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Sample records for strong protective role

  1. Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff D; Nicholson, Travis L; Liang, Qi-Yu; Cantu, Sergio H; Venkatramani, Aditya V; Choi, Soonwon; Fedorov, Ilya A; Viscor, Daniel; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-02-09

    Realizing robust quantum phenomena in strongly interacting systems is one of the central challenges in modern physical science. Approaches ranging from topological protection to quantum error correction are currently being explored across many different experimental platforms, including electrons in condensed-matter systems, trapped atoms and photons. Although photon-photon interactions are typically negligible in conventional optical media, strong interactions between individual photons have recently been engineered in several systems. Here, using coherent coupling between light and Rydberg excitations in an ultracold atomic gas, we demonstrate a controlled and coherent exchange collision between two photons that is accompanied by a π/2 phase shift. The effect is robust in that the value of the phase shift is determined by the interaction symmetry rather than the precise experimental parameters, and in that it occurs under conditions where photon absorption is minimal. The measured phase shift of 0.48(3)π is in excellent agreement with a theoretical model. These observations open a route to realizing robust single-photon switches and all-optical quantum logic gates, and to exploring novel quantum many-body phenomena with strongly interacting photons.

  2. DNA-protein immunization using Leishmania peroxidoxin-1 induces a strong CD4+ T cell response and partially protects mice from cutaneous leishmaniasis: role of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Genetu Bayih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no universally effective and safe vaccine has been developed for general human use. Leishmania donovani Peroxidoxin-1 (LdPxn-1 is a member of the antioxidant family of proteins and is predominantly expressed in the amastigote stage of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LdPxn-1 in BALB/c mice in heterologous DNA-Protein immunization regimen in the presence of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGMCSF DNA adjuvant.A fusion DNA of LdPxn1 and mGMCSF was cloned into a modified pcDNA vector. To confirm the expression in mammalian system, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid vector containing LdPxn1 gene. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 or pcDNA-LdPxn1 DNA and boosted once with recombinant LdPxn-1 protein. Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes. The result showed that immunization with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 elicited a mixed Th-1/Th-2 immune response with significantly higher production of IFN-γ than controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of antigen-stimulated spleen cells showed that immunization with this antigen elicited significantly higher proportion of CD4+ T cells that express IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-2. The antigen also induced significantly higher proportion of multipotent CD4+ cells that simultaneously express the three Th-1 cytokines. Moreover, a significant reduction in the footpad swelling was seen in mice immunized with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 antigen. Expression study in CHO cells demonstrated that pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 was expressed in mammalian system.The result demonstrates that immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid expressing LdPxn1 in the presence of mGMCSF adjuvant elicits a strong specific immune response with high level induction of multipotent CD4+ cells that mediate protection of the mice from Leishmania major infection. To

  3. Defensive marketing: how a strong incumbent can protect its position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John H

    2005-11-01

    There has been a lot of research on marketing as an offensive tactic-how it can help companies successfully launch new products, enter new markets, or gain share with existing products in their current markets. But for nearly every new product launch, market entrant, or industry upstart grabbing market share, there is an incumbent that must defend its position. And there has been little research on how these defenders can use marketing to preemptively respond to new or anticipated threats. John H. Roberts outlines four basic types of defensive marketing strategies: positive, inertial, parity, and retarding. With the first two, you establish and communicate your points of superiority relative to the new entrant; with the second two, you establish and communicate strategic points of comparability with your rival. Before choosing a strategy, you need to assess the weapons you have available to protect your market position-your brand identity, the products and services that support that identity, and your means of communicating it. Then assess your customers' value to you and their vulnerability to being poached by rivals. The author explains how Australian telecommunications company Telstra, facing deregulation, used a combination of the four strategies (plus the author's customer response model) to fend off market newcomer Optus. Telstra was prepared, for instance, to reach deep into its pockets and engage in a price war. But the customer response model indicated that a parity strategy-in which Telstra would offer lower rates on some routes and at certain times of day, even though its prices, on average, were higher than its rival's-was more likely to prevent consumers from switching. Ultimately, Telstra was able to retain several points of market share it otherwise would have lost. The strategies described here, though specific to Telstra's situation, offer lessons for any company facing new and potentially damaging competition.

  4. ENEA's role in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The 1990-1994 Five-Year Plan of ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) stipulates that the Agency must reconcile its objectives related to energy with those related to the environment by aiming at a more efficient and rational exploitation of energy sources. This necessity has been reiterated in Italian Law 282/91 which assigns ENEA the task of providing technical and scientific support to the Ministry of the Environment. The aims, work schedule and financing of this task have been laid down in an environmental protection program whose main goals include: the protection and use rationalization of water supplies; the development of waste processing and disposal systems which incorporate energy and materials recovery systems; and the setting up of environmental monitoring networks. Within the framework of these activities, this paper reports on the management and organization aspects of five integrated projects which involve research efforts on: the reduction of the environmental impact of industrial activities; the characterization, status and dynamics of the environment; the interrelationships between environmental quality and the health of human populations; the effects of agricultural-industrial activities on global climate; the effects of human activities on the environmental quality of the Mediterranean Sea

  5. On the role of sound in the strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main directions in the precision of the theory of strong Langmuir turbulence caused by the necessity of account of sound waves in plasma are preseted. In particular the effect of conversion of short-wave modulations in Langmuir waves induced by sound waves, are briefly described. 8 refs

  6. Student Leadership Role for Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Isabel S. Ramirez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the role of student organizations in the promotion of environmental education and protection. It assessed the student organizations’ initiatives and activities that address the environmental issues and problems. It determined whether student leadership can be an effective tool in addressing environmental concerns and promote environmental education. Descriptiveevaluative methods of research were used in the study. Documentary analysis was used to determine the programs, projects and activities conducted by the different student organizations along environmental education and protection. Interview and focused group discussions were employed to validate the secondary data and identify problems and constraints encountered by the organization. Results of the study showed that the University supports student leadership through the student organizations. Student organizations are empowered and given rights and privileges’ as stipulated in the student handbook. There were more than forty accredited student organizations in CBSUA. All of them initiated programs/projects and activities that are environment related as required by the university. Student leadership through student organizations is an effective tool in promoting environmental education and protection. Student empowerment through student organizations can promote student involvement in the most pressing concerns of environment protection.

  7. Role of Social Protection Unit District Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of security and peace, order and protection of the people especially those who are within the settlement is the duty and responsibility of member units of community protection (Satlinmas, and what happens when members Satlinmas in carrying out its duties and functions not supported by the human resources of adequate quality and quantity , so the expectations and desires of the community to get security and peace, order and public protection are not met in full and result in (Satlinmas presence cannot be felt by the community. The method used in this study using qualitative research with descriptive analysis, the data obtained through documentation, observation, and interviews, sample locations were selected based on purposive sample of Cilacap, Cilacap is a district that has accommodated the institutional Linmas the organizational structure of Civil Service Police Unit and a barometer for other regions in the implementation of the enforcement of local regulations. The purpose of the study wanted to know how far Satlinmas can act in accordance with its duties and functions. Research results that Satlinmas role in organizing disaster management, the handling of security, peace and order, protection of the public at the district level are generally already be implemented, but at the neighbourhood level and harmonious citizens tasks and functions are yet to be implemented optimally.

  8. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs

  9. Closing your eyes to follow your heart: Avoiding information to protect a strong intuitive preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Risen, Jane L

    2018-02-01

    Rationally, people should want to receive information that is costless and relevant for a decision. But people sometimes choose to remain ignorant. The current paper identifies intuitive-deliberative conflict as a driver of information avoidance. Moreover, we examine whether people avoid information not only to protect their feelings or experiences, but also to protect the decision itself. We predict that people avoid information that could encourage a more thoughtful, deliberative decision to make it easier to enact their intuitive preference. In Studies 1 and 2, people avoid learning the calories in a tempting dessert and compensation for a boring task to protect their preferences to eat the dessert and work on a more enjoyable task. The same people who want to avoid the information, however, use it when it is provided. In Studies 3-5, people decide whether to learn how much money they could earn by accepting an intuitively unappealing bet (that a sympathetic student performs poorly or that a hurricane hits a third-world country). Although intuitively unappealing, the bets are financially rational because they only have financial upside. If people avoid information in part to protect their intuitive preference, then avoidance should be greater when an intuitive preference is especially strong and when information could influence the decision. As predicted, avoidance is driven by the strength of the intuitive preference (Study 3) and, ironically, information avoidance is greater before a decision is made, when the information is decision relevant, than after, when the information is irrelevant for the decision (Studies 4 and 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  11. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  13. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  14. Role of endogenous thiols in protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, O.

    Aminothiols represent the most important group of radioprotective compounds. The most effective compounds administered at an optimal dose and time before irradiation are able to provide a protection in mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of about 2-2.5. The working mechanism can partly be explained as a scavenging process of radicals induced in water and partly as a chemical repair process of injured DNA. The endogenous aminothiol which has far-out the highest intracellular concentration is glutathione (GSH). The importance of intracellular GSH in determining cellular radiosensitivity has been shown by irradiating cells that had very low GSH levels. Such cells appear to have a high radiosensitivity, especially in hypoxic conditions. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that induction of a high GSH level (100-200% above the normal level) provides only a small protection. In vitro experiments with DNA indicate that thiols with a high positive charge condense in the vicinity of DNA and are effective protectors, whereas thiols with a negative charge are kep away from it and are poor protectors. In comparison with the most effective exogenous aminothiols like cysteamine and WR1065, GSH is not an effective radioprotector. Putative explanations for this relatively poor protective ability of GSH are presented.

  15. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  16. Cardiovascular disease and the potential protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... paper reports on cardiovascular disease, its associated risk factors and the potential protective role of antioxidants in the ... Key words: antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, preventative, epidemiology. INTRODUCTION AND ..... associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  17. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  18. Intranasal immunization with influenza VLPs incorporating membrane-anchored flagellin induces strong heterosubtypic protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhong Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated previously that the incorporation of a membrane-anchored form of flagellin into influenza virus-like particles (VLPs improved the immunogenicity of VLPs significantly, inducing partially protective heterosubtypic immunity by intramuscular immunization. Because the efficacy of mucosal vaccination is highly dependent on an adjuvant, and is particularly effective for preventing mucosal infections such as influenza, we determined whether the membrane-anchored flagellin is an efficient adjuvant for VLP vaccines by a mucosal immunization route. We compared the adjuvant effect of membrane-anchored and soluble flagellins for immunization with influenza A/PR8 (H1N1 VLPs by the intranasal route in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that membrane-anchored flagellin is an effective adjuvant for intranasal (IN immunization, inducing enhanced systemic and mucosal antibody responses. High cellular responses were also observed as shown by cytokine production in splenocyte cultures when stimulated with viral antigens. All mice immunized with flagellin-containing VLPs survived challenge with a high lethal dose of homologous virus as well as a high dose heterosubtypic virus challenge (40 LD(50 of A/Philippines/82, H3N2. In contrast, no protection was observed with a standard HA/M1 VLP group upon heterosubtypic challenge. Soluble flagellin exhibited a moderate adjuvant effect when co-administered with VLPs by the mucosal route, as indicated by enhanced systemic and mucosal responses and partial heterosubtypic protection. The membrane-anchored form of flagellin incorporated together with antigen into influenza VLPs is effective as an adjuvant by the mucosal route and unlike standard VLPs, immunization with such chimeric VLPs elicits protective immunity to challenge with a distantly related influenza A virus.

  19. Promoting cooperation in Europe: the EC's role in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the European Community in radiation protection is to ''establish uniform safety standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public, and ensure that they are applied''. The uniform safety standards form the core of European policy towards radiation protection. They cover: maximum permissible doses compatible with adequate safety; maximum permissible levels of exposure and contamination; principles governing the health surveillance of workers. The standards are drawn up by the Commission of the European Communities after obtaining the advice of a group of Member State experts in the fields of public health care, radiation protection and physics. The Commission and the group of experts take publications by the ICRP as a basis to ensure that radiation protection in the European Community is in line with radiation protection in non-Member States. (author)

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing......*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P ... ratio = 0.02; P HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility....

  1. The role of NCRRP in education and training on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.

    2017-01-01

    Radiological protection is in constant motion, raised by new developments and research in the medical and industrial sectors. Radiation protection and safety associated with the application of ionizing radiation depends strongly on the skills and expertise of the professionals. The International Basic Safety Standard places great emphasis on education and training for all persons engaged in activities relevant to the protection and safety. For the professionals involved the most critical aspect it is the radiation protection. NCRRP is an established research center for education and training in radiation protection. Training is conducted by expert trainers with years of experience in the field of radiation protection. NCRRP organized courses and individual training on topics related to radiation protection: enhancing the qualifications of professionals from the medical and non medical fields; specialized training in radiation protection of different groups of professionals working with ionizing radiation sources; postgraduate education in radiation protection education of PhD within existing academic programs and give guidance to Master Students. In parallel the NCRRP aims to play a role in national and international policy through participation in European programs. Such is “CONCERT European Joint Programme for the integration of Radiation Protection Research”. The NCRRP develops, publish and distribute programs, newsletters, manuals and information materials for the benefit of the society. The implementation of a coherent approach to education and training becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers’ mobility. Keywords: education, training, radiation protection, NCRRP

  2. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings.

  3. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  4. Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamil Kozan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tests whether strong rather than weak ties account for small business growth in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire filled out by the owners of small firms operating in four cities. Growth is comprised of two main areas, production expansion and knowledge acquisition. Results show that strong ties are positively related to both types of growth. In contrast, loose ties have no effect on small business growth in either area. This finding is attributed to the influence of the collectivistic nature of the mainstream Turkish culture, where owners of small businesses are likely to rely on in-groups rather than out-groups for advice and for financial support. Implications of relative absence of weak ties for small business growth and innovation in emerging economies are discussed. The findings suggest that culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible moderating role of affective and cognition-based trust in the relation of strong and weak ties to small business growth.

  5. The protective role of pregnancy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jose; Moral, Raquel; Balogh, Gabriela A; Mailo, Daniel; Russo, Irma H

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data indicate that the risk of developing breast cancer is strongly dependent on the ovary and on endocrine conditions modulated by ovarian function, such as early menarche, late menopause, and parity. Women who gave birth to a child when they were younger than 24 years of age exhibit a decrease in their lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and additional pregnancies increase the protection. The breast tissue of normally cycling women contains three identifiable types of lobules, the undifferentiated Lobules type 1 (Lob 1) and the more developed Lobules type 2 and Lobules type 3. The breast attains its maximum development during pregnancy and lactation (Lobules type 4). After menopause the breast regresses in both nulliparous and parous women containing only Lob 1. Despite the similarity in the lobular composition of the breast at menopause, the fact that nulliparous women are at higher risk of developing breast cancer than parous women indicates that Lob 1 in these two groups of women might be biologically different, or might exhibit different susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Based on these observations it was postulated that Lob 1 found in the breast of nulliparous women and of parous women with breast cancer never went through the process of differentiation, retaining a high concentration of epithelial cells that are targets for carcinogens and are therefore susceptible to undergo neoplastic transformation. These epithelial cells are called Stem cells 1, whereas Lob 1 structures found in the breast of early parous postmenopausal women free of mammary pathology, on the contrary, are composed of an epithelial cell population that is refractory to transformation, called Stem cells 2. It was further postulated that the degree of differentiation acquired through early pregnancy has changed the 'genomic signature' that differentiates Lob 1 of the early parous women from that of the nulliparous women by shifting the

  6. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... The protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage was investigated in rat tissues (brain, kidney, stomach, spleen, heart and liver). The rats were divided into ... diethylnitrosamine in the liver (Tanaka et al., 1993), 4- nitroquinone-1-oxide in ...

  7. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage was investigated in rat tissues (brain, kidney, stomach, spleen, heart and liver). The rats were divided into four groups. Group A was administered with 0.25 M sucrose only (base line control), Group B with ...

  8. Potential protective role of hydrogen against cisplatininduced side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential protective role of hydrogen against cisplatininduced side effects during chemotherapy: A mini-review of a novel hypothesis for antagonism of hydrogen. ... Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have therapeutic effects against damage to various organs (especially kidney, brain and liver) caused by ischemic ...

  9. Protective Role of Commiphora molmol Extract against Liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the protective role of Mirazid® (MRZ), a mixture extracted from Commiphora molmol Engler (Burseraceae), against toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Method: Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was control and included mice which were injected with normal ...

  10. Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Sabah G El-Banna. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 24(1) 2006: 1-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Protecting Financial Market Integrity: Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Diekman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWaarom heeft u nog vertrouwen in een bank? En waarom vertrouwt u uw geld nog toe aan banken? Deze vragen staan centraal in de oratie ‘Protecting Financial Market Integrity. Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors' van prof.dr. Peter A.M. Diekman RA. Hij stelt dat zowel de intern als de

  12. Plexcitons: The Role of Oscillator Strengths and Spectral Widths in Determining Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Reshmi [School; Thomas, Anoop [School; Pullanchery, Saranya [School; Joseph, Linta [School; Somasundaran, Sanoop Mambully [School; Swathi, Rotti Srinivasamurthy [School; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Thomas, K. George [School

    2018-01-05

    Strong coupling interactions between plasmon and exciton-based excitations have been proposed to be useful in the design of optoelectronic systems. However, the role of various optical parameters dictating the plasmon-exciton (plexciton) interactions is less understood. Herein, we propose an inequality for achieving strong coupling between plasmons and excitons through appropriate variation of their oscillator strengths and spectral widths. These aspects are found to be consistent with experiments on two sets of free-standing plexcitonic systems obtained by (i) linking fluorescein isothiocyanate on Ag nanoparticles of varying sizes through silane coupling and (ii) electrostatic binding of cyanine dyes on polystyrenesulfonate-coated Au nanorods of varying aspect ratios. Being covalently linked on Ag nanoparticles, fluorescein isothiocyanate remains in monomeric state, and its high oscillator strength and narrow spectral width enable us to approach the strong coupling limit. In contrast, in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate, monomeric forms of cyanine dyes exist in equilibrium with their aggregates: Coupling is not observed for monomers and H-aggregates whose optical parameters are unfavorable. The large aggregation number, narrow spectral width, and extremely high oscillator strength of J-aggregates of cyanines permit effective delocalization of excitons along the linear assembly of chromophores, which in turn leads to efficient coupling with the plasmons. Further, the results obtained from experiments and theoretical models are jointly employed to describe the plexcitonic states, estimate the coupling strengths, and rationalize the dispersion curves. The experimental results and the theoretical analysis presented here portray a way forward to the rational design of plexcitonic systems attaining the strong coupling limits.

  13. The protective role of honey against cytotoxicity of cadmium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the honey (HY) protective role in opposition to cadmium (Cd) induced chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow and sperm abnormalities. Forty five (45) adult male albino mice were caged into six groups. Mice were injected, i.p, 300 mg HY/kg and/or 0.67 mg CdCl2/kg b.w for 96 h, ...

  14. Role of Reversible Phase Transformation for Strong Piezoelectric Performance at the Morphotropic Phase Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Huang, Houbing; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Deng, Jinxia; Chen, Long-Qing; Xing, Xianran

    2018-01-01

    A functional material with coexisting energetically equivalent phases often exhibits extraordinary properties such as piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, which is simultaneously accompanied by field-driven reversible phase transformation. The study on the interplay between such phase transformation and the performance is of great importance. Here, we have experimentally revealed the important role of field-driven reversible phase transformation in achieving enhanced electromechanical properties using in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology, which can establish a comprehensive picture of piezoelectric-related microstructural evolution. High-throughput experiments on various Pb /Bi -based perovskite piezoelectric systems suggest that reversible phase transformation can be triggered by an electric field at the morphotropic phase boundary and the piezoelectric performance is highly related to the tendency of electric-field-driven phase transformation. A strong tendency of phase transformation driven by an electric field generates peak piezoelectric response. Further, phase-field modeling reveals that the polarization alignment and the piezoelectric response can be much enhanced by the electric-field-driven phase transformation. The proposed mechanism will be helpful to design and optimize the new piezoelectrics, ferromagnetics, or other related functional materials.

  15. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and

  16. Role of the IAEA in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, P.; Wrixon, A.D.; Meghzifene, A.; Izewska, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the IAEA in relation to the radiological protection of patients. Within the IAEA there are two major programmes which have an impact on the protection of the patient. Firstly, patient protection is part of the programme on radiation safety; secondly, the human health programme contains a number of activities related to quality assurance (QA), and these also contribute to the protection of patients. A function of the IAEA, as stipulated in its Statute, is 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' and to provide for the application of these standards...'. There are three different levels of the IAEA Safety Standards: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. The Standards are supported by other documents such as Safety Reports. There are five means used by the IAEA in providing for the application of the Standards: co-ordinating research, promoting education and training, providing assistance, fostering information exchange and rendering services to its Member States. All these means are used in the programme on radiological protection of patients as described in the paper. The IAEA is assisting its Member Sates in the development and implementation of QA programmes. These activities help disseminate not only the technical knowledge but also the basic ingredients of the QA culture. The IAEA assistance is directed at: (1) national regulatory bodies for the establishment of a regulatory framework which complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; (2) standards laboratories for metrological traceability; and (3) end users at medical institutions for the development and implementation of QA programmes

  17. Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies" is a call to action for college student educators, articulating the crucial role they play in the international sustainability movement. It contains valuable information about educating self, educating students, and…

  18. Micro-universes and strong black-roles: a purely geometric approach to elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Raciti, F.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Zanchin, V.T.

    1993-09-01

    A panoramic view is presented of a proposed unified, bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions [which is mathematically analogous to the last version of N. Rosen's bi-metric theory; and yields physical results similar to strong gravity's]. This theory, is purely geometrical in nature, adopting the methods of General Relativity for the description of hadron structure and strong interactions. In particular, hadrons are associated with strong black-holes, from the external point of view, and with micro-universes, from the internal point of view. Among the results herein presented, it should be mentioned the derivation: of confinement and asymptotic freedom from the hadron constituents; of the Yukawa behaviour for the potential at the static limit; of the strong coupling constant, and of mesonic mass spectra. (author)

  19. Protective roles of natural IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eGrönwall

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are a vital part of the armentarium of the adaptive immune system for the fine-tuning of the recognition and response to foreign threats. However, in health there are some types of antibodies that instead recognize self-antigens for the enhancement of primitive innate functions. The repertoire of natural IgM antibodies is postulated to have been selected during immune evolution for their contributions to critical immunoregulatory and housekeeping properties. The clearance of dying cells is one of the most essential responsibilities of the immune system, which is essential to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. In the murine immune system, natural IgM antibodies that recognize apoptotic cells have been shown to enhance the phagocytic clearance of dead and dying cells and to suppress innate immune signaling pathways. In the mouse, natural IgM are often the products of B-1 cell clones that arise during immune development without an absolute requirement for exogenous antigenic stimulation. In patients with systemic lupus erythemtosus, IgM autoantibodies, which bind to neo-epitopes on apoptotic cells, have been demonstrated to be present at significantly higher levels in patients with lower disease activity and with less severe organ damage. While certain specificities of IgM autoantibodies correlate with protection from lupus renal disease, others may convey protective properties from lupus-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. New unexpected insights into the functional roles of IgM antibodies are still emerging, especially regarding the functions of natural antibodies. Herein, we review recent progress in our understanding of the potential roles of natural IgM autoantibodies in the regulation of immune homeostasis and for protection from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Protective Role of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Filovirus Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Lyn Warfield

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with many emerging viruses, such as the hemorrhagic fever disease caused by the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV, and Ebola virus (EBOV, leaves the host with a short timeframe in which to mouse a protective immune response. In lethal cases, uncontrolled viral replication and virus-induced immune dysregulation are too severe to overcome, and mortality is generally associated with a lack of notable immune responses. Vaccination studies in animals have demonstrated an association of IgG and neutralizing antibody responses against the protective glycoprotein antigen with survival from lethal challenge. More recently, studies in animal models of filovirus hemorrhagic fever have established that induction of a strong filovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response can facilitate complete viral clearance. In this review, we describe assays used to discover CTL responses after vaccination or live filovirus infection in both animal models and human clinical trials. Unfortunately, little data regarding CTL responses have been collected from infected human survivors, primarily due to the low frequency of disease and the inability to perform these studies in the field. Advancements in assays and technologies may allow these studies to occur during future outbreaks.

  1. Examining the Protective Role of Caraway Hydroalcoholic Extract in Heart and Kidney Tissue Injury in CLP Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and Objectives: strong>Sepsis is a systemic response to infection leading to organdeath.With regard to the side effects of synthetic drugs, nowadays using medicinal plants in treatment of sepsis must not be ignored. In this study, the protective role of caraway hydroalcoholic extractin heart and kidney injuries in experimental inflammation model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP was examined.<strong>strong>

     

    >Methods: strong>For the purpose of this study, the rats were divided into five groups i.e: Sham-operated (SOP; CLP; CLP+hydroalcoholic extract (50&100 mg/kg and CLP+Indomethacin (10mg/kg as positive control. The extract and indomethacin were injected i.p immediately after sepsis induction. 24 hours after CLP, the rats were sacrificed and their hearts, kidneys and plasma were removed and analyzed. The differences between the results were assessed by one-way ANOVA test followed byTukey’s HSD.<strong>strong>

     

    >Results: strong>The results of this study showed that lipid peroxidation (LP in kidney and alsoplasmaurea/creatinine ratio were increased in CLP rats. In contrast, the glutathione (GSH level of kidney was not changed indicating the partial damage of kidney tissue due to sepsis. Unlike indomethacine, treatment of rats with both doses of caraway hydroalcoholic extract did not modulate these parameters. <strong>strong>

     

    >Conclusion: strong>It can be concluded that treatment of septic rats by caraway hydroalcoholic extract immediately after sepsis induction via i.p route cannot modulate parameters related to kidney damages.So, this extract is not able to protect the kidney tissue against oxidative injuries induced by sepsis.<strong>>

     

  2. Protective roles of DMP1 in high phosphate homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Rangiani

    Full Text Available Dmp1 (dentin matrix protein1 null mice (Dmp1(-/- display hypophosphatemic rickets with a sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23. Disruption of Klotho (the obligatory co-receptor of FGF23 results in hyperphosphatemia with ectopic calcifications formed in blood vessels and kidneys. To determine the role of DMP1 in both a hyperphosphatemic environment and within the ectopic calcifications, we created Dmp1/Klotho compound deficient (Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice.A combination of TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, TRAP, von Kossa, micro CT, bone histomorphometry, serum biochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques were used to analyze the changes in blood vessels, kidney and bone for wild type control, Dmp1(-/-, Klotho deficient (kl/kl and Dmp1(-/-kl/kl animals.Interestingly, Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice show a dramatic improvement of rickets and an identical serum biochemical phenotype to kl/kl mice (extremely high FGF23, hyperphosphatemia and reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH levels. Unexpectedly, Dmp1(-/-kl/kl mice presented elevated levels of apoptosis in osteocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in small and large blood vessels, and within the kidney as well as dramatic increase in ectopic calcification in all these tissues, as compared to kl/kl.These findings suggest that DMP1 has an anti-apoptotic role in hyperphosphatemia. Discovering this novel protective role of DMP1 may have clinical relevance in protecting the cells from apoptosis in high-phosphate environments as observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD.

  3. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  4. The Role of screening in the strongly correlated 2D systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, E H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate recently observed experiments in the strongly correlated 2D systems (r sub s >> 1) (low-density 2D plasmons, metallic behaviour of 2D systems and frictional drag resistivity between two 2D hole layers). We compare them with our theoretical results calculated within a conventional Fermi liquid theory with RPA screening.

  5. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuvi P. Mutua

    Full Text Available In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  6. Current flow in random resistor networks: the role of percolation in weak and strong disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; López, Eduardo; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Braunstein, Lidia A; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    We study the current flow paths between two edges in a random resistor network on a L X L square lattice. Each resistor has resistance e(ax) , where x is a uniformly distributed random variable and a controls the broadness of the distribution. We find that: (a) The scaled variable u identical with u congruent to L/a(nu) , where nu is the percolation connectedness exponent, fully determines the distribution of the current path length l for all values of u . For u > 1, the behavior corresponds to the weak disorder limit and l scales as l approximately L, while for u < 1 , the behavior corresponds to the strong disorder limit with l approximately L(d(opt) ), where d(opt) =1.22+/-0.01 is the optimal path exponent. (b) In the weak disorder regime, there is a length scale xi approximately a(nu), below which strong disorder and critical percolation characterize the current path.

  7. The structural role of weak and strong links in a financial market network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, A.; Argyrakis, P.; Havlin, S.

    2008-05-01

    We investigate the properties of correlation based networks originating from economic complex systems, such as the network of stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The weaker links (low correlation) of the system are found to contribute to the overall connectivity of the network significantly more than the strong links (high correlation). We find that nodes connected through strong links form well defined communities. These communities are clustered together in more complex ways compared to the widely used classification according to the economic activity. We find that some companies, such as General Electric (GE), Coca Cola (KO), and others, can be involved in different communities. The communities are found to be quite stable over time. Similar results were obtained by investigating markets completely different in size and properties, such as the Athens Stock Exchange (ASE). The present method may be also useful for other networks generated through correlations.

  8. Role of physics in the role in the development and protection of environment. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the 1992 National Physics Conference held in Cairo Egypt. It contains papers on the role that the physics currently plays in the development and protection of the environment. Some of the topics covered include (1) nuclear power production and the environment, (2) solar power and the environment, (3) crystallography and the environment and (4) hazardous effects of nonionising radiations from household equipment

  9. Role of high-order dispersion on strong-field laser-molecule interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos; Nairat, Muath

    2016-05-01

    Strong-field (1012- 1016 W/ cm2) laser-matter interactions are characterized by the extent of fragmentation and charge of the resulting ions as a function of peak intensity and pulse duration. Interactions are influenced by high-order dispersion, which is difficult to characterize and compress. Fourth-order dispersion (FOD) causes a time-symmetric pedestal, while third-order dispersion (TOD) causes a leading (negative) or following (positive) pedestal. Here, we report on strong-field interactions with pentane and toluene molecules, tracking the molecular ion and the doubly charged carbon ion C2+ yields as a function of TOD and FOD for otherwise transform-limited (TL) 35fs pulses. We find TL pulses enhance molecular ion yield and suppress C2+ yield, while FOD reverses this trend. Interestingly, the leading pedestal in negative TOD enhances C2+ yield compared to positive TOD. Pulse pedestals are of particular importance in strong-field science because target ionization or alignment can be induced well before the main pulse arrives. A pedestal following an intense laser pulse can cause sequential ionization or accelerate electrons causing cascaded ionization. Control of high-order dispersion allows us to provide strong-field measurements that can help address the mechanisms responsible for different product ions in the presence and absence of pedestals. Financial support of this work comes from the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE SISGR (DE-SC0002325)

  10. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  11. Protective role for properdin in progression of experimental murine atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Steiner

    Full Text Available Genetic, dietary and immune factors contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans and mice. Complement activation is an integral part of the innate immune defence but also shapes cellular responses and influences directly triglyceride synthesis. Deficiency of Factor B of the alternative pathway (AP of complement is beneficial in LDLR(-/- mice fed a high fat diet. The serum glycoprotein properdin is a key positive regulator of the AP but has not been studied in experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was assessed after feeding low fat (LFD or high fat (HFD Western type diets to newly generated LDLR(-/- Properdin(KO (LDLR(-/-P(KO and LDLR-/-PWT mice. Lipids, lymphocytes and monocytes were similar among genotypes, genders and diets. Complement C3, but not C3adesarg, levels were enhanced in LDLR(-/-P(KO mice regardless of diet type or gender. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA were decreased in male LDLR(-/-P(KO fed a HFD compared with controls. All mice showed significant atherosclerotic burden in aortae and at aortic roots but male LDLR(-/- mice fed a LFD were affected to the greatest extent by the absence of properdin. The protective effect of properdin expression was overwhelmed in both genders of LDLR(-/-mice when fed a HFD. We conclude that properdin plays an unexpectedly beneficial role in the development and progression of early atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-08-07

    Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.

  13. THE ROLE OF DRAG IN THE ENERGETICS OF STRONGLY FORCED EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Earth, where frictional heating is typically negligible, we show that drag mechanisms could act as an important heat source in the strongly forced atmospheres of some exoplanets, with the potential to alter the circulation. We modify the standard formalism of the atmospheric energy cycle to explicitly track the loss of kinetic energy and the associated frictional (re)heating, for application to exoplanets such as the asymmetrically heated 'hot Jupiters' and gas giants on highly eccentric orbits. We establish that an understanding of the dominant drag mechanisms and their dependence on local atmospheric conditions is critical for accurate modeling, not just in their ability to limit wind speeds, but also because they could possibly change the energetics of the circulation enough to alter the nature of the flow. We discuss possible sources of drag and estimate the strength necessary to significantly influence the atmospheric energetics. As we show, the frictional heating depends on the magnitude of kinetic energy dissipation as well as its spatial variation, so that the more localized a drag mechanism is, the weaker it can be and still affect the circulation. We also use the derived formalism to estimate the rate of numerical loss of kinetic energy in a few previously published hot Jupiter models with and without magnetic drag and find it to be surprisingly large, at 5%-10% of the incident stellar irradiation.

  14. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  15. Role of strongly interacting additives in tuning the structure and properties of polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Vikram Kumar

    Block copolymer (BCP) nanocomposites are an important class of hybrid materials in which the BCP guides the spatial location and the periodic assembly of the additives. High loadings of well-dispersed nanofillers are generally important for many applications including mechanical reinforcing of polymers. In particular the composites shown in this work might find use as etch masks in nanolithography, or for enabling various phase selective reactions for new materials development. This work explores the use of hydrogen bonding interactions between various additives (such as homopolymers and non-polymeric additives) and small, disordered BCPs to cause the formation of well-ordered morphologies with small domains. A detailed study of the organization of homopolymer chains and the evolution of structure during the process of ordering is performed. The results demonstrate that by tuning the selective interaction of the additive with the incorporating phase of the BCP, composites with significantly high loadings of additives can be formed while maintaining order in the BCP morphology. The possibility of high and selective loading of additives in one of the phases of the ordered BCP composite opens new avenues due to high degree of functionalization and the proximity of the additives within the incorporating phase. This aspect is utilized in one case for the formation of a network structure between adjoining additive cores to derive mesoporous inorganic materials with their structures templated by the BCP. The concept of additive-driven assembly is extended to formulate BCPadditive blends with an ability to undergo photo-induced ordering. Underlying this strategy is the ability to transition a weakly interacting additive to its strongly interacting form. This strategy provides an on-demand, non-intrusive route for formation of well-ordered nanostructures in arbitrarily defined regions of an otherwise disordered material. The second area explored in this dissertation deals

  16. The mystery of male dominance in oesophageal cancer and the potential protective role of oestrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanos, Evangelos; Lagergren, Jesper

    2009-12-01

    Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer death globally with almost 400,000 deaths annually. More than 90% of all cases are either adenocarcinomas (OAC) or squamous-cell carcinomas (OSCC). There is a strong male predominance with up to 8 and 3 men for every woman affected with OAC and OSCC, respectively. It has been hypothesised that sex hormonal factors may play a role in the development of oesophageal cancer or more specifically that oestrogen prevents such development. This article reviews the available literature on this topic. Basic science studies suggest an inhibitory effect of oestrogen in the growth of oesophageal cancer cells, and a possible mechanism of any oestrogen protection might be mediated through oestrogen receptors. But from the few epidemiological studies in which the hypothesis of oestrogen protection has been tested, no firm conclusions can yet be drawn of the role of oestrogen in human oesophageal cancer aetiology. More evidence from valid and large human studies is needed before any conclusions can be drawn.

  17. Physical protection enhancements in Japan and the role of JNES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Seishi

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of terrorist attacks on nuclear material and nuclear facilities has posed a continuing threat since the events of September 11, 2001. The Japanese government has strengthened its physical protection regime, including legislative amendments, due to the necessity of upgrading the degree of protection of nuclear facilities to be equivalent to international levels, in order to cope effectively with the threat of theft of nuclear material and sabotage of nuclear facilities. In relation to these enhancements of the physical protection regime in Japan, the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) gives technical support to the regulatory agency, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), in the area of physical protection examination and inspection, through the development of technical guides for inspectors and operators, acquisition, analysis, and evaluation of related information, and international cooperation. This support is aimed at ensuring the consistent implementation of physical protection measures in Japan. In the future also, the JNES will provide further support to the NISA aimed at a well-developed physical protection framework in Japan, giving consideration to international physical protection enhancements such as publication of IAEA nuclear security series documents, inter alia Recommendations for physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities being also Revision 5 of INFCIRC 225. (author)

  18. Protective role of E. coli outer membrane vesicles against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Heramb M; Nagaraj, R; Jagannadham, Medicharla V

    2015-12-01

    The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from bacteria are known to posses both defensive and protective functions and thus participate in community related functions. In the present study, outer membrane vesicles have been shown to protect the producer bacterium and two other bacterial species from the growth inhibitory effects of some antibiotics. The OMVs isolated from E. coli MG1655 protected the bacteria against membrane-active antibiotics colistin, melittin. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 could also protect P. aeruginosa NCTC6751 and A. radiodioresistens MMC5 against these membrane-active antibiotics. However, OMVs could not protect any of these bacteria against the other antibiotics ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Hence, OMVs appears to protect the bacterial community against membrane-active antibiotics and not other antibiotics, which have different mechanism of actions. The OMVs of E. coli MG1655 sequester the antibiotic colistin, whereas their protein components degrade the antimicrobial peptide melittin. Proteomic analysis of OMVs revealed the presence of proteases and peptidases which appear to be involved in this process. Thus, the protection of bacteria by OMVs against antibiotics is situation dependent and the mechanism differs for different situations. These studies suggest that OMVs of bacteria form a common defense for the bacterial community against specific antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Safeguards and the role of the IAEA in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolej, M.

    1999-01-01

    The physical protection and security of nuclear facilities and materials concerns utilities, manufactures, the general public, and those who are responsible for licensing and regulating such facilities. The requirements and process to ensure an acceptable physical protection and security system have been evolutionary in nature. This paper reviews the first step of such process: the State's safeguards system and the international safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the relationship between these two safeguards systems. The elements of these systems that are reviewed include the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, physical protection measures, and containment and surveillance measures. In addition, the interactions between the State, the facility operator, and the IAEA are described. The paper addresses the IAEA safeguards system, including material accountancy and containment and surveillance; the State safeguards system, including material control and accountancy, and physical protection; the role of the IAEA in physical protection; a summary of safeguards system interactions.(author)

  20. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics... noncompliance with EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS).\\1\\ As noted below, this Policy Statement does...

  1. Role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve : Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; van Hengel, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and

  2. Protected areas' role in climate-change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M; Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W; Reilly, John M; Cai, Yongxia; Sokolov, Andrei P

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 15.5 million km(2) of land are currently identified as protected areas, which provide society with many ecosystem services including climate-change mitigation. Combining a global database of protected areas, a reconstruction of global land-use history, and a global biogeochemistry model, we estimate that protected areas currently sequester 0.5 Pg C annually, which is about one fifth of the carbon sequestered by all land ecosystems annually. Using an integrated earth systems model to generate climate and land-use scenarios for the twenty-first century, we project that rapid climate change, similar to high-end projections in IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, would cause the annual carbon sequestration rate in protected areas to drop to about 0.3 Pg C by 2100. For the scenario with both rapid climate change and extensive land-use change driven by population and economic pressures, 5.6 million km(2) of protected areas would be converted to other uses, and carbon sequestration in the remaining protected areas would drop to near zero by 2100.

  3. Community nurses' child protection role: views of public health nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Public health nurses in Ireland are generalist practitioners with a wide range of roles that address the needs of clients in the community across their lifespan. Child protection is one of many of the roles of Irish public health nurses. However, with increasing caseloads, birth rates and aging populations, their child protection role is becoming more difficult to define and practise safely. This paper presents a key finding of a qualitative study that explored the views of a group of public health nurses (n = 10) regarding their role with pre-school children. A significant theme following analysis of the interviews were the nurses\\' expressed concerns on their role in child protection. There is a need to define the role practised by public health nurses in child protection and to achieve a standard for this nationally.

  4. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  5. Physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the main concerns of the international community since the first nuclear weapons were developed. To prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been on the agenda for individual States, groups of States and the international organizations. A number of treaties, conventions and agreements, the most important being the Non-Proliferation Treaty, have been negotiated to prevent the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. States have concluded safeguards agreements with the IAEA to fulfill their obligations according to Article III.1 of the NPT. Other agreements relate to the prevention of vertical proliferation and also to the disarmament of nuclear weapons. It has also been recognized that sub-national, terrorist, or criminal activities may pose a proliferation risk. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material, particularly highly enriched uranium or plutonium, is a non-proliferation concern. States have recognized the need to prevent, as far as possible, the use of nuclear material in unlawful activities. The Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, obligates the State Parties to protect nuclear material from theft during international transport, and to make unlawful possession, use, etc., of nuclear material a criminal offense, subject to punishment under national law. Although the physical protection convention recognizes the importance of the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport, it does not obligate the State party to establish the necessary systems for this purpose. It is this limitation which led many States to believe that the international physical protection regime needs to be strengthened. Although not legally binding per se, the recommendations documented in INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4, The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, has obtained wide recognition. There is recognition among States that protecting nuclear material

  6. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Protective role of interferon against cytotoxcicity induced by rabies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... This mechanism has not yet been proved, but may be true for certain viral pathogens. Rabies virus was found to induce apoptotic changes in brain neurons (Jackson, 1999; Baloul and Lafon, 2003;. Suja et al., 2009). It is known that mice, hamsters, or rabbits infected with rabies virus can be protected from.

  8. Protective role of Spondias mombin leaf and Cola acuminata seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ismail O. Ishola

    2017-04-06

    Apr 6, 2017 ... This study showed that Spondias mombin and Cola acuminata have significant protective effect against scopolamine-induced memory deficit that could be attributed to their ... mortem and in vivo studies have demonstrated an accumula- ... ache, biliousness, urethritis, cystitis and eye and throat inflam-.

  9. Protective role of Aspergillus fumigatus melanin against ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanin protects pigmented cells from physical and biological stresses which are associated with virulence in several important human pathogens, but little is known about the immune response to this ubiquitous biologic compound. Melanin content increased in Aspergillus fumigatus mycelium exposed to ultraviolet for 10 ...

  10. Novel roles for genetically modified plants in environmental protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Kotrba, Pavel; Svatoš, Aleš; Nováková, Martina; Demnerová, K.; Macková, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 146-152 ISSN 0167-7799 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055204; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : transgenic plant * environmental protection * insect pheromone * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 6.624, year: 2008

  11. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... of electron on the electron transport chain. There is a dose-dependent relationship between lipid peroxidation induced by potassium bromate and the protection offered by the extract of H. sabdariffa. REFERENCES. Alli MB, Salih M (1991). Investigation of the antispasmodic potential of. Hibiscus sabdariffa ...

  12. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  13. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.

