the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) affecting more than a billion people in the region. This trans-oceanic influence is seen to be moderated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) phenomenon in recent decades. In the presence of a positive IOD (pIOD), the otherwise subdued ISMR in an El Niño year remains close to normal even in the face of record breaking El Niños. While this general influence of pIOD on ISMR is understood, the influence of negative IOD (nIOD) on ISMR is not yet recognized. In this study, it is revealed that those opposite phases of IOD are associated with distinct regional asymmetries in rainfall anomalies. The pIOD is associated with a tripolar pattern in rainfall anomalies with above normal rainfall in central parts of India and below normal rainfall to north and south of it. Conversely, the nIOD is associated with a zonal dipole having above (below) normal rainfall on the western (eastern) half of the country. This spatial quasi-asymmetry arises from the differences in the atmospheric responses and the associated differences in moisture transports to the region during contrasting phases of the IOD.

  9. Polyion Complex Vesicles with Solvated Phosphobetaine Shells Formed from Oppositely Charged Diblock Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Nakai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diblock copolymers consisting of a hydrophilic poly(2-(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (PMPC block and either a cationic or anionic block were prepared from (3-(methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC or sodium 2-(acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS. Polymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT radical polymerization using a PMPC macro-chain transfer agent. The degree of polymerization for PMPC, cationic PMAPTAC, and anionic PAMPS blocks was 20, 190, and 196, respectively. Combining two solutions of oppositely charged diblock copolymers, PMPC-b-PMAPTAC and PMPC-b-PAMPS, led to the spontaneous formation of polyion complex vesicles (PICsomes. The PICsomes were characterized using 1H NMR, static abd dynamic light scattering, transmittance electron microscopy (TEM, and atomic force microscopy. Maximum hydrodynamic radius (Rh for the PICsome was observed at a neutral charge balance of the cationic and anionic diblock copolymers. The Rh value and aggregation number (Nagg of PICsomes in 0.1 M NaCl was 78.0 nm and 7770, respectively. A spherical hollow vesicle structure was observed in TEM images. The hydrodynamic size of the PICsomes increased with concentration of the diblock copolymer solutions before mixing. Thus, the size of the PICsomes can be controlled by selecting an appropriate preparation method.

  10. Zhong-Yong as Dynamic Balancing Between Yin-Yang Opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to comment on Peter Ping Li’s understanding of Zhong-Yong balancing, presented in his article titled “Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply Yin-Yang balancing to paradox management.” Seeing his understanding...... of Zhong-Yong balancing being incorrect and incomplete, the author proposes an alternative perspective on Zhong-Yong as dynamic balancing between Yin-Yang opposites. Design/methodology/approach: The author first explain why Peter P. Li’s “asymmetry” and “superiority” arguments are flawed by referring......, Peter P. Li’s notion of “Yin-Yang balancing” is ironically unbalanced or anti-Zhong-Yong due to his emphasis on asymmetry to the exclusion of symmetry. Second, due to the equivalency between Zhong-Yong and Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean, Peter P. Li’s assertion that “Yin-Yang balancing” is superior...

  11. Community inflamed: Passionate opposition mounted to sour-gas drilling plan upwind of Canada's energy capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1998-01-01

    Residents of Bearspaw and Glendale, two small communities near Calgary are up in arms in opposition to the plans of Canadian 88 Energy Company to drill a 'level four' sour gas well in the area. The target gas contains 33.9 per cent hydrogen sulfide, a substance rated as lethal in much lower doses. Since the well is slated to be drilled on high ground upwind of Calgary, an accident causing a leak could expose community residents and thousands of Calgarians within half hour distance from the well to hydrogen sulfide concentrations several times higher than the Alberta Energy Board considers safe. Seepage into the water system poses yet another danger. For reasons that are not too well understood the Alberta Energy Board relaxed the size of the area for which the company must provide an emergency response plan from a radius of 18 km to a radius of 4 km, considered by experts to be totally unacceptable in a populated area. The Board granted the relaxation of the area covered by the emergency response plan on the assurances of the Company that it would substantially increase the criteria needed to make the plan manageable. However, the community is not convinced that the emergency response plan comes near to addressing the problem, and is prepared to oppose drilling of the well by all available means

  12. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  13. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. Human Naive and Memory T Cells Display Opposite Migratory Responses to Sphingosine-1 Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Annabelle; Neyra, Antoinette; Mathieu, Anne-Laure; Marçais, Antoine; Wencker, Mélanie; Marvel, Jacqueline; Belot, Alexandre; Walzer, Thierry

    2018-01-15

    The role of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in leukocyte trafficking has been well deciphered in mice but remains largely unaddressed in humans. In this study, we assessed the ex vivo response to S1P of primary human T cell subsets. We found that tonsil but not blood leukocytes were responsive to S1P gradients, suggesting that T cell responsiveness is regulated during their recirculation in vivo. Tonsil naive T cells were readily chemoattracted by S1P in an FTY720-sensitive, S1PR1-dependent manner. Surprisingly, S1P had the opposite effect on effector memory T cells, resident memory T cells, and recently activated T cells, inhibiting their spontaneous or chemokine-induced migration. This inhibition was also more pronounced for CD4 T cells than for CD8 T cell subsets, and was dependent on S1PR2, as shown using the S1PR2 antagonist JTE-013. S1PR1 was progressively downregulated during T cell differentiation whereas S1PR2 expression remained stable. Our results suggest that the ratio between S1PR1 and S1PR2 governs the migratory behavior of T cell subsets. They also challenge previous models of the role of S1P in lymphocyte recirculation and suggest that S1P promotes retention of memory T cell subsets in secondary lymphoid organs, via S1PR2. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based colour advertise resistance to oxidative stress in opposite ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, A; Almasi, B; Meichtry-Stier, K S; Jenni, L