  14. The role of medical physicist in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusslin, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing Radiation is applied in Radiation Therapy, Nuclear medicine and Diagnostic Radiology. Radiation Protection in Medical Application of Ionizing Radiation requires specific Professional Competence in all relevant details of the radiation source instrumentation / equipment clinical dosimetry application procedures quality assurance medical risk-benefit assessment. Application in general include Justification of practices (sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals) Limitation of doses to individuals (occupational / public exposure) Optimization of Protection (magnitude and likelihood of exposures, and the number of individuals exposed will be ALARA. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of medical physicists in the various specialties (e.g. diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine). The patient safety in the use of medical radiation will be increased through: Consistent education and certification of medical team members, whose qualifications are recognized nationally, and who follow consensus practice guidelines that meet established national accrediting standards

  15. PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ACQUIRED PELLICLE ON ENAMEL EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Stroici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Materials and method: The aim of the study was to evaluate, by several methods, dental erosion in 0.1 and 1.0% citric acid in vitro and to assess the protective potential of the experimentally formed salivary pellicle (24 h in vitro. Enamel slabs were embedded in epoxy resin and polished. Erosion was performed in citric acid for 1, 5 or 10 min, and recorded as calcium release. Results: Significant microhardness loss on non-pelliclecovered specimens was measured after 1min exposure to 0.1 % citric acid. Microhardness loss was time – and concentration – dependent. Salivary pellicle significantly inhibited both microhardness loss, except for the 10 min immersion in 1.0% citric acid. Discussions and conclusions: The results obtained support the general conclusion that salivary pellicle effectively protects enamel surface against short-term erosion in organic acids.

  16. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress.

  17. Sulforaphane Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Role of Mitochondrial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Torres, Ismael; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in Cruciferae, induces cytoprotection in several tissues. Its protective effect has been associated with its ability to induce cytoprotective enzymes through an Nrf2-dependent pathway. Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic; nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of this compound. In this study, it was investigated if SFN is able to induce protection against GM-induced nephropathy both in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells in culture and in rats. SFN prevented GM-induced death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, it attenuated GM-induced renal injury (proteinuria, increases in serum creatinine, in blood urea nitrogen, and in urinary excretion on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and decrease in creatinine clearance and in plasma glutathione peroxidase activity) and necrosis and apoptosis in rats. The apoptotic death was associated with enhanced active caspase-9. Caspase-8 was unchanged in all the studied groups. In addition, SFN was able to prevent GM-induced protein nitration and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase in renal cortex. In conclusion, the protective effect of SFN against GM-induced acute kidney injury could be associated with the preservation in mitochondrial function that would prevent the intrinsic apoptosis and nitrosative stress. PMID:23662110

  18. The roles of immune memory and aging in protective immunity and endogenous reactivation of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guzzetta

    Full Text Available Finding more effective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB and improved preventive treatments against endogenous reactivation of latent TB is strategic to block transmission and reach the WHO goal of eliminating TB by 2050. Key related open questions in TB research include: i what are the determinants of a strong memory response upon primary infection? ii what is the role of cytokines towards protective memory response against a secondary infection? iii what are the mechanisms responsible for the increased risk of reactivation in elderly individuals? To address these questions, we explored a computational model of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis including a mathematical description of immunosenescence and the generation and maintenance of immune memory. Sensitivity analysis techniques, together with extensive model characterization and in silico experiments, were applied to identify key mechanisms controlling TB reactivation and immunological memory. Key findings of this study are summarized by the following model predictions: i increased strength and duration of memory protection is associated with higher levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-[Formula: see text] (TNF during primary infection; ii production of TNF, but not of interferon-[Formula: see text], by memory T cells during secondary infection is a major determinant of effective protection; iii impaired recruitment of CD4+ T cells may promote reactivation of latent TB infections in aging hosts. This study is a first attempt to consider the immune dynamics of a persistent infection throughout the lifetime of the host, taking into account immunosenescence and memory. While the model is TB specific, the results are applicable to other persistent bacterial infections and can aid in the development, evaluation and refinement of TB treatment and/or vaccine protocols.

  19. The protective role of parental involvement in adolescent suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2002-01-01

    This study of 2,722 adolescents aged 14-18 years explored whether parental involvement can protect against adolescent suicide attempts. Compared to their counterparts suicide attempters were more likely to have been in trouble with the police, to report lower levels of parental interest and academic motivation, and to report suicidal ideation and using alcohol or an illegal drug when they feel stressed. They were also less likely to reside with both parents. The association between parental involvement and suicidal behaviour was not stronger for sons than for daughters or for adolescents who had experienced family disruption than for those who grew up in two-parent families.

  20. Protective role of maternal antibodies against Haemophilus parasuis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Aguilar, G I; Pijoan, C; Rapp-Gabrielson, V; Collins, J; Carvalho, L F; Winkelman, N

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of maternal antibodies after challenge exposure of baby pigs with a homologous serovar of Haemophilus parasuis. 7 gilts and their litters from a high health status farm. Gilts were vaccinated twice with a commercial bacterin that contained H parasuis serovar 4 and 5 or, as a control, adjuvant only. A group of pigs was also vaccinated similarly before challenge exposure. After early and late challenge exposure at 3 and 4 weeks, respectively, all pigs from vaccinated gilts were evaluated for clinical signs of infection, lesions, and antibody titer. All pigs coming from control gilts had severe signs of H parasuis infection. Macroscopic lesions included polyserositis and pneumonia, and bacteriologic examination confirmed H parasuis as the etiologic agent. Vaccinated pigs born to vaccinated gilts did not have clinical signs of disease. However, some vaccinated pigs born to control gilts had signs of nervous system dysfunction and lameness. There was no difference in lesion scores between early or late challenge exposure, but lesions scores for pigs from vaccinated and control gilts were different (P immune-naive and vaccinated pigs from vaccinated gilts were protected against systemic lesions when challenge exposed with a virulent strain of H parasuis. Vaccination of the gilt and pigs protects the latter from polyserositis, but results are not different from those for nonvaccinated pigs from vaccinated gilts. Maternal antibodies did not seem to interfere with vaccination of pigs at 1 and 3 weeks of age.

  1. Protective role of melatonin on blood parameters following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the preventive role of melatonin on several blood parameters after irradiation exposure in rats. A total of 100 adult Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as control and other groups were treated with 60, 90, 120 and 160 cGy/min of radiation, respectively.

  2. Protective Role of Artemisia Afra Aqueous Extract on Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in antioxidant capacity in the body as a result of oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. on antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin–induced ...

  3. Role of parents as a protective factor against adolescent athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doping prevention strategies should include parents, but need to be careful on the role they are planning to fulfil, with an emphasis on soft skills (e.g. communication). Future research might include variables from sports psychology such as motivational climate, goal orientation and belief in success as possible mediators of ...

  4. Antioxidant activity and protective role on protein glycation of synthetic aminocoumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aminjafari

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: By the analogues, in vitro ascertained AO and AG properties of 4-ACD may be recognized as rationale for their protective role against oxidative changes of proteins, thereby precluding diabetic complications in humans.

  5. Review Article: Heat stress and the role of protective clothing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture absorption, directional radiation, solar radiation, condensation and their interaction with wind may have influence on heat exchange. Aim: To review the role of protective clothing in heat stress stress in military service. Conclusion: Protective clothing serves the purpose of eliminating or reducing the effects of heat ...

  6. The dual role of local residents in the management of natural protected areas in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Perez-Verdin; Martha E. Lee; Deborah J. Chavez

    2008-01-01

    In many developing countries, local residents play an important role in the management of protected areas because they represent potential users of natural protected areas (NPA) resources, they receive the benefits (or costs) of developing naturebased recreation, and they are the group most closely interested in the management of an area located near them. In this...

  7. Protective role of misoprostol in prevention of gentamicin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Polat, Halil; Yasar, Mehmet; Bayram, Ali; Karatas, Duran; Hira, İbrahim; Kale, Ahmet; Senel, Fatma; Özcan, İbrahim

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate potential protective effect of misoprostol on cochlear toxicity caused by gentamicin with electrophysiological tests and histopathological studies. The study included 80 ears of 40 rats with normal hearing threshold and DPOAE value in both ears. Animals were assigned into 4 groups. The rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group I (n = 10): Gentamicin, Group II (n = 10): Gentamicin plus misoprostol, Group III (n = 10): Saline; Group IV (n = 10): Misoprostol. All drugs used in the study were given once daily for 15 days. DPOAE and ABR measurements were repeated after drug administration. Subsequently, the rats' cochleae were examined histopathologically. Baseline DPOAE and ABR values were compared to those obtained after drug exposure and cochlear toxicity was evaluated in electrophysiological manner. When At baseline, there were no significant differences in DPOAE responses at frequencies of 1001, 1501, 2002, 3003, 4004, 6006 and 7996 Hz among groups. However In DPOAE test, statistically significant difference was observed between the pre-study basal values and post-study results in groups other than gentamicin + misoprostol group. Additionally, It was found that there was a significant difference in DPOAE response at frequency of 4004 Hz obtained at baseline and after drug exposure according to measurements of epithelial vacuolization in stria vascularis. While ABR threshold values were compared at baseline, there were no significant difference in ABR threshold values of left and right ear between groups. Histopathologically it was also found that there were significant differences measurements of epithelial vacuolization in stria vascularis and inflammation among groups (p misoprostol, a potent antioxidant, has protective effect against cochlear damage, and that may be a safe alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of pancreatic ductal secretion in protection against acute pancreatitis in mice*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallagi, Petra; Balla, Zsolt; Singh, Anurag K; Dósa, Sándor; Iványi, Béla; Kukor, Zoltán; Tóth, Adél; Riederer, Brigitte; Liu, Yongjian; Engelhardt, Regina; Jármay, Katalin; Szabó, Andrea; Janovszky, Agnes; Perides, George; Venglovecz, Viktória; Maléth, József; Wittmann, Tibor; Takács, Tamás; Gray, Mike A; Gácser, Attila; Hegyi, Péter; Seidler, Ursula; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    A common potentially fatal disease of the pancreas is acute pancreatitis, for which there is no treatment. Most studies of this disorder focus on the damage to acinar cells since they are assumed to be the primary target of multiple stressors affecting the pancreas. However, increasing evidence suggests that the ducts may also have a crucial role in induction of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we sought to determine the specific role of the duct in the induction of acute pancreatitis using well-established disease models and mice with deletion of the Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 that have selectively impaired ductal function. Randomized animal study. Animal research laboratory. Wild-type and Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 knockout mice. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by i.p. administration of cerulein or by intraductal administration of sodium taurocholate. The pancreatic expression of Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (a key player in the control of ductal secretion) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In vivo pancreatic ductal secretion was studied in anesthetized mice. Functions of pancreatic acinar and ductal cells as well as inflammatory cells were analyzed in vitro. Deletion of Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 resulted in gross mislocalization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, causing marked reduction in pancreatic ductal fluid and bicarbonate secretion. Importantly, deletion of Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 had no deleterious effect on functions of acinar and inflammatory cells. Deletion of Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1, which specifically impaired ductal function, increased the severity of acute pancreatitis in the two mouse models tested. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the crucial role of ductal secretion in protecting the pancreas from acute pancreatitis and strongly suggest that improved ductal function should be an

  9. ORGANIC PRODUCTION AND ITS ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica ARSIC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Serbia, as a relatively small country, which dos not have a lot number of comparative advantages in the process of globalization can only be, in addition to human resources, rely on their natural resources. Favorable climate, large areas of arable land and forests, healthy environment conducive to the development of organic farming, which may be a response to the process of European integration and the necessity of trade across national borders. Methods of organic agriculture that are already use in many countries in the world, has shown excellent results in the conservation of soil biodiversity, soil and water purification from pesticides and fertilizers. Biological control of pests, the use of natural substances in disease control, fertilizer use, such as manure and compost to increase soil fertility measures that are in accordance with the requirements of a healthy environment, and measures to allow maintenance of the ecological balance in nature. This paper seeks to address the conditions that are important for organic production and considering the natural resources and new agricultural techniques to reduce pollution by analyzing the controlled production conditions and identify measures for sustainable development of high quality food, protection of ecosystems, as well as maintaining and increasing soil fertility.

  10. Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury causes significant morbidity and mortality in the community and clinic. Various pathologies, including renal and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI, induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide radical anions, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals, that can oxidatively damage biomolecules and membranes, and affect organelle function and induce renal tubule cell injury, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased oxidative damage, and various endogenous and synthetic antioxidants that mitigate source and derived oxidants are beneficial in cell-based and animal studies. However, the benefit of synthetic antioxidant supplementation in human acute kidney injury and renal disease remains to be realized. The endogenous low-molecular weight, non-proteinaceous antioxidant, ascorbate (vitamin C, is a promising therapeutic in human renal injury in critical illness and nephrotoxicity. Ascorbate may exert significant protection by reducing reactive oxygen species and renal oxidative damage via its antioxidant activity, and/or by its non-antioxidant functions in maintaining hydroxylase and monooxygenase enzymes, and endothelium and vascular function. Ascorbate supplementation may be particularly important in renal injury patients with low vitamin C status.

  11. The role of serum antibodies in the protection against rotavirus disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon R; Glass, Roger I

    2002-05-15

    A critical observation in understanding immunity to rotavirus is that children infected with wild virus or vaccinated with oral live vaccines develop a humoral immune response and are protected against severe disease upon reinfection. Nevertheless, much controversy exists as to whether these serum antibodies are directly involved in protection or merely reflect recent infection, leaving the protective role to mucosal or cell-mediated immunity or to other as-yet-undefined mechanisms. We have reviewed data from a variety of studies in humans, including challenge experiments in adult volunteers, longitudinal studies of rotavirus infection in young children, and clinical trials of animal and animal-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines in infants. These data suggest that serum antibodies, if present at critical levels, are either protective themselves or are an important and powerful correlate of protection against rotavirus disease, even though other host effectors may play an important role as well.

  12. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  13. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  14. Genetic evidence strongly support an essential role for PfPV1 in intra-erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Chu

    Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.

  15. Reappraisal of role of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram CV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available C Venkata S RamTexas Blood Pressure Institute, Clinical Research Institute of Dallas Nephrology Associates; and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs have shown cardioprotective and renoprotective properties. These agents are recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. Early studies pointed to the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of ARBs in high-risk patients. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET established the clinical equivalence of the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of telmisartan and ramipril, but did not find an added benefit of the combination over ramipril alone. Similar findings were observed in the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND trial conducted in ACEI-intolerant patients. In ONTARGET, telmisartan had a better tolerability profile with similar renoprotective properties compared with ramipril, suggesting a potential clinical benefit over ramipril. The recently completed Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of Endstage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT and Olmesartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR studies will further define the role of ARBs in cardioprotection and renoprotection for high-risk patients.Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers, hypertension, outcomes, clinical trials

  16. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wilderness protection in Europe : The role of international, European and national law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees

    2016-01-01

    In recent years strong concerns have been raised about the protection of the remaining areas of wilderness in Europe. Despite an extensive human footprint, Europe still retains large areas with a high degree of native and free functioning ecosystems, where roads, buildings, bridges, cables and other

  18. A critical HA1 neutralizing domain of H5N1 influenza in an optimal conformation induces strong cross-protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanying Du

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses, especially the laboratory-generated H5N1 mutants, have demonstrated the potential to cross the species barrier and infect mammals and humans. Consequently, the design of an effective and safe anti-H5N1 vaccine is essential. We previously demonstrated that the full-length hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 could induce significant neutralizing antibody response and protection. Here, we intended to identify the critical neutralizing domain (CND in an optimal conformation that can elicit strong cross-neutralizing antibodies and protection against divergent H5N1 strains. We thus constructed six recombinant proteins covering different regions of HA1 of A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1, each of which was fused with foldon (Fd and Fc of human IgG. We found that the critical fragment fused with Fd/Fc (HA-13-263-Fdc, H5 numbering that could elicit the strongest neutralizing antibody response is located in the N-terminal region of HA1 (residues 13-263, which covers the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 112-263. We then constructed three additional recombinants fused with Fd plus His tag (HA-13-263-Fd-His, Fc only (HA-13-263-Fc, and His tag only (HA-13-263-His, respectively. We found that the HA-13-263-Fdc, which formed an oligomeric conformation, induced the strongest neutralizing antibody response and cross-protection against challenges of two tested H5N1 virus strains covering clade 1: A/VietNam/1194/2004 (VN/1194 or clade 2.3.4: A/Shenzhen/406H/06 (SZ/406H, while HA-13-263-Fc dimer and HA-13-263-Fd-His trimer elicited higher neutralizing antibody response and protection than HA-13-263-His monomer. These results suggest that the oligomeric form of the CND containing the RBD can be further developed as an effective and safe vaccine for cross-protection against divergent strains of H5N1 viruses.

  19. Vaccination with the Mycoplasma suis recombinant adhesion protein MSG1 elicits a strong immune response but fails to induce protection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Katharina; Doser, Susanne; Ritzmann, Mathias; Heinritzi, Karl; Palzer, Andreas; Elicker, Sabine; Kramer, Manuela; Felder, Kathrin M; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2009-08-27

    Mycoplasma suis is the unculturable pathogen of porcine infectious anemia. The study was aimed to determine the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of MSG1, an immunodominant adhesin of M. suis as the first vaccine candidate against M. suis. The results demonstrated that recombinant MSG1 and Escherichia coli transformants expressing MSG1 (E. coli_MSG1) induced a strong humoral and cellular immunity against M. suis. The induced antibodies were found to be functionally active as confirmed by an in vitro adhesion inhibition assay. Both, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were induced, but E. coli_MSG1 immune response was characterized by a significantly higher IgG1 antibody production. Both vaccine candidates failed to protect against M. suis challenge. However, E. coli_MSG1 vaccination has a considerable effect on the severity of the disease as shown by higher post-challenge hemoglobin and hematocrit values in comparison to control groups. This indicated that a high IgG1 antibody titer is negatively connected with severity of M. suis-induced anemia. Furthermore, the induction of monospecific anti-MSG1 antibodies by both vaccine candidates clearly allows for the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). Overall, the importance of MSG1 as potential vaccine candidate remains to be established. Future studies will evaluate the conditions (i.e. adjuvant, vaccination scheme, and application route) to optimize the effects of E. coli_MSG1 vaccines.

  20. Possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver on the kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of eight weeks of a diesel-contaminated diet on liver and kidney of Wistar Albino rats, as well as the possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver. There was a significant increase in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of rats fed with ...

  1. The role of religious values in extending social protection: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects critically on the role played by religious networks – in particular the African Independent Churches or African Initiated Churches (AICs) – in enhancing social protection by means of informal coping mechanisms in the South African context. It also examines various factors that contribute towards informal ...

  2. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  3. The role of digitization on data protection and recovery in libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man made and natural disasters lead to loss of information resources and digital data which digitization, backup and cloud storage of digital information resources and data curbs. The findings further revealed that a greater percentage of the respondents do not perceive the role digitization play in data protection and ...

  4. Stressful Events and Depression among Chinese Adolescents: The Mitigating Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Hailei; Gong, Yanming; Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of salient external factors (family, peer and school caring relations) and internal factors (goals and aspirations, problem solving and self-efficacy, empathy, and self-awareness) in protecting adolescents experiencing interpersonal problems and academic pressure from depression. A total of 1,297 eighth and ninth grade…

  5. Selenium in bone health: roles in antioxidant protection and cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation ...

  6. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Juan C; Herren, Jeremy K; Schüpfer, Fanny; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-07-12

    their offspring, and some protect their host against pathogens. Here, we studied the mechanism of protection against parasitoid wasps mediated by the Drosophila melanogaster endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Using genetic manipulation of the host, we provide strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that competition for host lipids underlies S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps. We propose that lipid competition-based protection may not be restricted to Spiroplasma bacteria but could also apply other endosymbionts, notably Wolbachia bacteria, which can suppress human disease-causing viruses in insect hosts. Copyright © 2016 Paredes et al.

  7. Protection of endangered intangible assets specific insight into the role of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2011-01-01

    intangible assets protection. Therefore, apart from being a special method, the law has been incorporated into many other methods of protection. This paper includes principles, pre-requirements of prevention end methods of protection of intangible assets as well as a specific insight into the role and significance of the law.

  8. Essential role of Nrf2 in keratinocyte protection from UVA by quercetin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shintarou [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Warabi, Eiji, E-mail: warabi-e@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yanagawa, Toru; Ma, Dongmei [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Itoh, Ken [Department of Stress Response Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki (Japan); Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Tetsuro [Majors of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Much of the cell injury caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin is a major natural polyphenol that is known to protect cells from UVA-induced damage. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this protection. Quercetin pretreatment strongly suppressed UVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, markedly increased protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the expression of antioxidative genes, and dramatically reduced the production of reactive oxygen species following UVA irradiation. Importantly, these beneficial effects were greatly attenuated by downregulating Nrf2 expression. Thus, quercetin protects cells from UVA damage mainly by elevating intracellular antioxidative activity via the enhanced accumulation of a transcription factor for antioxidant genes, Nrf2.

  9. Protective role of p21(Waf1/Cip1) against prostaglandin A2-mediated apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, M; Wang, X; Guyton, K Z; Holbrook, N J

    1996-01-01

    Prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) suppresses tumor growth in vivo, is potently antiproliferative in vitro, and is a model drug for the study of the mammalian stress response. Our previous studies using breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells suggested that p21(Waf1/Cip1) induction enabled cells to survive PGA2 exposure. Indeed, the marked sensitivity of human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells to the cytotoxicity of PGA2 is known to be associated with a lack of a PGA2-mediated increase in p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity, and growth arrest. To determine if cell death following exposure to PGA2 could be prevented by forcing the expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in RKO cells, we utilized an adenoviral vector-based expression system. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) largely rescued RKO cells from PGA2-induced apoptotic cell death, directly implicating p21(Waf1/Cip1) as a determinant of the cellular outcome (survival versus death) following exposure to PGA2. To discern whether p21(Waf1/Cip1)-mediated protection operates through the implementation of cellular growth arrest, other growth-inhibitory treatments were studied for the ability to attenuate PGA2-induced cell death. Neither serum depletion nor suramin (a growth factor receptor antagonist) protected RKO cells against PGA2 cytotoxicity, and neither induced p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression. Mimosine, however, enhanced p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression, completely inhibited RKO cell proliferation, and exerted marked protection against a subsequent PGA2 challenge. Taken together, our results directly demonstrate a protective role for p21(Waf1/Cip1) during PGA2 cellular stress and provide strong evidence that the implementation of cellular growth arrest contributes to this protective influence. PMID:8943319

  10. Potential protective role of bariatric surgery against breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide especially due to the metabolic disorders which seem to be induced by an excessive amount of adipose tissue. Therefore attention was focused on evaluating the role of bariatric surgery in order to offer a better control of the comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension or dyslipidemia which are widely accepted as causes of increased morbidity and mortality among obese patients. Once these benefits have been widely demonstrated, attention was focused on studying the potential protective role of bariatric surgery against development of various malignancies such a breast, endometrial, pancreatic or even colorectal cancer. This is a literature review regarding the potential protective role of bariatric surgery against breast cancer among obese women worldwide.

  11. Understanding and protecting the world's biodiversity: the role and legacy of the SCAR programme "Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Prisco, Guido; Convey, Peter; Gutt, Julian; Cowan, Don; Conlan, Kathleen; Verde, Cinzia

    2012-12-01

    Current global changes are prompting scientists and governments to consider the risk of extinction of species inhabiting environments influenced by ice. Concerted, multidisciplinary, international programmes aimed at understanding life processes, evolution and adaptations in the Polar Regions will help to counteract such an event by protecting polar life and ecosystems. There is a long tradition of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica that provides a strong foundation for such approaches. While basic understanding is emerging, we still largely lack predictive biological models, and need to achieve further integration amongst biological and non-biological disciplines. The ongoing SCAR Science Research Programme, "Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic (EBA)" has successfully carried out its crucial role of providing an overarching umbrella for SCAR research in Life Sciences. Now is the time for aiming to progress beyond this important role, and the Antarctic biology community is proposing two programmes, focussed on distinct but complementary aspects of polar biology and working across marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments: "State of the Antarctic Ecosystem (AntEco)", and "Antarctic Thresholds--Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation (AnT-ERA)". These programmes are the legacy of EBA, and they are key to understanding and protect Antarctic biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tpp1/Acd maintains genomic stability through a complex role in telomere protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Tobias; Theisen, Brian K; Wu, Yipin; Hutz, Janna E; Keegan, Catherine E; Hammer, Gary D; Ferguson, David O

    2007-01-01

    Telomeres serve to protect the ends of chromosomes, and failure to maintain telomeres can lead to dramatic genomic instability. Human TPP1 was identified as a protein which interacts with components of a telomere cap complex, but does not directly bind to telomeric DNA. While biochemical interactions indicate a function in telomere biology, much remains to be learned regarding the roles of TPP1 in vivo. We previously reported the positional cloning of the gene responsible for the adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) mouse phenotype, which revealed a mutation in the mouse homologue encoding TPP1. We find that cells from homozygous acd mice harbor chromosomes fused at telomere sequences, demonstrating a role in telomere protection in vivo. Surprisingly, our studies also reveal fusions and radial structures lacking internal telomere sequences, which are not anticipated from a simple deficiency in telomere protection. Employing spectral karyotyping and telomere FISH in a combined approach, we have uncovered a striking pattern; fusions with telomeric sequences involve nonhomologous chromosomes while those lacking telomeric sequences involve homologues. Together, these studies show that Tpp1/Acd plays a vital role in telomere protection, but likely has additional functions yet to be defined.

  13. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    regional scales, taking into account the need for creating ecological connectivity between protected areas. We are particularly interested in defining opportunities in which traditional "working landscapes", such as large ranches in western North America, play a functional role in enhancing connectivity in the near-term as well as into the future. Based on our own work and that of others, we define the scientific roadmap for identifying and selecting corridors that are robust to climate change and other stressors and that are politically and socially viable as an adaptation strategy.

  14. Unexpected role for IL-17 in protective immunity against hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis HN878 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Radha; Monin, Leticia; Slight, Samantha; Uche, Uzodinma; Blanchard, Emmeline; Fallert Junecko, Beth A; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Stallings, Christina L; Reinhart, Todd A; Kolls, Jay K; Kaushal, Deepak; Nagarajan, Uma; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Khader, Shabaana A

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects one third of the world's population. Among these infections, clinical isolates belonging to the W-Beijing appear to be emerging, representing about 50% of Mtb isolates in East Asia, and about 13% of all Mtb isolates worldwide. In animal models, infection with W-Beijing strain, Mtb HN878, is considered "hypervirulent" as it results in increased mortality and causes exacerbated immunopathology in infected animals. We had previously shown the Interleukin (IL) -17 pathway is dispensable for primary immunity against infection with the lab adapted Mtb H37Rv strain. However, it is not known whether IL-17 has any role to play in protective immunity against infection with clinical Mtb isolates. We report here that lab adapted Mtb strains, such as H37Rv, or less virulent Mtb clinical isolates, such as Mtb CDC1551, do not require IL-17 for protective immunity against infection while infection with Mtb HN878 requires IL-17 for early protective immunity. Unexpectedly, Mtb HN878 induces robust production of IL-1β through a TLR-2-dependent mechanism, which supports potent IL-17 responses. We also show that the role for IL-17 in mediating protective immunity against Mtb HN878 is through IL-17 Receptor signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, mediating the induction of the chemokine, CXCL-13, which is required for localization of T cells within lung lymphoid follicles. Correct T cell localization within lymphoid follicles in the lung is required for maximal macrophage activation and Mtb control. Since IL-17 has a critical role in vaccine-induced immunity against TB, our results have far reaching implications for the design of vaccines and therapies to prevent and treat emerging Mtb strains. In addition, our data changes the existing paradigm that IL-17 is dispensable for primary immunity against Mtb infection, and instead suggests a differential role for IL-17 in early protective immunity against

  15. Preparation of strongly fluorescent silica nanoparticles of polyelectrolyte-protected cadmium telluride quantum dots and their application to cell toxicity and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianhua; Xie Lian; Zhang Bin; Qiu Ting; Qi Bin; Xie Hongping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The staining effect of the control group (a), QDs-SiO 2 (b) and QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 (c). Highlights: ► The fluorescence intensity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is stronger than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The fluorescence stability of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 is better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . ► The cytotoxicity of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was lower than that of QDs-SiO 2 ► The staining effect of QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 was much better than that of QDs-SiO 2 . - Abstract: Based on the polyelectrolyte-protected CdTe quantum dots (QDs), which were prepared by self-assembling of QDs and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) in the help of electrostatic attraction, the strong fluorescence silica nanoparticles (QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 ) have been prepared via a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion method. Transmission electron microscopy and Zeta potential analysis were used to characterize the as-prepared nanoparticles. All of the particles were almost spherical and there is a uniform distribution of the particle size with the average diameter about 25 nm. There is a large Zeta potential of −35.07 mV which is necessary for good monodispersity of nanoparticles solution. As compared with the QDs coated by SiO 2 (QDs-SiO 2 ), the QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 nanoparticles have much stronger fluorescence, and their fluorescence stability could be obviously improved. Moreover, QDs-PDADMAC-SiO 2 exhibits good biological compatibility which promotes their application in cellular imaging.

  16. Legal status, role and competencies of the commissioner for protection of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Commissioner for Protection of Equality is an autonomous and independent state authority established on the basis of the Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (2009, as a central national institution for protection from and suppression of discrimination. The article analyses the legal profile and position of the institution within the legal system, the role and scope of its authority in preventing and reacting to discrimination. In addition, the Commissioner’s acting upon complaints has been considered, as well as so-called strategic litigation, its potentials, and the indicators used for identifying strategically important cases of discrimination, and the requirements for initiating strategic litigation.

  17. The protective role of body appreciation against media-induced body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed before and after advertisement exposure, and state measures of self-objectification, appearance comparison, and media protective strategies were completed. Results indicated that body appreciation predicted less change in body dissatisfaction following exposure, such that participants with low body appreciation experienced increased body dissatisfaction, while those with high body appreciation did not. Although state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction, neither state self-objectification nor appearance comparison accounted for body appreciation's protective effect. Trait and state media protective strategies positively correlated with body appreciation, but also did not account for body appreciation's protective effect. The results point to intervention targets and highlight future research directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Protective factors among homeless youth: the role of natural mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T; Conger, Katherine J; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the presence and characteristics of natural mentors among 197 homeless youth and the association between natural mentoring relationships and youth functioning. Few studies have explored protective factors in the lives of homeless youth and how these may buffer against poor health outcomes. Relationships with natural mentors have been shown to have protective effects on adolescent functioning among the general adolescent population, and, thus, warrant further investigation with homeless youth. Results from this study revealed that 73.6% of homeless youth have natural mentoring relationships, split between kin and non-kin relationships. Having a natural mentor was associated with higher satisfaction with social support and fewer risky sexual behaviors. Findings suggest that natural mentors may play a protective role in the lives of homeless youth and should be considered an important source of social support that may enhance youth resilience.

  19. Hostility and hearing protection behavior: the mediating role of personal beliefs and low frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-10-01

    The authors examined whether hostility would negatively be associated with occupational health behavior, namely, the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Also examined as possible mediators were the protection motivation theory (PMT) components and low frustration tolerance (LFT). Participants were 226 male industrial workers, all exposed to potentially hearing-damaging noise. Hostility was negatively related to HPD use. It moderately correlated with the PMT components: negatively with perceived susceptibility, severity, effectiveness, and self-efficacy and positively with perceived barriers. Hostility correlated highly with LFT. Regression analyses confirmed the mediating role of perceived barriers, low self-efficacy, and LFT in the negative relationship between hostility and the use of HPDs. Thus, intrapsychic characteristics of hostile people may be significant for hearing protection behavior.

  20. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Poinssot, Benoît; Gauthier, Adrien; Paris, Franck; Guillier, Christelle; Combier, Maud; Trdá, Lucie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of "PAMP, MAMP, and DAMP (Pathogen-, Microbe-, Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns) type" oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure/activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora.

  1. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bikle, Daniel D., E-mail: daniel.bikle@ucsf.edu; Jiang, Yan [Department of Medicine and Endocrine, Research Unit and Department of Dermatology, VA Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, 4150 Clement St (111N), San Francisco, CA 94121 (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC.

  2. The Protective Role of Vitamin D Signaling in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Jiang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although the epidemiologic evidence that adequate vitamin D nutrition protects against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is limited, recent evidence that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is protective is compelling. The role of vitamin D signaling in limiting the proliferation while promoting the differentiation of keratinocytes, the major cell in the epidermis from which NMSC are derived, is well known. However, recent findings that mice lacking the VDR are predisposed to skin cancer has brought to the fore the question of how the VDR is protective. In this review we will look first at the role of vitamin D signaling in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. We will examine two pathways, β-catenin (CTNNB) and hedgehog (HH), that are regulated by vitamin D signaling and may contribute to the dysregulated proliferation and differentiation in the absence of VDR. We will then examine the failure of VDR deficient keratinocytes to repair DNA damaged by UVB. Finally we will examine the change in long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) expression in VDR null keratinocytes that in other cells is associated with malignant transformation, a potential newly appreciated mechanism by which vitamin D signaling is protective against NMSC

  3. Investigations on the protective role of passively transferred antibodies against avian metapneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is the causative agent of an acute respiratory disease in turkeys, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Currently attenuated live and inactivated vaccines are widely used to control the disease, but vaccine breaks are frequently observed. For improvement of current vaccination strategies it is necessary to gain enhanced knowledge of the immune mechanisms against aMPV infection. Field observations suggest that vaccine-induced aMPV-specific antibodies are not indicative for protection. In the present study we investigated the role of antibodies in protection of turkeys against aMPV. In two experiments, commercial turkey poults received aMPV-specific antibodies by intravenous injection. The antibody transfer resulted in increased antibody levels in the sera. Virus-specific antibodies were also detected on mucosal surfaces such as the trachea, conjunctivae and gall bladder. Turkeys were subsequently challenged with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Development of clinical signs, virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and histopathological changes of tracheal mucosa in challenged turkeys with and without passively transferred antibodies were comparable with each other. Our results suggest that humoral immunity does not provide sufficient protection against aMPV infection. Thus, the measurement of vaccine-induced aMPV antibody response may not be considered as an adequate indicator of vaccine efficacy. Further research on the protective role of cell-mediated immune mechanisms is necessary to improve current vaccine strategies.

  4. Possible mechanism of adenosine protection in carbon tetrachloride acute hepatotoxicity. Role of adenosine by-products and glutathione peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Yáñez, L; Vidrio, S; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1995-02-01

    Adenosine proved to be an effective hepatoprotector increasing the survival rate of rats receiving lethal doses of CCl4. Searching for the mechanism of action, we found that adenosine transiently prevents the necrotic liver damage associated to an acute CCl4 treatment. The antilipoperoxidative action of the nucleoside was evidenced by a decrease of TBA-reactive products and the diene conjugates elicited by the hepatotoxin. Adenosine's protective effect was demonstrated by reverting the decrease of cytochrome P-450 while preserved intact the activity of the microsomal enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. CCl4 promoted an increase in the oxidant stress through an enhancement in oxidized glutathione levels. This action was also completely counteracted by the nucleoside. Adenosine was unable to prevent CCl4 activation and, even, increased .CCl3 formation in the presence of PBN in vivo. However, in the presence of the nucleoside, irreversible binding of 14CCl4 to the microsomal lipid fraction of the treated animals was decreased. These results suggest that adenosine protective action might be exerted at the level of the propagation reaction following CCl4 activation. Two possible mechanisms were associated to the nucleoside protection: (1) the peroxide-metabolyzed enzymes, GSH-per, showed a marked increase after 30 minutes of adenosine treatment, which was potentiated by the hepatotoxin, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in the nucleoside's action; (2) the adenosine catabolism induced an increase in uric acid level, and allopurinol, a purine metabolism inhibitor, prevented such elevation as well as the antilipoperoxidative action of adenosine and the increase of GSH-per associated with the nucleoside treatment. These facts strongly suggest that the protective effect elicited by adenosine is not a direct one, but rather is related to its catabolic products, such as uric acid, which has been recognized as a free radical scavenger.

  5. Role of the engineer in protecting personnel and the environment in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The engineer plays a key role in protecting both people and the environment from the adverse effects of radioactive materials. The nature of the hazards and some of the problems associated with plutonium and tritium operations are discussed and the solutions provided by sound engineering facility design are shown. Facility designs have been required for operations involving 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 3 H, and the different properties of these isotopes require differing solutions to design problems

  6. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  7. Social Differentiation of Sun-Protection Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Fressard, Lisa; Legleye, Stéphane; Verger, Pierre; Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Adherence to sun-protection guidelines in developed countries is low, especially among people of low SES. Mechanisms underlying this social differentiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the social differentiation of sun-protection behaviors and of two cognitive factors (knowledge about both sun health and behavioral risk factors for cancer) and to determine if these cognitive factors mediate the association between SES and sun-protection behaviors. Data came from the 2010 Baromètre Cancer survey (analyzed in 2014), a random cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among the French general population (n=3,359 individuals aged 15-75 years). First, bivariate associations between a composite individual SES indicator (based on education level, occupation, and income) and both sun-protection behaviors and cognitive factors were tested with chi-square tests and ANOVA. Then, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the mediating role of cognitive factors with a multiple mediation model including four latent variables. In bivariate analyses, the individual SES indicator was positively associated with sun-protection behaviors and both cognitive factors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that both cognitive factors partially mediated the effect of individual SES on sun-protection behaviors. The overall proportion of mediated effects was 48%. The direct effect of SES remained significant. These results suggest that interventions aimed at modifying the knowledge and perceptions of people of low SES might help to reduce social differentiation of sun-protection behaviors. Further qualitative research is needed to better understand these cognitive factors and develop suitable prevention messages. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of mental imagery in depression: Negative mental imagery induces strong implicit and explicit affect in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Maria Görgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM to assess implicit (AMP and explicit (SAM affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32 compared to healthy controls (n = 32. In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression such as the promotion of positive imagery.

  9. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M; Langston, R F

    2006-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process where labile memory traces become long-lasting, stable memories. Previous work has demonstrated that spatial memory consolidation, several days after training in a water maze had ceased, can be disrupted by a temporary intra hippocampal infusion of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate antagonist LY326325 (Riedel et al., 1999). Such reversible pharmacological techniques offer advantages over the permanent lesion studies that had first suggested a role for the hippocampus in memory consolidation. However, to date the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in such systems level processes remains controversial with evidence for impairments and augmentation of performance. Here we investigate the role of post-training hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in rats and mice on the consolidation of weak and strong memory traces using an Atlantis water maze protocol. A hidden Atlantis platform was employed and rats (experiments 1 and 2) and mice (experiment 3) were required to dwell within 20 cm of the trained location to activate and subsequently reveal the escape platform. In experiments 1 and 3 a strong memory trace was established by training rats or mice for several days in the water maze. In experiment 2 a significantly weaker trace was instituted by reducing the training period. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade was induced after the last training trial and continued for seven days. Reliable memory for the trained platform location in a retention test 15 days after the last training day demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade did not affect memory consolidation in rats or mice. Our results also show that post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade can lead to better performance in further retention tests conducted after the consolidation and drug administration period. Those data suggest that specific post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade

  10. Protective Role of Passively Transferred Maternal Cytokines against Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Shokrollah; Thompson, David R; Van Kessel, Jill; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Maternal vaccination represents a potential strategy to protect both the mother and the offspring against life-threatening infections. This protective role has mainly been associated with antibodies, but the role of cell-mediated immunity, in particular passively transferred cytokines, is not well understood. Here, using a pertussis model, we have demonstrated that immunization of pregnant sows with heat-inactivated bacteria leads to induction of a wide range of cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, and IL-12/IL-23p40) in addition to pertussis-specific antibodies. These cytokines can be detected in the sera and colostrum/milk of vaccinated sows and subsequently were detected at significant levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of piglets born to vaccinated sows together with pertussis-specific antibodies. In contrast, active vaccination of newborn piglets with heat-inactivated bacteria induced high levels of specific IgG and IgA but no cytokines. Although the levels of antibodies in vaccinated piglets were comparable to those of passively transferred antibodies, no protection against Bordetella pertussis infection was observed. Thus, our results demonstrate that a combination of passively transferred cytokines and antibodies is crucial for disease protection. The presence of passively transferred cytokines/antibodies influences the cytokine secretion ability of splenocytes in the neonate, which provides novel evidence that maternal immunization can influence the newborn's cytokine milieu and may impact immune cell differentiation (e.g., Th1/Th2 phenotype). Therefore, these maternally derived cytokines may play an essential role both as mediators of early defense against infections and possibly as modulators of the immune repertoire of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Novel protective role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4 receptors in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Liang, Bruce T

    2014-05-01

    Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction-induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Self-Conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2015-01-01

    Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included: 1) determining if fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, 2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and 3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-conscious shyness increased across toddlerhood, but onset was earlier than predicted by theory. Fearful shyness (observed [6 and 12 months] and parents' reports [12 and 22 months]) was not predictive of self-conscious shyness. Independent genetic factors made strong contributions to parent-reported (but not observed) fearful shyness (additive genetic influence = .69 and .72 at 12 and 22 months, respectively) and self-conscious shyness (additive genetic influence = .90 for the growth model intercept). Results encourage future investigation of patterns of change and interrelations in shyness subtypes.

  13. The role of the protected area concept in protecting the world’s largest natural reserve: Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Bastmeijer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Should the entire Antarctic continent and the surrounding islands be recognised as a ‘protected area’ or as a continent where certain areas, just like anywhere else, may be designated as protected areas? To find an answer to this question, this paper first discusses the most important agreements and declarations on environmental protection in Antarctica. Next, these instruments are compared with the components of IUCN’s ‘protected area’ definition (2008. In the light of this overall protection of Antarctica, the instrument of designating areas as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs is discussed on the basis of a quick scan of 42 management plans for existing ASPAs. It is concluded that Antarctica could indeed be considered as a protected area and that the ASPA instrument is so shaped to provide specific areas with ‘extra protection’ by regulating human activities in those areas with a high level of detail. However, the continuous increase in human activities in Antarctica raises concerns with respect to the scope and completeness of the existing legal instruments. These concerns regarding the overall protection of Antarctica could become an argument for applying the ASPA instrument in respect of larger areas to ensure the comprehensive protection of at least certain parts of Antarctica. This would make the ASPA system more comparable with protected area systems in other parts of the world; however, strengthening the overall protection of Antarctica – parallel to the further development of the ‘specially’ protected area system - would be more consistent with Antarctica’s protected status as has developed since the Antarctic Treaty was signed 50 years ago.

  14. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naglaa Mohamed Samir Mohamed El hansi

    2013-01-01

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  15. Protective role of gamma/delta T cells and alpha/beta T cells in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladel, C H; Blum, C; Dreher, A; Reifenberg, K; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease which causes major health problems globally. Although acquired resistance crucially depends on alpha/beta lymphocytes, circumstantial evidence suggests that, in addition, gamma/delta T lymphocytes contribute to protection against tuberculosis. We have studied Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in TcR-delta-/- or TcR-beta-/- gene deletion mutants which completely lack gamma/delta T cells or alpha/beta T cells, respectively. Low inocula of M. tuberculosis led to death of TcR-beta-/- mice and transient disease exacerbation in TcR-delta-/- mutants. Infection with higher inocula caused rapid death of TcR-delta-/- mice. The development of and bacterial containment in granulomatous lesions was markedly impaired in TcR-beta-/-, and less severely affected in TcR-delta-/- mutants. Mycobacteria-induced IFN-gamma production by spleen cells in vitro was almost abolished in TcR-beta-/- and virtually unaffected in TcR-delta-/- mice. Our data confirm the crucial role of alpha/beta T cells in protection against established tuberculosis and formally prove a protective role of gamma/delta T cells in early tuberculosis.

  16. Role of Equatorial Anomaly in Earthquake time precursive features: A few strong events over West Pacific zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Minakshi; Patgiri, S.; Barbara, A. K.; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Ryu, K.; Depuev, V.; Depueva, A.

    2018-03-01

    The earthquake (EQ) time coupling processes between equator-low-mid latitude ionosphere are complex due to inherent dynamical status of each latitudinal zone and qualified geomagnetic roles working in the system. In an attempt to identify such process, the paper presents temporal and latitudinal variations of ionization density (foF2) covering 45°N to 35°S, during a number of earthquake events (M > 5.5). The approaches adopted for extraction of features by the earthquake induced preparatory processes are discussed in the paper through identification of parameters like the 'EQ time modification in density gradient' defined by δ = (foF2 max - foF2 min)/τmm, where τmm - time span (in days) between EQ modified density maximum and minimum, and the Earthquake time Equatorial Anomaly, i.e. EEA, one of the most significant phenomenon which develops even during night time irrespective of epicenter position. Based on the observations, the paper presents the seismic time coupling dynamics through anomaly like manifestations between equator, low and mid latitude ionosphere bringing in the global Total Electron Content (TEC) features as supporting indices.

  17. The Potential Protective Role of Peer Relationships on School Engagement in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Jacqueline O; Villodas, Miguel T

    2017-11-01

    Negative outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences are well established, but little is known about protective factors that could promote positive adjustment among high-risk youth. This study examined the potential protective role of positive peer relationships in the association between adverse childhood experiences and school engagement among at-risk adolescents. Data were collected prospectively from birth until age 16 from 831 diverse adolescents (52.6% female; 54% African American, 24% Caucasian) who were at-risk for family violence and their caregivers. The significant and negative associations between adversities and school engagement outcomes at age 16 were mitigated by peer intimacy and companionship and exacerbated by peer conflict. The findings underscore the importance of fostering positive peer relationships for improving school engagement among at-risk adolescents.

  18. Protective roles of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhui; Shi, Yingying; He, Lian; Hao, Hairong; Wang, Baolan; Zheng, Yulong; Hu, Chengping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the protective effects of polysaccharides from (PGL) Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Our study demonstrated that treatment with PGL of 100-300mg/kg for 28 days led to significant reduction in the pulmonary index, inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with increased levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase and decreased contents of malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline in the lung. These results indicated that PGL played a positive protective role in the pulmonary fibrosis and its possible mechanism was to improve lung antioxidant ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  20. New insights into the non-hemostatic role of von Willebrand factor in endothelial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Silvia; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    During exposure to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) insult, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) upregulation in endothelial cells progressively impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability while increasing levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and leading to the onset of endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, the overexpression of ET-1 increases the endothelial and circulating levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a glycoprotein with a crucial role in arterial thrombus formation. Nowadays, the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF is emerging, although we do not yet know whether its increased expression is cause or consequence of endothelial dysfunction. Notably, the vWF blockade or depletion leads to endothelial protection in cultured cells, animal models of vascular injury, and patients as well. Despite the recent efforts to develop an effective pharmacological strategy, the onset of endothelial dysfunction is still difficult to prevent and remains closely related to adverse clinical outcome. Unraveling the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF in the onset of endothelial dysfunction could provide new avenues for protection against vascular injury mediated by AngII.

  1. The Protective Role of PAC1-Receptor Agonist Maxadilan in BCCAO-Induced Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaczy, A; Reglodi, D; Somoskeoy, T; Kovacs, K; Lokos, E; Szabo, E; Tamas, A; Atlasz, T

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have proven that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is protective in neurodegenerative diseases. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes severe degeneration in the rat retina. In our previous studies, protective effects were observed with PACAP1-38, PACAP1-27, and VIP but not with their related peptides, glucagon, or secretin in BCCAO. All three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2) appear in the retina. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the retinoprotective effects are most probably mainly mediated by the PAC1 receptor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the retinoprotective effects of a selective PAC1-receptor agonist maxadilan in BCCAO-induced retinopathy. Wistar rats were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eye was treated with intravitreal maxadilan (0.1 or 1 μM), while the left eye was injected with vehicle. Sham-operated rats received the same treatment. Two weeks after the operation, retinas were processed for standard morphometric and molecular analysis. Intravitreal injection of 0.1 or 1 μM maxadilan caused significant protection in the thickness of most retinal layers and the number of cells in the GCL compared to the BCCAO-operated eyes. In addition, 1 μM maxadilan application was more effective than 0.1 μM maxadilan treatment in the ONL, INL, IPL, and the entire retina (OLM-ILM). Maxadilan treatment significantly decreased cytokine expression (CINC-1, IL-1α, and L-selectin) in ischemia. In summary, our histological and molecular analysis showed that maxadilan, a selective PAC1 receptor agonist, has a protective role in BCCAO-induced retinal degeneration, further supporting the role of PAC1 receptor conveying the retinoprotective effects of PACAP.

  2. The role of the Romanian Society for Radiological Protection and mass media in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Glodeanu, Florian

    2011-01-01

    accepted by all participants, developed and passed on to future generations. Due to the variety of applications of radioactivity and ionizing radiation, the actors involved in radiation protection culture include professionals and non-professional members of society: politicians, entrepreneurs, NGOs, associations and societies, groups and parties, professional organizations, patients, media, schools and universities and the general public, as well. The main actors in disseminating the culture of radiation protection are professionals in this field and mass media. In effecting their profession they must act as communicators of scientific information, improving the public perception about the risks and benefits of radiation and radioactivity. The Romanian Society of Radiation Protection, the professional organization of practitioners in this area has among its main objectives to promote a culture of radiation protection and improvement of public perception through communication and involvement. Despite substantial efforts to disseminate information on radiation protection, sociological research shows that the average Romanian citizen has no adequate knowledge to make its own decisions. In this direction, radiation protection professionals should address effective communication methods such as 'exchange of information and opinions' and the involvement of interested groups in decision making. Mass media plays an important role in communicating with the public. The recent accident in Japan had a massive coverage in all media. On the other hand, the media must obtain the economic efficiency of published or broadcast news based on audience, according to the principle 'a bad news story is a profitable'. In addition journalists are poorly informed about the topics of radiation protection and have limited editorial space available to educate the public. (authors)

  3. On IAEA's role in radiation protection, with focus on Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.

    2010-01-01

    The safety functions of IAEA are to establish standards of radiation safety, to provide for the application of international standards and to facilitate and service international conventions and other undertakings. The IAEA Safety Standards are: . Not binding on Member States but may be adopted by them. . Binding for IAEA.s own activities. . Binding on States in relations to operations assisted by the IAEA. . Binding on States wishing to enter into project agreements with IAEA. The Categories of the Standards are:- 8 - Safety Fundamentals: Set out principles for protecting people and the environment - Safety Requirements: Establish requirements: what has to be done (.shalls.) to apply these principles in meeting objectives - Safety Guides: Set out recommended ways (.shoulds.) of meeting the requirements IAEA Process Flow for the Development of IAEA The Overall Priorities of IAEA are to:- . Setting high quality safety standards & promoting their wider use and application; . Maintain current level of use of IAEA peer reviews and advisory services by Member States; . Encourage wide adherence to the international instruments such as the Code of Conduct on safety and security of radioactive sources and the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and safety of radioactive waste management; . Develop capabilities for capacity building in safety, including creation of reference training centres for education in radiation safety. Challenges for IAEA include:- Future expections Uranium industry Protection of the environment Increased use of radioactive sources Medical application Trans-boundary movement of radioactive material Scientific challenges in radiation protection Needs in radiation protection bases Role of IAEA on radiation protection bases

  4. The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate students. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of narcissism on health behaviors. Narcissism was positively predictive of alcohol use, marijuana use, and risky driving behaviors, and it was associated with an increased likelihood of consistently having a healthy eating pattern. Narcissism was also positively predictive of physical activity. Results are discussed with reference to the potential short-term and long-term health implications and the need for future research on the factors involved in the relationship between narcissism and health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Roles of Catalase and Trehalose in the Protection from Hydrogen Peroxide Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Watanabe, Takeru; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment. These results suggest that Catalase T is critical in the yeast response to oxidative damage caused by H2O2 treatment, but trehalose also plays a role in protection against H2O2 treatment.

  6. The Protective Role of Friendship Quality on the Wellbeing of Adolescents Victimized by Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Olga; Berger, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Although studies on peer relations acknowledge that having friends constitutes a protective factor against being victimized by peers at school, it is not enough for this factor to operate. The quality of these friendships does play a role too. The present study explored the moderating role of friendship-quality dimensions (closeness, support, disclosure, and affection) on peer victimization and wellbeing. 614 young adolescents (4th to 6th graders, 50.1 % girls) were assessed three times over 1 year. Analyses were conducted to determine moderation effects, differentiated by gender. Results showed that only disclosure and support interact with victimization and affect wellbeing, especially for girls. Implications for studying peer relations, acknowledging gender differences, are discussed.

  7. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Futoshi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  8. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V

    2005-01-31

    We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  10. Organizational change and employees' mental health: the protective role of sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahkin, Krista; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Bergbom, Barbara; Kouvonen, Anne

    2011-02-01

    To examine the impact of sense of coherence (SOC) on psychiatric events in the context of organizational merger. Data were derived from a prospective "Still Working" study using questionnaire and health register data. The study population (n = 4279) consisted of employees with no psychiatric events prior to the 5-year mental health follow-up. Employees with a weaker premerger SOC were at a higher risk of perceiving the organizational change negatively (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.57 to 2.14) and had an elevated risk of postmerger psychiatric events (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.94). A stronger SOC decreased the adverse effect of negative appraisal of change on psychiatric events. A strong premerger SOC seems to be a protective factor for mental health when the employee experiences negative changes during an organizational merger.

  11. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  12. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Etienne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee's main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4(+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses.

  13. Evaluation of the protective and curative role of curcumin and venoruton against biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) and venoruton [O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides] are powerful antioxidants and are important in protecting the cells from damage. The present study aims to evaluate the role of curcumin alone and curcumin with venoruton on radiation-induced changes in male rats exposed to a dose of 5 Gy gamma irradiation. Experimental analyses were performed 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation in all animal groups. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in decrease in glutathione content and SOD, G6PD and CPK activities and increase in lactate dehydrogenase and GOT activities and creatinine level. The results obtained showed that treatment of rats with olive oil pre and post-irradiation has significantly minimized radiation-induced changes. Curcumin dissolved in olive oil pre and post-irradiation significantly improved the radiation-induced changes while administration of venoruton with curcumin in olive oil provided a better amelioration. It could be concluded that, curcumin in olive oil plus venoruton showed an obvious protective and curative role against the hazards of gamma radiation in male rats

  14. Aluminum-induced molecular neurodegeneration: The protective role of genistein and chickpea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, M M; Mohammed, D S; Newairy, A A; Abdou, H M; Zaky, A

    2017-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of Al is well established and linked to oxidative damage and neurodegeneration. This study investigated the protective role of genistein (Gen) and chickpea extract (CPE) against AlCl 3 -induced neurodegeneration. HPLC analysis revealed that biochanin A-7-O-β-D-glucoside and biochanin A are the major components of the CPE. Gene expression of TNF-α, APP, BACE1, PSEN-2 and ER-β were assessed in brain extract using RT-PCR. Also, NF-кB subunit P65 and COX-2 expression were evaluated by western blotting. The cholinergic function, histological examination and oxidative status were also estimated. The AlCl 3 significantly up regulated the expression of the NF-кB subunit P65, COX-2, TNF- α, BACE1and APP while it significantly down regulated PSEN-2 and ER-β expression. The activity of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and the oxidative stress parameters as well as the histological examination confirmed the deleterious effect of AlCl 3 . The administration of either CPE or Gen attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, inhibited the amyloidogenesis and restored both the AChE activity and ER-β expression. Gen and CPE also inhibited the oxidative stress and ameliorated the histological alterations. Accordingly, the present study provides an insight on the molecular role of Gen and CPE as protective agents against neuronal injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of the riparian vegetation: the antagonism between flooding risk and the protection of environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetti Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, man has domesticated his environment and caused the modification of hydraulic conditions during floods. In parallel, civil engineering has strongly progressed in the domain of hydraulic structures but especially the construction of dams and dikes has also massively increased and part of the population has lost the culture of risk by thinking they were completely out of danger from flooding. Events of hydrometeorological origin over the last 25 years has reminded man that the hydraulic infrastructures in place for a few centuries now, are not unalterable. An unmanaged vegetal colonization along the edge of watercourses (protection dikes, retention dams, appointed river banks, ect… can present three types of inconvenience as (i overflow in the case of watercourse containment, (ii formation of woody jams which generate a risk of bridge obstructions or water retention, (iii the presence of trees and their roots which damages the containment systems protecting the territories. It is important to manage the development of this vegetation in order to conserve the positive effects on the area while also limiting the negative impacts. The current boom in vegetation engineering techniques shows that man is relearning how to live as a ‘team” with nature.

  16. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In our opinion, our contribution to the fight against the illicit turnover has to be focused on ensuring the safe keeping and integrity of nuclear material and radiation sources and on creating powerful and highly efficient physical protection systems. A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the role of the human factor can be considered to be significant. After having analyzed, even in a general way, the status of the affairs we can see: 1) the stage of designing and development of facilities is actually completed; 2) the existing concept of protection does not meet current requirements of the physical protection; 3) the next period is the operation when it is necessary to adapt with using capabilities available to the today requirements and to establish conditions under which the human factor could compensate technical backwardness; 4) the final stage is the ChNPP decommissioning, the Object Shelter problem. It is obvious that the ChNPP decommissioning process will increase acuteness of the problem related to the physical protection of this facility. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: 1) political factors: changes in the geopolitical situation caused by fundamental changes, formation of a national state based on a principle of democracy and law, etc.; 2) social and economic factors: difficulties originated during the period of transition towards the market economy, decrease in the standard of living; increase in the crime rate and criminalization of social relations and others; 3) spiritual wealth and cultural

  17. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Ahmed Zahran, Ahmed M; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Abdo Kodous, Ahmad S

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation. Rats were divided into groups including C group (control rats), R (irradiated) group (rats irradiated with γ-radiation), Vehicle (V) group (rats administered with dimethylsulfoxide "DMSO"), H group (rats administered with H only), HR and RH groups (rats treated with H before and after exposure to γ-radiation, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA: the end product of lipid peroxidation "LPO") and xanthine oxidase (XO: it generates reactive oxygen species "ROS") in testes homogenate as well as nitric oxide (NO: as ROS) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. The apoptotic markers including DNA-fragmentation (DNAF) in testes homogenate and calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in testes homogenate, while reduced glutathione "GSH" in nuclear matrix were determined. Also histopathological examination for testes tissues through electron microscope was studied. Exposure of rats to γ-radiation (R group) increased the levels of MDA, NO, DNAF, Ca 2+ and XO activity, while it decreased GSH level, SOD and CAT activities as compared to the C groups; γ-radiation increased oxidative stress (OS), LPO, apoptosis and induced testes injuries. These results are in agreement with the histopathological examination. In contrast, treatment with H before or after exposure to

  18. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  19. The protective role of catalase against cerebral ischemia in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armogida, M; Spalloni, A; Amantea, D; Nutini, M; Petrelli, F; Longone, P; Bagetta, G; Nisticò, R; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the protective role of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) with relation to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) degradation in oxygen plus water on electrophysiological and fluorescence changes induced by in vitro ischemia and on brain damage produced by transient in vivo ischemia. Neuroprotective effects of CAT were determined by means of electrophysiological recordings and confocal fluorescence microscopy in the hippocampal slice preparation. Ischemia was simulated in vitro by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). In vivo ischemia was produced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A protection of the rat CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) loss caused by a prolonged OGD (40 min) was observed after exogenous CAT (500 U/mL) bath-applied before a combined exposure to OGD and H(2)O(2) (3 mM). Of note, neither H(2)O(2) nor exogenous CAT alone had a protective action when OGD lasted for 40 min. The CAT-induced neuroprotection was confirmed in a transgenic mouse model over-expressing human CAT [Tg(CAT)]. In the presence of H(2)O(2), the hippocampus of Tg(CAT) showed an increased resistance against OGD compared to that of wild-type (WT) animals. Moreover, CAT treatment reduced for about 50 min fEPSP depression evoked by repeated applications of H(2)O(2) in normoxia. A lower sensitivity to H(2)O(2)-induced depression of fEPSPs was also indicated by the rightward shift of concentration-response curve in Tg(CAT) compared to WT mice. Noteworthy, Tg(CAT) mice had a reduced infarct size after MCAo. Our data suggest new strategies to reduce neuronal damage produced by transient brain ischemia through the manipulation of CAT enzyme.

  20. The Role of Radiological Protection in Sweden's National Environmental quality Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.; Mjones, L.; Holm, E.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the Swedish Parliament adopted fifteen environmental quality objectives, defining the quality of Sweden's environment and of its natural and cultural resources that will insure sustainable growth. In 2001, the government proposed interim targets for each objective, specifying the direction and time scale of the proposed actions. These objectives give Sweden a unique opportunity to define, quantify and achieve an ecologically sustainable environment. One of the national objectives, A Safe Radiation Environment, targets both ionising and non-ionising radiation and states, human health and biological diversity must be protected against the harmful effects of radiation in the environment. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has the responsibility for formulating and achieving the interim targets for this objective. The targets presently focus on controlling radioactive emissions, limiting exposures to ultraviolet radiation and defining the risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Part of SSI's responsibility for the environmental quality objective is to develop a system for monitoring and quantifying progress towards each interim target. Sweden's National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (NBHBP) is responsible for another of the national objectives, A Good Built- Environment. As part of this objective, a special interim target for the indoor environment was approved by Parliament in 2002, which includes a specification for human exposure to radon in indoor air. It states: radon concentrations should be lower than 200 Bq/m3 in schools and pre-schools by the year 2010, and below 200 Bq/m3 in homes by 2020. This substantially raises the level of ambition regarding reducing exposure to indoor radon. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize the role of radiological protection in Sweden's environmental quality objectives. (Author) 3 refs

  1. Role of Interleukin-12 in Protection against Pulmonary Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Tam; Furuya, Yoichi; Roberts, Sean; Metzger, Dennis W

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial pneumonia and is an increasing threat for severe community-acquired pneumonia. We have now investigated the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in protective immunity against lung infection with MRSA. The importance of IL-12 in protection from pulmonary MRSA infection was demonstrated by the finding that IL-12p35-deficient mice had a lower survival rate, higher bacterial burdens in lung and spleen, and decreased expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the lung compared to wild-type mice. These effects were completely reversed by replacement intranasal therapy with recombinant IL-12. Furthermore, exogenous IL-12 treatment of wild-type mice 24 h before pulmonary challenge with a lethal dose of MRSA significantly improved bacterial clearance and resulted in protection from death. The IL-12-treated mice had increased numbers of lung natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils and higher levels of IFN-γ in the lung and serum compared to untreated mice. The major source of IL-12-driven IFN-γ expression in the lung was the NK cell, and the direct target of pulmonary IFN-γ was the lung macrophage, as shown using mice with a macrophage-specific defect in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling (MIIG mice). Importantly, combination therapy with linezolid and IL-12 following intranasal MRSA infection significantly increased survival compared to that of mice receiving linezolid or IL-12 alone. These results indicate that IL-12-based immunotherapy may hold promise for treatment of MRSA pneumonia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  3. Resveratrol plays important role in protective mechanisms in renal disease - mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1, as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

  4. A Glio-Protective Role of mir-263a by Tuning Sensitivity to Glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aw, Sherry Shiying; Lim, Isaac Kok Hwee; Tang, Melissa Xue Mei

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter, mediating information flow between neurons. Defects in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission can result in glutamate toxicity, which is associated with neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate receptors are expressed in glia, but little is known...... about their function, and the effects of their misregulation, in these non-neuronal cells. Here, we report a glio-protective role for Drosophila mir-263a mediated by its regulation of glutamate receptor levels in glia. mir-263a mutants exhibit a pronounced movement defect due to aberrant overexpression...... of CG5621/Grik, Nmdar1, and Nmdar2. mir-263a mutants exhibit excitotoxic death of a subset of astrocyte-like and ensheathing glia in the CNS. Glial-specific normalization of glutamate receptor levels restores cell numbers and suppresses the movement defect. Therefore, microRNA-mediated regulation...

  5. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Osman, Mohamad; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabetes plus HSE group (D+HSE). HSE (100 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered orally for 28 consecutive days. After 28-days of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed to obtain epididymal sperm. Administration of HSE significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in D+HSE group as compared to D group (psabdariffa UKMR-2 variety has a potential protective role against diabetes-induced sperm damage. PMID:27847454

  6. The Protective Role of Prosaposin and Its Receptors in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rebecca C.; Giddens, Michelle M.; Coleman, Brilee M.; Hall, Randy A.

    2015-01-01

    Prosaposin (also known as SGP-1) is an intriguing multifunctional protein that plays roles both intracellularly, as a regulator of lysosomal enzyme function, and extracellularly, as a secreted factor with neuroprotective and glioprotective effects. Following secretion, prosaposin can undergo endocytosis via an interaction with the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 1 (LRP1). The ability of secreted prosaposin to promote protective effects in the nervous system is known to involve activation of G proteins, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR37 and GPR37L1 have recently been shown to mediate signaling induced by both prosaposin and a fragment of prosaposin known as prosaptide. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of prosaposin, its receptors and their importance in the nervous system. PMID:25130661

  7. Role of hexagonal boron nitride in protecting ferromagnetic nanostructures from oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlmann, Simon; Makk, Péter; Vaz, Carlos A. F.; Schönenberger, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts are widely used to inject spin polarized currents into non-magnetic materials such as semiconductors or 2-dimensional materials like graphene. In these systems, oxidation of the ferromagnetic materials poses an intrinsic limitation on device performance. Here we investigate the role of ex situ transferred chemical vapour deposited hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) as an oxidation barrier for nanostructured cobalt and permalloy electrodes. The chemical state of the ferromagnets was investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy because of its high sensitivity and lateral resolution. We have compared the oxide thickness formed on ferromagnetic nanostructures covered by hBN to uncovered reference structures. Our results show that hBN reduces the oxidation rate of ferromagnetic nanostructures suggesting that it could be used as an ultra-thin protection layer in future spintronic devices.

  8. CD44 enhances macrophage phagocytosis and plays a protective role in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Wei, Zigong; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in many mammalian species. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the protective role of CD44 during S. zooepidemicus infection. CD44-deficient mice exhibited reduced macrophage accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space and enhanced bacterial outgrowth and dissemination, which resulted in reduced mouse survival. An in vitro analysis revealed that CD44 can directly bind to S. zooepidemicus. Additionally, S. zooepidemicus interacted with macrophage-associated CD44, as reflected by the reduced uptake of S. zooepidemicus by CD44-deficient macrophages. These data suggest that CD44 contributes to effective antibacterial defense during S. zooepidemicus infection, thereby limiting the accompanying injury and death. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Glio-Protective Role of mir-263a by Tuning Sensitivity to Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiying Aw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter, mediating information flow between neurons. Defects in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission can result in glutamate toxicity, which is associated with neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate receptors are expressed in glia, but little is known about their function, and the effects of their misregulation, in these non-neuronal cells. Here, we report a glio-protective role for Drosophila mir-263a mediated by its regulation of glutamate receptor levels in glia. mir-263a mutants exhibit a pronounced movement defect due to aberrant overexpression of CG5621/Grik, Nmdar1, and Nmdar2. mir-263a mutants exhibit excitotoxic death of a subset of astrocyte-like and ensheathing glia in the CNS. Glial-specific normalization of glutamate receptor levels restores cell numbers and suppresses the movement defect. Therefore, microRNA-mediated regulation of glutamate receptor levels protects glia from excitotoxicity, ensuring CNS health. Chronic low-level glutamate receptor overexpression due to mutations affecting microRNA (miRNA regulation might contribute to glial dysfunction and CNS impairment.

  10. The Role of IL-17 in Protection against Mucosal Candida Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Bemnet G; Conti, Heather R

    2017-09-27

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by adaptive CD4+ T helper cells and innate lymphocytes, such as γδ-T cells and TCRβ+ "natural" Th17 cells. IL-17 activates signaling through the IL-17 receptor, which induces other proinflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and neutrophil chemokines that are important for antifungal activity. The importance of IL-17 in protective antifungal immunity is evident in mice and humans, where various genetic defects related to the IL-17-signaling pathway render them highly susceptible to forms of candidiasis such oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) or more broadly chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), both caused mainly by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans . OPC is common in infants and the elderly, HIV/AIDS and patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. This review focuses on the role of IL-17 in protection against candidiasis, and includes a brief discussion of non- Candida albicans fungal infections, as well as how therapeutic interventions blocking IL-17-related components can affect antifungal immunity.

  11. The Role of IL-17 in Protection against Mucosal Candida Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemnet G. Mengesha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-17 (IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by adaptive CD4+ T helper cells and innate lymphocytes, such as γδ-T cells and TCRβ+ “natural” Th17 cells. IL-17 activates signaling through the IL-17 receptor, which induces other proinflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and neutrophil chemokines that are important for antifungal activity. The importance of IL-17 in protective antifungal immunity is evident in mice and humans, where various genetic defects related to the IL-17-signaling pathway render them highly susceptible to forms of candidiasis such oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC or more broadly chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC, both caused mainly by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. OPC is common in infants and the elderly, HIV/AIDS and patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. This review focuses on the role of IL-17 in protection against candidiasis, and includes a brief discussion of non-Candida albicans fungal infections, as well as how therapeutic interventions blocking IL-17-related components can affect antifungal immunity.

  12. Evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Anneka [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mezyk, Stehpen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterman, Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the Advanced TALSPEAK process, the bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) extractant used in the traditional TALSPEAK process is replaced by the extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). In addition, the aqueous phase complexant and buffer used in traditional TALSPEAK is replaced with the combination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N’,N’-triacetic acid (HEDTA) and citric acid. In order to evaluate the possible impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the Advanced TALSPEAK flowsheet, aqueous and organic phases corresponding to the extraction section of the proposed flowsheet were irradiated in the INL test loop under an ambient atmosphere. The results of these studies conducted at INL, led INL researchers to conclude that the scarcity of values of rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the components of the Advanced TALSPEAK process chemistry was severely limiting the interpretation of the results of radiolysis studies performed at the INL. In this work, the rate of reaction of hydroxyl radical with citric acid at several pH values was measured using a competitive pulse radiolysis technique. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation. The results reported here demonstrate the importance of obtaining hydroxyl radical reaction rate data for the conditions that closely resemble actual solution conditions expected to be used in an actual solvent extraction process. This report describes those results and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-16IN030102028, the goal of which was to evaluate the role of organic acids in the protection of ligands from radiolytic degradation.

  13. The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-11-06

    Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010. Participants were Canadian adults from Belleville, Ontario, Canada (n = 4121). A multiple group (based on gender) latent growth curve analysis was conducted to examine the overall trajectory of problem gambling severity. Two models were tested; the first examined the influence of past-year religious service attendance, and the second examined an overall measure of personal religiosity on the trajectory of problem gambling. The Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM) was used as a continuous measure. The Rohrbaugh-Jessor Religiosity Scale (RJRS) was used to assess past-year frequency of religious service attendance and personal religiosity. Religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Atheist/Agnostic, Other, Prefer not to say) was also included in the models. At baseline, higher frequency of past-year religious service attendance (males: β= -0.54, females: β= -0.68, p problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that religiosity may act as a static protective factor against problem gambling severity but may play a less significant role in predicting change in problem gambling severity over time.

  14. The protective roles of GLP-1R signaling in diabetic nephropathy: possible mechanism and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Morii, Tsukasa; Fujishima, Hiromi; Sato, Takehiro; Shimizu, Tatsunori; Hosoba, Mihoko; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Narita, Takuma; Takahashi, Takamune; Drucker, Daniel J; Seino, Yutaka; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2014-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut incretin hormone that has an antioxidative protective effect on various tissues. Here, we determined whether GLP-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy using nephropathy-resistant C57BL/6-Akita and nephropathy-prone KK/Ta-Akita mice. By in situ hybridization, we found the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expressed in glomerular capillary and vascular walls, but not in tubuli, in the mouse kidney. Next, we generated C57BL/6-Akita Glp1r knockout mice. These mice exhibited higher urinary albumin levels and more advanced mesangial expansion than wild-type C57BL/6-Akita mice, despite comparable levels of hyperglycemia. Increased glomerular superoxide, upregulated renal NAD(P)H oxidase, and reduced renal cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were noted in the Glp1r knockout C57BL/6-Akita mice. Treatment with the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide suppressed the progression of nephropathy in KK/Ta-Akita mice, as demonstrated by reduced albuminuria and mesangial expansion, decreased levels of glomerular superoxide and renal NAD(P)H oxidase, and elevated renal cAMP and PKA activity. These effects were abolished by an adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 and a selective PKA inhibitor H-89. Thus, GLP-1 has a crucial role in protection against increased renal oxidative stress under chronic hyperglycemia, by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase, a major source of superoxide, and by cAMP-PKA pathway activation.

  15. Protective or harmful? Exploring the ambivalent role of social identification as a moderator of intergroup stress in sojourners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierwiaczonek, Kinga; Waldzus, Sven; van der Zee, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Living outside one's home country may be stressful, and having strong social ties should help deal with this stress. However, social ties may be protective or harmful depending on whether the social group they evoke belongs to the host- or the home country context. The current study examines how

  16. A possibly sigma-1 receptor mediated role of dimethyltryptamine in tissue protection, regeneration, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Szabo, Attila; Winkelman, Michael J; Luna, Luis E; McKenna, Dennis J

    2013-09-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is classified as a naturally occurring serotonergic hallucinogen of plant origin. It has also been found in animal tissues and regarded as an endogenous trace amine transmitter. The vast majority of research on DMT has targeted its psychotropic/psychedelic properties with less focus on its effects beyond the nervous system. The recent discovery that DMT is an endogenous ligand of the sigma-1 receptor may shed light on yet undiscovered physiological mechanisms of DMT activity and reveal some of its putative biological functions. A three-step active uptake process of DMT from peripheral sources to neurons underscores a presumed physiological significance of this endogenous hallucinogen. In this paper, we overview the literature on the effects of sigma-1 receptor ligands on cellular bioenergetics, the role of serotonin, and serotoninergic analogues in immunoregulation and the data regarding gene expression of the DMT synthesizing enzyme indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase in carcinogenesis. We conclude that the function of DMT may extend central nervous activity and involve a more universal role in cellular protective mechanisms. Suggestions are offered for future directions of indole alkaloid research in the general medical field. We provide converging evidence that while DMT is a substance which produces powerful psychedelic experiences, it is better understood not as a hallucinogenic drug of abuse, but rather an agent of significant adaptive mechanisms that can also serve as a promising tool in the development of future medical therapies.

  17. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W; Nawroth, Peter P; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS.

  18. The Synergistic Effect of Combined Immunization with a DNA Vaccine and Chimeric Yellow Fever/Dengue Virus Leads to Strong Protection against Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S.; Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:23472186

  19. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M B

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  20. Vaccination of feedlot cattle with extracts and membrane fractions from two Mycoplasma bovis isolates results in strong humoral immune responses but does not protect against an experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2013-02-27

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the most significant contributors to the bovine respiratory syndrome (BRD) that causes major losses in feedlot and dairy farms. Current experimental vaccines against M. bovis are ineffective and in some cases seem to enhance disease. Experimental infection with M. bovis induces a predominantly Th2 response and high levels of IgG1, which is an inferior opsonin and hence lacks protective capacity. In an attempt to induce a balanced (Th1/Th2) immune response, we have used CpG ODN 2007 as an adjuvant in a trial involving vaccination of cattle with M. bovis total extracts and/or membrane fractions and subsequent intranasal inoculation with an infective dose of M. bovis prepared from two different clinical isolates. Significant IgG1 serum responses were observed against both, extracts and fractions while IgG2 responses were significant against the extracts only. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after incubation with M. bovis cells was only observed in post-challenge samples of cattle vaccinated with both extracts and fractions but not in samples of cattle immunized with the membrane fractions alone. All groups showed transient weight losses and increased temperatures however, there were no significant differences in clinical parameters and survival rates between the groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Azevedo

    Full Text Available The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2 and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2. The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  2. Teachers’ Affective Well-being and Teaching Experience: The Protective Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández-Berrocal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a highly emotional and demanding profession. Developing emotional well-being among teachers will benefit not only the teachers themselves, but also their students. Previous studies have shown the protective role of emotional intelligence (EI as well as inconsistencies in the years of teaching experience variable on positive and negative work-specific variables. The aim of the present study was to analyze how EI and years of teaching experience are related to affective well-being in teachers. Further, we analyze the moderator role of perceived EI on the link between level of teaching experience and affective well-being. For these purpose, 524 teachers from different Spanish public schools took part in the study. They first completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24 for measuring perceived EI, which evaluates three scales: Attention to one’s Feelings (Attention, Emotional Clarity (Clarity, and Mood Repair (Repair. Secondly, they completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS for affective well-being, which measures Positive Affect (PA and Negative Affect (NA. Finally, teachers indicated their years of teaching experience. The results revealed that teaching experience and attention variables are counterproductive in determining lower PA and higher NA, respectively. Clarity and Repair appeared to be a significant determinant of PA and NA, with higher Clarity and Repair determining higher PA and lower NA. Moderator analyses showed how teaching experience significantly decreased PA in teachers who had average or low levels of Repair, but not for those with higher levels of this variable, emphasizing the important role of Repair as a protector of affective well-being in teachers. Limitations and future areas for research are discussed.

  3. Protective role of garlic against gamma radiation induced histological and histochemical changes in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Motaal, N.A.; Abdel Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was planned to evaluate the radioprotective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against the hazardous action of gamma radiation on liver of rat one and ten days post-exposure. Garlic was orally administered (100 mg/ kg body wt) to rats daily for two weeks before exposure to single dose whole body gamma-irradiation (5Gy). The results showed that exposure of rats to gamma- irradiation caused massive portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, dilatation of blood sinusoids, an increase in the number of Kupffer cells, vacuolation of some hepatocytes as well as pyknosis and karyolysis of hepatic nuclei in the liver tissue. Histochemical examination of liver one day post- irradiation illustrated weak to moderate glycogen particles. While, on ten days post-irradiation, a strong activity for glycogen was detected. The disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism is closely related to the radiation induced histological damage in the liver tissue. Administration of garlic for 2 weeks pre-irradiation reduced the radiation induced histopathological changes and showed marked protection against the tissue damaging effect of radiation. It could be concluded that treatment of rats with garlic before exposure to gamma-irradiation offered a noticeable radioprotective effect of the studied organ

  4. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Returns to Scale and Damages to Scale with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions in DEA Assessment: Japanese Corporate Effort on Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for environmental assessment. All organizations in private and public sectors produce not only desirable (good) but also undesirable (bad) outputs as a result of their economic activities. The proposed use of DEA determines the level of unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of all the organizations. A contribution of this study is that it explores how to measure not only RTS (Returns to Scale) on desirable outputs but also a new concept regarding “DTS: Damages to Scale” (corresponding to RTS for undesirable outputs). This study discusses how to measure RTS under natural disposability and DTS under managerial disposability by DEA. The measurement of RTS and DTS is formulated by incorporating “Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs)”. As a result, this study can handle an occurrence of multiple reference sets and multiple projections in the RTS/DTS measurement. The incorporation of SCSCs makes it possible both to restrict DEA multipliers in a specific range without any prior information and to identify all possible efficient organizations as a reference set. Using the unique capabilities of SCSCs, this study discusses the use of DEA environmental assessment by exploring how to classify the type of RTS/DTS with SCSCs. Such analytical capabilities are essential, but not previously explored in DEA environmental assessment for energy industries. As an illustrative example, this study applies the proposed approach for the performance evaluation of Japanese manufacturing industries. This study finds that these firms need to introduce technology innovation to reduce an amount of greenhouse gases and wastes. The empirical result confirms the importance of measuring RTS/DTS in DEA environmental assessment.

  6. Radiation protection recommendations on dose limits: the role of the NCRP and the ICRP and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Warren K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in making recommendations on dose limits for ionizing radiation exposure for workers and for the public. The text describes the new limits for workers and public recommended by ICRP in 1991 and NCRP in 1993 and the composition of the radiation health detriment on which they are based. The main component of this detriment is the risk of radiation induced cancer which is now estimated to be about three times greater than a decade or so earlier. Uncertainties in these risk estimates are discussed. Some special radiation protection problems, such as those for the embryo or fetus are described. The article also addresses future progress in radiation protection particularly with regard to future improvements in the scientific basis for radiation protection recommendations

  7. Strongly coupled CdS/graphene quantum dots nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution: unraveling the essential roles of graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Yonggang

    2017-05-23

    It have been recognized that the coupling of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with semiconductor photocatalysts endow the resulting nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performances, however, the essential roles of GQDs have not been clearly revealed yet. Herein, we report that a high efficiency of the photocatalytic H2 evolution was achieved using strongly coupled nanohybrids of CdS with GQDs (CdS/GQDs) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts. CdS/GQDs nanohybrids were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in which the crystallization of CdS precursor and coupling of GQDs could be accomplished in one-step. GQDs are firmly decorated on the surface of CdS nanoparticles, forming “dot-on-particle” heterodimer structures. GQDs have no significant influence on the crystallite structure of CdS but render the nanohybrids with strong light absorption at the wavelength beyond the band edge of CdS. Under visible light irradiation (≥420nm), CdS/GQDs nanohybrids reach the highest H2 production rate of 95.4μmol·h−1, about 2.7 times higher than that of pure CdS nanoparticles, at GQDs content of 1.0wt %, and the apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) was determined to be 4.2% at 420nm. Incident light-wavelength dependent experiments reveal that the light absorption of CdS dominated the performance of nanohybrids, and the excess light absorption coming from GQDs hardly contributes to the observed higher activity. Photocurrent response, steady-state and time-resolved PL, and EIS measurements suggest that the high activity of CdS/GQDs is attributed predominantly to the graphene-like nature of GQDs, which can act as an efficient electron acceptor to induce an efficient charge separation. This work clearly reveals that GQDs mainly played a role of electron acceptor instead of a photosensitizer in enhancing the photocatalytic H2 evolution performances of CdS/GQDs nanohybrids, which offers a new insight to understand the essential roles of GQDs in semiconductor

  8. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  9. [Role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Ni; Wu, Ping-Xiao; Zhu, Neng-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The role of layered double hydroxide (LDH) in the protection of herring testis DNA from heavy metals Cd2+ and Pb2+ was studied by X-ray diffraction ( XRD) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Cyclic Voltammetry and Ultraviolet Spectrometry. Size expansion of the basal spacing (003) from 0. 76 nm in LDH to 2. 30 nm was observed in the resulting DNA-LDH nanohybrids and it gave peaks corresponding to C=O (1 534 cm(-1) and 1488 cm(-1)) in skeleton and bases, C-O stretching vibration (1228 cm(-1)), and P-O symmetrical stretching vibration (1096 cm(-1)) in functional groups of DNA, indicating that DNA were intercalated into the LDH by the ion exchange. However, the displacement of NO3(-) was not fully complete (partial intercalation of DNA). The DNA outside LDH interlayers was absorbed on the surface of LDH. The cyclic voltammetric curves showed that DNA in the composites exhibited a very similar peaks, which corresponded to the two reduction current peaks (E(P) = - 1.2 mV and E(P) = -2.4 mV) of free DNA. Also there was no cathode sag emerging in cyclic voltammetric curves, suggesting that both Cd2+ and Pb2+ cannot insert into the groove of DNA to associate with base pairs or other groups when DNA was bound on LDH. The results showed that, on the one hand, both Cd2+ and Pb2+ were absorbed on the external surface of LDH for immobilization, on the other hand, the layer of LDH provided ideal space for DNA by the action of protecting DNA molecules from Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  10. Enterobius vermicularis and its role in paediatric appendicitis: protection or predisposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Shareena; Upadhyay, Vipul

    2016-09-01

    E nterobius vermicularis is one of the most common parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract, and has been shown to infest up to 28% of children worldwide. The role of E . vermicularis in acute appendicitis has previously been questioned, with some studies identifying infection as a precursor for inflammation of the appendix, with others refuting such a link. A retrospective review was conducted of all appendices received for histological analysis at our unit from January 2002 to December 2011 (10-year period), removed in the course of acute appendicectomy in children aged 3 to 15 years. Appendices were categorized by degree of inflammation and infestation with E . vermicularis. Appendicectomy for clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis was performed in 2923 patients, 1694 (58%) male, median age 11.6 years. E . vermicularis was present in 4% of appendices; 25% of which showed concurrent acute inflammation. E . vermicularis infestation was more common in females (F : M 76% versus 24% of inflamed appendices and 66.7% versus 33.3% for non-inflamed appendices). European individuals showed higher representation in the E . vermicularis group than the total study population (79% versus 53% respectively). E . vermicularis was found to be more common in females and those of European descent. Seventy-seven percent of patients with E . vermicularis did not have concurrent acute inflammation of the appendix on histological examination. The question remains as to whether infestation is protective of inflammation or whether infestation causes appendiceal colic and subsequent appendicectomy of a non-inflamed appendix, thereby protective of the morbidity of acute appendicitis. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Protective role of downregulated MLK3 in myocardial adaptation to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siyi; Liu, Shunbi; Wu, Xiaochen; Xin, Mei; Ding, Sheng; Xin, Dong; Ouyang, Hui; Zhang, Jinbao

    2016-08-01

    A series of protective responses could be evoked to achieve compensatory adaptation once cardiomyocytes are subjected to chronic hypoxia. MLK3/JNK/c-jun signaling pathway was previously demonstrated to be involved in this process. In the present study, we aim to further examine the performance of MLK3 in hypoxic H9C2 cells and potential mechanism. Myocardial samples of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were collected. H9C2 cells were cultured in hypoxic conditions for various durations. MLK3 was silenced by transfection of shRNA to evaluate its role in cell viability. We found expression of MLK3 protein was lower in patients with cyanotic CHD. In hypoxic H9C2 cells, its expression was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference about expression of MLK3 mRNA. According to the results of MTT, LDH, and TUNEL, faster cell growth curve, lower death rate, and less apoptotic cells could be observed in MLK-shRNA group compared with scramble-shRNA group. Silencing of MLK3 significantly reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bad, and Bax, together with increased expression of Bcl-2 and ration of Bcl-2/Bax. Both ratio of phospho-JNK/total JNK and ratio of phospho-c-jun/total c-jun were significantly decreased once MLK3 was silenced. At various reoxygenation time, MLK3 shRNA could significantly promote cell survival and decrease cell death according to MTT and LDH. Our results suggested that chronic hypoxia could reduce MLK3 expression in a posttranscriptional regulatory manner. Downregulation of MLK3 protects H9C2 cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and H/R injury via blocking the activation of JNK and c-jun.