    2011-10-01

    The control mechanisms and information content of melanin-based colourations are still debated among evolutionary biologists. Recent hypotheses contend that molecules involved in melanogenesis alter other physiological processes, thereby generating covariation between melanin-based colouration and other phenotypic attributes. Interestingly, several molecules such as agouti and glutathione that trigger the production of reddish-brown pheomelanin have an inhibitory effect on the production of black/grey eumelanin, whereas other hormones, such as melanocortins, have the opposite effect. We therefore propose the hypothesis that phenotypic traits positively correlated with the degree of eumelanin-based colouration may be negatively correlated with the degree of pheomelanin-based colouration, or vice versa. Given the role played by the melanocortin system and glutathione on melanogenesis and resistance to oxidative stress, we examined the prediction that resistance to oxidative stress is positively correlated with the degree of black colouration but negatively with the degree of reddish colouration. Using the barn owl (Tyto alba) as a model organism, we swapped eggs between randomly chosen nests to allocate genotypes randomly among environments and then we measured resistance to oxidative stress using the KRL assay in nestlings raised by foster parents. As predicted, the degree of black and reddish pigmentations was positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with resistance to oxidative stress. Our results reveal that eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based colourations can be redundant signals of resistance to oxidative stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Comparison of Medical Diagnoses among Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex-Partnered Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden-Rootes, Katie M; Salas, Joanne; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Schneider, F David; Smith, Craig W

    Health disparities for gay and lesbian individuals are well documented in survey research. However, a limitation throughout the existing literature is the reliance on self-reported health conditions. This study used medical record diagnoses for gay and lesbian patients seen in primary care clinics. This study used medical records of primary care patients (n = 31,569) seen at Midwestern, university-affiliated primary care clinics. First, all records with information about the sexual partnering of the patient were identified (n = 13,509). Then, opposite-sex-partnered and same-sex-partnered (SSP) patients were compared for prevalence of common chronic conditions and clinic utilization. Only 44.20% of medical records included information about patients' sexual partners. Both male and female SSP patients were more likely to be lower socioeconomic status, be a current or former smoker, and be diagnosed with substance abuse/dependence and depression. The findings suggest the need for more consistent screening of the sexual partnering of patients for identifying patients who are at greater risk of poorer health outcomes. However, identifying the sexual partnering of patients may not occur systematically in primary care, and there may be a lack of disclosure by SSP patients to their physicians given the social stigma about same-sex relationships. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one’s own versus opposite gender peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Wyk, Brent C. Vander

    2015-01-01

    Human peer relations provide tangible benefits including food and protection, as well as emotional benefits. While social exclusion poses a threat to all of these benefits, the psychological threat is particularly susceptible to modulation by the relation of the excluders to the excluded person. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of manipulating the gender relation of participants to their excluders during an interactive ball toss game. Ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was higher during exclusion by same-gender peers, while right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation negatively correlated with self-reported distress in other-gender exclusion. Results imply that exclusion by one’s own gender is fundamentally different from exclusion by the opposite gender, and suggest a regulatory role for ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to out-group exclusion. Individual differences in implicit gender attitudes modulated neural responses to exclusion. The importance of these findings to investigations of social cognition is discussed. PMID:21981758

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Preschool Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available There is a need to know whether callous-unemotional (CU traits identify a more severe group of oppositional defiant children (ODD. The aim of this study is to ascertain cross-sectionally and longitudinally the specific contribution of CU levels and the presence of ODD in the psychological state of preschool children from the general population. A total of 622 children were assessed longitudinally at ages 3 and 5 with a semi-structured diagnostic interview and questionnaires filled out by parents and teachers. In multivariate models simultaneously including ODD diagnosis and CU levels, controlling by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sex, severity of conduct disorder symptoms and other comorbidity, high CU scores were related to higher levels of aggression, withdrawn, externalizing and global symptomatology, functional impairment and higher probability of comorbid disorders and use of services. The contribution of CU traits on children's psychological state was not moderated by the presence/absence of ODD. Stability for CU traits and number of ODD-symptoms between ages 3 and 5 was statistically significant but moderate-low (intra-class correlation under .40. Assessment and identification of CU traits from preschool might help to identify a subset of children who could have socialization problems, not only among those with ODD but also among those without a diagnosis of conduct problems.

  20. Assembling oppositely charged lock and key responsive colloids: A mesoscale analog of adaptive chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihut, Adriana M.; Stenqvist, Björn; Lund, Mikael; Schurtenberger, Peter; Crassous, Jérôme J.

    2017-01-01

    We have seen a considerable effort in colloid sciences to copy Nature’s successful strategies to fabricate complex functional structures through self-assembly. This includes attempts to design colloidal building blocks and their intermolecular interactions, such as creating the colloidal analogs of directional molecular interactions, molecular recognition, host-guest systems, and specific binding. We show that we can use oppositely charged thermoresponsive particles with complementary shapes, such as spherical and bowl-shaped particles, to implement an externally controllable lock-and-key self-assembly mechanism. The use of tunable electrostatic interactions combined with the temperature-dependent size and shape and van der Waals interactions of these building blocks provides an exquisite control over the selectivity and specificity of the interactions and self-assembly process. The dynamic nature of the mechanism allows for reversibly cycling through various structures that range from weakly structured dense liquids to well-defined molecule-shaped clusters with different configurations through variations in temperature and ionic strength. We link this complex and dynamic self-assembly behavior to the relevant molecular interactions, such as screened Coulomb and van der Waals forces and the geometrical complementarity of the two building blocks, and discuss our findings in the context of the concepts of adaptive chemistry recently introduced to molecular systems. PMID:28929133