  12. A hepatic protein, fetuin-A, occupies a protective role in lethal systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A liver-derived protein, fetuin-A, was first purified from calf fetal serum in 1944, but its potential role in lethal systemic inflammation was previously unknown. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression during lethal systemic inflammation (LSI, and investigated whether alterations of fetuin-A levels affect animal survival, and influence systemic accumulation of a late mediator, HMGB1.LSI was induced by endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in fetuin-A knock-out or wild-type mice, and animal survival rates were compared. Murine peritoneal macrophages were challenged with exogenous (endotoxin or endogenous (IFN-γ stimuli in the absence or presence of fetuin-A, and HMGB1 expression and release was assessed. Circulating fetuin-A levels were decreased in a time-dependent manner, starting between 26 h, reaching a nadir around 24-48 h, and returning towards base-line approximately 72 h post onset of endotoxemia or sepsis. These dynamic changes were mirrored by an early cytokine IFN-γ-mediated inhibition (up to 50-70% of hepatic fetuin-A expression. Disruption of fetuin-A expression rendered animals more susceptible to LSI, whereas supplementation of fetuin-A (20-100 mg/kg dose-dependently increased animal survival rates. The protection was associated with a significant reduction in systemic HMGB1 accumulation in vivo, and parallel inhibition of IFN-γ- or LPS-induced HMGB1 release in vitro.These experimental data suggest that fetuin-A is protective against lethal systemic inflammation partly by inhibiting active HMGB1 release.

  13. The Protective Role of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Andreia; Carvalho, Cláudia; Leal, Bárbara; Brás, Sandra; Lopes, Dina; Martins da Silva, Ana; Santos, Ernestina; Torres, Tiago; Almeida, Isabel; Farinha, Fátima; Barbosa, Paulo; Marinho, António; Selores, Manuela; Correia, João; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Costa, Paulo P; da Silva, Berta Martins

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are characterized by a multifactorial aetiology and a complex genetic background, with the MHC region playing a major role. We genotyped for HLA-DRB1 locus 1228 patients with AIDs-213 with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), 166 with Psoriasis or Psoriatic Arthritis (Ps + PsA), 153 with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 67 with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), 536 with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and 93 with Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and 282 unrelated controls. We confirmed previously established associations of HLA-DRB1(∗)15 (OR = 2.17) and HLA-DRB1(∗)03 (OR = 1.81) alleles with MS, HLA-DRB1(∗)03 with SLE (OR = 2.49), HLA-DRB1(∗)01 (OR = 1.79) and HLA-DRB1(∗)04 (OR = 2.81) with RA, HLA-DRB1(∗)07 with Ps + PsA (OR = 1.79), HLA-DRB1(∗)01 (OR = 2.28) and HLA-DRB1(∗)08 (OR = 3.01) with SSc, and HLA-DRB1(∗)03 with MG (OR = 2.98). We further observed a consistent negative association of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 allele with SLE, Ps + PsA, RA, and SSc (18.3%, 19.3%, 16.3%, and 11.9%, resp., versus 29.8% in controls). HLA-DRB1(∗)13 frequency in the AIDs group was 20.0% (OR = 0.58). Although different alleles were associated with particular AIDs, the same allele, HLA-DRB1(∗)13, was underrepresented in all of the six diseases analysed. This observation suggests that this allele may confer protection for AIDs, particularly for systemic and rheumatic disease. The protective effect of HLA-DRB1(∗)13 could be explained by a more proficient antigen presentation by these molecules, favouring efficient clonal deletion during thymic selection.

  14. Protective role of FKBP51 in calcium entry-induced endothelial barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Caleb L; Kadeba, Pierre I; Vasauskas, Audrey A; Solodushko, Viktoriya; McClinton, Anna K; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Scammell, Jonathan G; Cioffi, Donna L

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) express a cation current, I SOC (store-operated calcium entry current), which when activated permits calcium entry leading to inter-endothelial cell gap formation. The large molecular weight immunophilin FKBP51 inhibits I SOC but not other calcium entry pathways in PAECs. However, it is unknown whether FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC is sufficient to protect the endothelial barrier from calcium entry-induced disruption. The major objective of this study was to determine whether FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC leads to decreased calcium entry-induced inter-endothelial gap formation and thus preservation of the endothelial barrier. Here, we measured the effects of thapsigargin-induced I SOC on the endothelial barrier in control and FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs. FKBP51 overexpression decreased actin stress fiber and inter-endothelial cell gap formation in addition to attenuating the decrease in resistance observed with control cells using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Finally, the thapsigargin-induced increase in dextran flux was abolished in FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs. We then measured endothelial permeability in perfused lungs of FKBP51 knockout (FKBP51 -/- ) mice and observed increased calcium entry-induced permeability compared to wild-type mice. To begin to dissect the mechanism underlying the FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC , a second goal of this study was to determine the role of the microtubule network. We observed that FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs exhibited increased microtubule polymerization that is critical for inhibition of I SOC by FKBP51. Overall, we have identified FKBP51 as a novel regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, and these findings are significant as they reveal a protective mechanism for endothelium against calcium entry-induced disruption.

  15. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijt, Tim J; Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Scicluna, Brendon P; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Roelofs, Joris J T H; de Boer, J Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Design We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. Results We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. Conclusions This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut–lung axis in bacterial infections. PMID:26511795

  16. Protective role of sesame oil against mobile base station-induced oxidative stress

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    Ebtisam A. Marzook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to shed the light on the environmental threats associated with the wireless revolution and the health hazards associated with exposure to mobile base station (MBS. Besides, studying the possible protective role of sesame oil (SO as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the effect of chronic exposure to electromagnetic radiations (EMR, produced by a cellular tower for mobile phone and the possible protective role of sesame oil on glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, total testosterone and lipid profile (total cholesterol (Tch, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c in male albino rats. Rats were arranged into four groups: the control unexposed, the exposed untreated and the exposed treated groups (1.5 and 3 ml oil. Exposed groups were subjected to electromagnetic field at frequency of 900 MHz, for 24 h/day for 8 weeks, at the same time both treated groups were supplied with oral injection of sesame oil three times per week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained for determination of the above mentioned variables in serum. The results obtained revealed that TG and testosterone were raised significantly over control in all groups and the significant increase in oil groups occurred in dose dependent manner. SOD and CAT activities were reduced significantly in exposed rats than control and increased significantly in sesame oil groups as the dose of oil increased. Total cholesterol only showed remarkable reduction in the group treated with 3 ml sesame oil. Also, in this latter group, significant elevation of GSH-Rx was recorded. Changes in serum HDL-c and LDL-c followed an opposite trend in exposed and sesame oil groups reflecting their affectation by EMR or sesame oil. In conclusion, all results of the current study proved that sesame oil

  17. Injury patterns and the role of tendons in protecting neurovascular structures in wrist injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Hyung; Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical features of injured structures, investigate the protection provided by the specific tendon of each corresponding important neurovascular structure (radial artery, median nerve, and ulnar nerve/artery) and to compare the results among the three categories of wrist injuries. This study included 114 patients who underwent primary repair for damaged wrist structures; 40 patients sustained accidental damage without intention (group 1), 40 had self-inflicted damage (group 2), and 34 patients had a stab or penetrating wound caused by a sharp instrument during a conflict or violent event involving another person (group 3). The basic demographic factors, distribution pattern, area, and depth of the injured structures were investigated and compared. The barrier roles of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) for the radial artery, palmaris longus (PL) for the median nerve, and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) for the ulnar nerve were estimated. In group 1, FCU injury was the most common single-structure injury. In group 2, PL±median nerve injuries were the most common. Multiple-structure injuries involving more than five structures occurred more frequently in group 3 than in the other groups. FCU±ulnar nerve injuries were more common in group 3 than in the other groups. Radial-side structures were injured most frequently in group 3, and central-side injuries occurred most frequently in groups 1 and 2. Superficial- and middle-layer injuries occurred at similar frequencies among the three groups. Particularly, deep-layer injuries were most weakly related to group 2 injuries. The barrier effects of the FCR, PL, and FCU were confirmed, respectively. Wrist soft tissue injuries showed particular patterns of injured structures and depths according to the injury mechanism. These patterns included features such as single-structure injuries and the locations and depths of multiple-structure injuries with or without neurovascular injuries

  18. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F.; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated—if any—cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  19. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Achouiti

    Full Text Available Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/- and normal wild-type (Wt mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS.

  20. Cardio protective role of garlic (Allium Sativum) against oxidative stress induced by gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Azab, KH.SH.; And Soliman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. The need to identify agents with a potential for preventing such damage has assumed great importance. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of raw garlic homogenate on cardiac endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes. Plasma lipid profile was also determined. Three different dosage levels (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 20 days were evaluated. The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) resulted in significant increase in cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TEARS) along with reduction in cardiac superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities 1, 2 and 4 weeks following radiation exposure. These changes were associated with subendocardial loss of muscles and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells surrounded by edema. Depletion of cardiac endogenous antioxidants and rise in TEARS were significantly less in the garlic treated rats. Also, histological examination of cardiac tissue showed less damage. Garlic treatment significantly diminished the radiation induced increase in the plasma content of triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Significant amelioration was also observed in the plasma content of high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to irradiated rats. Among the three garlic treated groups, 250 mg/kg group showed the best protection in terms of biochemical and histopathological evidences. It could be concluded that the intake dose plays an important role on endogenous antioxidants and cytoprotective effects on the heart

  1. An Evolutionarily Conserved Role of Presenilin in Neuronal Protection in the Aging Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Sarah; Perrimon, Norbert; Shen, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin ( Psn ) and Nicastrin ( Nct ) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown. To knockdown (KD) Psn or Nct selectively in neurons of the adult brain, we generated multiple shRNA lines. Using a ubiquitous driver, these shRNA lines resulted in 80-90% reduction of mRNA and pupal lethality-a phenotype that is shared with Psn and Nct mutants carrying nonsense mutations. Furthermore, expression of these shRNAs in the wing disc caused notching wing phenotypes, which are also shared with Psn and Nct mutants. Similar to Nct , neuron-specific Psn KD using two independent shRNA lines led to early mortality and rough eye phenotypes, which were rescued by a fly Psn transgene. Interestingly, conditional KD (cKD) of Psn or Nct in adult neurons using the elav-Gal4 and tubulin-Gal80 ts system caused shortened lifespan, climbing defects, increases in apoptosis, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. Together, these findings demonstrate that, similar to their mammalian counterparts, Drosophila Psn and Nct are required for neuronal survival during aging and normal lifespan, highlighting an evolutionarily conserved role of Presenilin in neuronal protection in the aging brain. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Sulphur-containing Amino Acids: Protective Role Against Free Radicals and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Mirjana B; Vasic, Vesna M; Djuric, Dragan M; Krstic, Danijela Z

    2018-01-30

    Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in protein structure. Sulphur amino acids are involved in the synthesis of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, naturally occurring sulphur-containing ligands are effective and safe detoxifying agents, often used in order to prevent toxic metal ions effects and their accumulation in human body. Literature search for peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases, and utilizing appropriate keywords. This review is focused on sulphur-containing amino acids - methionine, cysteine, taurine, and their derivatives - glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, and their defense effects as antioxidant agents against free radicals. Additionally, the protective effects of sulphur-containing ligands against the toxic effects of heavy and transition metal ions, and their reactivation role towards the enzyme inhibition are described. Sulphur-containing amino acids represent a powerful part of cell antioxidant system. Thus, they are essential in the maintenance of normal cellular functions and health. In addition to their worthy antioxidant action, sulphur-containing amino acids may offer a chelating site for heavy metals. Accordingly, they may be supplemented during chelating therapy, providing beneficial effects in eliminating toxic metals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Protective role of vascular endothelial growth factor in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Yoshiyuki

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a substance that stimulates new blood vessel formation, is an important survival factor for endothelial cells. Although overexpressed VEGF in the lung induces pulmonary edema with increased lung vascular permeability, the role of VEGF in the development of acute lung injury remains to be determined. Methods To evaluate the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, we first evaluated the effects of exogenous VEGF and VEGF blockade using monoclonal antibody on LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Using the lung specimens, we performed TUNEL staining to detect apoptotic cells and immunostaining to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-associated molecules, including caspase-3, Bax, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF, and cytochrome C. As a parameter of endothelial permeability, we measured the albumin transferred across human pulmonary artery endothelial cell (HPAEC monolayers cultured on porous filters with various concentrations of VEGF. The effect of VEGF on apoptosis HPAECs was also examined by TUNEL staining and active caspase-3 immunoassay. Results Exogenous VEGF significantly decreased LPS-induced extravascular albumin leakage and edema formation. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody significantly enhanced lung edema formation and neutrophil emigration after intratracheal LPS administration, whereas extravascular albumin leakage was not significantly changed by VEGF blockade. In lung pathology, pretreatment with VEGF significantly decreased the numbers of TUNEL positive cells and those with positive immunostaining of the pro-apoptotic molecules examined. VEGF attenuated the increases in the permeability of the HPAEC monolayer and the apoptosis of HPAECs induced by TNF-α and LPS. In addition, VEGF significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α- and LPS-induced active caspase-3 in HPAEC lysates. Conclusion These results suggest that VEGF suppresses the apoptosis induced by

  4. Protective role of purified cysteine proteinases against Fasciola gigantica infection in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahwany, Eman; Rabia, Ibrahim; Nagy, Faten; Zoheiry, Mona; Diab, Tarek; Zada, Suher

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is one of the public health problems in the world. Cysteine proteinases (CP) released by Fasciola gigantica play a key role in parasite feeding, migration through host tissues, and in immune evasion. There has been some evidence from several parasite systems that proteinases might have potential as protective antigens against parasitic infections. Cysteine proteinases were purified and tested in vaccine trials of sheep infected with the liver fluke. Multiple doses (2 mg of CP in Freund's adjuvant followed by 3 booster doses 1 mg each at 4 week intervals) were injected intramuscularly into sheep 1 week prior to infect orally with 300 F. gigantica metacercariae. All the sheep were humanely slaughtered 12 weeks after the first immunization. Changes in the worm burden, ova count, and humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. Significant reduction was observed in the worm burden (56.9%), bile egg count (70.7%), and fecel egg count (75.2%). Immunization with CP was also found to be associated with increases of total IgG, IgG(1), and IgG(2) (P<0.05). Data showed that the serum cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, revealed significant decreases (P<0.05). However, the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6, showed significant increases (P<0.05). In conclusion, it has been found that CP released by F. gigantica are highly important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in the fluke biology and host-parasite relationships.

  5. Role of Zearalenone Lactonase in Protection of Gliocladium roseum from Fungitoxic Effects of the Mycotoxin Zearalenone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utermark, Jan; Karlovsky, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Zearalenone is a mycotoxin with estrogenic effects on mammals that is produced by several species of Fusarium. We found that zearalenone and its derivatives inhibit the growth of filamentous fungi on solid media at concentrations of ≤10 μg/ml. The fungitoxic effect declined in the order zearalenone > α-zearalenol > β-zearalenol. The mycoparasitic fungus Gliocladium roseum produces a zearalenone-specific lactonase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of zearalenone, followed by a spontaneous decarboxylation. The growth of G. roseum was not inhibited by zearalenone, and the lactonase may protect G. roseum from the toxic effects of this mycotoxin. We inactivated zes2, the gene encoding zearalenone lactonase in G. roseum, by inserting a hygromycin resistance cassette into the coding sequence of the gene by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. The zes2 disruption mutants could not hydrolyze the lactone bond of zearalenone and were more sensitive to zearalenone. These data are consistent with a hypothesis that resorcylic acid lactones exemplified by zearalenone act to reduce growth competition by preventing competing fungi from colonizing substrates occupied by zearalenone producers and suggest that they may play a role in fungal defense against mycoparasites. PMID:17114328

  6. Mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction in renal convoluted tubules of obese mice: protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Favero, Gaia; Giugno, Lorena; Lavazza, Antonio; Reiter, Russel J; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a common and complex health problem, which impacts crucial organs; it is also considered an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Few studies have analyzed the consequence of obesity in the renal proximal convoluted tubules, which are the major tubules involved in reabsorptive processes. For optimal performance of the kidney, energy is primarily provided by mitochondria. Melatonin, an indoleamine and antioxidant, has been identified in mitochondria, and there is considerable evidence regarding its essential role in the prevention of oxidative mitochondrial damage. In this study we evaluated the mechanism(s) of mitochondrial alterations in an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice) and describe the beneficial effects of melatonin treatment on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics as influenced by mitofusin-2 and the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Melatonin dissolved in 1% ethanol was added to the drinking water from postnatal week 5-13; the calculated dose of melatonin intake was 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Compared to control mice, obesity-related morphological alterations were apparent in the proximal tubules which contained round mitochondria with irregular, short cristae and cells with elevated apoptotic index. Melatonin supplementation in obese mice changed mitochondria shape and cristae organization of proximal tubules, enhanced mitofusin-2 expression, which in turn modulated the progression of the mitochondria-driven intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These changes possibly aid in reducing renal failure. The melatonin-mediated changes indicate its potential protective use against renal morphological damage and dysfunction associated with obesity and metabolic disease.

  7. The role of defensible space for residential structure protection during wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    With the potential for worsening fire conditions, discussion is escalating over how to best reduce effects on urban communities. A widely supported strategy is the creation of defensible space immediately surrounding homes and other structures. Although state and local governments publish specific guidelines and requirements, there is little empirical evidence to suggest how much vegetation modification is needed to provide significant benefits. We analysed the role of defensible space by mapping and measuring a suite of variables on modern pre-fire aerial photography for 1000 destroyed and 1000 surviving structures for all fires where homes burned from 2001 to 2010 in San Diego County, CA, USA. Structures were more likely to survive a fire with defensible space immediately adjacent to them. The most effective treatment distance varied between 5 and 20 m (16–58 ft) from the structure, but distances larger than 30 m (100 ft) did not provide additional protection, even for structures located on steep slopes. The most effective actions were reducing woody cover up to 40% immediately adjacent to structures and ensuring that vegetation does not overhang or touch the structure. Multiple-regression models showed landscape-scale factors, including low housing density and distances to major roads, were more important in explaining structure destruction. The best long-term solution will involve a suite of prevention measures that include defensible space as well as building design approach, community education and proactive land use planning that limits exposure to fire.

  8. Evidence for a protective role of the gardos channel againsthemolysis in murine spherocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Franceschi, Lucia; Rivera, Alicia; Fleming, Mark D.; Honczarenko, Marek; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas,Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2005-04-20

    It has been shown that mice with complete deficiency of all4.1R protein isoforms (4.1[-/-]) exhibit moderate hemolytic anemia, withabnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis) and decreased membranestability. Here, we characterized the Gardos channel function in vitroand in vivo In erythrocytes of 4.1[-/-]mice. Compared with wild-type,the Gardos channel of 4.1[-/-]erythrocytes showed an Increase in V[max](9.75 +- 1.06 vs 6.08 +- 0.09 mM cell x minute; P<.04) and adecrease in K[m](1.01 +- 0.06 vs 1.47 +- 1.02 mu M; P<.03),indicating an increased sensitivity to activation by intracellularcalcium. In vivo function of the Gardos channel was assessed by the oraladministration of clotrimazole, a well-characterized Gardos channelblocker. Clotrimazole treatment resulted in worsening of anemia andhemolysis, with decreased red cell survival and increased numbers ofcirculating hyperchromic spherocytes and microspherocytes. Clotrimazoleinduced similar changes in 4.2[-/-]and band 3[+/-]mice, indicating thatthese effects of the Gardos channel are shared in different models ofmurine spherocytosis. Thus, potassium and water loss through the Gardoschannelmay play an important protective role in compensating for thereduced surface-membrane area of hereditary spherocytosis (HS)erythrocytes and reducing hemolysis in erythrocytes with cytoskeletalimpairments.

  9. Protective Roles of N-acetyl Cysteine and/or Taurine against Sumatriptan-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khalili Fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triptans are the drug category mostly prescribed for abortive treatment of migraine. Most recent cases of liver toxicity induced by triptans have been described, but the mechanisms of liver toxicity of these medications have not been clear. Methods: In the present study, we obtained LC50 using dose-response curve and investigated cell viability, free radical generation, lipid peroxide production, mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane damage and the cellular glutathione level as toxicity markers as well as the beneficial effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine in the sumatriptan-treated rat parenchymal hepatocytes using accelerated method of cytotoxicity mechanism screening. Results: It was revealed that liver toxicity induced by sumatriptan in in freshly isolated parenchymal hepatocytes is dose-dependent. Sumatriptan caused significant free radical generation followed by lipid peroxide formation, mitochondrial injury as well as lysosomal damage. Moreover, sumatriptan reduced cellular glutathione content. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine were able to protect hepatocytes against sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that sumatriptan causes oxidative stress in hepatocytes and the decreased hepatocytes glutathione has a key role in the sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Also, N-acetyl cysteine and/or taurine could be used as treatments in sumatriptan-induced side effects.

  10. Role of the Vinca Institute in nuclear engineering and radiation protection education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Education programmes in nuclear engineering and radiation protection in former Yugoslavia have been supported by comprehensive research and development and pertinent training of experts and students in the Vinca (former B oris Kidric ) Institute of nuclear sciences and abroad. Two research reactors were constructed and operated in the Vinca Institute since 1958. Adopted law on ban for NPP construction, isolation of the country due to the UN sanctions and weak economical situation deteriorated considerably the nuclear expertise in Serbia after 1989. Nuclear courses at the University were revoked, major research programmes were cancelled, RA research reactor in the Vinca Institute was shut down and many experts left the country. A novel nuclear programme related to remedial of nuclear and radiation safety in the Vinca Institute has been launched in 2003. This paper emphasizes the need for nuclear expertise, the lack of nuclear professionals to carry out the new programme, the experience gained so far and point out a possible future creative role of the Vinca Institute in education of new experts in the country and abroad. (author)

  11. Protective role for the disulfide isomerase PDIA3 in methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Pendyala

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse continues to be a worldwide problem, damaging the individual user as well as society. Only minimal information exists on molecular changes in the brain that result from methamphetamine administered in patterns typical of human abusers. In order to investigate such changes, we examined the effect of methamphetamine on the transcriptional profile in brains of monkeys. Gene expression profiling of caudate and hippocampus identified protein disulfide isomerase family member A3 (PDIA3 to be significantly up-regulated in the animals treated with methamphetamine as compared to saline treated control monkeys. Methamphetamine treatment of mice also increased striatal PDIA3 expression. Treatment of primary striatal neurons with methamphetamine revealed an up-regulation of PDIA3, showing a direct effect of methamphetamine on neurons to increase PDIA3. In vitro studies using a neuroblastoma cell line demonstrated that PDIA3 expression protects against methamphetamine-induced cell toxicity and methamphetamine-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, revealing a neuroprotective role for PDIA3. The current study implicates PDIA3 to be an important cellular neuroprotective mechanism against a toxic drug, and as a potential target for therapeutic investigations.

  12. The Protective Role of Parental Media Monitoring Style from Early to Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Kroff, Savannah L; Memmott-Elison, Madison K

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the protective role that maternal media monitoring might have for adolescents. This was done by considering whether styles of media monitoring either directly reduced media use, or whether they buffered the associations between aggressive media use and adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and delinquency. Participants were 681 adolescents from two cities in the United States (51% female; 73% white), and their mothers, who provided data at two different time points, 2 years apart (when adolescents were roughly ages 13 and 15). Mixture modeling results revealed that mothers used four different styles of media monitoring made up of combinations of active and restrictive monitoring as well as forms of co-use. Styles that included active monitoring and connective co-use (i.e., engaging in media with the intent to connect with children) were directly associated with less media use, and moderated links between adolescents' media use and behavioral outcomes concurrently but not longitudinally. The discussion was focused on the strength of considering multiple strategies of media monitoring together, and how this approach can inform future research in the area of parental media monitoring.

  13. Protective roles for potassium SK/KCa2 channels in microglia and neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia M Dolga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available New concepts on potassium channel function in neuroinflammation suggest that they regulate mechanisms of microglial activation, including intracellular calcium homeostasis, morphological alterations, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, antigen presentation, and phagocytosis. Although little is known about voltage independent potassium channels in microglia, special attention emerges on small (SK/KCNN1-3/KCa2 and intermediate (IK/KCNN4/KCa3.1-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels as regulators of microglial activation in the field of research on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In particular, recent findings suggested that SK/KCa2 channels, by regulating calcium homeostasis, may elicit a dual mechanism of action with protective properties in neurons and inhibition of inflammatory responses in microglia. Thus, modulating SK/KCa2 channels and calcium signaling may provide novel therapeutic strategies in neurological disorders, where neuronal cell death and inflammatory responses concomitantly contribute to disease progression. Here, we review the particular role of SK/KCa2 channels for [Ca2+]i regulation in microglia and neurons, and we discuss the potential impact for further experimental approaches addressing novel therapeutic strategies in neurological diseases, where neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory processes are prominent.

  14. Identification of TERRA locus unveils a telomere protection role through association to nearly all chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Silanes, Isabel; Graña, Osvaldo; De Bonis, Maria Luigia; Dominguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Blasco, Maria A

    2014-09-03

    Telomeric RNAs (TERRAs) are UUAGGG repeat-containing RNAs that are transcribed from the subtelomere towards the telomere. The precise genomic origin of TERRA has remained elusive. Using a whole-genome RNA-sequencing approach, we identify novel mouse transcripts arising mainly from the subtelomere of chromosome 18, and to a lesser extend chromosome 9, that resemble TERRA in several key aspects. Those transcripts contain UUAGGG-repeats and are heterogeneous in size, fluctuate in abundance in a TERRA-like manner during the cell cycle, are bound by TERRA RNA-binding proteins and are regulated in a manner similar to TERRA in response to stress and the induction of pluripotency. These transcripts are also found to associate with nearly all chromosome ends and downregulation of the transcripts that originate from chromosome 18 causes a reduction in TERRA abundance. Interestingly, downregulation of either chromosome 18 transcripts or TERRA results in increased number of telomere dysfunction-induced foci, suggesting a protective role at telomeres.

  15. Role of IFN-gamma and IL-6 in a protective immune response to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autenrieth Ingo B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia outer protein (Yop H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye, which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to address whether and how YopH affects the innate immune response to Ye in mice. Results For this purpose, mice were infected with wild type Ye (pYV+ or a YopH-deficient Ye mutant strain (ΔyopH. CD11b+ cells were isolated from the infected spleen and subjected to gene expression analysis using microarrays. Despite the attenuation of ΔyopH in vivo, by variation of infection doses we were able to achieve conditions that allow comparison of gene expression in pYV+ and ΔyopH infection, using either comparable infection courses or splenic bacterial burden. Gene expression analysis provided evidence that expression levels of several immune response genes, including IFN-γ and IL-6, are high after pYV+ infection but low after sublethal ΔyopH infection. In line with these findings, infection of IFN-γR-/- and IL-6-/- mice with pYV+ or ΔyopH revealed that these cytokines are not necessarily required for control of ΔyopH, but are essential for defense against infection with the more virulent pYV+. Consistently, IFN-γ pretreatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM strongly enhanced their ability in killing intracellular Ye bacteria. Conclusion In conclusion, this data suggests that IFN-γ-mediated effector mechanisms can partially compensate virulence exerted by YopH. These results shed new light on the protective role of IFN-γ in Ye wild type infections.

  16. Role of Occult and Post-acute Phase Replication in Protective Immunity Induced with a Novel Live Attenuated SIV Vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, Neil; Manoussaka, Maria; Ham, Claire; Ferguson, Deborah; Tudor, Hannah; Mattiuzzo, Giada; Klaver, Bep; Page, Mark; Stebbings, Richard; Das, Atze T.; Berkhout, Ben; Almond, Neil; Cranage, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of persisting virus replication during occult phase immunisation in the live attenuated SIV vaccine model, a novel SIVmac239Δnef variant (SIVrtTA) genetically engineered to replicate in the presence of doxycycline was evaluated for its ability to protect against

  17. Building the adult protective services system of tomorrow: The role of the APS national voluntary consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobitt, Julie; Kuhne, Jamie; Carter, Julie; Whittier Eliason, Stephanie; Twomey, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, the Administration for Community Living (ACL) established the first federal "home" for Adult Protective Services (APS). This leadership has included working collaboratively with state Adult Protective Service systems to ensure that older adults and adults with disabilities are afforded the same protections against abuse, neglect, and financial exploitation regardless of where in the country they live. As part of that leadership, ACL created draft Voluntary Consensus Guidelines for State APS Systems. ACL undertook a process of public and stakeholder engagement and analyzed the resulting comments to improve upon the initial draft of the draft to arrive at the final version. This article examines the comments, including the concerns raised by the commenters about specific areas of the Guidelines, areas identified for future research, and reflections and opinions on the role of the federal government in guiding the development of the field of adult protection.

  18. Dual role of the p38 MAPK/cPLA2 pathway in the regulation of platelet apoptosis induced by ABT-737 and strong platelet agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukoyatkina, N; Mindukshev, I; Walter, U; Gambaryan, S

    2013-11-21

    p38 Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is involved in the apoptosis of nucleated cells. Although platelets are anucleated cells, apoptotic proteins have been shown to regulate platelet lifespan. However, the involvement of p38 MAP kinase in platelet apoptosis is not yet clearly defined. Therefore, we investigated the role of p38 MAP kinase in apoptosis induced by a mimetic of BH3-only proteins, ABT-737, and in apoptosis-like events induced by such strong platelet agonists as thrombin in combination with convulxin (Thr/Cvx), both of which result in p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and activation. A p38 inhibitor (SB202190) inhibited the apoptotic events induced by ABT-737 but did not influence those induced by Thr/Cvx. The inhibitor also reduced the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an established p38 substrate, induced by ABT-737 or Thr/Cvx. ABT-737, but not Thr/Cvx, induced the caspase 3-dependent cleavage and inactivation of cPLA2. Thus, p38 MAPK promotes ABT-737-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the cPLA2/arachidonate pathway. We also show that arachidonic acid (AA) itself and in combination with Thr/Cvx or ABT-737 at low concentrations prevented apoptotic events, whereas at high concentrations it enhanced such events. Our data support the hypothesis that the p38 MAPK-triggered arachidonate pathway serves as a defense mechanism against apoptosis under physiological conditions.

  19. Catalase (KatA) plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J; Mahtani, Harry K; Li, Qian; Vanderwielen, Bradley D; Makris, Thomas M; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D; Irvin, Randall T; Schurr, Michael J; Lancaster, Jack R; Kovall, Rhett A; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  20. Catalase (KatA) Plays a Role in Protection against Anaerobic Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J.; Mahtani, Harry K.; Li, Qian; VanderWielen, Bradley D.; Makris, Thomas M.; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D.; Irvin, Randall T.; Schurr, Michael J.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Kovall, Rhett A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (K d ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  1. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu; LaRiviere, Patrick J.; Sammani, Saad; Lussier, Yves A.; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components serve as modulators and novel therapeutic targets of RILI. Sphingolipid involvement in murine RILI was confirmed by radiation-induced increases in lung expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms 1 and 2 and increases in the ratio of ceramide to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and dihydro-S1P (DHS1P) levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. Mice with a targeted deletion of SphK1 (SphK1−/−) or with reduced expression of S1P receptors (S1PR1+/−, S1PR2−/−, and S1PR3−/−) exhibited marked RILI susceptibility. Finally, studies of 3 potent vascular barrier-protective S1P analogs, FTY720, (S)-FTY720-phosphonate (fTyS), and SEW-2871, identified significant RILI attenuation and radiation-induced gene dysregulation by the phosphonate analog, fTyS (0.1 and 1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk) and to a lesser degree by SEW-2871 (1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk), compared with those in controls. These results support the targeting of S1P signaling as a novel therapeutic strategy in RILI.—Mathew, B., Jacobson, J. R., Berdyshev, E., Huang, Y., Sun, X., Zhao, Y., Gerhold, L. M., Siegler, J., Evenoski, C., Wang, T., Zhou, T., Zaidi, R., Moreno-Vinasco, L., Bittman, R., Chen, C. T., LaRiviere, P. J., Sammani, S., Lussier, Y. A., Dudek, S. M., Natarajan, V., Weichselbaum, R. R., Garcia, J. G. N. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs. PMID:21712494

  2. Catalase (KatA plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchang Su

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC, indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM. Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic

  3. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  4. Neurophysiological effect of the Rh factor. Protective role of the RhD molecule against Toxoplasma-induced impairment of reaction times in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Novotná, Martina; Lindová, Jitka; Havlícek, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The biological function of RhD protein, a major component of the Rh blood group system, is largely unknown. No phenotypic effect of RhD protein, except its role in hemolytic disease of newborns and protective role against Toxoplasma-induced impairment of reaction times in men, has been described. Here we searched for a protective effect of RhD positivity against Toxoplasma-induced prolongation of reaction times in a set of 110 male and 226 female students of the Faculty of Science tested for latent toxoplasmosis and concentration of testosterone in saliva. RhD-positive subjects have been confirmed to be less sensitive to the influence of latent toxoplasmosis on reaction times than Rh-negative subjects. While a protective role of RhD positivity has been demonstrated previously in four populations of men, the present study has shown a similar effect in 226 female students. Our results have also shown that the concentration of testosterone in saliva strongly influences (reduces) reaction times (especially in men) and therefore, this factor should be controlled in future reaction times studies. The observed effects of RhD phenotype could provide not only a clue to the long-standing evolutionary enigma of the origin of RhD polymorphism in humans (the effect of balancing selection), differences in the RhD+ allele frequencies in geographically distinct populations (resulting from geographic variation in the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii), but might also be the missing piece in the puzzle of the physiological function of the RhD molecule.

  5. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a brief history of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), followed by some general comments on the radiological protection of patients. The importance of establishing scientific guidelines and professional standards is emphasized, as is the need to ensure the protection of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The responsibility of qualified medical physicists in the protection of patients in nuclear medicine and in diagnostic and interventional radiology is also discussed. (author)

  6. Multiple sclerosis and cancers in Croatia--a possible protective role of the "Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materljan, Eris; Materljan, Mauro; Materljan, Branka; Vlacić, Helena; Barićev-Novaković, Zdenka; Sepcić, Juraj

    2009-06-01

    -05), whilst colon cancer alone (20.4 vs. 15.7; p = 9.44E-05) or colorectal cancer (38.3 vs. 31.6; p = 8.18E-05) had a significantly higher incidence in the coastal area. The geographic distribution of MS expressed by incidence was significantly correlated with pancreatic (r = 0.62024, df=23, p = 0.00094) and lung cancer (r = 0.46380, df=23, p = 0.01953). This research adds further malignant neoplasms, possibly exposure-related, to the list of diseases with geographic distribution like MS. The similarity of MS distribution with the named malignancies is unlikely to be incidental. MS in Gorski Kotar and Slavonia seems to be associated with a diet rich in meat and fat. A diet rich in fat and meat and poor in vegetables is a risk factor for stomach, colorectum, pancreatic as well as lung cancers. Some authors have documented a possible protective role of the "Mediterranean diet" for the named cancers. Olive oil is the main source of fat in the "Mediterranean diet". Oleocanthal, aphenolic compound of the extra-virgin olive oil was found to inhibit the cyclooxigenase enzymes which are involved in demyelination and tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that the "Mediterranean diet", olive oil and particularly oleocanthal, to have a protective role in MS too.

  7. The role of radiologic technologist in radiation protection and quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Spasci -Jokic, V.; Misovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The most important sources of ionizing radiation for general public are medical sources. Good working protocols and radiological protections measurements provided significant reduction of patients and professional doses. Medical users of ionizing radiation are radiological technologists. The purpose of this paper is to point out to several facts and errors in radiation protection educational programs for radiological technologists. Medical College educational program covers main specific topics in radiation protection, but there are some omissions in training process. Radiological technologists must be actively involved in radiation protection. Following ethical standards they will reach higher standards than the law requires

  8. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in protection from renal tubulointerstitial injury by maintaining redox balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Wang, Qian; Wang, Rong; Lu, Xiang; Miao, Dengshun

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether Bmi-1 deficiency could lead to renal tubulointerstitial injury by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in the kidney, 3-week-old Bmi-1-/- mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 1 mg mL−1) in their drinking water, or pyrro-quinoline quinone (PQQ, 4 mg kg−1 diet) in their diet for 2 weeks, and their renal phenotypes were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1-/- and wild-type mice. Bmi-1 was knocked down in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells which were treated with 1 mm NAC for 72 or 96 h, and their phenotypes were compared with control cells. Five-week-old vehicle-treated Bmi-1-/- mice displayed renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and severe renal function impairment with decreased renal cell proliferation, increased renal cell apoptosis and senescence, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Impaired mitochondrial structure, decreased mitochondrial numbers, and increased oxidative stress occurred in Bmi-1-/- mice; subsequently, this caused DNA damage, the activation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling, and the imbalance between extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Oxidative stress-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular epithelial cells was enhanced in Bmi-1 knocked down HK2 cells. All phenotypic alterations caused by Bmi-1 deficiency were ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. These findings indicate that Bmi-1 plays a critical role in protection from renal tubulointerstitial injury by maintaining redox balance and will be a novel therapeutic target for preventing renal tubulointerstitial injury. PMID:24915841

  9. The local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, S; Rabindra, R J

    1993-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. With the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. In the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. Concurrently indigenous crop varieties with resistance to pests and diseases have been developed and cultivated. According to the principle of 'organic farming', several non-chemical methods have become popular among the local farmers. Simple cultural practices like increasing the seed rate to compensate for pest damage, adjusting the time of sowing to avoid pest damage, mulching, intercropping, trap cropping and crop rotation have been found to provide adequate protection from pest damage with no additional cost and without harmful effects on the environment. The age-old method of catch and kill is still being practised by farmers, particularly for cotton. Mechanical methods like the bow trap for control of rats and provision of tin sheets around coconut tree trunks to prevent rats damaging the nuts are still being adopted. The use of botanical materials such as the neem products for pest management has been well received almost all over the world. Biological control using the natural enemies of insect pests has become very popular among the farmers in the 1980s. The farmers who clamoured for chemical pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s are now disillusioned with these poisonous eco-destabilizing substances; they want sensible, biologically rational methods of IPM. Pest surveillance and monitoring play an important role in IPM for sustainable agriculture.

  10. Role of marine macroalgae in plant protection & improvement for sustainable agriculture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham M. Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are plant-like organisms with simple internal structures that generally live in coastal areas. They mainly include different communities of red, brown and green macroalgae. Marine macroalgae commonly occupy intertidal and sublittoral-to-littoral zones on rocks and other hard substrata. They are considered to be an excellent natural biosource in different aspects of agricultural fields. They have great proficiency in improving soil physical and chemical properties. Marine macroalgae are also characterized by producing a large array of biologically active biocidal substances against plant-infecting pathogens. Unfortunately, most available literatures on marine macroalgae and their derivatives mainly focused on their pharmaceutical applications but their potential utilization in sustainable agriculture development is still often regarded as a secondary goal. However, a relatively considerable dataset on marine macroalgae showed that they could play a major role in plant protection and improvement. This review summarizes different aspects of potential macroalgal applications in agriculture. Commercial production and exploitation of specific compounds with interesting biotechnological importance from marine macroalgae including microbicides, nematicides, insecticides, biofertilizers, biostimulators and soil conditioners are highlighted and discussed in detail. Bioactive compounds like fatty acids (in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, proteins (amino acids, bioflavonoids, sulfated polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyphenols and carbohydrates are considered to have bactericidal, antiviral and fungicidal effects against some plant-infecting pathogens. These biocontrol agents provide multiple benefits and act as useful pointers for improving cultivation practices in diverse habitats. Marine macroalgae can be generally considered as promising multifunctional bioinoculants and ecofriendly environmental tools in recent trends

  11. The crucial protective role of glutathione against tienilic acid hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiya, Takayoshi; Mori, Kazuhiko; Hattori, Chiharu; Kai, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Hiroko; Masubuchi, Noriko; Jindo, Toshimasa; Manabe, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the hepatotoxic potential of tienilic acid in vivo, we administered a single oral dose of tienilic acid to Sprague-Dawley rats and performed general clinicopathological examinations and hepatic gene expression analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. No change in the serum transaminases was noted at up to 1000 mg/kg, although slight elevation of the serum bile acid and bilirubin, and very mild hepatotoxic changes in morphology were observed. In contrast to the marginal clinicopathological changes, marked upregulation of the genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis [glutathione synthetase and glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gcl)], oxidative stress response [heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1] and phase II drug metabolism (glutathione S-transferase and UDP glycosyltransferase 1A6) were noted after 3 or 6 h post-dosing. The hepatic reduced glutathione level decreased at 3-6 h, and then increased at 24 or 48 h, indicating that the upregulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated gene and the late increase in hepatic glutathione are protective responses against the oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses caused by tienilic acid. In a subsequent experiment, tienilic acid in combination with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of Gcl caused marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with extensive centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis, whereas BSO alone showed no hepatotoxicity. The elevation of ALT by this combination was observed at the same dose levels of tienilic acid as the upregulation of the Nrf2-regulated genes by tienilic acid alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that the impairment of glutathione biosynthesis may play a critical role in the development of tienilic acid hepatotoxicity through extensive oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses

  12. The thin brown line: The crucial role of peat in protecting permafrost in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, B.; Mann, D. H.; Farquharson, L. M.; Baughman, C. A.; Jones, B. M.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Williams, A. P.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing warming threatens to thaw Arctic permafrost and release its stored carbon, which could trigger a permafrost-carbon feedback capable of augmenting global warming. The effects of warming air temperatures on permafrost are complicated by the fact that across much of the Arctic and Subarctic a mat of living plants and decaying litter cover the ground and buffer underlying permafrost from air temperatures. For simplicity here, we refer to this organic mat as "peat". Because this peat modifies heat flow between ground and air, the rate and magnitude of permafrost responses to changing climate - and hence the permafrost-carbon feedback - are partly slaved to the peat layer's slower dynamics. To explore this relationship, we used 14C-age offsets within lake sediments in Alaskan watersheds underlain by yedoma deposits to track the changing responses of permafrost thaw to fluctuating climate as peat accumulated over the last 14,000 years. As the peat layer built up, warming events became less effective at thawing permafrost and releasing ancient carbon. Consistent with this age-offset record, the geological record shows that early in post-glacial times when the peat cover was still thin and limited in extent, warm intervals triggered extensive thermokarst that resulted in rapid aggradation of floodplains. Today in contrast, hillslopes and floodplains remain stable despite rapid warming, probably because of the buffering effects of the extensive peat cover. Another natural experiment is provided by tundra fires like the 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire that removed the peat cover from tundra underlain by continuous permafrost and resulted in widespread thermkarsting. Further support for peat's critical role in protecting permafrost comes from the results of modeling how permafrost temperatures under different peat thicknesses respond to warming air temperature. Although post-industrial warming has not yet surpassed the buffering capacity of 14,000 years of peat buildup in

  13. Quinolinic acid induces disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis in striatal neurons. Protective role of astrocyte-neuron interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; de Lima, Bárbara Ortiz; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway involved in several neurological disorders. Among the several mechanisms involved in QUIN-mediated toxicity, disruption of the cytoskeleton has been demonstrated in striatally injected rats and in striatal slices. The present work searched for the actions of QUIN in primary striatal neurons. Neurons exposed to 10 µM QUIN presented hyperphosphorylated neurofilament (NF) subunits (NFL, NFM, and NFH). Hyperphosphorylation was abrogated in the presence of protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors H89 (20 μM) and staurosporine (10 nM), respectively, as well as by specific antagonists to N-methyl-D-aspartate (50 µM DL-AP5) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (100 µM MPEP). Also, intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) chelators (10 µM BAPTA-AM and 1 mM EGTA, respectively) and Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (10 µM verapamil) are implicated in QUIN-mediated effects. Cells immunostained for the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 showed altered neurite/neuron ratios and neurite outgrowth. NF hyperphosphorylation and morphological alterations were totally prevented by conditioned medium from QUIN-treated astrocytes. Cocultured astrocytes and neurons interacted with one another reciprocally, protecting them against QUIN injury. Cocultured cells preserved their cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology together with unaltered activity of the phosphorylating system associated with the cytoskeleton. This article describes cytoskeletal disruption as one of the most relevant actions of QUIN toxicity in striatal neurons in culture with soluble factors secreted by astrocytes, with neuron-astrocyte interaction playing a role in neuroprotection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Protective role of Emblica officinalis hydro-ethanolic leaf extract in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purena, Rupal; Seth, Rohit; Bhatt, Renu

    2018-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a major limiting factor in cisplatin treatment. In the present study hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of Emblica officinalis was investigated for its protective role in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The experiment was designed for 14 days and male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups (n = 5). Group 1 served as control (with no treatment), group 2 served as a vehicle control and received 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) on 11th day of the treatment, group 3 received a single dose of cisplatin on 11th day (12 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), group 4-6 received leaf extract only (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively) throughout the treatment, group 7-9 received leaf extract (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively) throughout the treatment and single dose of cisplatin on the 11th day of the leaf extract treatment. At the end of the experiment ( i.e. on 14th day) blood samples were collected from all the groups and were sacrificed to study renal functional parameters. Treatment with above doses of E. officinalis leaf extract significantly (p ≤ 0.05) attenuates renal damage by decreasing serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), enhanced the activities of Catalase, SOD, GPx, GR and decreased the renal MDA level compared with the cisplatin treatment group. Furthermore the oral administration of Amla leaf extract improves histological damage and morphological changes in RBCs. Our results suggest that, leaf extract of E. officinalis may ameliorate renal damage caused by cisplatin.

  15. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedan, Keryn B.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Wolanski, Eric; Barbier, Edward B.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, coastal wetlands have been recognized for their ability to stabilize shorelines and protect coastal communities. However, this paradigm has recently been called into question by small-scale experimental evidence. Here, we conduct a literature review and a small meta-analysis of wave attenuation data, and we find overwhelming evidence in support of established theory. Our review suggests that mangrove and salt marsh vegetation afford context-dependent protection from erosion, storm surge, and potentially small tsunami waves. In biophysical models, field tests, and natural experiments, the presence of wetlands reduces wave heights, property damage, and human deaths. Meta-analysis of wave attenuation by vegetated and unvegetated wetland sites highlights the critical role of vegetation in attenuating waves. Although we find coastal wetland vegetation to be an effective shoreline buffer, wetlands cannot protect shorelines in all locations or scenarios; indeed large-scale regional erosion, river meandering, and large tsunami waves and storm surges can overwhelm the attenuation effect of vegetation. However, due to a nonlinear relationship between wave attenuation and wetland size, even small wetlands afford substantial protection from waves. Combining man-made structures with wetlands in ways that mimic nature is likely to increase coastal protection. Oyster domes, for example, can be used in combination with natural wetlands to protect shorelines and restore critical fishery habitat. Finally, coastal wetland vegetation modifies shorelines in ways (e.g. peat accretion) that increase shoreline integrity over long timescales and thus provides a lasting coastal adaptation measure that can protect shorelines against accelerated sea level rise and more frequent storm inundation. We conclude that the shoreline protection paradigm still stands, but that gaps remain in our knowledge about the mechanistic and context-dependent aspects of shoreline

  16. Narrowing the Insurance Protection Gap: The important role of Natural Hazards Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Insurance industry is a key component of the economic engine. It allows businesses to reduce uncertainty in their operations, and individuals to rebound from unanticipated events. A thriving insurance industry efficiently transfers risk from individuals and businesses to the capital markets. It allows society to function smoothly and fosters growth. In areas where the private insurance is not a viable option, the outcome is suboptimal - the society ends up carrying the burden. Higher insurance penetration increases disaster resiliency. The long term viability of an insurance product depends on the ability of the insurance provider to accurately assess risks, which is critical to pricing insurance and risk monitoring. Insurance payouts are typically incurred during extreme events, therefore the industry is very interested in extreme events research. There are several examples where the insurance industry has stepped away from a market or severely limited its appetite because of lack of data or proper understanding of the underlying risks - such as, flood. Further, the insurance Industry has seen a rising trend of natural hazard related losses over the past few decades. The trends have been particularly strong in hydro meteorological hazards. While a good part of this increasing trend can been explained by increase in exposures, there is also concern that underlying hazard landscape may be evolving. The industry would really benefit from research that identifies secular and long term trends in hydro-meteorological hazards, particularly in the extremes. Insight into non-stationarity in the climate system at a regional level would be very informative of risk management decisions. One can envision a scenario where in the industry stops insuring certain risk (such as storm surge), because of a lack of understanding of the trends in the underlying risk and a consequent poor performance record. In sum, the ability of the industry to assess complex and emerging natural

  17. Factors affecting UV-B-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana L. gene expression: The role of development, protective pigments and the chloroplast signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Mackerness, S.A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Gene expression is known to change in response to UV-B radiation. In this paper, we have investigated three factors in Arabidopsis leaves that are likely to influence these changes: development, protective pigments and the 'chloroplast signal'. During late leaf development the major change in pigment composition, after exposure to UV-B radiation, is an increase in UV-absorbing pigments. Chl and Chl a/b ratio do not change substantially. Similarly Chl fluorescence is not altered. In contrast, RNA transcripts of photosynthetic proteins are reduced more in older leaves than in young leaves. To determine the role of flavonoids in UV-B protection, plants of Arabidopsis mutant tt-5, which have reduced flavonoids and sinapic esters, were exposed to UV-B and RNA transcript levels determined. The tt-mutants were more sensitive to UV-B radiation than wild-type. To examine the role of the chloroplast signal in regulating UV-B induced changes in gene expression, Arabidopsis gun mutants (genome uncoupled) have been used. The results show that UV-B-induced down-regulation still takes place in gun mutants and strongly suggests that the chloroplast signal is not required. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates that UV-B-induced changes in gene expression are influenced by both developmental and cellular factors but not chloroplastic factors

  18. Dimethyloxalylglycine preserves the intestinal microvasculature and protects against intestinal injury in a neonatal mouse NEC model: role of VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Rakhee M; Yan, Xiaocai; Managlia, Elizabeth; Liu, Shirley X L; Marek, Catherine; Tan, Xiao-Di; De Plaen, Isabelle G

    2018-02-01

    BackgroundNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease characterized by intestinal necrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has a critical role in cellular oxygen homeostasis. Here, we hypothesized that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition, which stabilizes HIF-1α, protects against NEC by promoting intestinal endothelial cell proliferation and improving intestinal microvascular integrity via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.MethodsTo assess the role of PHD inhibition in a neonatal mouse NEC model, we administered dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or vehicle to pups before or during the NEC protocol, and determined mortality and incidence of severe intestinal injury. We assessed intestinal VEGF by western blot analysis and quantified endothelial cell and epithelial cell proliferation following immunofluorescence.ResultsDMOG decreased mortality and incidence of severe NEC, increased intestinal VEGF expression, and increased intestinal villus endothelial and epithelial cell proliferation in experimental NEC. Inhibiting VEGFR2 signaling eliminated DMOG's protective effect on intestinal injury severity, survival, and endothelial cell proliferation while sparing DMOG's protective effect on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.ConclusionDMOG upregulates intestinal VEGF, promotes endothelial cell proliferation, and protects against intestinal injury and mortality in experimental NEC in a VEGFR2 dependent manner. DMOG's protective effect on the neonatal intestinal mucosa may be mediated via VEGFR2 dependent improvement of the intestinal microvasculature.

  19. Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Cohen, Guina; Shahar, Golan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how social support may protect Israeli early adolescents who have witnessed community violence from engaging in violent behavior when they have also witnessed terror violence. The study examines how support from parents, school, and friends could serve as protective, despite the interactive risk effects of witnessing…

  20. The relative role of cognitive and emotional reactions in mediating the effects of a social comparison sun protection intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Heike I M

    2018-02-01

    This experiment examined the cognitive and emotional impact of two social comparison-based sun protection interventions in a sample of Southern California college students (N = 223). One of the interventions employed comparison UV photos of peers who had either much more (downward social comparison) or much less (upward social comparison) skin damage than did participants themselves. The second intervention consisted of descriptive norms information suggesting that a large majority of the participants' peer group regularly protect their skin from the sun. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a 4 (Social Comparison Information: no photo vs. no comparison photos vs. upward comparison photos vs. downward comparison photos) × 2 (Descriptive Norms Information: Received vs. not received) design. Emotional reactions (e.g. worry, embarrassment, relief) and sun-related cognitive reactions (perceived susceptibility, sun protection intentions) were assessed immediately. Sun protection behaviours were assessed in a surprise telephone follow-up five weeks following the intervention. The results demonstrated that the combination of seeing photos of peers who had very little sun damage and learning that a majority of one's peers engage in regular sun protection resulted in reliably greater subsequent sun protection than all other conditions. Further, there was relatively direct evidence that both negative emotional reactions and sun protection intentions mediated this effect. These findings add to the growing literature suggesting the importance of thoroughly examining the role of emotions in health behaviour decisions. Both theory and intervention efficacy would benefit from a better understanding of the relative role of cognitions and emotions in behaviour change.

  1. The role of strong-tie social networks in mediating food security of fish resources by a traditional riverine community in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a significant way through which rural communities that manage resources under common property regimes obtain food resources. Previous research on food security and social network analysis has mostly focused on egocentric network data or proxy variables for social networks to explain how social relations contribute to the different dimensions of food security. Whole-network approaches have the potential to contribute to former studies by revealing how individual social ties aggregate into complex structures that create opportunities or constraints to the sharing and distribution of food resources. We used a whole-network approach to investigate the role of network structure in contributing to the four dimensions of food security: food availability, access, utilization, and stability. For a case study of a riparian community from the Brazilian Amazon that is dependent on fish as a key element of food security, we mapped the community strong-tie network among 97% of the village population over 14 years old (n = 336 by integrating reciprocated friendship and occupational ties, as well as close kinship relationships. We explored how different structural properties of the community network contribute to the understanding of (1 the availability of fish as a community resource, (2 community access to fish as a dietary resource, (3 the utilization of fish for consumption in a way that allows the villagers to maximize nutrition while at the same time minimizing toxic risks associated with mercury exposure, and (4 the stability of the fish resources in local ecosystems as a result of cooperative behaviors and community-based management. The contribution of whole-network approaches to the study of the links between community-based natural resource management and food security were discussed in the context of recent social-ecological changes in the Amazonian region.

  2. The protective role of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress among Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang

    2018-04-06

    To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The role of coral reef rugosity in dissipating wave energy and coastal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel; Rovere, Alessio; Parravicini, Valeriano; Casella, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Coral reefs are the most effective natural barrier in dissipating wave energy through breaking and bed friction. The attenuation of wave energy by coral reef flats is essential in the protection and stability of coral reef aligned coasts and reef islands. However, the effectiveness of wave energy dissipation by coral reefs may be diminished under future climate change scenarios with a potential reduction of coral reef rugosity due to increased stress environmental stress on corals. The physical roughness or rugosity of coral reefs is directly related to ecological diversity, reef health, and hydrodynamic roughness. However, the relationship between physical roughness and hydrodynamic roughness is not well understood despite the crucial role of bed friction in dissipating wave energy in coral reef aligned coasts. We examine the relationship between wave energy dissipation across a fringing reef in relation to the cross-reef ecological zonation and the benthic hydrodynamic roughness. Waves were measured by pressure transducers in a cross-reef transect on the reefs flats and post processed on a wave by wave basis to determine wave statistics such as significant wave height and wave period. Results from direct wave measurement were then used to calibrate a 1D wave dissipation model that incorporates dissipation functions due to bed friction and wave breaking. This model was used to assess the bed roughness required to produce the observed wave height dissipation during propagation from deep water and across the coral reef flats. Changes in wave dissipation was also examined under future scenarios of sea level rise and reduced bed roughness. Three dimensional models of the benthic reef structure were produced through structure-from-motion photogrammetry surveys. Reef rugosity was then determined from these surveys and related to the roughness results from the calibrated model. The results indicate that applying varying roughness coefficients as the benthic ecological

  4. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  5. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  6. Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azeem, Kh.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    histopathological alterations, compared to irradiated rats. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that ALA may play a protective role against the destructive effects induced by γ-radiation and reduced the biochemical and histopathological events of radiation sickness

  7. The putative protective role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Maya; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Barzilai, Ori; Izhaky, David; Porat Katz, Bat-Sheva; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2008-09-01

    The etiology of autoimmune diseases is not fully clarified and the mechanisms underlying their initiation and progression are still obscure. It is becoming clear that in a genetic susceptible individual an environmental trigger such as infectious agent in general and viruses in particular could initiate the development of an autoimmune disease. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is notorious in its association with diverse autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we aimed to determine the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), a seromarker for past or present infection with HBV, in a large number of sera collected from patients with different autoimmune diseases. A cohort of 675 sera samples of 5 different autoimmune diseases and healthy donors were screened for evidence of a prior infection with HBV. All samples were tested for hepatitis B core antibody (IgG) using the Monolisa anti-HBc PLUS commercial kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, San Francisco, USA). Lower percentage of HBcAb was found in sera of the autoimmune diseases when compared to normal controls. Fifteen (10.7%) from 140 normal controls were found positive for the presence of HBcAb. Two (2%) out of 98 multiple sclerosis (MS) sera were positive for the presence of HBcAb (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.03-0.77, p=0.01), 3 (2.5%) out of 117 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera (OR: 0.2, 95%CI: 0.06-0.77, p=0.01), 4 (4.5%) out of 89 type 1 diabetes (T1D), 5 (6.1%) from 82 Sjogren's syndrome (SS) sera and 12 (8%) from 149 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sera were positive for the presence of HBcAb. Our data divulge an unexpected low percentage of antibodies to HBcAg in patients with SLE, MS and T1D in comparison to healthy matched donors. This finding may raise a protective role to HBV in some autoimmune diseases i.e. hygiene theory.

  8. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary eZeitlin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss and nuclear. Models of transport such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs. GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we therefore exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk reduced by fragmentation, but it can be argued that fragmentation also reduces the

  9. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals.

  10. The use of hormonal contraception and its protective role against endometrial and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2010-02-01

    Hormonal contraception has a protective effect over ovarian and endometrial cancer development. Relative risk of ovarian cancer decreases by approximately 20% for each 5 years of use; it is approximately 50% for 15 years of use and decreasing with further use. The protective effect gained declines as time passes from its last use, but a significant effect remains a long time after ceasing. The effect is independent from the type of formulation used. Hormonal contraceptives do not protect from mucinous types of ovarian tumours. Relative risk reduction of endometrial cancer is even higher; the estimated relative risk decrease is approximately 50% with 4 years of use, approximately 70% with 12 years of use and decreasing with further use. After ceasing oral contraception, the risk begins to rise from its reduced levels but it is still approximately 50% even after >20 years after its last use. Hormonal contraception could be used for primary protection from ovarian and endometrial cancer development.

  11. The role of contemporary ferrous and nonferrous materials in ballistic protection of military vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2014-01-01

    Metallic armor is the most mature class of armor materials and is still widely used for ballistic protection today. Although the materials for metallic armor are highly developed, new and innovative metallic armor systems are being used to improve the ballistic protection (while reducing the weight) of various weapon systems. Historically, most metallic armor evolved from designing materials to meet structural or other requirements rather than from designing specifically for balli...

  12. Conservation and restoration of marine forests in the Mediterranean Sea and the potential role of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Gianni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystoseira species are some of the most important marine ecosystem-engineers, forming extended canopies comparable to land forests. Such forests are sensitive to human disturbances, like the decrease in water quality, the coastal development and the outbreak of herbivores. Conspicuous historical declines have been reported in many regions and several Cystoseira species are presently protected by European Union (EU environmental policies. The aim of this work was to synthesize the conservation perspectives of Cystoseira forests in the Mediterranean Sea, focusing on the opportunities offered by artificial restoration and highlighting the potential role of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. MPAs give a better protection to healthy forests than non-managed sites and may be a source of propagules for natural recovery and/or for non-destructive artificial restoration of nearby damaged forests. MPAs lacking Cystoseira forests may also represent preferential sites for reforestation. We proposed a flow-chart for the conservation and a reasoned restoration of Cystoseira in the Mediterranean Sea. The successful conservation of Cystoseira forests is still possible, via raising public awareness on the role of Cystoseira and reducing human impacts on coastal ecosystems. Such actions have to be coupled with more specific large-scale management plans, encompassing restoration actions and enforcement of protection within MPAs.

  13. Protective properties of wine products and the role of high performance liquid chromatography in the study of these properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulyanova, E V; Larionov, O G; Revina, A A; Andrievskaya, D V; Urusova, L M; Fenin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Data on the biologically active substances present in wines and wine products, the methods of their determination, and changes under chemical, radiation and other types of action are generalized. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in the studies of the protective properties of wines is demonstrated. Particular attention is devoted to problems of counterfeiting of wine products and the possibility to reveal it by using amperometric determination of the antioxidant activity. The bibliography includes 117 references

  14. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  15. The Functions of Selected Human Rights Institutions and Related Role-Players in the Protection of Human Rights in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various violations of the human rights of ordinary people and human rights defenders have been reported in Zimbabwe since the late 1980s. It is widely acknowledged that such violations have been perpetrated mostly by the government through its different organs for political and other related reasons. Human rights violations were also easily committed against ordinary people and human rights defenders because there was no Constitution that adequately protected such people's fundamental human rights (including their civil and political rights and their socio-economic rights in Zimbabwe. Given this background, the article discusses the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe, in the light of the Zimbabwe Constitution Amendment Act 20 of 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution 2013. This is done in order to investigate whether the promotion, protection, enforcement and respect for human rights in Zimbabwe has now improved. To this end, the functions of selected national human rights institutions and other related role-players, namely civil society, the judiciary, the law enforcement organs and the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission, are briefly discussed first. Secondly, the functions of selected regional and international institutions, namely the Southern African Development Community, the African Union and the United Nations are discussed in relation to the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. Thereafter, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be utilised to combat human rights violations and enhance the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe are provided.

  16. Is there a role for autoimmunity in immune protection against malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Ribeiro Cláudio Tadeu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Much remains to be known about the mechanisms involved in protective immunity against malaria and the way it is acquired. This is probably the reason why, in spite of so much progress, it has not yet been possible to develop an anti-malaria vaccine able to induce parasite specific antibodies (Ab and/or T-cells. It has been considered in the early 80s that the induction of efficient protection against the blood stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum would not be possible without simultaneously eliciting an autoimmune (AI response against erythrocytes, even at the price of inducing an AI pathology. Despite the description of the reciprocal relationship, i.e. the protective effect of malaria on the development of AI diseases - demonstrated since 1970 - no effort has been made to verify the possible involvement of the AI response in protection against malaria. With this end in view - and in the light of the knowledge acquired in autoimmunity and the existence of the so called "natural" (not associated with pathology autoantibodies - we propose to examine the hypothesis that the participation of the AI response (not necessarily restricted to autologous erythrocyte antigens in the immune protection against malaria is possible or even necessary.

  17. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health.

  18. The role of protective systems in cell homeostasis upon gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasuxina, Q.D.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of parameters that are used for the estimation of cell defence against radiation and chemicals: induced initial DNA damage, residual damage after a period of repair, rate and fidelity of repair, endpoint (chromosomal changes and cell survival). Antioxidant enzymes are main pathway of cell defence: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutatione peroxidase, glutatione-S-transferase et al. Key enzyme is SOD which naturalizes reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are main damaging component of the radiation and some chemical action. Glutatione-S-transferase (GST) conjugates ROS to glutatione prior to their excretion from the body. The GST M1 null (one from family of GST) genotype is found in about 50% Europeans, Japanese, but only one-quarter of Afro-Americans. Lack of this enzyme may result in deficient detoxification leading to increase sensitivity to mutagens and in risk of cancer. Another system of cell defence involves enzymes taking part in DNA repair: base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair et al. A radio adaptive response (RAR) also can serve as cell defence system. RAR forms a cell resistance to gamma-radiation after cell pretreatment with low doses of radiation and some incubation (3-4 hours). Purpose of our investigation: 1) to estimate the role of SOD in human cells isolated from healthy donors, children with some repair-deficient diseases (Bloom syndrome, Marfan syndrome) and children from area with an increased level of radiation; 2) to compare SOD activity in human cells and human cells during RAR; 3) to study a possible link between cell survival and initial damage of DNA after treatment with TRIEN - inhibitor of SOD - and with garlic extract - natural anti mutagen. We found the increased level of damage of DNA in trien-pretreated cells (healthy and repair-deficient cells). However this level was similar in lymphocytes of children from areas with an increased level of radiation without and with trien

  19. Promoting radiation protection in France and Europe. The key role of IRSN, French Technical Safety Organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repussard, Jacques [IRSN - Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Direction des Affaires Internationales - Delegation aux Relations Internationales

    2012-07-01

    IRSN, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety was set up in France under Article 5 of French Act No. 2001-398 of May 9, 2001 as the French 'Technical Safety Organization' (TSO) expert in nuclear and radiological risks. It contributes to the implementation of public policies concerning nuclear safety and security and protection of human health and environment against ionizing radiation. IRSN interacts with all the parties concerned by these policies (public authorities, operators and stakeholders) while keeping its independence of judgment. (orig.)

  20. THE ROLE AND PLACE OF INFORMATION PROTECTION IN THE PROGRAM OF TRAINING OF IT-SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of issues related to the protection of information in the preparation of modern information technology specialists. Notes the importance of studying IT-specialists of this perspective and the need for an integrated approach to the selection and/or development of information security systems. Define the content of training programs on information security, as well as the amount of knowledge in the field of mathematics and information technologies needed for the development of this program. Formulated requirements to the results of development of the program and noted the need to include the protection of information in coursework and final qualifying work.

  1. Protective role of Withaferin-a on red blood cell integrity during 7,12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effect of Withaferin-A was assessed by measuring the status of glycoconjugates, membrane bound enzyme activity and red blood cell osmotic fragility. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin thrice a week for 14 ...

  2. The Protective Role of Teacher-Student Relationships against Peer Victimization and Psychosocial Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Simmons, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether teacher-student relationships protect against peer victimization and its negative psychosocial effects (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). Additionally, the influence of teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and students' perceptions of school order and discipline was investigated as these variables…

  3. Protective role of vitamin C against lindane toxicity on the histo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the protective effects of vitamin C against the toxic effects of lindane on the epididymis and vas deferens of male mice. There were four treatments: controls (untreated), lindane (20 mg/kg), lindane plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg) and vitamin C only. Lindane induced histopathological alterations in the epididymis and ...

  4. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: A protective role of ultraviolet radiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); S. Houterman (Saskia); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractUltraviolet radiation causes skin cancer but may protect against prostate cancer. The authors hypothesized that skin cancer patients had a lower prostate cancer incidence than the general population. In the southeastern part of the Netherlands, a population-based cohort of male skin

  5. Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, Reinaldo S.; Marroqui, Laura; Grieco, Fabio A.

    2017-01-01

    silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine...

  6. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... (PTIO) before light treatment. Pronounced increases of NO production were found in tall fescue leaves after exposure to high-light stress. The results suggested that high-light stress elevated NO level and that NO might act as a signalling molecule to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities, further protecting.

  7. Evaluating the Role of Protected Natural Areas for Environmental Education in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe; Passafaro, Paola; Perucchini, Paola; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment, proenvironmental attitudes, ethics and…

  8. The Role of Informal Protected Areas in Maintaining Biodiversity in the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonil A. Bhagwat

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is widely believed that an important function of protected areas is to conserve species that are unable to survive elsewhere, there are very few empirical studies in which a comparison is made between biodiversity of protected areas and that of the cultivated landscape surrounding them. We examined the diversity of trees, birds, and macrofungi at 58 sites in three land-use types in a tree-covered landscape in Kodagu district in the Western Ghats of India. Ten forest reserve sites in the formal protected area, and 25 sacred groves and 23 coffee plantations in the neighboring cultivated landscape were sampled. A total of 215 tree, 86 bird, and 163 macrofungus species were recorded. The forest reserve had a large number of trees that were restricted in their distribution, and the sacred groves had a large number of macrofungi. We observed that deciduous trees and non-forest-dwelling birds increased, and evergreen trees and forest-dwelling birds decreased with increasing intensity of land management. We found that trees having non-timber uses and macrofungi useful to the local people, as well as those with medicinal properties, were abundant in sacred groves. We found no significant differences in the distribution of endemic and threatened birds across the three land-use types. Although endemic trees were more abundant in the forest reserve than in sacred groves, threatened trees were more abundant in sacred groves than in the forest reserve. We attribute the high diversity in sacred groves to the native tree cover in shade coffee plantations. We conclude that informal protected areas are as important as formal ones for biodiversity conservation in Kodagu. We recommend that a conservation strategy that recognizes informal protection traditions is essential for successful biodiversity conservation in regions where formal reserves are surrounded by a matrix of cultivated land.

  9. Protection from La Crosse virus encephalitis with recombinant glycoproteins: role of neutralizing anti-G1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekosz, A; Griot, C; Stillmock, K; Nathanson, N; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1995-06-01

    La Crosse virus, a member of the California serogroup of bunyaviruses, is an important cause of pediatric encephalitis in the midwestern United States. Like all bunyaviruses, La Crosse virus contains two glycoproteins, G1 and G2, the larger of which, G1, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. To develop an understanding of the role of each of the glycoproteins in the generation of a protective immune response, we immunized 1-week-old mice with three different preparations: a vaccinia virus recombinant (VV.ORF) that expresses both G1 and G2, a vaccinia virus recombinant (VV.G1) that expresses G1 only, and a truncated soluble G1 (sG1) protein prepared in a baculovirus system. Whereas VV.ORF generated a protective response that was mostly directed against G1, VV.G1 was only partially effective at inducing a neutralizing response and at protecting mice from a potentially lethal challenge with La Crosse virus. Nevertheless, a single immunization with the sG1 preparation resulted in a robust immune response and protection against La Crosse virus. These results indicate that (i) the G1 protein by itself can induce an immune response sufficient for protection from a lethal challenge with La Crosse virus, (ii) a neutralizing humoral response correlates with protection, and (iii) the context in which G1 is presented affects its immunogenicity. The key step in the defense against central nervous system infection appeared to be interruption of a transient viremia that occurred just after La Crosse virus inoculation.

  10. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth.

  11. Failure to protect goats following vaccination with soluble proteins of Sarcoptes scabiei: evidence for a role for IgE antibody in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Simson; Huntley, John F

    2005-10-10

    Developing an anti-scabies vaccine is thought to be a feasible alternative to chemical control, since animals which have recovered from sarcoptic mange become resistant against mite reinfestation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective value of immune responses developed in animals after immunisation with soluble mite proteins. Soluble proteins from Sarcoptes scabiei were extracted then subjected to ion exchange chromatography, and proteins from the column were eluted step-wise with 0%, 10%, 25% and 50% of 1 M solution of NaCl in a Tris buffer. Each protein fraction was concentrated and dialysed against PBS. To evaluate the immunogenicity of the fractions, 36 goats were allocated into six groups, group1 goats were unvaccinated, group 2 were vaccinated with intact soluble mite proteins, and groups 3-6 were vaccinated respectively with the fractionated proteins. Vaccinations were conducted four times with 1 mg protein/dose and 4-week intervals between vaccinations. One week after the last vaccination, all goats were challenged with approximately 2000 live mites on the auricles and infestations were allowed to progress for 6 weeks. The severity of lesions caused by the infestation was assessed throughout the study. The challenge caused mange or encrustation dermatitis in all animals and no differences in severity of lesions were observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated control goats. Vaccination with each fraction of the mite proteins invoked high levels of scabies-specific IgG in the serum of all animals but failed to induce specific IgE as determined by Elisa. In contrast, goats challenged experimentally with a primary or repeated mite challenge developed strong serum IgE and IgG antibody responses to Sarcoptes antigens. The latter animals were shown in a previous study to be resistant to reinfestation. The lack of immune protection in the vaccinated animals may be attributed to the absence of protective levels of IgE antibody, and the present

  12. Dietary catechins and their potentially protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Catechins are polyphenolic compounds in plant foods that belong to the family of flavonoids. Due to their strong antioxidant activity and their capacity to influence mammalian enzyme systems, catechins were hypothesized to affect risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in humans. After

  13. An approach for evaluating the role of protection measures in rockfall hazard zoning based on the Swiss experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina Howald, Erika; Abbruzzese, Jacopo Maria; Grisanti, Chiara

    2017-07-01

    Rockfall hazard zoning is essential for ensuring the safety of communities settled at the toe of potentially unstable slopes. Rockfall hazard zoning can be performed to include the effect of protection measures when land use restrictions might not be enough to mitigate hazards. The real effectiveness of the measures must be assessed to make sure they can play their role, especially in those cases when measures might have been installed at a given site for years. This article focuses on how to evaluate the effectiveness of rockfall protection measures and how hazard zoning can be influenced by their correct operation. The approach presented is divided into four main stages, which include a two-step procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of both existing and new protections. It is based on quite a comprehensive rockfall protection database built for the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, and on the Swiss Federal Guidelines for hazard zoning; however, all the methodological framework proposed and related considerations could be in principle extended to any other regional or national context in which a combination of intensity and frequency is used to assess rockfall hazards.

  14. Protective role of quercetin against copper(II)-induced oxidative stress: A spectroscopic, theoretical and DNA damage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Lawson, Michael; Drostinova, Lenka; Lauro, Peter; Poprac, Patrik; Brezova, Vlasta; Michalik, Martin; Lukes, Vladimir; Valko, Marian

    2017-12-01

    The radical scavenging and metal chelating properties of flavonoids indicate that they may play a protective role in diseases with perturbed metal homeostasis such as Alzheimer's disease. In this work we investigated the effect of the coordination of quercetin to copper(II) in view of the formation of ROS in Cu-catalyzed Fenton reaction. ABTS and DPPH assays confirmed that the copper(II)-quercetin complex exhibits a stronger radical scavenging activity than does quercetin alone. EPR spin trapping experiments have shown that chelation of quercetin to copper significantly suppressed the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the Cu(II)-Fenton reaction. DNA damage experiments revealed a protective effect for quercetin, but only at higher stoichiometric ratios of quercetin relative to copper. DNA protective effect of quercetin against ROS attack was described by two mechanisms. The first mechanism lies in suppressed formation of ROS due to the decreased catalytic action of copper in the Fenton reaction, as a consequence of its chelation and direct scavenging of ROS by free quercetin. Since the Cu-quercetin complex intercalates into DNA, the second mechanism was attributed to a suppressed intercalating ability of the Cu-quercetin complex due to the mildly intercalating free quercetin into DNA, thus creating a protective wall against stronger intercalators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel influenza virus vectors expressing Brucella L7/L12 or Omp16 proteins in cattle induced a strong T-cell immune response, as well as high protectiveness against B. abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Yespembetov, Bolat; Zinina, Nadezhda; Assanzhanova, Nurika; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Gotskina, Tatyana; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2014-04-11

    This paper presents the results of a study of the immunogenicity and protectiveness of new candidate vector vaccine against Brucella abortus - a bivalent vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of recombinant influenza A subtype H5N1 or H1N1 (viral constructs vaccine formulation) viruses expressing Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 and Omp16, in cattle. To increase the effectiveness of the candidate vaccine, adjuvants such as Montanide Gel01 or chitosan were included in its composition. Immunization of cattle (heifers aged 1-1.5 years, 5 animals per group) with the viral constructs vaccine formulation only, or its combination with adjuvants Montanide Gel01 or chitosan, was conducted via the conjunctival method using cross prime (influenza virus subtype H5N1) and booster (influenza virus subtype H1N1) vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. Vaccine candidates were evaluated in comparison with the positive (B. abortus S19) and negative (PBS) controls. The viral constructs vaccine formulations, particularly in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant promoted formation of IgG antibodies (with a predominance of antibodies of isotype IgG2a) against Brucella L7/L12 and Omp16 proteins in ELISA. Moreover, these vaccines in cattle induced a strong antigen-specific T-cell immune response, as indicated by a high number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, as well as the concentration of IFN-γ, and most importantly provided a high level of protectiveness comparable to the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine and superior to the B. abortus S19 vaccine in combination with Montanide Gel01 adjuvant. Based on these findings, we recommended the bivalent vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 for practical use in cattle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of consumer protection in ensuring quality in the hotel services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacșu Andreea Nicoleta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, tourism is an attractive sector with high potential, but unfortunately not exploited enough, so it is not yet a source of attraction for investors and foreign tourists. Most tourists are not satisfied with the quality of the hotel services in Romania and complain about it. The existence of adequate legislation on the protection of the consumer of tourist services could lead to the provision of quality services on this market and to a higher degree of tourists’ satisfaction.In the first part, this paper presents the public organizations dealing with the protection of the consumer on the hotel services market in Romania. The second part of the paper analyzes the quality of hotel services in Romania from the tourists’ point of view. In this respect, the author made a quantitative marketing research. The results featured the opinions and attitudes of tourists regarding the quality of hotel services in Romania.

  17. BRCA1 and BRCA2: different roles in a common pathway of genome protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rohini; Chun, Jarin; Powell, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    The proteins encoded by the two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, work in a common pathway of genome protection. However, the two proteins work at different stages in the DNA damage response (DDR) and in DNA repair. BRCA1 is a pleiotropic DDR protein that functions in both checkpoint activation and DNA repair, whereas BRCA2 is a mediator of the core mechanism of homologous recombination. The links between the two proteins are not well understood, but they must exist to explain the marked similarity of human cancer susceptibility that arises with germline mutations in these genes. As discussed here, the proteins work in concert to protect the genome from double-strand DNA damage during DNA replication. PMID:22193408

  18. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  19. Parental Mediation Regarding Children's Smartphone Use: Role of Protection Motivation and Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoori; Choi, Inho; Yum, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Se-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Parental mediation is a type of behavior that could protect children against the negative uses and effects of smartphones. Based on protection motivation theory, this research (a) predicted parental mediation based on parents' threat and efficacy perceptions and (b) predicted threat and efficacy perceptions based on parenting styles and parents' addiction to smartphone use. An online survey of 448 parents of fourth to sixth graders was conducted. Results showed that both restrictive and active parental mediation were predicted by perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. With regard to parenting styles, (a) authoritative parenting was positively related to perceived severity as well as response- and self-efficacy, whereas (b) permissive parenting was negatively related to self-efficacy. In addition, parents' addiction was a negative predictor of perceived severity, but a positive predictor of perceived susceptibility.

  20. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  1. [The role of dietary fiber and its preparations in the protection and treatment of overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, A; Borawska, M H

    1999-04-01

    Optimal amounts of dietary fibre in the diet are regarded as a protective factor against several health disorders such as some alimentary tract diseases, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. It is considered that the dietary fibre may help reduce body weight. The preparations of dietary fibre slow gastric emptying and decrease the appetite. However, the reduction of body weight with the application of high fibre diets, but without a change in the eating habits, is not significant.

  2. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  3. Nitric oxide modulation in protective role of antidepressants against chronic fatigue syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika; Gaur, Vaibhav; Kumar, Puneet

    2011-05-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the possible nitric oxide (NO) mechanism in the protective effect of antidepressants using mice model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Male albino laca mice were forced to swim for each 6 min session for 7 days and immobility period was measured on every alternate day (1(st), 3(rd), 5(th), 7(th)). After 7 days various behavioral tests (locomotor, mirror chamber, and plus maze tests for anxiety) were performed and biochemical estimations (lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, GSH (reduced glutathione), and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Animals were pretreated with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. The present study showed that continued forced swimming for 7 days caused chronic fatigue-induced anxiety-like behavior as assessed in mirror chamber, plus maze tests, and impairment in locomotor activity followed by oxidative damage (as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, depleted reduced glutathione, and catalase activity) in animals. Seven days pretreatment with citalopram (5 and 10 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly improved behavioral and biochemical alterations. Further, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME,5 mg/kg) and methylene blue (MB, 10 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) potentiated their protective effect. However, l-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with citalopram (5 mg/kg) or imipramine (10 mg/kg) reversed their protective effect as compared with their effect per se (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that protective effect of citalopram and imipramine might be due to its NO modulation against chronic fatigue induced behavioral and biochemical alterations.

  4. Evaluating the role of protected natural areas for environmental education in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment...... and behaviors, highlighting the strategic importance of intervention procedures and moderators for environmental education activities applied to specific social-physical contexts....

  5. Cyber Security Insider Threats :: Government’s Role in Protecting India’s Critical Infrastructure Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Pulkit

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies the problem of insider threats in the critical infrastructure sectors of India. It is structured to answer the research question: "Why insider threats should be the primary concern for Indian government to protect its critical infrastructure sectors.” It defines the critical infrastructure sectors and portrays the cyber security scenario of India. Also, through the research study, it identifies the lack of awareness and non-seriousness of employees in the critical sec...

  6. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and ...

  7. Role of medicinal plants, herbs, and spices in protecting human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balentine, D A; Albano, M C; Nair, M G

    1999-09-01

    The body of knowledge about plants, herbs, and spices and their respective and collective roles in promoting human health is modest. Flavonoids in tea and anthocyanins in tart cherries were presented as examples of how to move forward in understanding active compounds. Dietary compounds, their roles in maintaining human health, and their interactions with established nutrients were determined to be short-term research priorities.

  8. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-07-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4.21 days); (2) zebrafish fins in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 2.05 and 3.25 times more likely to return to normal than those in the UV only group; and (3) comfrey leave extracts had UV-absorbance abilities and significantly reduced ROS production in UV-exposed zebrafish embryos, which may attenuate UV-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, comfrey leaves extracts may have the potential to be developed as UV-protective agents to protect zebrafish embryos from UV-induced damage.

  9. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  10. Human serum albumin as protecting agent of silver nanoparticles: role of the protein conformation and amine groups in the nanoparticle stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Emilio I.; Bueno-Alejo, Carlos J.; Noel, Christopher W.; Stamplecoskie, Kevin G. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada); Pacioni, Natalia L. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, INFIQC, Departamento de Quimica Organica (Argentina); Poblete, Horacio [Center for Bioinformatics and Molecular Simulations, Universidad de Talca (Chile); Scaiano, J. C., E-mail: tito@photo.chem.uottawa.ca [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Department of Chemistry (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Thermally denatured human serum albumin interacts with {approx}3.0 nm spherical AgNP enhancing the fluorescence of Trp-214 at large protein/nanoparticle ratios. However, using native HSA, no changes in the emission were observed. The observation is likely due to differences between native and denatured protein packing resulting from protein corona formation. We have also found that NH{sub 2} blocking of the protein strongly affects the ability of the protein to protect AgNP from different salts/ions such as NaCl, PBS, Hank's buffer, Tris-HCl, MES, and DMEM. Additionally, AgNP can be readily prepared in aqueous solutions by a photochemical approach employing HSA as an in situ protecting agent. The role of the protein in this case is beyond that of protecting agent; thus, Ag{sup +} ions and I-2959 complexation within the protein structure also affects the efficiency of AgNP formation. Blocking NH{sub 2} in HSA modified the AgNP growth profile, surface plasmon band shape, and long-term stability suggesting that amine groups are directly involved in the formation and post-stabilization of AgNP. In particular, AgNP size and shape are extensively influenced by NH{sub 2} blocking, leading primarily to cubes and plates with sizes around 5-15 nm; in contrast, spherical monodisperse 4.0 nm AgNP are observed for native HSA. The nanoparticles prepared by this protocol are non-toxic in primary cells and have remarkable antibacterial properties. Finally, surface plasmon excitation of native HSA-AgNP promoted loss of protein conformation in just 5 min, suggesting that plasmon heating causes protein denaturation using continuous light sources such as commercial LED.

  11. Predominant role of interferon-γ in the host protective effect of CD8+ T cells against Neospora caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandra; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Botelho, Sofia; Belinha, Ana; Leitão, Catarina; Caramalho, Íris; Teixeira, Luzia; González-Fernandéz, África; Appelberg, Rui; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that CD8+ T cells play an important role in protective immunity against protozoan infections. However, their role in the course of Neospora caninum infection has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that CD8-deficient mice infected with N. caninum presented higher parasitic loads in the brain and lungs and lower spleen and brain immunity-related GTPases than their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, adoptive transfer of splenic CD8+ T cells sorted from N. caninum-primed immunosufficient C57BL/10 ScSn mice prolonged the survival of infected IL-12-unresponsive C57BL/10 ScCr recipients. In both C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 ScSn mice CD8+ T cells are activated and produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) upon challenged with N. caninum. The host protective role of IFN-γ produced by CD8+ T cells was confirmed in N. caninum-infected RAG2-deficient mice reconstituted with CD8+ T cells obtained from either IFN-γ-deficient or wild-type donors. Mice receiving IFN-γ-expressing CD8+ T cells presented lower parasitic burdens than counterparts having IFN-γ-deficient CD8+ T cells. Moreover, we observed that N. caninum-infected perforin-deficient mice presented parasitic burdens similar to those of infected wild-type controls. Altogether these results demonstrate that production of IFN-γ is a predominant protective mechanism conferred by CD8+ T cells in the course of neosporosis. PMID:26449650

  12. A major role for Tau in neuronal DNA and RNA protection in vivo under physiological and hyperthermic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eViolet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid protection is a substantial challenge for neurons, which are continuously exposed to oxidative stress in the brain. Neurons require powerful mechanisms to protect DNA and RNA integrity and ensure their functionality and longevity. Beside its well known role in microtubule dynamics, we recently discovered that Tau is also a key nuclear player in the protection of neuronal genomic DNA integrity under reactive oxygen species (ROS-inducing heat stress (HS conditions in primary neuronal cultures. In this report, we analyzed the capacity of Tau to protect neuronal DNA integrity in vivo in adult mice under physiological and HS conditions. We designed an in vivo mouse model of hyperthermia/HS to induce a transient increase in ROS production in the brain. Comet and TUNEL assays demonstrated that Tau protected genomic DNA in adult cortical and hippocampal neurons in vivo under physiological conditions in wild-type and Tau-deficient (KO-Tau mice. HS increased DNA breaks in KO-Tau neurons. Notably, KO-Tau hippocampal neurons in the CA1 subfield restored DNA integrity after HS more weakly than the dentate gyrus neurons. The formation of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci, a double-strand break marker, was observed in KO-Tau neurons only after HS, indicating that Tau deletion did not trigger similar DNA damage under physiological or HS conditions. Moreover, genomic DNA and cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA integrity were altered under HS in hippocampal neurons exhibiting Tau deficiency, which suggests that Tau also modulates RNA metabolism. Our results suggest that Tau alterations lead to a loss of its nucleic acid safeguarding functions and participate in the accumulation of DNA and RNA oxidative damage observed in the Alzheimer’s disease brain.

  13. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  14. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-, a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/- mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM and motility/flagella (flaA. We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/- mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-/Sigirr(-/- mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/- mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  15. A novel mouse model of Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis reveals key pro-inflammatory and tissue protective roles for Toll-like receptor signaling during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Ries, Jenna; Vermeulen, Jenny; Yang, Hong; Sham, Ho Pan; Crowley, Shauna M; Badayeva, Yuliya; Turvey, Stuart E; Gaynor, Erin C; Li, Xiaoxia; Vallance, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the intestines of most animals, including birds, where its colonization is asymptomatic. Pretreatment of C57BL/6 mice with the antibiotic vancomycin facilitated intestinal C. jejuni colonization, albeit with minimal pathology. In contrast, vancomycin pretreatment of mice deficient in SIGIRR (Sigirr(-/-)), a negative regulator of MyD88-dependent signaling led to heavy and widespread C. jejuni colonization, accompanied by severe gastroenteritis involving strongly elevated transcription of Th1/Th17 cytokines. C. jejuni heavily colonized the cecal and colonic crypts of Sigirr(-/-) mice, adhering to, as well as invading intestinal epithelial cells. This infectivity was dependent on established C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, capsular polysaccharides (kpsM) and motility/flagella (flaA). We also explored the basis for the inflammatory response elicited by C. jejuni in Sigirr(-/-) mice, focusing on the roles played by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, as these innate receptors were strongly stimulated by C. jejuni. Despite heavy colonization, Tlr4(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice were largely unresponsive to infection by C. jejuni, whereas Tlr2(-/-)/Sigirr(-/-) mice developed exaggerated inflammation and pathology. This indicates that TLR4 signaling underlies the majority of the enteritis seen in this model, whereas TLR2 signaling had a protective role, acting to promote mucosal integrity. Furthermore, we found that loss of the C. jejuni capsule led to increased TLR4 activation and exaggerated inflammation and gastroenteritis. Together, these results validate the use of Sigirr(-/-) mice as an exciting and relevant animal model for

  16. The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function and protection in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison

    2014-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) are widely distributed and present in a number of tissues including muscle, pancreatic beta cells and the brain. Their activity is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels. Thus, they link cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. Recent studies using genetically modified mice and genomic studies in patients have implicated K(ATP) channels in a number of physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we focus on their role in cellular function and protection particularly in the cardiovascular system. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. [Recent progress of mitochondrial quality control in ischemic heart disease and its role in cardio-protection of vagal nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Run-Qing; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2017-10-25

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the life-threatening cardiovascular disease. Mitochondria have emerged as key participants and regulators of cellular energy demands and signal transduction. Mitochondrial quality is controlled by a number of coordinated mechanisms including mitochondrial fission, fusion and mitophagy, which plays an important role in maintaining healthy mitochondria and cardiac function. Recently, dysfunction of each process in mitochondrial quality control has been observed in the ischemic hearts. This review describes the mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy as well as its performance linked to myocardial ischemia. Moreover, in combination with our study, we will discuss the effect of vagal nerve on mitochondria in cardio-protection.

  18. Roles of the quadrupole interaction and of the quadratic stark effect in spectral lines from plasmas interacting with a strong quasimonochromatic electric field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauvan, P.; Dalimier, E.; Riconda, C.; Oks, E.; Renner, Oldřich; Weber, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2010), s. 123-128 ISSN 2229-3159 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-plasma interaction * PIC plasma model ing * strong quasimonochromatic electric fields * x-ray line broadening * stark effect * floquet theory Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.auburn.edu/academic/cosam/departments/physics/iramp/1_2/sauvan_et_al.pdf

  19. Protective Role of Intracellular Melatonin Against Oxidative Stress and UV Radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisquert, Ricardo; Muñiz-Calvo, Sara; Guillamón, José M

    2018-01-01

    Melatonin (Mel) is considered a potent natural antioxidant molecule given its free-radical scavenging ability. Its origin is traced back to the origin of aerobic life as early defense against oxidative stress and radiation. More complex signaling functions have been attributed to Mel as a result of evolution in different biological kingdoms, which comprise gene expression modulation, enzyme activity, and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation processes, among others. Since Mel production has been recently reported in wine yeast, we tested the protective effect of Mel on Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative stress and UV light. As the optimal conditions for S. cerevisiae to synthesize Mel are still unknown, we developed an intracellular Mel-charging method to test its effect against stresses. To assess Mel's ability to protect S. cerevisiae from both stresses, we ran growth tests in liquid media and viability assays by colony count after Mel treatment, followed by stress. We also analyzed gene expression by qPCR on a selection of genes involved in stress protection in response to Mel treatment under oxidative stress and UV radiation. The viability in the Mel-treated cells after H 2 O 2 stress was up to 35% greater than for the untreated controls, while stress amelioration reached 40% for UVC light (254 nm). Mel-treated cells showed a significant shortened lag phase compared to the control cells under the stress and normal growth conditions. The gene expression analysis showed that Mel significantly modulated gene expression in the unstressed cells in the exponential growth phase, and also during various stress treatments.

  20. Protective Role of Intracellular Melatonin Against Oxidative Stress and UV Radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bisquert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (Mel is considered a potent natural antioxidant molecule given its free-radical scavenging ability. Its origin is traced back to the origin of aerobic life as early defense against oxidative stress and radiation. More complex signaling functions have been attributed to Mel as a result of evolution in different biological kingdoms, which comprise gene expression modulation, enzyme activity, and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation processes, among others. Since Mel production has been recently reported in wine yeast, we tested the protective effect of Mel on Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative stress and UV light. As the optimal conditions for S. cerevisiae to synthesize Mel are still unknown, we developed an intracellular Mel-charging method to test its effect against stresses. To assess Mel’s ability to protect S. cerevisiae from both stresses, we ran growth tests in liquid media and viability assays by colony count after Mel treatment, followed by stress. We also analyzed gene expression by qPCR on a selection of genes involved in stress protection in response to Mel treatment under oxidative stress and UV radiation. The viability in the Mel-treated cells after H2O2 stress was up to 35% greater than for the untreated controls, while stress amelioration reached 40% for UVC light (254 nm. Mel-treated cells showed a significant shortened lag phase compared to the control cells under the stress and normal growth conditions. The gene expression analysis showed that Mel significantly modulated gene expression in the unstressed cells in the exponential growth phase, and also during various stress treatments.

  1. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  2. Protection of endangered intangible assets specific insight into the role of the law

    OpenAIRE

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2011-01-01

    There will always be states and corporations that will want and try to appropriate possessions of others without any intellectual or financial investments. Such a 'theft' is made easier by the fact that the owners of a certain property either have no awareness of its significance or tend to neglect the threats of a potential theft. For those, who naively believe that they don't possess property which will be 'attacked' by someone, and they don't want to know that it should be protected, and h...

  3. Protective role of caffeic acid in an Aβ25-35-induced Alzheimer's disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Wang, Qian; Choi, Ji Myung; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in memory and cognitive functions. The accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress in the brain are the most common causes of AD. MATERIALS/METHODS Caffeic acid (CA) is an active phenolic compound that has a variety of pharmacological actions. We studied the protective abilities of CA in an Aβ25-35-injected AD mouse model. CA was administered at an oral dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Behavi...

  4. The role of iron-induced fibrin in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and the protective role of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Boguslaw; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-10-29

    Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been challenged by the increasing evidence for the role of vascular and hemostatic components that impair oxygen delivery to the brain. One such component is fibrin clots, which, when they become resistant to thrombolysis, can cause chronic inflammation. It is not known, however, why some cerebral thrombi are resistant to the fibrinolytic degradation, whereas fibrin clots formed at the site of vessel wall injuries are completely, although gradually, removed to ensure proper wound healing. This phenomenon can now be explained in terms of the iron-induced free radicals that generate fibrin-like polymers remarkably resistant to the proteolytic degradation. It should be noted that similar insoluble deposits are present in AD brains in the form of aggregates with Abeta peptides that are resistant to fibrinolytic degradation. In addition, iron-induced fibrin fibers can irreversibly trap red blood cells (RBCs) and in this way obstruct oxygen delivery to the brain and induce chronic hypoxia that may contribute to AD. The RBC-fibrin aggregates can be disaggregated by magnesium ions and can also be prevented by certain polyphenols that are known to have beneficial effects in AD. In conclusion, we argue that AD can be prevented by: (1) limiting the dietary supply of trivalent iron contained in red and processed meat; (2) increasing the intake of chlorophyll-derived magnesium; and (3) consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic substances and certain aliphatic and aromatic unsaturated compounds. These dietary components are present in the Mediterranean diet known to be associated with the lower incidence of AD and other degenerative diseases.

  5. Body image in emerging adults: The protective role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S

    2017-09-01

    Self-compassion is thought to protect from body image concerns. However, the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. This study examined three positive dimensions of self-compassion as moderators of the mediated relationship between perceived overweight status, appearance comparison, and appearance esteem. A sample of 232 youth aged 13-18 years, mean=18.36 (SD=1.5) years, reported on appearance esteem, appearance comparison, perceived weight status, and self-compassion dimensions including self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness. Among boys, mindfulness and common humanity moderated the perceived weight status to appearance comparison pathway of the mediation (ps=.01), such that this relationship was weaker among boys with higher levels of these dimensions of self-compassion. These findings were not replicated among girls. None of the self-compassion dimensions moderated the appearance comparison to appearance esteem pathway. Self-compassion dimensions that decrease the focus on the self may protect against body image concerns among boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  7. The Role of Taboos in the Protection and Recovery of Sea Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LoriKim Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased efforts from government agencies, scientists, and non-government organizations over the past few decades, anthropogenic sources of sea turtle mortality continue to threaten the survivorship of sea turtle species around the globe. More recent efforts to engage local people with community-based sea turtle conservation programs have been based primarily on economic incentives and less on cultural and social traditions. But there is growing evidence that informal institutions such as, taboos can be extremely effective at promoting wildlife conservation. Ghana is a culturally diverse country where local traditions have shown to improve protection for primates, crocodiles, and many bird species. This study explores the presence of a sea turtle taboo in fishing communities to demonstrate that traditional practices make residents more receptive to sea turtle conservation and more willing to follow government regulations. Fishers in the communities that are aware of the taboo are also more willing to adjust fishing methods to better protect sea turtles. The traditional taboo and national laws appear to be working synergistically to enhance sea turtle conservation in some regions of Ghana. This paper extends the argument that sea turtle conservation strategies succeed when the cultural and social traditions of local communities are integrated with management activities.

  8. Protecting role of cosolvents in protein denaturation by SDS: a structural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Johan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we reported a unique approach to preserve the activity of some proteins in the presence of the denaturing agent, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS. This was made possible by addition of the amphipathic solvent 2,4-Methyl-2-PentaneDiol (MPD, used as protecting but also as refolding agent for these proteins. Although the persistence of the protein activity in the SDS/MPD mixture was clearly established, preservation of their structure was only speculative until now. Results In this paper, a detailed X-ray study addresses the pending question. Crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme were grown for the first time in the presence of MPD and denaturing concentrations of SDS. Depending on crystallization conditions, tetragonal crystals in complex with either SDS or MPD were collected. The conformation of both structures was very similar to the native lysozyme and the obtained complexes of SDS-lysozyme and MPD-lysozyme give some insights in the interplay of protein-SDS and protein-MPD interactions. Conclusion This study clearly established the preservation of the enzyme structure in a SDS/MPD mixture. It is hypothesized that high concentrations of MPD would change the properties of SDS and lower or avoid interactions between the denaturant and the protein. These structural data therefore support the hypothesis that MPD avoids disruption of the enzyme structure by SDS and can protect proteins from SDS denaturation.

  9. The Protective Role of Curcumin against Gamma-Irradiation Induced Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiub, N.I.; Alkady, M.M.; Emam, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin (CMN), a yellow pigment of turmeric on γ-radiation (IRR)-induced toxicity in diabetic mice and evaluate the anti-hyper glycemic properties of this compound on streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg of body weight)-induced diabetes. Serum lipid profiles, glucose level and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined. The level of blood glucose was elevated in diabetic animals. Circulatory lipid profiles, and TNF-α were increased significantly. Pretreatment with CMN (200 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days, resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood glucose and lipid profiles along with a significant decrease in the levels of TNF-α. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with STZ caused histopathological damage, in the eye tissue, manifested as congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic. While the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria. Administration of CMN revealed a remarkable protective effect in biochemical and histological levels. Thus, pretreatment with CMN helps in protecting eye tissues against IRR and/or diabetic-induced cellular damage and can be developed in near future as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  10. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  11. Protecting the Future: the Role of School Education in Sustainable Development--An Indian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangay, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential contribution of education to sustainable development. Drawing on recent evidence it argues that education could play a stronger role--a position reinforced by the new sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, securing this contribution will have to be achieved in an era where educational delivery will be…

  12. Evaluation of the Protective Role of XvPrx2 Gene from Xerophyta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miccah

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Transformation and regeneration frequencies were 12.9 and 31.3%, respectively. Reverse transcription ... peroxiredoxin2 playing a role in managing ROS generated in plant cells. Key words: Xerophyta viscosa, reactive ...... The authors have not declared any conflict of interests. REFERENCES. Allen GC ...

  13. Protective Role of Mast Cells in Primary Systemic Vasculitis: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Springer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are important cells of the immune system. Although traditionally considered as key players in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, emerging evidence suggests that mast cells have many complex roles in vascular disease. These include regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Mast cells are also known to play an immunomodulatory role via modulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg, macrophage and endothelial cell functions. This dual role of the mast cells is evident in myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-mouse model of glomerulonephritis in which mast cell deficiency worsens glomerulonephritis, whereas inhibition of mast cell degranulation is effective in abrogating the development of glomerulonephritis. Our previous work demonstrated that mast cell degranulation inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6 production in mice. This effect was not seen in histamine-1-receptor knockout (H1R−/− mice suggesting a role for histamine in IL-6 homeostasis. In addition, mast cell degranulation-mediated decrease in IL-6 production was associated with an upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 protein in the aorta. We propose that mast cells regulate large artery inflammation through T-cells, shifting a primarily Th1 and Th17 toward a Th2 response and leading to enhanced IL-10 production, activation Treg cells, and the inhibition of macrophage functions.

  14. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Scicluna, B.P.; Melo, e F.S.; Roelofs, J.J.; Boer, de J.D.; Hoogendijk, A.J.; Beer, de R.; Vos, de A.; Belzer, C.; Vos, de W.M.; Poll, van der T.; Wiersinga, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia,

  15. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Boer, J. Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J.; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is

  16. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed

  17. Perceived Instability in Emerging Adulthood: The Protective Role of Identity Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; De Witte, Hans; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Developmental instability characterizes the late teens and twenties in today's late-modern society. The present study (a) focused on the link between instability and both general (i.e., self-esteem and depressive symptoms) and work-related outcomes (i.e., work engagement and burnout) and (b) investigated the possible moderating role of identity…

  18. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  19. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  20. Optimism and the brain: trait optimism mediates the protective role of the orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume against anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; Hu, Yifan; Iordan, Alexandru D; Moore, Matthew; Dolcos, Florin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence identifies trait optimism and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as personality and brain factors influencing anxiety, but the nature of their relationships remains unclear. Here, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of trait optimism and of increased OFC volume against symptoms of anxiety were investigated in 61 healthy subjects, who completed measures of trait optimism and anxiety, and underwent structural scanning using magnetic resonance imaging. First, the OFC gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with increased optimism, which in turn was associated with reduced anxiety. Second, trait optimism mediated the relation between the left OFC volume and anxiety, thus demonstrating that increased GMV in this brain region protects against symptoms of anxiety through increased optimism. These results provide novel evidence about the brain-personality mechanisms protecting against anxiety symptoms in healthy functioning, and identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing susceptibility and increasing resilience against emotional disturbances. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Todralazine protects zebra fish from lethal doses of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic stem cell expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimri, Manali; Joshi, Jaidev; Indracanti, Prem Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced cell killing and hematopoietic stem cell depletion leads to compromised immune functions and opportunistic infections which significantly affect the recovery and survival upon irradiation. Any agent which can expand residual hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated organism can render protection from the effects of lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Johns Hopkins Clinical compound library (JHCCL) was screened for protection against lethal doses of ionizing radiation using developing zebra fish as a model organism. Modulation of radiation induced reactive oxygen species by the small molecules were done by DCFDA staining and for visual identification and quantification of apoptosis acridine orange assay, flow cytometry were employed respectively. Hematopoietic stem cell expansion potential was assessed by quantifying runx1 expression, a marker for definitive stem cells, were done by RT-PCR and by the kinetics of recovery from chemically induced anaemia. Todralazine hydrochloride from JHCCL exhibited promising results with potential anti radiation effects. A dose of 5μM was found to be the most effective and has rendered significant organ and whole body protection (100% survival advantage over a period of 6 days) against 20 Gy. However todralazine did not modulated radiation induced free radicals (monitored within 2 h of irradiation) and apoptosis in zebra fish embryos analysed at 8 and 24h post irradiation. Flow cytometric quantification of pre G1 population suggested the same. Chemoinformatics approaches were further carried out to elucidate possible targets which are contributing to its radioprotection potential. Structural similarity search suggested several targets and possible hematopoietic stem cell expanding potential. Treatment of zebra fish embryos with todralazine has lead to significant proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell as indicated by increase in expression of runx1. HSC expanding potential of todralazine was further supported by

  2. Role of technologies in energy-related CO2 mitigation in China within a climate-protection world: A scenarios analysis using REMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Bauer, Nico; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The augmented REMIND model is used to study the role of energy technologies under a carbon tax. • The scale and timing of fossil fuels with CCS, nuclear, and renewables are examined. • CCS is important but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited. • The effectiveness of nuclear is strongly linked to its cost performance. • Renewable energy is a long-term mitigation option. - Abstract: In a world with the need of climate protection through emission reduction, China’s domestic mitigation will be put on the national agenda. The large-scale deployment of innovative technologies induced by climate policies is a key determinant for reducing emissions in an effective and efficient manner. A distinguishing feature of the Chinese energy sector (especially electricity generation), is that investment costs are significantly lower than in other world regions. Represented in the methodological framework of the augmented REMIND model, three promising mitigation technologies (also known as technology clusters) in the electricity sector: CCS with advanced coal-generation technologies, nuclear, and renewables are the focus of this study. The scenarios are designed to analyze the roles of these technologies and their associated economic impacts under a climate policy (i.e., a carbon tax). Our results indicate that: (1)Technology policies improving the techno-economic features of low-carbon technologies are insufficient to restrain China’s increasing emissions. (2)Carbon-pricing policies can effectively reduce emissions by making low-carbon options more competitive than conventional fossil fuel alternatives. In the global carbon tax regime framed in this paper, China’s mitigation potential is larger than that of any of other region and the peak of emissions occurs earlier (by 2020) and is 50% lower than in the BASE scenario. (3)CCS is important, but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited to the near- to mid-term future. It

  3. Bmi-1 plays a critical role in the protection from acute tubular necrosis by mobilizing renal stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianhui; Yu, Zhenzhen; Xie, Chunfeng; Dai, Xiuliang; Li, Qing; Miao, Dengshun; Jin, Jianliang

    2017-01-22

    The regeneration of injured tubular cell occurs primarily from intrinsic renal stem/progenitor cells (RSCs) labeled with CD24 and CD133 after acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Bmi-1 plays a crucial role in regulating self-renewal, differentiation and aging of multiple adult stem cells and progenitor cells. Bmi-1 was rapidly elevated in the induction of adult kidney regeneration by renal injury. To determine whether Bmi-1 maintained mobilization of RSCs in the protection from ATN, glycerol-rhabdomyolysis-induced ATN were performed in wild type (WT) and Bmi-1-deficient (Bmi-1 -/- ) mice. Their ATN phenotypes were analyzed; CD24 and CD133 double positive (CD24 + CD133 + ) cells were measured; and the levels of serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected. We found that CD24 + CD133 + RSCs were mobilized in WT ATN mice with the increased expression of Bmi-1; Bmi-1 deficiency led to increased tubular cast formation and necrosis, elevated levels of SUN and SCr, decreased tubular proliferation, and immobilized ratio of RSCs in ATN. These findings indicated that Bmi-1 played a critical role in the protection from ATN by maintaining mobilization of RSCs and would be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the progression of ATN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "We're the heroes!": fathers' perspectives on their role in protecting their preteenage children from sexual risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Dalberth, Barbara T; Koo, Helen P

    2010-06-01

    Parents can be an important influence on their children's sexual behavior. However, relatively little research has focused on fathers' roles in protecting children from sexual risk or on their discussions with children about sex. Sixteen focus groups comprising 131 parents of children aged 10-12 were conducted in three U.S. cities in 2007. Separate groups were held for mothers and fathers, and for white, black, English-speaking Hispanic and Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants. Content analysis was used to identify core themes and patterns related to fathers' communications with their children about sex. Fathers were highly invested in ensuring that their children are safe and successful in life. Although some had not talked to their children about sex, others had discussed it frequently and openly, and nearly all agreed that fathers' perspectives are important for children to hear. Fathers reported being better suited to discussing some topics (e.g., male puberty, how young men think) than others (menstruation). Fathers also described other strategies that they use to guide their children's development, such as emphasizing future goals and monitoring children's activities and friends. Many fathers, especially Hispanic participants, reported being more protective of daughters than of sons, and some had particular difficulty talking with their daughters about sex. Research and interventions concerning parent-child communication about sex should not neglect the role of fathers. However, some fathers may need support to overcome barriers to effective communication, especially with their daughters.

  5. The role of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens in protective immunity and vaccine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    that development of PfEMP1-based vaccines to protect specifically against severe malaria syndromes-in particular PAM-is feasible. This review summarizes the evidence that VSAs are important targets of NAI, discusses why VSA-based vaccines might be feasible despite the extensive intra- and interclonal variation...... of VSAs, and how vaccines based on this type of antigens fit into the current global strategy to reduce, eliminate and eventually eradicate the burden of malaria.......There is substantial immuno-epidemiological evidence that the parasite-encoded, so-called variant surface antigens (VSAs), such as PfEMP1 on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are important-in some cases probably decisive determinants of clinical outcome of P. falciparum malaria...

  6. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  7. The role of international organizations with regard to environmental protection - the situation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, T.

    1986-01-01

    The international organisations more readily than most of the states accepted the idea that environmental protection cannot be achieved by compensation for damage or remedial actions in case of emergencies. They soon fostered an environmental policy intended to prevent pollution by creating a suitable, internationally accepted concept of requirements and procedures. Their activities in the last two decades largely contributed to an eventual reappraisal of approach by the states, which lead from a rather incoherent series of regional or national activities to an international, much more coherent concept of environmental policy. The international organisations also realised that efficient enforcement of pollution control measures will be guaranteed only by an adequate system of international laws, which still is to be agreed upon by the states. There still is a considerable lack of certainty of the law, with environmental problems increasingly pressing for a solution. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Protecting who? Small state roles in large-scale military interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wivel, Anders

    of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P). The aim of this paper is to explore how policy-makers of one small European state, Denmark, have navigated competing and sometimes conflicting protection agendas and calls for action. We argue that Danish military polices since 2001 have been formulated at the intersection......When, why and how do small states follow their bigger allies into large scale military interventions? This problem has been prominent since the end of the Cold War and become particularly acute since 2001, which marked the beginning of the so-called war on terror as well as the launch...... of external demands in the form of socialization to the unipolar world order and domestic demands reflecting Danish strategic culture. We explore how different ‘logics of protection’ have served to legitimize Danish military participation in large-scale US-led interventions. Based on this analysis, we discuss...

  9. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes.

  10. Analytical assessment of woven fabrics under vertical stabbing - The role of protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Kadivar, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Knives are being used more commonly in street fights and muggings. Therefore, this work presents an analytical model for woven fabrics under vertical stabbing loads. The model is based on energy method and the fabric is assumed to be unidirectional comprised of N layers. Thus, the ultimate stab resistance of fabric was determined based on structural parameters of fabric and geometrical characteristics of blade. Moreover, protective clothing is nowadays considered as a strategic branch in technical textile industry. The main idea of the present work is improving the stab resistance of woven textiles by using metal coating method. In the final, a series of vertical stabbing tests were conducted on cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics. Consequently, it was found that the model predicts with a good accuracy the ultimate stab resistance of the sample fabrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    -related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...... in the entire sample (β = −7.1, p = 6.6 × 10−44). This allele was significantly associated with HD in long-living individuals and offspring (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, p = 3.1 × 10−6) but this association was not mediated by LDL-C. The protective effect on survival was specific for long-living women...

  12. Vaccines and Airline Travel: A Federal Role to Protect the Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2016-05-01

    This Article explores two ways in which airline travel is an important vector for the spread of infectious disease, and argues that airlines have market-based and liability-based reasons to require that passengers be vaccinated. Going further, the Article explores whether the federal government has the legal and constitutional authority-especially under the Commerce Clause-to encourage or mandate that airlines implement such a vaccine screen. By disrupting the spread of disease at key network nodes where individuals interact and then connect with other geographic regions, and by creating another incentive for adult vaccination, an airline vaccine screen could be an effective and legally viable tool for the protection of public health.

  13. A history of drug advertising: the evolving roles of consumers and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system.

  14. Nigella Sativa and Oriental Spices with Protective Role in Iron Intoxication: in vivo Experiments on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.

  15. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  16. Protecting newborns from pertussis: The role of partner vaccination in the era of maternal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Sushena; Wallace, Euan M; Cheng, Allen C; Buttery, Jim; Giles, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    While antenatal vaccination is the most effective strategy to reduce newborn pertussis infection and its associated morbidity and mortality, uptake has consistently been reported to be suboptimal. "Cocooning" or vaccination of the close contacts of newborns therefore remains an important strategy for protecting newborns when maternal vaccination has not occurred or with insufficient time for antibody transfer. This study assesses the uptake of pertussis vaccination by parents and close contacts of newborns providing insight into the vulnerability of newborns to pertussis upon discharge from hospital to their primary carers. The study was conducted at three public and two private hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. A survey was administered to 689 women and/or their partners admitted on maternity wards of participating hospitals after delivery of a healthy newborn between August and December 2016. The main outcomes measured were reported vaccination rates and factors associated with uptake of pertussis vaccination. Kappa statistic and logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with vaccination. 70% of women and 66% of partners reported pertussis vaccination according to national recommendations. Significantly 22% of newborns were discharged to a household where neither parent reported vaccination. Compared to when maternal vaccination did occur, in families where it didn't there were low rates of vaccination of partners (83% vs 26%) and other carers, particularly carers usually resident overseas (76% vs 18.5%). While the majority of mothers and partners reported pertussis vaccination in accordance with recommended guidelines, concerningly nearly a quarter of newborns were discharged to a home where neither parent was vaccinated. When maternal vaccination did not occur, rates of vaccination of the other close contacts was poor. Educating women to encourage vaccination of partners and carers particularly those coming from overseas, prior to their

  17. Protective and Therapeutic Role of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Hafez, H.F.; Shouman, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by vascular and renal complication. This study was initiated to investigate the protective and the therapeutic effect of low dose of gamma radiation (LDR) on diabetic complications. A total of 30 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: Group I: served as control and injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group II: rats became diabetic via intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer (ph 4.5), group III irradiated rats (IRR): submitted to fractionated dose of whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days (whole dose 0.5 Gy), group IV diabetic irradiated rats (STZ + IRR): rats became diabetic as group II then four weeks after diabetes induction (day 28), rats were submitted to 2 fractions of whole body gamma rays as in group III, and group V irradiated diabetic rats (IRR + STZ): rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of 0.1 mol/l citrate buffer then submitted to whole body gamma rays; 0.25 Gy for 2 consecutive days then one hour after the last IRR dose, rats were made diabetic as group II. In pre and post-irradiation of STZ rats, significant changes were observed in serum lipid profiles, hepatic and cardiac serum enzymes. Significant decrease in hepatic and cardiac malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) levels, and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were observed as compared to diabetic group. The study suggests that LDR may provide useful protective and therapeutic option in the reversal of oxidative stress induced in diabetic rats

  18. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  19. The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt marshes lie between many human communities and the coast and have been presumed to protect these communities from coastal hazards by providing important ecosystem services. However, previous characterizations of these ecosystem services have typically been based on a small number of historical studies, and the consistency and extent to which marshes provide these services has not been investigated. Here, we review the current evidence for the specific processes of wave attenuation, shoreline stabilization and floodwater attenuation to determine if and under what conditions salt marshes offer these coastal protection services. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a thorough search and synthesis of the literature with reference to these processes. Seventy-five publications met our selection criteria, and we conducted meta-analyses for publications with sufficient data available for quantitative analysis. We found that combined across all studies (n = 7, salt marsh vegetation had a significant positive effect on wave attenuation as measured by reductions in wave height per unit distance across marsh vegetation. Salt marsh vegetation also had a significant positive effect on shoreline stabilization as measured by accretion, lateral erosion reduction, and marsh surface elevation change (n = 30. Salt marsh characteristics that were positively correlated to both wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization were vegetation density, biomass production, and marsh size. Although we could not find studies quantitatively evaluating floodwater attenuation within salt marshes, there are several studies noting the negative effects of wetland alteration on water quantity regulation within coastal areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that salt marshes have value for coastal hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation. Because we do not yet fully understand the magnitude of this value, we propose that decision

  20. Diabetes Induced Oxidative Stress: A Comparative Study on Protective Role of Momordica charantia and Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Nath Tripathi; Deepak Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress which plays an important role in development of chronic complications of diabetes. Due to various side effects associated with the drugs used for the management of diabetes, the development of new plant based drugs is the renewed interest of the present time. The new prospective anti-diabetic formulations should possess anti-oxidative potential to resist the oxidative insult of tissues during diabetes and their potential should also be com...

  1. Potential protective role of bariatric surgery against breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Balescu; Nicolae Bacalbasa

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide especially due to the metabolic disorders which seem to be induced by an excessive amount of adipose tissue. Therefore attention was focused on evaluating the role of bariatric surgery in order to offer a better control of the comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension or dyslipidemia which are widely accepted as causes of increased morbidity and mortality among obese patients. Once these benefits have been widely demonstr...

  2. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; De Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting.

  3. Laser-Plasma Instabilities by Avoiding the Strong Ion Landau Damping Limit: The Central Role of Statistical, Ultrafast, Nonlinear Optical Laser Techniques (SUNOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Hüller, Stefan; Montgomery, David; Moody, John; Froula, Dustin; Hammer, James; Jones, Oggie; Amendt, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In mid-Z and high-Z plasmas, it is possible to control crossed bean energy transfer (CBET) and subsequently occurring single or multiple beam instabilities such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) by novel means. These new techniques are inoperative when the ion acoustic waves are in their strong damping limit, such as occurs in low Z plasmas with comparable electron and ion temperatures. For mid-Z plasmas, such as Z = 10, and near the Mach 1 surface, the strong coupling regime (SCR) can be exploited for LPI mitigation. While at higher Z values, it is thermal filamentation in conjunction with nonlocal heat transport that are useful to exploit. In both these settings, the strategy is to induce laser hot spot intensity dependent, and thus spatially dependent, frequency shifts to the ion acoustic waves in the transient response of wave-wave interactions. The latter is achieved by the on-off nature of spike trains of uneven duration and delay, STUD pulses. The least taxing use of STUD pulses is to modulate the beams at the 10 ps time scale and to choose which crossing beams are overlapping in time and which are not. Work supported by a grant from the DOE NNSA-OFES joint program on HEDP

  4. The role of meniscal tissue in joint protection in early osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Rene; Madry, Henning; Shabshin, Nogah; Dirisamer, Florian; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Pujol, Nicolas; Spalding, Tim; Verdonk, Peter; Seil, Romain; Condello, Vincenzo; Di Matteo, Berardo; Zellner, Johannes; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    It is widely accepted that partial meniscectomy leads to early onset of osteoarthritis (OA). A strong correlation exists between the amount and location of the resected meniscus and the development of degenerative changes in the knee. On the other hand, osteoarthritic changes of the joint alter the structural and functional integrity of meniscal tissue. These alterations might additionally compromise the limited healing capacity of the meniscus. In young, active patients without cartilage damage, meniscus therapy including partial meniscectomy, meniscus suture, and meniscus replacement has proven beneficial effects in long-term studies. Even in an early osteoarthritic milieu, there is a relevant regenerative potential of the meniscus and the surrounding cartilage. This potential should be taken into account, and meniscal surgery can be performed with the correct timing and the proper indication even in the presence of early OA.

  5. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  6. Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs

  7. Protective role of complement C3 against cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, R. S.; Marroqui, L.; Grieco, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. The complement system, a major component of the immune system, has been recently shown to also act...... in metabolic organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. In the present study we identified complement C3 as an important hub of a cytokine-modified complement network in human islets and characterized the role of C3 in β-cell survival....

  8. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  9. Role of adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) in protection from hepatic inflammation in mouse models of steatohepatitis and endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pooja; Claudel, Thierry; Baghdasaryan, Anna; Mueller, Michaela; Halilbasic, Emina; Das, Suman K; Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald; Trauner, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Hepatic inflammation is a key feature of progressive liver disease. Alterations of fatty acid (FA) metabolism and signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Moreover, FAs activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) as a key transcriptional regulator of hepatic FA metabolism and inflammation. Since adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2) is the key enzyme for intracellular hydrolysis of stored triglycerides and determines FA signaling through PPARα, we explored the role of ATGL in hepatic inflammation in mouse models of NASH and endotoxemia. Mice lacking ATGL or hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were challenged with a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet as a nutritional model of NASH or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model of acute hepatic inflammation. We further tested whether a PPARα agonist (fenofibrate) treatment improves the hepatic phenotype in MCD- or LPS-challenged ATGL-knockout (KO) mice. MCD-fed ATGL-KO mice, although partially protected from peripheral lipolysis, showed exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Moreover, ATGL-KO mice challenged by LPS showed enhanced hepatic inflammation, increased mortality, and torpor, findings which were attributed to impaired PPARα DNA binding activity due to reduced FABP1 protein levels, resulting in impaired nuclear FA import. Notably, liganding PPARα through fenofibrate attenuated hepatic inflammation in both MCD-fed and LPS-treated ATGL-KO mice. In contrast, mice lacking HSL had a phenotype similar to the WT mice on MCD and LPS challenge. These findings unravel a novel protective role of ATGL against hepatic inflammation which could have important implications for metabolic and inflammatory liver diseases. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Neurobehavioral and cytotoxic effects of vanadium during oligodendrocyte maturation: a protective role for erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Oluwaseun; Oke, Bankole; Offen, Nils; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Olopade, James

    2014-07-01

    Vanadium exposure has been known to lead to lipid peroxidation, demyelination and oligodendrocytes depletion. We investigated behaviour and glial reactions in juvenile mice after early neonatal exposure to vanadium, and examined the direct effects of vanadium in oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures from embryonic mice. Neonatal pups exposed to vanadium via lactation for 15 and 22 days all had lower body weights. Behavioural tests showed in most instances a reduction in locomotor activity and negative geotaxis. Brain analyses revealed astrocytic activation and demyelination in the vanadium exposed groups compared to the controls. In cell culture, exposure of oligodendrocytes to 300 μM sodium metavanadate significantly increased cell death. Expression of the oligodendrocyte specific proteins, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and oligodendrocyte specific protein (OSP/Claudin) were reduced upon vanadium treatment while simultaneous administration of erythropoietin (EPO; 4-12 U/ml) counteracted vanadium-toxicity. The data suggest that oligodendrocyte damage may explain the increased vulnerability of the juvenile brain to vanadium and support a potential for erythropoietin as a protective agent against vanadium-toxicity during perinatal brain development and maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Tobacco Use: Does Religious Orientation Play a Protective Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Stacy C

    2017-04-21

    Many studies have established an association between depression and smoking. The main objective of this study was to determine whether religious orientation moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and tobacco use. This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy to examine the relationship among depressive symptoms, religious orientation, and tobacco use among undergraduate students (N = 349) at a midsize southeastern university. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Extrinsic/Intrinsic Religious Orientation Scale-Revised and the Drinking and Drug Habits Questionnaire. Analyses using hierarchical linear regression indicate a significant interaction effect (depressive symptoms × extrinsic religious orientation) on tobacco use. Additional moderation analyses reveal a significant interaction effect between depressive symptoms and the extrinsic-personal religious orientation on tobacco use. Results suggest that having an extrinsic religious orientation, and specifically, the extrinsic-personal subtype, can protect against the effects of depressive symptoms. In this regard, individuals who turn to religion for solace or comfort may be less likely to engage in tobacco use when experiencing depressive symptoms. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.

  12. Early indicators of survival following exposure to mustard gas: Protective role of 25(OH)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Traylor, Zachary P; Duesler, Lori R; Dynda, Scott M; Debanne, Sara; Lu, Kurt Q

    2016-04-25

    The use of sulfur mustard (SM) as a chemical weapon for warfare has once again assumed center stage, endangering civilian and the military safety. SM causes rapid local skin vesication and late-onset systemic toxicity. Most studies on SM rely on obtaining tissue and blood for characterizing burn pathogenesis and assessment of systemic pathology, respectively. However the present study focuses on developing a non-invasive method to predict mortality from high dose skin SM exposure. We demonstrate that exposure to SM leads to a dose dependent increase in wound area size on the dorsal surface of mice that is accompanied by a progressive loss in body weight loss, blood cytopenia, bone marrow destruction, and death. Thus our model utilizes local skin destruction and systemic outcome measures as variables to predict mortality in a novel skin-based model of tissue injury. Based on our recent work using vitamin D (25(OH)D) as an intervention to treat toxicity from SM-related compounds, we explored the use of 25(OH)D in mitigating the toxic effects of SM. Here we show that 25(OH)D offers protection against SM and is the first known demonstration of an intervention that prevents SM-induced mortality. Furthermore, 25(OH)D represents a safe, novel, and readily translatable potential countermeasure following mass toxic exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk and Resilience in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Exploring the Protective Role of Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Laura A; Cohen, Lindsey L; Venable, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Fear of pain and pain catastrophizing are prominent risk factors for pediatric chronic pain-related maladjustment. Although resilience has largely been ignored in the pediatric pain literature, prior research suggests that optimism might benefit youth and can be learned. We applied an adult chronic pain risk-resilience model to examine the interplay of risk factors and optimism on functioning outcomes in youth with chronic pain. Participants included 58 children and adolescents (8-17 years) attending a chronic pain clinic and their parents. Participants completed measures of fear of pain, pain catastrophizing, optimism, disability, and quality of life. Consistent with the literature, pain intensity, fear of pain, and catastrophizing predicted functioning. Optimism was a unique predictor of quality of life, and optimism contributed to better functioning by minimizing pain-related fear and catastrophizing. Optimism might be protective and offset the negative influence of fear of pain and catastrophizing on pain-related functioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Protective role of S-Adenosylmethionine against fructose-induced oxidative damage in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameliya Zh Bratoeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been shown that S-adenosylmethionine (S-AMe stimulates glutathione synthesis and increases cell resistance to the cytotoxic action of free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Sadenosylmethionine on the oxidative stress in adipose tissue in a model of fructose-induced obesity. Methods. The study was performed on male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups: control, fructose fed (HFD (35%, 16 weeks, and HFD + S-AMe (20 mg/kg. We examined the changes in the ratio of retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight / body weight; levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, and serum levels of GSH and TNF-α. Results. Significant increases in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, MDA, and serum TNF-α were identified, as well as decreased tissue and serum levels of GSH in rats fed with a high-fructose diet as compared with the control group. In the group fed with HFD and SAMe, we found significant reduction in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue and decreased levels of MDA and serum TNF-α, as well as increased tissue and serum levels of GSH as compared with the group only on HFD. In conclusion, our results show that fructose-induced obesity causes oxidative stress in hypertrophic visceral adipose tissue. The administration of S-AMe improves the antioxidative protection of adipocytes, and reduces oxidative damage and excessive accumulation of lipids and inflammation.

  15. Protective Role of Royal Jelly in Oxymetholone-induced Oxidative Injury in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse effect of oxymetholone (OXM, an anabolic-androgenic steroid used as energetic medicine, is reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly (RJ is an efficient antioxidant that has been used to treat reproductive problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of RJ on OXM-induced oxidative injuries in mouse testes. Methods: Male mice were divided into four groups. Two groups of mice were administered OXM (5 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 28 days. One of these groups received RJ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. concurrently. A vehicle-treated control group and a RJ control group were also included. Results: The OXM-treated group showed a significant decrease in the serum testosterone concentration and spermatogenic activities, along with many histological alterations. OXM treatment also caused a significant decrease in catalase activity with an increase in lipid peroxidation in the mouse testes. The above-noted parameters were restored to near normal levels by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that RJ protects against OXM-induced reproductive toxicities.

  16. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) an active principle of turmeric on chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Amali, D Rosalin

    2005-04-30

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is an antioxidative substance, which is derived from curcumin, the component of turmeric. In the present investigation, the effect of THC and curcumin against chloroquine (CQ) induced hepatotoxicity were studied in female Wistar rats. On single oral administration of CQ (970 mg/kg body weight) the activities of serum marker enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and the levels of bilirubin were significantly increased with significant alterations of lipids in serum and lipidperoxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides in plasma and liver were also elevated in CQ treated rats. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione) and enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were also decreased in CQ treated rats. Administration of THC (80 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) for 8 days before and 7 days after single administration of CQ significantly decreased the activities of serum markers and lipids in serum. In addition, the level of TBARS and hydroperoxides were significantly decreased with significant increase in non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidants on treatment with THC and curcumin. The biochemical observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver section. The results of the study reveal that THC shows more pronounced protective effect than curcumin against CQ induced toxicity.

  17. Protective role of green tea administration against radiation-induced biological changes in pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of camelia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds also known as eipcatechins, which are anioxidant in nature. This study aims to evaluate the radioprotective, anioxidative potential of two concentrations of Gt extract in pregnant rats. Animals exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma radiation of 1 Gy installments at the 7 th , 11 th and 15 th days of gestation were examined on the 20 th day. Total protenis, uric acid, urea and creatinine, as well as ransmiase were measured. Irradiation of rats caused significant drop in serum total protein, which was significantly elevated specially with Gt 3%. Elevation in serum uric acid was dropped secially with Gt while, elevation in urea after irradiation dropped by Gt% only. Both concentrations of Gt did not signficantly change creatinine elevation exerted by irradiation. Results revealed sigbificat protection by both Gt concentrations against the elevation in serum glucose level. While was dropped approaching control by irradiation, which ASt dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt3%. While, AST dropped by irradiation was normalized attaining almost control level with Gt 3%. Histological damage to liver cells by irradiation was ameliorated by administration og Gt in both concentrations. This was indicated by restoration of the cellular integrity besides by nucleated cells and slight regenerative signs in the nuclei

  18. Effect of UV irradiation and Nigella sativa protective role on the mice liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahy, G.M.S.; Ismail, Z.M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on liver tissues of mice before and after feeding on the Nigella sativa L. for 4 and 7 days were investigated by following the variations in their infrared spectral features. The results showed that the exposure of experimental animals to UV radiations causes considerable changes in both proteins and PO 2 contents in the liver and the extent of changes depends on the energy of the source and time exposure. It was found that feeding of Nigella sativa L. during exposure for 4 days causes no significant effect on the UV induced changes in the liver tissues, while feeding for 7 days reduces the extent of the UV induced changes. Histological findings denoted that UV-Radiation causes different grades of damage in liver cells depending on the duration and type of radiation. Alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected liver cells from being subjected to the degenerative changes. The present work investigates the possibility of applying Nigella sativa as a natural biological substance for curative purpose after UV radiation damage

  19. THE ROLE AND ACTIVITIES OF THE UN BODIES ON PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AFFECTED BY ARMED CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fabijanić Gagro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 230 million children live surrounded by armed conflicts, and approximately 5 million children have been forced to leave their homes for reasons connected with the ongoing conflicts worldwide. Some of these children are “only” observers of war despair or live their childhood as refugees or displaced persons; others become active participants as soldiers. Both categories are deeply sensible and vulnerable, as many negative factors can influence their psychophysical and social development. The activities of the UN main bodies (General Assembly, Security Council, Secretary-General, but also of some others, established only for the purpose to protect a child affected by armed conflict (e.g. Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict are being known in this field since the beginning of last decade of the 20th century. However, despite earlier efforts, their more efficient cooperation and coordination in reporting and monitoring mechanism enforcement has being recognized in last ten years.

  20. Risky sexual behavior among cannabis users: The role of protective behavioral strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lewis, Elizabeth M; Shah, Sonia M; Walukevich, Katherine A

    2018-06-01

    Cannabis users tend to use condoms less often than cannabis abstainers, placing them at risk for sexually transmitted disease and unplanned pregnancies. This is especially problematic among college students, who experience such problems at especially high rates. Despite accumulating data indicating that cannabis users are less likely to use condoms, little research has identified potentially malleable cognitive vulnerability factors that may be related to condom use in this vulnerable population. Thus, the current study tested whether cannabis users believed others use condoms less often and/or whether they engaged in less condom-related protective behavior strategies (PBS) than cannabis abstainers and whether cannabis use status was indirectly related to condom use via these vulnerability factors. Among 214 college students (64 past-month cannabis users), cannabis users engaged in less PBS (although cannabis use was unrelated to normative beliefs). Cannabis use status was indirectly related to condom use via PBS and cannabis use status was unrelated to condom use after controlling for PBS. Results highlight the importance of PBS use among cannabis users, a group at particular risk for risky sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of heat shock protein hsp90 in formation of protective reactions in acute toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, T V; Khrenov, M O; Parfenyuk, S B; Lunin, S M; Fesenko, E E; Novoselova, E G

    2010-06-01

    The involvement of heat shock protein Hsp90 in pro-inflammatory response in male NMRI mice under conditions of acute toxic stress, caused by lipopolysaccharide from Gram negative bacteria, was studied using geldanamycin, a specific blocker of the activity of this protein. It is shown that the introduction of geldanamycin lowers total intoxication of the organism upon acute toxic stress caused by endotoxin. Thus, a decrease in cytokine TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1, and IL-10 concentrations in blood serum of the geldanamycin-treated animals with acute toxic stress was found along with normalization of functional activity of nitric oxide producing peritoneal macrophages. Studying expression of receptor protein Tlr-4 as well of proteins of two signal cascades, NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK, has shown that mechanisms of the geldanamycin protective effect are realized at the level of inhibition of Tlr-4 receptor expression, which provides for endotoxin-to-cell binding, and due to lowering the endotoxin-stimulated activation of signal cascades NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK. The results suggest Hsp90 might be a therapeutic target in diseases accompanied by acute toxic stress.

  2. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Neurovascular Protective Effects of Angiotensin Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauheed Ishrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity have been identified as key mediators of early vascular damage after ischemic stroke. Somewhat surprisingly, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 blocker, candesartan, has been shown to acutely increase MMP activity while providing neurovascular protection. We aimed to determine the contribution of MMP and nitrative stress to the effects of angiotensin blockade in experimental stroke. Methods. Wistar rats (n = 9–14/group; a total of 99 were treated in a factorial design with candesartan 1 mg/kg IV, alone or in combination with either a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FeTPPs, 30 mg/kg IP or GM6001 50 mg/kg IP (MMP inhibitor. Neurological deficit, infarct, size and hemorrhagic transformation (HT were measured after 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and 21 h of reperfusion. MMP activity and nitrotyrosine expression were also measured. Results. Candesartan reduced infarct size and HT when administered alone (P=0.0011 and in combination with FeTPPs (P=0.0016. GM6001 did not significantly affect HT when administered alone, but the combination with candesartan caused increased HT (P<0.0001 and worsened neurologic score (P=0.028. Conclusions. Acute administration of candesartan reduces injury after stroke despite increasing MMP activity, likely by an antioxidant mechanism.

  3. Primary psychopathy and alcohol pathology in college students: The role of protective behavioral strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D

    2017-11-01

    Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i.e., low harm reduction behaviors). The current study examines associations between primary psychopathic traits and alcohol involvement as a function of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) utilization in a sample of college students. Participants (n = 936 college student drinkers; 66.56% female) completed a series of questionnaires assessing primary psychopathy, alcohol involvement, and PBS use. There was a significant positive association between primary psychopathy and alcohol consumption and pathology. This association was partially mediated via diminished PBS use. PBS use also moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and pathology. The indirect effects from psychopathy to alcohol outcomes were attenuated at high (+1SD) PBS and potentiated at low (-1SD) PBS. The current findings suggest that some of the alcohol pathology associated with psychopathy is a function of lower harm reduction strategies among individuals with more psychopathic traits. These findings suggest that interventions targeting PBS use may be one way to reduce alcohol problems among those with higher levels of primary psychopathy.

  4. Enhanced identification and functional protective role of carbon nanoparticles on parathyroid in thyroid cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenlei; Tian, Bo; Li, Shengze; Shi, Tiefeng; Qin, Huadong; Liu, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nanocarbon particles in combination with meticulous capsular dissection on enhancing the identification and protecting the function of parathyroid glands in thyroid cancer surgery. The data of 97 patients with papillary thyroid tumors diagnosed and treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University between January 2014 and February 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding the sex, age, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, tumor size, multifocality, T stage, and extrathyroid invasion were collected. The incidence of surgeries in which the parathyroid glands were cut mistakenly, the concentration of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone before surgery (baseline) and after surgery on days 1, 3, and 7, and 1 and 6 months in the patients of the two groups (the nanocarbon and control groups) were analyzed. Fifty-two patients underwent meticulous capsular dissection combined with nanocarbon treatment (nanocarbon group), and 45 underwent meticulous capsular dissection alone (control group). The nanocarbon group showed a significantly higher total and average number of revealed parathyroid glands (average number is the mean for different individuals have different number) and a lower incidence of the parathyroid glands being mistakenly cut, in addition to a lower level of hypoparathyroidism than control group following surgery (P parathyroid in thyroid cancer surgery, reduce the risk of mistakenly cutting the parathyroid, and reduce the incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism. PMID:27861338

  5. The potential protective role of Akropower against Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf M; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Hussien, Ahmed M

    2017-12-01

    Introduction to the herbicide Atrazine (ATR) can bring about immunotoxicity, aside from other unfavorable results for the creature and human wellbeing. We went for clarifying the genotoxic mechanisms required in humoral immunotoxicity of Gesaprim ® (ATR) and their constriction by Akropwer. Forty rabbits (1.5kg±20%) were utilized and appointed into 4 equal groups. group 1: control; group 2: Received Atrazine at 1/10 LD 50 via food; group 3: Received Akropwer at 1ml/1l/day by means of drinking water; group 4: Received both Atrazine and Akropwer associatively by the same said dosage and course. Atrazine and Akropower exposure were accomplished for 60days. The genotoxic mechanisms of Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity were explained by increased serum total protein and albumin levels, decreased RHDV antibody titer only after four weeks of vaccination and increased level of spleen Fas and Caspase-III genes expression in Atrazine-exposed rabbits. Marked splenocytes apoptosis were detected in the immunohistochemical examination by caspase-III technique and TUNEL assay. Akropower attenuated ATR-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Fas and Caspase-III genes expression and suppression of their signaling pathway. In conclusion, induction of apoptosis by overexpression of Fas and Caspase-III genes gives a new insight into the mechanism of ATR immunotoxicity. The protective part of Akropower, on the other hand, was characterized by attenuation of Fas and Caspase-III genes mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective Role of Aldose Reductase Deletion in an Animal Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Fu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a common disease occurred in premature babies. Both vascular abnormality and neural dysfunction of the retina were reported, and oxidative stress was involved. Previously, it has been showed that deficiency of aldose reductase (AR, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyol pathway, lowered oxidative stress. Here, the effect of AR deletion on neonatal retinal injury was investigated by using a mouse model of ROP (oxygen-induced retinopathy, OIR. Seven-day-old pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air. The vascular changes and neuronal/glial responses were examined and compared between wild-type and AR-deficient OIR mice. Significantly reduced vaso-obliterated area, blood vessel leakage, and early revascularization were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Moreover, reduced amacrine cells and less distorted strata were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Less astrocytic immunoreactivity and reduced Müller cell gliosis were also observed in AR-deficient mice. After OIR, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity and poly (ADP-ribose (PAR translocation, which are two oxidative stress markers, were decreased in AR-deficient mice. Significant decrease in VEGF, pho-Erk1/2, pho-Akt, and pho-I?B expression was found in AR-deficient OIR retinae. Thus, these observations suggest that the deficiency of aldose reductase may protect the retina in the OIR model.

  7. The protective role of crocin in tartrazine induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, Mehmet Erman; Gul, Mehmet; Altinoz, Eyup; Zayman, Emrah; Aksungur, Zeynep; Bag, Harika Gozukara

    2017-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in rat kidney tissues after administration of tartrazine (T) and crocine (Cr). The latter was applied for its protective properties. The present study was conducted with the approval of Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine, Experimental Animals Ethics Committee. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups (Control, T, Cr, T + Cr). At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Biochemical and histopathological studies were conducted on excised rat kidney tissues. It was determined that there was a significant increase in MDA, TOS, SOD, CAT, Bun, Creatinine levels in tartrazine administered rat kidney tissues for 21 days, while GSH and TAS levels decreased (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to all other groups. On the other hand, it was identified that Cr administration statistically significantly increased GSH and TAS levels in rat kidney tissues when compared to all other groups and decreased MDA and TOS levels to control group levels (P tartrazine toxicity agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Stem cell protection mechanisms in planarians: the role of some heat shock genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolani, Maria-Emilia; Conte, Maria; Deri, Paolo; Batistoni, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Planarians contain a large population of stem cells, named neoblasts, and use these for continuous turnover of all cell types. In addition, thanks to the amazing flexibility of these cells, planarians respond well to the effects of stressful situations, for example activating regeneration after trauma. How neoblasts respond to stress and support continuous proliferation, maintaining long-term stability, is still an open question. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a complex protein family with key roles in maintaining protein homeostasis, as well as in apoptosis and growth-related processes. We recently characterized some planarian homologs of hsp genes that are highly expressed in mammalian stem cells, and observed that some of them are critical for neoblast survival/maintenance. The results of these studies support the notion that some HSPs play crucial roles in the modulation of pathways regulating stem cell activity, regeneration and tissue repair. In this review we compare the evidence available for planarian hsp genes and focus on questions emerging from these results.

  9. Discrimination, work outcomes, and mental health among women of color: The protective role of womanist attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Cox, Robert; Polihronakis, Charles J; Moradi, Bonnie

    2018-03-01

    With a sample of employed women of color (N = 276), we tested the associations of sexist and racist discrimination with poor work outcomes (job-related burnout and turnover intentions) and mental health outcomes (i.e., psychological distress). Drawing from the Theory of Work Adjustment, Organizational Support Theory, and scholarship on discrimination, we tested perceived person-organization (P-O) fit, perceived organizational support, and self-esteem as mediators of the associations of workplace discrimination with the outcomes. Based on intersectionality scholarship, womanist attitudes were tested as a moderator. Participants provided cross-sectional data via an online survey. Latent variable structural equation modeling results indicated that a second-order latent workplace discrimination variable yielded better fit to the data than modeling sexist and racist discrimination separately. Workplace discrimination was directly and indirectly (via the mediating role of self-esteem) associated with higher psychological distress. Furthermore, workplace discrimination was indirectly associated with poor work outcomes through the mediating roles of perceived P-O fit, perceived organizational support, and self-esteem. Last, moderation analyses indicated that higher womanist attitudes weakened the direct association of workplace discrimination with psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Th17/IL-17A might play a protective role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Hus

    Full Text Available Th17 cells, a recently discovered subset of T helper cells that secrete IL-17A, can affect the inflammation process autoimmune and cancer diseases development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Th17 cells and IL17A in biology of CLL. The study group included 294 untreated CLL patients in different clinical stages. Here, we show that higher Th17 and IL-17A values were associated with less advanced clinical stage of CLL. Th17 cells' percentages in PB were lower in patients who died due to CLL during follow-up due to CLL (as compared to surviving patients and in patients responding to first-line therapy with fludarabine-based regimens (as compared to non-responders. IL-17A inversely correlated with the time from CLL diagnosis to the start of therapy and was lower in patients who required treatment during follow-up. Th-17 and IL-17A values were lower in patients with adverse prognostic factors (17p and 11q deletion, CD38 and ZAP-70 expression. CLL patients with detectable IL-17A mRNA in T cells were in Rai Stage 0 and negative for both ZAP-70 and CD38 expression. Th17 percentages positively correlated with iNKT and adversely with Treg cells. The results of this study suggest that Th17 may play a beneficial role in CLL immunity.

  11. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  12. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  13. Role of Social Environmental Protective Factors on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Midwestern Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M; Ray, Colleen M

    2018-03-01

    We employ a social stress framework, which examines the influence of multiple stressors (e.g., physical abuse, foster care placement) on an individual's ability to function (e.g., mental well-being), to longitudinally examine the effects of stressful life events on mental health and the role of the social environment in this process among 150 homeless youth. Results revealed that numerous stressors, such as physical abuse and running away from home more frequently, were associated with greater depressive symptoms and elevated anxiety. Having mentors and family and friends from home that youth can rely on resulted in more positive social support, which subsequently lowered the risk for depressive symptoms and anxiety at wave 2. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Caspase-11 Plays a Protective Role in Pulmonary Acinetobacter baumannii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Yue; Li, Shengjun; Xin, Na; Ma, Tingxian; Zhao, Chenghai; Song, Min

    2017-10-01

    Activation of caspase-11 by some Gram-negative bacteria triggers the caspase-1/interleukin 1β (IL-1β) pathway, independent of canonical inflammasomes. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative, conditionally pathogenic bacterium that can cause severe pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients. A. baumannii was revealed to activate canonical and noncanonical inflammasome pathways in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Pulmonary infection of caspase-11 -/- mice with A. baumannii showed that caspase-11 deficiency impaired A. baumannii clearance, exacerbated pulmonary pathological changes, and enhanced susceptibility to A. baumannii These data indicate that the caspase-11-mediated innate immune response plays a crucial role in defending against A. baumannii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. The Protective Role of Galium Aparine on Cisplatin – Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Zahiri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic drug. The beneficial effects of the drug are limited by its nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to introduce sterological meothds (Estimation of mean glomerular volume to determine the toxicity of drug & examine the Galium aparine (a traditional herbal plant as a protective agent. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in histology department in Ahwaz University of medical sciences in 1380. 70 Spraque–Dwally male rats were iselected randomly and divided into 7 groups as below: two control groups (one for drug & one for plant, five experimental groups one treated by acute dose of drug (7.5 mg/kg, IP and other groups treated with 4 doses of hydroalcholic extract of plants (4, 8, 16, 32 mg/kg half an hour before receiving drug orally. Animals were sacrified 96 hour after receiving the drugs and their right kidneys were processed for stereological assessment based on cavalier method. Statistical analysis of data from calculation of mean glomerular volume was done by ANOVA and two sided-dunet test, using SPSS software. Results: The results based on cavalier method, showed an increase in mean glomerular volume in all the groups that were treated with drug, whereas lower grade of glomerulomegaly was seen in those groups which received higher doses (16 & 32 mg/kg of plant’s extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin was even observed in quantitative parameters of kidney (e.g. increasing the mean glomerular volume but by using Galim apain’s extract this side effect can be reduced significantly. Moreover stereological techniques are valuable tools for studying the drug effects in all organs of the body.

  16. Role of pigmentation in protecting bacterial cells against irradiation generated by accelerated charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath; Das, Reena

    2013-01-01

    Beams of high-energy particles are useful for both fundamental and applied research in the sciences, and also in many technical and industrial fields unrelated to fundamental research. It has been estimated that there are approximately 26,000 accelerators world. Of these, only about 1% are research machines with energies above 1 GeV, while about 44% are for radiotherapy, 41% for ion implantation, 9% for industrial processing and research, and 4% for biomedical and other low-energy research. One aspect of these radiations can be studied for examining their effect in altering the viability of bacterial cells. The radiations generated by the simple technology of a single static high voltage to accelerate charged particles are known to produce reactive oxygen intermediates such as hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anions and target several cellular components of bacterial cells including the DNA. As a result of this interaction with the DNA the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA may break leading to single or double strand fission. Endogenous pigments, such as carotenoids and melanins, might provide a selective advantage to these microorganisms by photoprotection or shielding from UV radiation, including the UV-C and full UV-B range. The pigment, as an antioxidant scavenges reactive oxygen species generated by UV-A radiation and protect various microorganisms against oxidative damage caused by UV or ionizing radiation by scavenging free radicals. Environmental UV radiation is polychromatic and comprises the full spectrum of UV-A and UV-B radiation at wavelengths of λ > 290 nm. Accelerators, solar simulators and natural insulation can also prove to be a better alternate for understanding the responses of bacterial cells to the terrestrial UV radiation climate. (author)

  17. Mixed results: the protective role of schooling in the HIV epidemic in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Alan; Vinnitchok, Andriana; Dlamini, Tengetile; Mabuza, Khanya

    2017-12-01

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world. It is recognised that young women, especially adolescents, are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and bear a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence. The HIV data from Swaziland show the location of the epidemic, which is particularly high among adolescent girls and young women. This paper is based on research in Swaziland, commissioned because of the perception that large numbers of children were dropping out of the school. It was assumed that these "dropouts" had increased risk of HIV exposure. This study carried out a detailed analysis using the Annual Education Census Reports from 2012 to 2014 produced by the Ministry of Education. In addition, this topic was explored, during fieldwork with key informants in the country. While HIV prevalence rises rapidly among young women in Swaziland, as is the case across most of Southern Africa, the data showed there were few dropouts. This was the case at all levels of education - primary, junior secondary and senior secondary. The major reason for dropping out of primary school was family reasons; and in junior and senior secondary, pregnancy was the leading cause. Swaziland is doing well in terms of getting its children into school, and, for the most part, keeping them there. This paper identifies the students who face increased vulnerability: the limited number of dropouts; repeaters who consequently were "out-of-age for grade"; and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). The learners who were classified as repeaters and OVC greatly outnumbered the dropouts. We argue, on the basis of these data, for re-focussed attention and the need to develop a method for tracking children as they move across the vulnerable groups. We acknowledge schooling is protective in reducing children's vulnerability to HIV, and Swaziland is on the right track in education, although there are challenges.

  18. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  19. The Effect of Cadmium on Hippocampus Development of Rat Embryos and L-carnitine Protective Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezani M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cadmium is a toxic metal which is widely used in industry. This metal exerts toxic effects on multiple organs, including nervous system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cadmium on weight and development of hippocampus in Wistar rat embryos and then determining whether L-carnitine, as an antioxidant, can protect hippocampus from the toxic effects.Methods: Female Wistar rats (250-300g were used in this study. 24 hours after mating with male rats, the females were separated and their vaginal smears were examined for sperm detection. This day was considered as embryonic zero day. The female rats were divided into three groups: The control group which received no injection, the experimental group 1 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium and the experimental group 2 which received 1mg/kg B.W cadmium+500mg/kg B.W L-carnitin in days 7 and 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform over dose and their embryos were removed surgically. The embryos were fixed in formalin 10% for 30 days, the weight of embryos were measured. Then tissue processing, sectioning and Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & M staining were done. Some sections of hippocampus were evaluated using light microscope and MOTIC soft ware. Results: The weight of embryos were significantly decreased in experimental groups. This decrease was significantly greater in the Experimental group 2. The number of cells and thickness of hippocampus layers were decreased significantly just in the second group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that cadmium has teratogenic effects on embryo’s weight and development of hippocampus and at least a part of these effects may be inhibited by L-carnitine.

  20. Child abuse consultations initiated by child protective services: the role of expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Lindsay; Martin, Kimberly D; Leventhal, John M

    2011-01-01

    To describe consultations provided by child abuse pediatricians for cases referred by child protective services (CPS); compare the opinions of the likelihood of child maltreatment of the initial physician, CPS, and the child abuse pediatrician; and examine predictors of the experts' opinions. Cases were referred by CPS for consultations between March 1, 1998, and June 30, 2005, to 2 child abuse pediatricians at Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital. We abstracted demographic and clinical information and the opinions of the initial physician, CPS, and the child abuse expert, each coded using a 5-point scale from definite maltreatment to definite benign cause (eg, accident). Of 187 cases, 50.3% occurred in children younger than 1 year of age. Children's most serious injuries were fractures (50.8%), burns (16.6%), and bruises/abrasions (15.0%). The child abuse experts' opinions were 47.6% definite or probable maltreatment, 8.6% uncertain, and 43.9% definite or probable benign. Of the 119 cases with opinions from all 3 assessors, the expert agreed with the physician in 57.1% of cases (κ = 0.34) and with CPS in 64.7% (κ = 0.42). The best predictor of the expert's opinion that the injury was due to maltreatment was agreement between the physician and CPS that maltreatment had occurred. Levels of agreement were fair to poor between the child abuse expert and either the physician or CPS. Child abuse experts' opinions have important value in selected cases to confirm previous assessments by the physician and/or CPS, or to change the opinion of the case. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC 50 of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway

  2. Protective Role of PEDF-Derived Synthetic Peptide Against Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Taira, J; Higashimoto, Y; Yamagishi, S

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with complex neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, all of which could potentially be exploited as a therapeutic option for vascular complications in diabetes. We have previously shown that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 (FIFVLRD) has a comparable ability with full PEDF protein to inhibit rat corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization. However, the effects of PEDF peptide on experimental diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. To address the issue, we modified P5-3 to stabilize and administered the modified peptide (d-Lys-d-Lys-d-Lys-Gln-d-Pro-P5-3-Cys-amide, 0.2 nmol/day) or vehicle to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) intraperitoneally by an osmotic mini pump for 2 weeks. We further examined the effects of modified peptide on human proximal tubular cells. Renal PEDF expression was decreased in STZ-rats. Although the peptide administration did not affect blood glucose or blood pressure, it decreased urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression, and suppressed glomerular expansion in the diabetic kidneys. High glucose or advanced glycation end products stimulated oxidative stress generation and PAI-1 gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were significantly suppressed by 10 nM modified P5-3 peptide. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic modified peptide could protect against experimental diabetic nephropathy and inhibit tubular cell damage under diabetes-like conditions through its anti-oxidative properties. Supplementation of modified P5-3 peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Protective Role of Tetrahydrocurcumin: an Active Polyphenolic Curcuminoid on Cadmium-InducedOxidative Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ramalingam; Elangovan, Perumal; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) against oxidative damages in cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity in rats was evaluated. Cd is an important environmental and industrial toxicant that affects almost all the organs, especially liver. Liver is the major organ responsible for the metabolism and the primary target for many toxic chemicals and drugs. Effect of THC, the curcumin-derived polyphenolic compound on Cd-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage was evaluated using male albino Wistar rats. In Cd-administered rats (5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), orally for 4 weeks), activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly increased in serum with the elevated level of bilirubin. Red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin contents and haematocrit values were also significantly decreased in Cd-treated rats. In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation markers like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), protein carbonyl contents (PCC) and conjugated dienes (CD) were significantly increased followed by the significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulphydryl groups (TSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and vitamin E in liver of Cd-administered rats. Oral administration of THC (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w.) followed by Cd for 4 weeks showed a significant restoration of the above changes to near normal. Histopathological changes observed in Cd intoxicated hepatic tissues were minimized on treatment with THC. This study suggests that THC at the dose of 80 mg/kg b.w. effectively subdues the Cd-induced toxicity and controls the free radical-induced liver damage in rats.

  4. Alcohol misuse among recent Latino immigrants: the protective role of preimmigration familismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R; De La Rosa, Mario; Sastre, Francisco; Ibañez, Gladys

    2013-12-01

    Familismo in the Latino culture is a value hallmarked by close relations with nuclear and extended family members throughout the life span, with pronounced levels of loyalty, reciprocity, and solidarity. Familismo is posited as health protective against alcohol misuse among Latinos in the United States. This study examines the relative influence of pre- and postimmigration familismo on alcohol use behaviors among recent Latino immigrants while accounting for myriad sociocultural factors (gender, age, documentation status, education, income, marital status, presence of family members in the United States, primary language used in the community, English language proficiency, and time in the United States). Participants included 405 young adults, aged 18 to 34 years, who were primarily of Cuban (50%), Columbian (19%), and Central American (15%) descent. Retrospective assessment of preimmigration familismo occurred during participants' first 12 months in the United States. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use behaviors occurred during participants' second year in the United States. Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) path modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Inverse associations were determined between preimmigration familismo and alcohol use quantity and harmful/hazardous alcohol use. Men and participants who reported more proficiency in English, and those living in neighborhoods where English is predominantly spoken, indicated more alcohol use quantity and harmful/hazardous alcohol use. By considering both pre- and postimmigration determinants of alcohol use, findings offer a fuller contextual understanding of the lives of Latino young adult immigrants. Results support the importance of lifelong familismo as a buffer against alcohol misuse in young adulthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J. [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC{sub 50} of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  6. Effects of hypoxia on epididymal sperm parameters and protective role of ibuprofen and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypobaric hypoxia is of interest due to an increase of human populations working at high altitude. Testicular damage is related to the physiological response (neoangiogenesis to increased intrascrotal blood flow as temperature rises. Hypoxia is a stress factor with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The effect of hypoxia in mice reproductive parameters is analyzed. Animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia of 4,200 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l. in a chamber for 33.2 days, both to continuous (HH or intermittent hypoxia (HI with an intermittency period of 4 days hypoxia /4 days normoxia (500 m.a.s.l.. The anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen was administered to a group of mice to control vasodilation and increased blood flow. Melatonin was administered to another group of mice as a potent ROS scavenger. Animals in both HH and HI exposure were compared to normoxic non-treated controls. There was a hematological response in hypoxia, with an increase in hematocrit and reticulocytosis. There was also increased teratozoospermia. This damage was more pronounced in HH than HI, suggesting that alternating normoxic periods permits compensation for the effects of hypoxia. In both hypoxia systems, the level of lipoperoxidation and the instability of DNA increased. In HH, there was a reduction of teratozoospermia in melatonin-treated mice. Ibuprofen presented a protective effect on the same parameters as melatonin with both HI and HH. The quality of sperm DNA, fragmentation, unpacking and DNA stability diminished. In conclusion, reproductive damage elicited by HH or HI was partially ameliorated by simultaneous treatment with antiflogistic and/or antioxidant agents.

  7. An Analysis of the Role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Development of Manpower for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Environmental Engineers, Rockville, MD.

    Presented is a study and recommendations regarding the role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing skilled water quality control personnel. The American Academy of Environmental Engineers, which conducted this analysis, concludes that the federal role should be a major one. Furthermore, the present EPA policy of leaving labor…

  8. Protective role of wheat germ oil on some biochemical parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, A.I.; Darwish, M.M.; Sallam, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Wheat germ oil is an organic nutritionally rich vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E and essential fatty acids (octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic). The study confirmed the beneficial role of the used anti-oxidation agents as recommended radio-protectors due to their ability of scavenging free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with wheat germ oil (10 mg/ Kg body wt) for 15 days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when male rats were subjected to fractionated 8 Gy (2 Gy day after day) of gamma irradiation were studied. Blood samples were collected from animals at 10 and 15 days after treatment and/or exposure. In blood, the data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant increases in levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and glucose at the 10th day. Meanwhile, significant reduction in contents of total protein, albumin, globulins, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), vitamin E and glucose were recorded at the 15th day. Also, the majority of these parameters were estimated in liver tissues. The results revealed that administration of the natural product wheat germ oil partially ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical disturbances. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of wheat germ oil actions

  9. Beneficial Protective Role of Endogenous Lactic Acid Bacteria Against Mycotic Contamination of Honeybee Beebread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janashia, Irakli; Choiset, Yvan; Jozefiak, Damian; Déniel, Franck; Coton, Emmanuel; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Chanishvili, Nina; Haertlé, Thomas

    2018-01-03

    The purpose of this article is to reveal the role of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the beebread transformation/preservation, biochemical properties of 25 honeybee endogenous LAB strains, particularly: antifungal, proteolytic, and amylolytic activities putatively expressed in the beebread environment have been studied. Seventeen fungal strains isolated from beebread samples were identified and checked for their ability to grow on simulated beebread substrate (SBS) and then used to study mycotic propagation in the presence of LAB. Fungal strains identified as Aspergillus niger (Po1), Candida sp. (BB01), and Z. rouxii (BB02) were able to grow on SBS. Their growth was partly inhibited when co-cultured with the endogenous honeybee LAB strains studied. No proteolytic or amylolytic activities of the studied LAB were detected using pollen, casein starch based media as substrates. These findings suggest that some honeybee LAB symbionts are involved in maintaining a safe microbiological state in the host honeybee colonies by inhibiting beebread mycotic contaminations, starch, and protein predigestion in beebread by LAB is less probable. Honeybee endogenous LAB use pollen as a growth substrate and in the same time restricts fungal propagation, thus showing host beneficial action preserving larval food. This study also can have an impact on development of novel methods of pollen preservation and its processing as a food ingredient.

  10. Role of Nrf2 and protective effects of Metformin against tobacco smoke-induced cerebrovascular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Prasad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS, nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2 in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug treatment. Our data in fact revealed that MF activates counteractive mechanisms primarily associated with the Nrf2 pathway which drastically reduce CS toxicity at the cerebrovascular level. These include the suppression of tight junction (TJ protein downregulation and loss of BBB integrity induced by CS, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, renormalization of the expression levels of the major BBB glucose transporter Glut-1 and that of the anticoagulant factor thrombomodulin. Further, we provide additional insights on the controversial interplay between Nrf2 and AMPK.

  11. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maklizi, Mahmoud A.; Ouf, Amged; Ferreira, Ari; Hedar, Shahyn

    2014-01-01

    A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae) from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown. PMID:25493214

  12. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. El-Maklizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown.

  13. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  14. Fetotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats and the protective role of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Fatma M; Moawad, Karima M; El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Amer, Amany S

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the potential role of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in inducing developmental toxicity and oxidative damage in pregnant rats and their fetuses as well as to assess the efficacy of vitamin E to prevent or alleviate such defects. Pregnant rats received 2,4-D (100 mg/kg bw) alone or in combination with vitamin E (100 mg/kg bw) daily from gestation day 1 to 19. The number of implantations, viable and resorbed fetuses and sex ratio were not statistically different among groups. However, fetuses maternally treated with 2,4-D were characterized by lower body weight and higher morphologic and skeletal defect rate. 2,4-D induced oxidative stress in the liver of mothers and fetuses which was indicated by a significant elevation of malondialdehyde level with reduction in catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity. Coadministration of vitamin E can counteract the deleterious effects of 2,4-D by successive reduction in the oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Human Pharyngeal Microbiome May Play A Protective Role in Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhancheng Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respiratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interacts with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pharyngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.

  16. The Role of Surface Protection for High-Temperature Performance of TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In the temperature range where TiAl alloys are currently being used in jet engine and automotive industries, surface reaction with the operating environment is not yet a critical issue. Surface treatment may, however, be needed in order to provide improved abrasion resistance. Development routes currently aim at a further increase in operation temperatures in gas turbines up to 800°C and higher, and in automotive applications for turbocharger rotors, even up to 1050°C. In this case, oxidation rates may reach levels where significant metal consumption of the load-bearing cross-section can occur. Another possibly even more critical issue can be high-temperature-induced oxygen and nitrogen up-take into the metal subsurface zone with subsequent massive ambient temperature embrittlement. Solutions for these problems are based on a deliberate phase change of the metal subsurface zone by diffusion treatments and by using effects such as the halogen effect to change the oxidation mechanism at high temperatures. Other topics of relevance for the use of TiAl alloys in high-temperature applications can be high-temperature abrasion resistance, thermal barrier coatings on TiAl and surface quality in additive manufacturing, in all these cases-focusing on the role of the operation environment. This paper addresses the recent developments in these areas and the requirements for future work.

  17. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.

  18. The Protective Role of Dexpanthenol on the Endometrial Implants in an Experimentally Induced Rat Endometriosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Karapinar, Oya; Pinar, Neslihan; Özgür, Tümay; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Bayraktar, H Suphi; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Nural, Orhan

    2017-02-01

    Dexpanthenol (Dxp), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, plays an important role in the repair systems against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Dxp on experimental endometriosis model. A prospective experimental study was conducted in Experimental Animal Laboratory of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay. Twenty nonpregnant female Wistar albino rats, in which experimental model of endometriosis was surgically induced, were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was administered 500 mg/kg/d Dxp intraperitoneally for 14 days, and group 2 was given the same amount of saline solution. After 2 weeks of medication, the rats were killed and implant volumes, histopathologic scores; and levels of serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Plasma and peritoneal fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were analyzed. The endometriotic implant volumes, histopathologic scores, and serum TOS and OSI values were significantly decreased ( P OSI values. Serum and peritoneal fluid TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the Dxp group. So Dxp decreased oxidative stress.

  19. Decision-Making in Suicidal Behavior: The Protective Role of Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergö Hadlaczky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLoss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices.AimThe aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704. We hypothesized that individuals with higher loss aversion would be less likely to attempt suicide.MethodsA mixed monetary gamble task was used to generate loss aversion scores for each participant. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association between loss aversion and life-time suicide attempts in the baseline sample (N = 2,158; 156 attempters, and incident attempts were predicted in a 4-month prospective model (N = 1,763; 75 attempters. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between loss aversion and suicidal ideation.ResultsLoss aversion was a significant predictor of attempted suicide in both the cross-sectional (OR = 0.79; P = 0.005 and prospective analysis (OR = 0.81; P = 0.040, adjusting for depression, anxiety, stress, and sex. The correlation between pre and post measures of loss aversion was r = 0.52 (P < 0.001. Interestingly, although depression, anxiety, and stress were associated with suicidal ideation, loss aversion was not (cross-sectional model: P = 0.092; Prospective model: P = 0.390. This suggests that the concept of loss aversion may be useful in understanding the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts.ConclusionThis and previous studies suggest that altered decision-making is involved in suicide attempts. In our study, we show the involvement of loss aversion in particular, and propose that individuals high in loss aversion are discouraged from carrying

  20. Decision-Making in Suicidal Behavior: The Protective Role of Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Machín, Núria; Sarchiapone, Marco; Sisask, Merike; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704). We hypothesized that individuals with higher loss aversion would be less likely to attempt suicide. A mixed monetary gamble task was used to generate loss aversion scores for each participant. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association between loss aversion and life-time suicide attempts in the baseline sample ( N  = 2,158; 156 attempters), and incident attempts were predicted in a 4-month prospective model ( N  = 1,763; 75 attempters). Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between loss aversion and suicidal ideation. Loss aversion was a significant predictor of attempted suicide in both the cross-sectional (OR = 0.79; P  = 0.005) and prospective analysis (OR = 0.81; P  = 0.040), adjusting for depression, anxiety, stress, and sex. The correlation between pre and post measures of loss aversion was r  = 0.52 ( P  loss aversion was not (cross-sectional model: P  = 0.092; Prospective model: P  = 0.390). This suggests that the concept of loss aversion may be useful in understanding the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts. This and previous studies suggest that altered decision-making is involved in suicide attempts. In our study, we show the involvement of loss aversion in particular, and propose that individuals high in loss aversion are discouraged from carrying out the suicide attempt because of a greater focus on the negative consequences of the decision.

  1. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W.; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm 2 ), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm 2 per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm 2 /decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm 2 ), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm 2 ), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm 2 ), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm 2 /1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm 2 ). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  2. CHIP has a protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death through specific regulation of Endonuclease G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Seo, T W; Yi, J H; Shin, K S; Yoo, S J

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in carcinogenesis, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. The E3 ligase C terminus of Hsc-70 interacting protein (CHIP) has a protective role against various stresses by targeting damaged proteins for proteasomal degradation, and thus maintains protein quality control. However, the detailed mechanism by which CHIP protects cells from oxidative stress has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that depletion of CHIP led to elevated Endonuclease G (EndoG) levels and enhanced cell death upon oxidative stress. In contrast, CHIP overexpression reduced EndoG levels, and resulted in reduced or no oxidative stress-induced cell death in cancer cells and primary rat cortical neurons. Under normal conditions Hsp70 mediated the interaction between EndoG and CHIP, downregulating EndoG levels in a Hsp70/proteasome-dependent manner. However, under oxidative stress Hsp70 no longer interacted with EndoG, and the stabilized EndoG translocated to the nucleus and degraded chromosomal DNA. Our data suggest that regulation of the level of EndoG by CHIP in normal conditions may determine the sensitivity to cell death upon oxidative stress. Indeed, injection of H2O2 into the rat brain markedly increased cell death in aged mice compared with young mice, which correlated with elevated levels of EndoG and concurrent downregulation of CHIP in aged mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel protective mechanism of CHIP against oxidative stress through regulation of EndoG, and provide an opportunity to modulate oxidative stress-induced cell death in cancer and aging. PMID:23764847

  3. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Div. of Cardiology; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Community Medicine; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Div. of Internal Medicine

    2015-10-15

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm{sup 2}), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm{sup 2} per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm{sup 2}/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm{sup 2}), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm{sup 2}), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm{sup 2}), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm{sup 2}/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm{sup 2}). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  4. The protective roles of TiO2nanoparticles against UV-B toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Aquatic environments are increasingly under environmental stress due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and potential inputs of nanoparticles with intense application of nanotechnology. In this study, we investigated the interaction between UV-B radiation and titanium nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) in a model freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. UV-B toxicity to Daphnia magna was examined when the daphnids were exposed to a range of TiO 2 -NPs concentrations with an initial 5 or 10min of 200μW/cm 2 UV-B radiation. In addition, UV-B toxicity was also examined in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs in the body of daphnids. Our results demonstrated that the daphnid mortality under UV-B radiation decreased significantly in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs both in the water and in the body, indicating that TiO 2 -NPs had some protective effects on D. magna against UV-B. Such protective effect was mainly caused by the blockage of UV-B by TiO 2 -NPs adsorption. UV-B produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water and in the daphnids, which was not sufficient to cause mortality of daphnids over short periods of radiation. Previous studies focused on the effects of TiO 2 -NPs on the toxicity of total UV radiation, and did not attempt to differentiate the potential diverse roles of UV-A and UV-B. Our study indicated that TiO 2 -NPs may conversely protect the UV-B toxicity to daphnids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Roles of IFN-γ and γδ T cells in protective immunity against blood-stage malaria

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    Shin-Ichi eInoue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. Various studies with knockout mice have indicated that IFN-γ plays essential roles in protective immunity against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, after Plasmodium infection, increased IFN-γ production by various types of cells is involved not only in protective immunity, but also in immunopathology. Recent reports have shown that IFN-γ acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine to induce not only the activation of macrophages, but also the generation of uncommon myelolymphoid progenitor cells after Plasmodium infection. However, the effects of IFN-γ on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells are unclear. Therefore, the regulation of hematopoiesis by IFN-γ during Plasmodium infection remains to be clarified. Although there are conflicting reports concerning the significance of γδ T cells in protective immunity against Plasmodium infection, γδ T cells may respond to infection and produce IFN-γ as innate immune cells in the early phase of blood-stage malaria. Our recent studies have shown that γδ T cells express CD40 ligand and produce IFN-γ after Plasmodium infection, resulting in the enhancement of dendritic cell activation as part of the immune response to eliminate Plasmodium parasites. These data suggest that the function of γδ T cells is similar to that of NK cells. Although several reports suggest that γδ T cells have the potential to act as memory cells for various infections, it remains to be determined whether memory γδ T cells are generated by Plasmodium infection and whether memory γδ T cells can contribute to the host defense against re-infection with Plasmodium. Here, we summarize and discuss the effects of IFN-γ and the various functions of γδ T cells in blood-stage Plasmodium infection.

  6. Protective role of radish oil (raphson sativus) against gamma radiation on lipids and carbohydrate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Soliman, N.K.I.

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on some biochemical parameters in rats. The rats were exposed to sublethal whole body gamma irradiation dose (1Gy x 4). The protective role of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) was evaluated by oral administration to rats before gamma radiation exposure and the lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen were investigated. Exposed rats to gamma radiation showed significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Oral administration of radish oil (Raphanus sativus) before gamma irradiation exerted marked ameliorations in the disorders induced by gamma radiation in most of the tested parameters such as lipid profile, serum glucose and liver glycogen

  7. Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Jagla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases implicated also in cognitive decline. Experimental studies pointed to the fact that the modification of NO levels via NOS activity may affect the blood pressure level as well as several higher nervous functions—for example, learning and memory. There are emerging evidences from in vitro and animal studies suggesting that polyphenols may potentially have a protective effect on the development of neurodegenerative diseases and may improve cognitive function as well as positively affecting the blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. This review accentuates the need for precisely defined clinically controlled studies as well as for use of adequate experimental procedures discriminating between the human higher brain functions and the only overall activation of the brain cortex. The physiological neurocardiovascular interactions are implicated in the increased healthy life span as well.

  8. The CCl4 action upon physiological indices in Lepus timidus and the protective role of some substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina PAUNESCU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to demonstrate the hepatoprotective role of grape seed oil and Cynara scolymus leaf extract. This experiment lasted for 12 days performed on male and female rabbit. The animals were intoxicated in the latest day of experiment (day 12th with CCl4 in a dose of 30μl/100g body weight and a group of them was treated for 12 days with 0.4 mg/kg body weight/day of Cynara scolymus (artichoke leaf extract while another group was treated with grape seed oil (1ml/kg body weight/day. Intoxication with CCl4 caused an increase a glycemia and a number of leukocytes, decrease cholesterol, triglycerides value, and a number of erythrocytes. We observed that the extract of Cynara scolymus leaf and the grape seed oil had a protective effect against CCl4 intoxication.

  9. Protective Role of Spirituality from the Perspective of Indian College Students with Suicidal Ideation: "I am here Because God Exists".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wilsy; Bance, Lucila Ortiz

    2017-06-01

    Spiritual beliefs are found to be having a significant effect during times of struggles and trials in peoples' lives. India being a multi-religious society, it is imperative to establish the relevance of spirituality in the lives of the college students with suicidal ideation. The current study therefore utilized focus group methodology to explore the Indian female college students' perceptions on the protective role of spirituality as a factor contributing to their positive adaptation in times of adversity. Twenty students participated in the discussion. The results interestingly surfaced themes supporting the significance of them on how individuals rely on spiritual beliefs and the possible implications of the need to address it for positive adaptation. Most of the participants analogically stated the themes emerged as "something to stay afloat in the rough sea of life's realities."

  10. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  11. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Jai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundWe hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.MethodsEndophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.ResultsB. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.ConclusionsThis study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.

  12. UV hazard on a summer's day under Mediterranean conditions, and the protective role of a beach umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Sabatini, F.; Zipoli, G.

    2005-11-01

    Mediterranean beaches are very crowded during summer and, because of the high values of solar UV radiation, the potential risk for human health is relevant. In this study, all-day measurements of biologically effective global and diffuse UV radiation for skin (UVBEeryt) and eye (UVBEpker, UVBEpconj, UVBEcat) disorders were carried out on differently tilted surfaces on a summer’s day on a Mediterranean beach. The role played by beach umbrellas in protection from excessive sun exposure was also investigated. Erythema, photokeratitis and cataract seem to require almost the same exposure time to reach the risk threshold dose. Under full sunlight, the highest global and diffuse UV values are reached on surfaces normally oriented towards sunlight and on horizontal surfaces, respectively. Over vertical surfaces, at this northern hemisphere site, global and diffuse UV radiation reaches maxima values in the south-facing direction around noon, while maxima values are reached early in the morning and late in the afternoon over surfaces facing east and west, respectively. The quality of the beach umbrella’s protection (efficiency in blocking solar UV radiation) varies with surface orientation; the highest efficiency for our specific site and geometrical conditions occurs over horizontal surfaces, with efficiency being least over vertical surfaces when incident radiation values are still relevant.

  13. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  14. Role of adenosine on simvastatin protective effects in atrioventricular nodal properties in isolated atrial fibrillation model of rabbit heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khori V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhi-bitors (statins have revolutionized the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Some evide-nce indicated the role of nodal refractoriness and concealed conduction in anticipating the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation. Recent evidence has indicated that statins can reduce the incidence of both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study is to investigate adenosine A1 receptor role on simvastatin protecti-ve effects on atrioventricular nodal properties in isolated atrial fibrillation model of rabbit heart.Methods: The present study was performed in cardiovascular research center of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Recovery and atrial fibrillation protoc-ols were used to study electrophysiological properties of atrioventricular node in 5 groups of male Newsland rabbits (n=40. Extracellular recording was carried out from transitional cells of posterior and anterior extension of AV-node and upper part of atrium and its bundle. All stimuli protocols repeated in the presence of adenosine A1 receptor agonist and antagonist (dipridamole and CPX alone or with simvastatin on isolated perfused atrio-nodal preparation. Extracellular field potential recording was sampled during specific stimulation protocols.Results: Significant inhibition was observed in basic node properties such as wencke-bach prolongation, functional refractory period, effective refractory period and atriove-ntricular node conduction time with simvastatin (P0.05.Conclusion: Our results showed that the use of adenosine agonist increased simvastatin effects on electrophysiological properties of atrioventricular node, but its antagonist could not prevent these effects. This may indicate simvastatin protective mechanism on atrioventricular node electrophysiological properties without adenosine direct involve-ment.

  15. Identification of Zika virus epitopes reveals immunodominant and protective roles for dengue virus cross-reactive CD8+T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jinsheng; Tang, William Weihao; Sheets, Nicholas; Ellison, Julia; Sette, Alessandro; Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2017-03-13

    CD8 + T cells play an important role in controlling Flavivirus infection, including Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we have identified 25 HLA-B*0702-restricted epitopes and 1 HLA-A*0101-restricted epitope using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in ZIKV-infected IFN-α/β receptor-deficient HLA transgenic mice. The cross-reactivity of ZIKV epitopes to dengue virus (DENV) was tested using IFN-γ-ELISPOT and IFN-γ-ICS on CD8 + T cells from DENV-infected mice, and five cross-reactive HLA-B*0702-binding peptides were identified by both assays. ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive CD8 + T cells in DENV-immune mice expanded post ZIKV challenge and dominated in the subsequent CD8 + T cell response. ZIKV challenge following immunization of mice with ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes elicited CD8 + T cell responses that reduced infectious ZIKV levels, and CD8 + T cell depletions confirmed that CD8 + T cells mediated this protection. These results identify ZIKV-specific and ZIKV/DENV cross-reactive epitopes and demonstrate both an altered immunodominance pattern in the DENV-immune setting relative to naive, as well as a protective role for epitope-specific CD8 + T cells against ZIKV. These results have important implications for ZIKV vaccine development and provide a mouse model for evaluating anti-ZIKV CD8 + T cell responses of human relevance.

  16. To serve and protect: The modulatory role of von Willebrand factor on factor VIII immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartholt, Robin B; van Velzen, Alice S; Peyron, Ivan; Ten Brinke, Anja; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Voorberg, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder characterized by the absence or dysfunction of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Patients are treated with regular infusions of FVIII concentrate. In response to treatment, approximately 30% of patients with severe hemophilia A develop inhibitory antibodies targeting FVIII. Both patient and treatment related risk factors for inhibitor development have been described. Multiple studies comparing the immunogenicity of recombinant and plasma-derived FVIII have yielded conflicting results. The randomized controlled SIPPET (Survey of Inhibitors in Plasma-Product Exposed Toddlers) trial demonstrated an increased risk of inhibitor development of recombinant FVIII when compared to von Willebrand factor (VWF)-containing plasma-derived FVIII. Presently, it is unclear which mechanism underlies the reduced immunogenicity of plasma-derived FVIII. In this review we address the potential role of VWF on FVIII immunogenicity and we discuss how VWF affects the immune recognition, processing and presentation of FVIII. We also briefly discuss the potential impact of glycan-composition on FVIII immunogenicity. It is well established that VWF shields the uptake of FVIII by antigen presenting cells. We have recently shown that VWF binds to the surface of dendritic cells. Here, we present a novel model in which surface bound FVIII-VWF complexes regulate the internalization of FVIII. Binding of FVIII to VWF is critically dependent on sulfation of Tyr1699 (HVGS numbering) in the light chain of FVIII. Incomplete sulfation of Tyr1699 has been suggested to occur in several recombinant FVIII products resulting in a loss of VWF binding. We hypothesize that this results in alternative pathways of FVIII internalization by antigen presenting cells which are not regulated by VWF. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the reduced immunogenicity of VWF containing plasma-derived FVIII concentrates as found in the SIPPET study. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  17. Chemical Biology of Hydropersulfides and Related Species: Possible Roles in Cellular Protection and Redox Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Lucía; Bianco, Christopher L; Toscano, John P; Lin, Joseph; Akaike, Takaaki; Fukuto, Jon M

    2017-10-01

    For >20 years, physiological signaling associated with the endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been of significant interest. Despite its presumed importance, the biochemical mechanisms associated with its actions have not been elucidated. Recent Advances: Recently it has been found that H 2 S-related or derived species are highly prevalent in mammalian systems and that these species may be responsible for some, if not the majority, of the biological actions attributed to H 2 S. One of the most prevalent and intriguing species are hydropersulfides (RSSH), which can be present at significant levels. Indeed, it appears that H 2 S and RSSH are intimately linked in biological systems and likely to be mutually inclusive. The fact that H 2 S and polysulfides such as RSSH are present simultaneously means that the biological actions previously assigned to H 2 S can be instead because of the presence of RSSH (or other polysulfides). Thus, it remains possible that hydropersulfides are the biological effectors, and H 2 S serves, to a certain extent, as a marker for persulfides and polysulfides. Addressing this possibility will to a large extent be based on the chemistry of these species. Currently, it is known that persulfides possess unique and novel chemical properties that may explain their biological prevalence. However, significantly more work will be required to establish the possible physiological roles of these species. Moreover, an understanding of the regulation of their biosynthesis and degradation will become important topics in piecing together their biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  18. Immunoglobulins and their receptors, and subversion of their protective roles by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, Jenny M

    2016-12-15

    Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules. Examples include different IgA-binding proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and group B streptococci, all of which interact with the same interdomain region on IgA Fc. Since this region also forms the interaction site for the major human IgA-specific Fc receptor CD89, the bacteria are able to evade CD89-mediated clearance mechanisms. Similar disruption of Ig effector function by pathogen Ig-binding proteins is evident in other species. Remarkably, all the Ig-binding proteins studied in detail to date are seen to target the CH2-CH3 domain interface in the Ig Fc region, suggesting a common mode of immune evasion. A second Ig subversion mechanism that has evolved independently in numerous pathogens involves proteases that cleave Ig molecules within their hinge regions, uncoupling the antigen recognition capability of the Fab region from clearance mechanisms elicited by the Fc region. The emerging understanding of the structural basis for the recognition of Igs as substrates for these proteases and as interaction partners for Ig-binding proteins may open up new avenues for treatment or vaccination. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. The putative role of environmental aluminium in the development of chronic neuropathology in adults and children. How strong is the evidence and what could be the mechanisms involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Puri, Basant K; Frye, Richard E

    2017-10-01

    The conceptualisation of autistic spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease has undergone something of a paradigm shift in recent years and rather than being viewed as single illnesses with a unitary pathogenesis and pathophysiology they are increasingly considered to be heterogeneous syndromes with a complex multifactorial aetiopathogenesis, involving a highly complex and diverse combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. One such environmental factor implicated as a potential cause in both syndromes is aluminium, as an element or as part of a salt, received, for example, in oral form or as an adjuvant. Such administration has the potential to induce pathology via several routes such as provoking dysfunction and/or activation of glial cells which play an indispensable role in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis and neurodevelopment. Other routes include the generation of oxidative stress, depletion of reduced glutathione, direct and indirect reductions in mitochondrial performance and integrity, and increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines in both the brain and peripherally. The mechanisms whereby environmental aluminium could contribute to the development of the highly specific pattern of neuropathology seen in Alzheimer's disease are described. Also detailed are several mechanisms whereby significant quantities of aluminium introduced via immunisation could produce chronic neuropathology in genetically susceptible children. Accordingly, it is recommended that the use of aluminium salts in immunisations should be discontinued and that adults should take steps to minimise their exposure to environmental aluminium.

  20. Complementary roles of benzylpiperazine and iodine 'vapor' in the strong enhancement of orange photoluminescence from CuI(1 1 1) thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Takat B; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S

    2014-05-07

    We have employed density functional theory, corrected by the on-site electron-electron repulsion energy U, to clarify the mechanism behind the enhanced orange photoluminescence (PL) of a CuI(1 1 1) thin film conjugated with a benzylpiperazine (BZP) molecule in the presence of an iodine 'vapor' atom. Our results demonstrated that the adsorbed molecule and the 'vapor' atom play complementary roles in producing the PL. The latter, in attaching to the film surface, creates a hole-trapping surface state located ~0.25 eV above the valence band-edge of the film, in good agreement with ~0.2 eV reported in experiments. Upon photo-excitation of the BZP/CuI(1 1 1) system in the presence of surface iodine 'vapor' atoms, excited electrons are transferred into the conduction band of CuI, and holes are trapped by the 'vapor' atoms. These holes, in turn, quickly relax into the HOMO state of the BZP molecule, owing to the fact that the molecule adsorbs on the film surface in the immediate vicinity of a 'vapor' atom. Relaxed holes subsequently recombine with excited electrons in the conduction band of the CuI film, thereby producing a luminescence peak at ~2.1 eV, in qualitative agreement with experimental findings.

  1. Perceptions of Australian marine protected area managers regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing the risks of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cvitanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of adaptation as a mainstream strategy for managing the risks of climate change has led to the emergence of a broad range of adaptation policies and management strategies globally. However, the success of such policies or management interventions depends on the effective integration of new scientific research into the decision-making process. Ineffective communication between scientists and environmental decision makers represents one of the key barriers limiting the integration of science into the decision-making process in many areas of natural resource management. This can be overcome by understanding the perceptions of end users, so as to identify knowledge gaps and develop improved and targeted strategies for communication and engagement. We assessed what one group of environmental decision makers, Australian marine protected area (MPA managers, viewed as the major risks associated with climate change, and their perceptions regarding the role, importance, and achievability of adaptation for managing these risks. We also assessed what these managers perceived as the role of science in managing the risks from climate change, and identified the factors that increased their trust in scientific information. We do so by quantitatively surveying 30 MPA managers across 3 Australian management agencies. We found that although MPA managers have a very strong awareness of the range and severity of risks posed by climate change, their understanding of adaptation as an option for managing these risks is less comprehensive. We also found that although MPA managers view science as a critical source of information for informing the decision-making process, it should be considered in context with other knowledge types such as community and cultural knowledge, and be impartial, evidence based, and pragmatic in outlining policy and management recommendations that are realistically achievable.

  2. Quantifying the respective roles of aerosols and clouds in the strong brightening since the early 2000s over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, D.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Antón, M.; Cachorro, V. E.; Calbó, J.; Costa, M. J.; Torres, B.; Wild, M.

    2014-09-01

    The contribution of clouds and aerosols to the decadal variations of downward surface shortwave radiation (SSR) is a current controversial topic. This study proposes a method, which is based on surface-based SSR measurements, aerosol observations, and radiative transfer simulations (in cloud-free and cloud- and aerosol-free scenarios), to evaluate cloud-aerosol (CARE), cloud (CRE), and aerosol (ARE) radiative effects. This method is applied to quantify the role played by, separately, clouds and aerosols on the intense brightening of the SSR observed in the Iberian Peninsula. Clouds and Earth's Radiation Energy Budget System (CERES) and surface-based data exhibit an increase in SSR between 2003 and 2012, exceeding +10 W m-2 over this period for some areas of the peninsula. The calculations are performed for three surface-based sites: Barcelona and Valladolid (Spain), and Évora (Portugal). Ranges in monthly values of CARE, CRE, and ARE are (-80, -20), (-60, -20), and (-30, 0), respectively (in W m-2). The average trends for the analyzed period of CARE, CRE, and ARE are +7, +5, and +2 W m-2 per decade, respectively. Overall, three fourths of the SSR trend is explained by clouds, while the other one fourth is related to aerosol changes. The SSR trends explained by the clouds and aerosol radiative effects are in line with the observed reductions in total cloud cover and aerosol load (both at the surface and in the whole atmospheric column). Furthermore, the CRE values are compared against CERES data showing good agreement between both data series, although some discrepancies are observed in their trends.

  3. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  4. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. Bridging the Nagoya Compliance Gap: The Fundamental Role of Customary Law in Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Resource and Knowledge Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan M. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol requires states to ensure that access to and use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities is subject to their prior informed consent (PIC. It also requires states to take into consideration their customary laws. However, it lacks effective compliance mechanisms, a gap exposed in draft European legislation that sidesteps the Nagoya Protocol’s obligations regarding PIC and customary law, leaving traditional knowledge largely unprotected. This article examines the status of customary law under international, regional and national law, and the challenges and opportunities for securing recognition of its role in the protection of traditional knowledge. The article contends that all commercial and development activities with the potential to impact on Nagoya Protocol rights will in the future need to ensure compliance with relevant customary law. It finds state reluctance to adopt measures to ensure consideration of customary law shortsighted and likely to lead to increased litigation. It concludes that customary law has a key role to play in closing the Nagoya compliance gap but to do so it will need to be supported by enforcement mechanisms such as disclosure of origin regimes in intellectual property law.

  7. Apoptosis in the normal and inflamed airway epithelium: role of zinc in epithelial protection and procaspase-3 regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Tran, Ai Q; Grosser, Dion; Ruffin, Richard E; Murgia, Chiara; Zalewski, Peter D

    2003-10-15

    The epithelium lining the airways is a physical barrier as well as a regulator of physiological and pathological events in the respiratory system. Damage to the epithelium by oxidants released from inflammatory cells is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma. In these diseases, excessive apoptosis may be a likely mechanism responsible for damage to, and sloughing, of airway epithelial cells. Factors that increase the airway epithelium's resilience to apoptosis are likely to lessen the severity of this disease. One such factor is the dietary metal zinc. A special role for labile intracellular pools of zinc as anti-apoptotic agents in the regulation of the caspases, has emerged over the past two decades. This review focuses on caspase-inhibitory functions of zinc in airway epithelial cells, apparent abnormalities of zinc homeostasis in asthmatics and studies from the authors' laboratory which showed that zinc was strategically localized in the apical cytoplasm of airway epithelium to control caspase-3 activated apoptosis. These findings are discussed in the context of recent data from a murine model of allergic asthma, showing that loss of airway epithelial zinc was accompanied by changes in levels of both procaspase-3 and active caspase-3 and that nutritional zinc deprivation further increased airway epithelial apoptosis. We hypothesize that zinc has a protective role for the airway epithelium against oxyradicals and other noxious agents, with important implications for asthma and other inflammatory diseases where the epithelial barrier is vulnerable and compromised.

  8. Protective Role of Murine β-Defensins 3 and 4 and Cathelin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide in Fusarium solani Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Satya Sree N.; Baidouri, Hasna; Hanlon, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as β-defensins and cathelicidins, are essential components of innate and adaptive immunity owing to their extensive multifunctional activities. However, their role in fungal infection in vivo remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of murine β-defensin 3 (mBD3), mBD4, and the cathelicidin cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in a murine model of Fusarium solani keratitis. C57BL/6 mice showed significant corneal disease 1 and 3 days after infection, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of β-defensins and CRAMP. Disease severity was significantly improved 7 days after infection, at which time AMP expression was returning to baseline. Mice deficient in mBD3 (genetic knockout), mBD4 (short interfering RNA knockdown), or CRAMP (genetic knockout) exhibited enhanced disease severity and progression, increased neutrophil recruitment, and delayed pathogen elimination compared to controls. Taken together, these data suggest a vital role for AMPs in defense against F. solani keratitis, a potentially blinding corneal disease. PMID:23670560

  9. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young-Nam [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon 382-751 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-07

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  10. A protective role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in inflammatory disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular defense against oxidative and electrophilic insults by timely induction of antioxidative and phase-2 detoxifying enzymes and related stress-response proteins. The 5'-flanking regions of genes encoding these cytoprotective proteins contain a specific consensus sequence termed antioxidant response element (ARE) to which Nrf2 binds. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2-ARE signaling is also involved in attenuating inflammation-associated pathogenesis, such as autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, emphysema, gastritis, colitis and atherosclerosis. Thus, disruption or loss of Nrf2 signaling causes enhanced susceptibility not only to oxidative and electrophilic stresses but also to inflammatory tissue injuries. During the early-phase of inflammation-mediated tissue damage, activation of Nrf2-ARE might inhibit the production or expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. It is likely that the cytoprotective function of genes targeted by Nrf2 may cooperatively regulate the innate immune response and also repress the induction of pro-inflammatory genes. This review highlights the protective role of Nrf2 in inflammation-mediated disorders with special focus on the inflammatory signaling modulated by this redox-regulated transcription factor.

  11. A protective role for IL-13 receptor α 1 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karo-Atar, D; Bordowitz, A; Wand, O; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Fernandez, I E; Itan, M; Frenkel, R; Herbert, D R; Finkelman, F D; Eickelberg, O; Munitz, A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that regulate lung repair vs. progressive scarring in pulmonary fibrosis remain elusive. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are pro-fibrotic cytokines that share common receptor chains including IL-13 receptor (R) α1 and are key pharmacological targets in fibrotic diseases. However, the roles of IL-13Rα1 in mediating lung injury/repair are unclear. We report dysregulated levels of IL-13 receptors in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and to some extent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated an epithelial cell-associated gene signature that was homeostatically dependent on IL-13Rα1 expression. IL-13Rα1 regulated a striking array of genes in the lung following bleomycin administration and Il13ra1 deficiency resulted in exacerbated bleomycin-induced disease. Increased pathology in bleomycin-treated Il13ra1−/− mice was due to IL-13Rα1 expression in structural and hematopoietic cells but not due to increased responsiveness to IL-17, IL-4, IL-13, increased IL-13Rα2 or type 1 IL-4R signaling. These data highlight underappreciated protective roles for IL-13Rα1 in lung injury and homeostasis. PMID:26153764

  12. The Protective Roles of ROS-Mediated Mitophagy on 125I Seeds Radiation Induced Cell Death in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelin Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many unresectable carcinomas and locally recurrent cancers (LRC, 125I seeds brachytherapy is a feasible, effective, and safe treatment. Several studies have shown that 125I seeds radiation exerts anticancer activity by triggering DNA damage. However, recent evidence shows mitochondrial quality to be another crucial determinant of cell fate, with mitophagy playing a central role in this control mechanism. Herein, we found that 125I seeds irradiation injured mitochondria, leading to significantly elevated mitochondrial and intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species levels in HCT116 cells. The accumulation of mitochondrial ROS increased the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes BINP3 and NIX (BINP3L, which subsequently triggered mitophagy. Importantly, 125I seeds radiation induced mitophagy promoted cells survival and protected HCT116 cells from apoptosis. These results collectively indicated that 125I seeds radiation triggered mitophagy by upregulating the level of ROS to promote cellular homeostasis and survival. The present study uncovered the critical role of mitophagy in modulating the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy and suggested that chemotherapy targeting on mitophagy might improve the efficiency of 125I seeds radiation treatment, which might be of clinical significance in tumor therapy.

  13. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms Among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in China: The Protective Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi; Chen, Lihua; Harrison, Sayward E; Guo, Haiying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children's wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics, and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  15. Role of IUCN WCPA Geoheritage Specialist Group for geoheritage conservation and recognition of World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks and other protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Sik

    2017-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service values. IUCN Resolutions at Barcelona (2008), at Jeju (2012) and at Hawaii (2016) clearly recognised that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised 'IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories'. All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories are applicable to the protection of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity. Recognising the wider values of geodiversity therefore provides opportunities to integrate geoheritage much more closely in protected area networks, as the approach advocated by the Geoheritage Specialist Group (GSG) of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such and only includes some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage values as UNESCO World Heritage sites has provided. GSG will pursue significant roles for geoheritage recognition and conservation as follows: 1) Establish the Best Practice Guideline of geoheritage sites for protected areas in the world, 2) Revise the Thematic Study on volcanic sites of Outstanding Universal Values and International Significance, 3) Revise Criterion (viii) for WH recognition, and 4) Initiate 'Key Geoheritage Site' concept in the future.

  16. <strong>Robert Aumannstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long.......In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long....

  17. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  18. Cardiorenal disease connection during post-menopause: The protective role of estrogen in uremic toxins induced microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jiayi; Harakalova, Magdalena; den Ruijter, Hester; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Duncker, Dirk J; Verhaar, Marianne C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Cheng, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Female gender, post-menopause, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and (CKD linked) microvascular disease are important risk factors for developing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Enhancing our understanding of the interrelation between these risk factors could greatly benefit the identification of new drug targets for future therapy. This review discusses the evidence for the protective role of estradiol (E 2 ) in CKD-associated microvascular disease and related HFpEF. Elevated circulating levels of uremic toxins (UTs) during CKD may act in synergy with hormonal changes during post-menopause and could lead to coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction in HFpEF. To elucidate the molecular mechanism involved, published transcriptome datasets of indoxyl sulfate (IS), high inorganic phosphate (HP) or E 2 treated human derived endothelial cells from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed. In total, 36 genes overlapped in both IS- and HP-activated gene sets, 188 genes were increased by UTs (HP and/or IS) and decreased by E 2 , and 572 genes were decreased by UTs and increased by E 2 . Based on a comprehensive in silico analysis and literature studies of collected gene sets, we conclude that CKD-accumulated UTs could negatively impact renal and cardiac endothelial homeostasis by triggering extensive inflammatory responses and initiating dysregulation of angiogenesis. E 2 may protect (myo)endothelium by inhibiting UTs-induced inflammation and ameliorating UTs-related uremic bleeding and thrombotic diathesis via restored coagulation capacity and hemostasis in injured vessels. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective Role of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in Experimental Lung Injury: Evidence of a Lipoxin A(4)-Mediated Effect.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphoneutrophils (PMNs) are activated by inflammatory mediators following splanchnic ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R), potentially injuring organs such as the lung. As a result, some patients develop respiratory failure following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Pulmonary cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protects against acid aspiration and bacterial instillation via lipoxins, a family of potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. We explored the role of COX-2 and lipoxin A(4) in experimental I\\/R-mediated lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of the following five groups: (1) controls; (2) aortic cross-clamping for 45 min and reperfusion for 4 h (I\\/R group); (3) I\\/R and SC236, a selective COX-2 inhibitor; (4) I\\/R and aspirin; and (5) I\\/R and iloprost, a prostacyclin (PGI(2)) analogue. Lung injury was assessed by wet\\/dry ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil counts. BAL levels of thromboxane, PGE(2), 6-keto-PGF(1)alpha (a hydrolysis product of prostacyclin), lipoxin A(4), and 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Immunostaining for COX-2 was performed. RESULTS: I\\/R significantly increased tissue MPO, the wet\\/dry lung ratio, and neutrophil counts. These measures were significantly further aggravated by SC236 and improved by iloprost. I\\/R increased COX-2 immunostaining and both PGE(2) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) levels in BAL. SC236 markedly reduced these prostanoids and lipoxin A(4) compared with I\\/R alone. Iloprost markedly increased lipoxin A(4) levels. The deleterious effect of SC236 and the beneficial effect of iloprost was associated with a reduction and an increase, respectively, in lipoxin A(4) levels. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoxin A(4) warrants further evaluation as a mediator of COX-2 regulated lung protection.

  20. Deciphering the protective role of spermidine against saline-alkaline stress at physiological and proteomic levels in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Hao; Zou, Zhi-Rong; Liu, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    In this research, the protective effect of spermidine (Spd) in mitigating saline-alkaline stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) at physiological and proteomic levels were examined. The results showed that saline-alkaline stress induced accumulation of H2O2 and O2(-*), and increased the activities of antioxidase (SOD, CAT, and POD). Spermidine efficiently alleviated the inhibitory role of saline-alkaline on plant growth and inhibited saline-alkaline stress-induced H2O2 and O2(-*) accumulation. Proteomics investigations of the leaves of tomato seedlings, responding to a 75 mM saline-alkaline solution and 0.25 mM Spd, were performed. Maps of the proteome of leaf extracts were obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An average of 49, 47 and 34 spots, which appeared repeatedly and that significantly altered the relative amounts of polypeptides by more than twofold, were detected for seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solution (S) compared to normal solution (CK), saline-alkaline plus spermidine (MS) compared to CK, or S versus MS, respectively. Thirty-nine of these proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and were classified into five functional categories, including energy and metabolism, signal transduction, amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, and stress-defense response. Proteomics analysis coupled with bioinformatics indicated that Spd treatment helps tomato seedlings combat saline-alkaline stress by modulating the defense mechanism of plants and activating cellular detoxification, which protect plants from oxidative damage induced by saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  2. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  3. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  4. Protective Role of Emodin in Reducing The Gamma Rays Induced Hazardous Effects On The Tongue of Diabetic or Normoglycaemic Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, M.G.; Kazem, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation leads to damage at various cellular and sub-cellular levels and can be prevented by radio protectors. There is a need for natural prospective radio protectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation for treating malignant neoplasms. The study aimed to evaluate the potential protective role of emodin in reducing the severity of gamma rays-induced hazardous damage in the tongue of normoglycaemic and diabetic mice. Sixty-four male mice were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups: control group received vehicle, emodin group received daily emodin dose of 4g/kg orally for a week, diabetes mellitus (DM) group in which DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, emodin + DM received emodin for a week + STZ treatment, irradiated group submitted to 4 Gy of gamma rays and received vehicle for a week, gamma rays + DM group received gamma rays + STZ treatment, gamma rays + emodin group received gamma rays + emodin for a week, and gamma rays + DM + emodin group received gamma rays + STZ treatment + emodin for a week. Tongue and serum of mice were biochemically examined for screening gamma radiation and diabetic damages and the efficacy of emodin in ameliorating these damaging effects. The levels of cellular thiols such as reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), total thiols (TT) and lipid peroxidation products; malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), were assessed in tongue tissues. Tongue antioxidant enzymes; gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), were measured and serum glucose level was estimated. The results revealed alterations of the levels of cellular thiols and antioxidant enzymes in tongue and the level of glucose in serum of gamma irradiated diabetic mice were ameliorated in mice groups received emodin treatment. The results suggest that emodin treatment (4 g

  5. Protecting the source. Securing nuclear material and strong radiation sources. New threats of terrorism are prompting the need for swift action to better secure nuclear material and strong radiation sources. Are measures already in place enough? The Stanford-Salzburg initiative suggests not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2003-01-01

    At a time of growing concern over threats of terrorism, the security of nuclear and radioactive material is an urgent and serious issue. Working with a range of partners, the IAEA has put into place a multi-faceted Action Plan to help countries upgrade their capabilities. But more needs to be done to counter new types of threats. One particular area that needs to be strengthened is the physical protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 opened our eyes to i he urgent need to strengthen national physical protection (PP) practices for nuclear and other radioactive material. The principle that highly radioactive material will protect itself does not apply to the newest generation of terrorists. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists commanding the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to those who carried out the attacks in the US. Moreover, because there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, protection measures vary greatly from country to country. The IAEA recommended standards (Inference/225/Rev. 4) were not designed with the new terrorist threats in mind and national practices often fall short of even these recommendations. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism. Few argue the point that national physical protection practices for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened. This article summarizes a Stanford-Salzburg plan developed by experts from Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation, (USA) and revised at the EU-Physical Protection NUMAT Conference in September 2002 in Salzburg, Austria. It includes six recommended elements to consider in addition to what the IAEA is now doing to improve PP practices around the world: Establish a global list of physical protection priorities; Create a multilateral security cooperation

  6. Plasma MMP1 and MMP8 expression in breast cancer: Protective role of MMP8 against lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaens Marie-Rose

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases have been found to associate with poor prognosis in various carcinomas. This study aimed at evaluating plasma levels of MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 as diagnostic and prognostic markers of breast cancer. Methods A total of 208 breast cancer patients, of which 21 with inflammatory breast cancer, and 42 healthy controls were included. Plasma MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 levels were measured using ELISA and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Results Median plasma MMP1 levels were higher in controls than in breast cancer patients (3.45 vs. 2.01 ng/ml, while no difference was found for MMP8 (10.74 vs. 10.49 ng/ml. ROC analysis for MMP1 revealed an AUC of 0.67, sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 24% at a cut-off value of 4.24 ng/ml. Plasma MMP13 expression could not be detected. No correlation was found between MMP1 and MMP8 levels. We found a trend of lower MMP1 levels with increasing tumour size (p = 0.07; and higher MMP8 levels with premenopausal status (p = 0.06 and NPI (p = 0.04. The median plasma MMP1 (p = 0.02 and MMP8 (p = 0.007 levels in the non-inflammatory breast cancer patients were almost twice as high as those found in the inflammatory breast cancer patients. Intriguingly, plasma MMP8 levels were positively associated with lymph node involvement but showed a negative correlation with the risk of distant metastasis. Both controls and lymph node negative patients (pN0 had lower MMP8 levels than patients with moderate lymph node involvement (pN1, pN2 (p = 0.001; and showed a trend for higher MMP8 levels compared to patients with extensive lymph node involvement (pN3 and a strong predisposition to distant metastasis (p = 0.11. Based on the hypothesis that blood and tissue protein levels are in reverse association, these results suggest that MMP8 in the tumour may have a protective effect against lymph node metastasis. Conclusion In summary, we observed differences in MMP1

  7. Protective role of NKT cells and macrophage M2-driven phenotype in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarz, Felipe; Aguiar, Cristhiane Favero; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Braga, Tárcio Teodoro; Hyane, Meire I; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinícius; Landgraf, Maristella Almeida; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2018-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a result of an abnormal wound healing in lung tissue triggered by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, loss of tissue elasticity, and debit of ventilatory function. NKT cells are a major source of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and may be crucial in the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages in pulmonary fibrogenesis. Although there appears to be constant scientific progress in that field, pulmonary fibrosis still exhibits no current cure. From these facts, we hypothesized that NKT cells could influence the development of pulmonary fibrosis via modulation of macrophage activation. Wild type (WT) and NKT type I cell-deficient mice (Jα18 -/- ) were subjected to the protocol of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis with or without treatment with NKT cell agonists α-galactosylceramide and sulfatide. The participation of different cell populations, collagen deposition, and protein levels of different cytokines involved in inflammation and fibrosis was evaluated. The results indicate a benign role of NKT cells in Jα18 -/- mice and in wild-type α-galactosylceramide-sulfatide-treated groups. These animals presented lower levels of collagen deposition, fibrogenic molecules such as TGF-β and vimentin and improved survival rates. In contrast, WT mice developed a Th2-driven response augmenting IL-4, 5, and 13 protein synthesis and increased collagen deposition. Furthermore, the arginase-1 metabolic pathway was downregulated in wild-type NKT-activated and knockout mice indicating lower activity of M2 macrophages in lung tissue. Hence, our data suggest that NKT cells play a protective role in this experimental model by down modulating the Th2 milieu, inhibiting M2 polarization and finally preventing fibrosis.

  8. Critical role of TLR7 signaling in the priming of cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by a whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Budimir

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines fail to induce protection against antigenically distinct virus strains. Accordingly, there is a need for the development of cross-protective vaccines. Previously, we and others have shown that vaccination with whole inactivated virus (WIV induces cross-protective cellular immunity in mice. To probe the mechanistic basis for this finding, we investigated the role of TLR7, a receptor for single-stranded RNA, in induction of cross-protection. Vaccination of TLR7-/- mice with influenza WIV failed to protect against a lethal heterosubtypic challenge; in contrast, wild-type mice were fully protected. The lack of protection in TLR7-/- mice was associated with high viral load and a relative paucity of influenza-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses. Dendritic cells (DCs from TLR7-/- mice were unable to cross-present WIV-derived antigen to influenza-specific CTLs in vitro. Similarly, TLR7-/- DCs failed to mature and become activated in response to WIV, as determined by the assessment of surface marker expression and cytokine production. Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs derived from wild-type mice responded directly to WIV while purified conventional DCs (cDCs did not respond to WIV in isolation, but were responsive in mixed pDC/cDC cultures. Depletion of pDCs prior to and during WIV immunization resulted in reduced numbers of influenza-specific CTLs and impaired protection from heterosubtypic challenge. Thus, TLR7 plays a critical role in the induction of cross-protective immunity upon vaccination with WIV. The initial target cells for WIV appear to be pDCs which by direct or indirect mechanisms promote activation of robust CTL responses against conserved influenza epitopes.

  9. Protective role of metabolism by intestinal microflora in butyl paraben-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Shim, Eol; Han, Hwa Jeong; Noh, Keumhan; Park, Sunkyoung; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Wonku; Yeo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-09-03

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (BA), including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben, propyl paraben (PP), and butyl paraben (BP). In the present study, possible role of metabolism by fecalase in BP-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in HepG2 cell cultures. As an intestinal bacterial metabolic system, a human fecalase prepared from human fecal specimen was employed. Among the parabens tested, cytotoxicity of BP was most severe. BA, the de-esterified metabolite, did not induce cytotoxicity when compared to other parabens. When BP was incubated with fecalase, it rapidly disappeared, in association with reduced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, BP incubated with fecalase significantly caused an increase in Bcl-2 expression together with a decrease in Bax expression and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, anti-apoptotic effect by the incubation of BP with fecalase was also confirmed by the TUNEL assay. Furthermore, BP induced a sustained activation of the phosphorylation of JNK only when it was treated alone. Meanwhile, BP-induced cell death was reversed by the pre-incubation of BP with either fecalase or SP600125. Taken together, the findings suggested that metabolism of BP by human fecalase might have protective effects against BP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

  11. The Protective Role of Tempol Against Oxidative Stress-Related Renal Impairment Induced by Gamma Rays in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.; Elkhouly, W.A.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1 oxyl) is a naturally occurring substance that counteracts the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues and has been reported to permeate the biological membranes. In this study, tempol with dose of 18 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks has been shown to be effective in preventing several of the adverse consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation that underlie radiation damage. Adult rats were exposed to a total dose of 6 Gy gamma rays to determine the protective role of tempol on the biochemistry of the injured kidney because gamma rays displayed significant augmentation in renal oxidative modifications markers.The results indicated that plasma renal function tests; urea (Ur), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA) and sodium (Na), and plasma renal tubular injury markers; γ -glutamyltransferase ( γ -GT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were increased significantly in gamma rays group. In addition, the renal oxidative stress parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and protein carbonyl (PC), were increased significantly, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly in gamma rays group. Moreover, the levels of renal antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were decreased significantly, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was in creased significantly in gamma rays group.The antioxidant treatment with tempol ameliorates gamma rays-induced biochemical alterations and dysfunction of kidney.Tempol, at levels within tolerable nutritional strategy, reduced the oxidative modification-related renal impairment induced by gamma radiation in rats.

  12. "Yes, I Can": the protective role of personal self-efficacy in hindering counterproductive work behavior under stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Roberta; Paciello, Marinella; Tramontano, Carlo; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Farnese, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Within the stressor-emotion model, counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is considered a possible result of stress. It is well-known that self-efficacy mitigates the detrimental effects of stress and the stressor-strain relation. We aim to extend the stressor-emotion model of CWB by examining the additive and moderating role of work and regulatory emotional self-efficacy dimensions. A structural equation model and a set of hierarchical regressions were conducted on a convenience sample of 1147 Italian workers. Individuals who believed in their capabilities to manage work activities had a lower propensity to act counterproductively. Workers who believed in their capabilities to cope with negative feelings had a lower propensity to react with negative emotions under stressful conditions. Finally, results showed that self-efficacy moderates at least some of the relationships between stressors and negative emotions, and also between stressors and CWB, but did not moderate the relationship between negative emotions and these types of conduct. Self-efficacy beliefs proved to be a protective factor that can reduce the impact of stressful working conditions.

  13. Exposure to workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology: the role of protective psychological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Nosko, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship between nurses' exposure to workplace bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology and the protective role of psychological capital (PsyCap). Workplace bullying has serious organisational and health effects in nursing. Few studies have examined the relation of workplace bullying to serious mental health outcomes, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Even fewer have examined the effect of intrapersonal strengths on the health impact of workplace bullying. A survey of 1205 hospital nurses was conducted to test the hypothesized model. Nurses completed standardized measures of bullying, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and PsyCap. A moderated regression analysis revealed that more frequent exposure to workplace bullying was significantly related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology regardless of the PsyCap level. That is, PsyCap did not moderate the bullying/PTSD relationship in either group. Bullying exposure and PsyCap were significant independent predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in both groups. Efficacy, a subdimension of PsyCap, moderated the bullying/Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder relationship only among experienced nurses. Workplace bullying appears to be predictive of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomology, a serious mental health outcome. Workplace bullying is a serious threat to nurses' health and calls for programmes that eliminate bullying and encourage greater levels of positive resources among nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Involvement of neutrophil hyporesponse and the role of Toll-like receptors in human immunodeficiency virus 1 protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Hernandez

    Full Text Available Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs activation. However, the role of PRRs in neutrophils in both HIV-1-infected [HIV-1(+] and HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN is unknown. Here, a study was carried out to evaluate the level of PRR mRNAs and cytokines produced after activation of neutrophils from HIV-1(+, HESN and healthy donors.The neutrophils were stimulated with specific agonists for TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the presence of HIV-1 particles. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production, expression of neutrophil activation markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were analyzed in neutrophils from HESN, HIV-1(+ and healthy donors (controls.We found that neutrophils from HESN presented reduced expression of PRR mRNAs (TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, NLRC4 and RIG-I and reduced expression of cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and TGF-β. Moreover, neutrophils from HESN were less sensitive to stimulation through TLR4. Furthermore, neutrophils from HESN challenged with HIV-1 and stimulated with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists, produced significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, versus HIV-1(+.A differential pattern of PRR expression and release of innate immune factors in neutrophils from HESN is evident. Our results suggest that lower neutrophil activation can be involved in protection against HIV-1 infection.

  15. Peer Victimization and Anxiety in Genetically Vulnerable Youth: The Protective Roles of Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Anti-Bullying Classroom Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Many victimized youngsters are at risk of developing internalizing problems, and this risk seems to be especially pronounced when they are genetically vulnerable for these problems. It is unclear, however, whether protective features of the school environment such as anti-bullying classroom policies and teacher's perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations can mitigate these negative outcomes. Using a genetically informed design based on twins, this study examined the potential moderating role of classroom anti-bullying policies and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations in regard to the additive and interactive effects of peer victimization and genetic vulnerability on anxiety symptoms. To this end, 208 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins (120 girls) rated their level of anxiety and peer victimization in grade 6 (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = 2.8). Teachers rated their self-efficacy in handling bullying situations and the extent of anti-bullying classroom policies. Multilevel regressions revealed triple interactions showing that genetic disposition for anxiety predicted actual anxiety for twins who were highly victimized by their peers, but only when their teachers had low perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations or when anti-bullying classroom rules were absent or rarely enforced. In contrast, for victimized youth with teachers who perceive themselves as effective or in classrooms where anti-bullying classroom policies were strongly enforced, genetic disposition for anxiety was not associated with actual anxiety symptoms. Anti-bullying programs should continue to promote teachers' involvement, as well as the enforcement of anti-bullying classroom policies, in order to diminish peer victimization and its related consequences.

  16. In Vitro Evidence of the Presence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cervical Cancer and Their Role in Protecting Cancer Cells from Cytotoxic T Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Juan J.; Mora-García, María de L.; Mayani, Héctor; Flores-Figueroa, Eugenia; García-Rocha, Rosario; Fajardo-Orduña, Guadalupe R.; Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Weiss-Steider, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been isolated from different tumors and it has been suggested that they support tumor growth through immunosuppression processes that favor tumor cell evasion from the immune system. To date, however, the presence of MSCs in cervical cancer (CeCa) and their possible role in tumor growth remains unknown. Herein we report on the presence of MSCs in cervical tissue, both in normal conditions (NCx-MSCs) and in CeCa (CeCa-MSCs), and described several biological properties of such cells. Our study showed similar patterns of cell surface antigen expression, but distinct differentiation potentials, when we compared both cervical MSC populations to MSCs from normal bone marrow (BM-MSCs, the gold standard). Interestingly, CeCa-MSCs were negative for the presence of human papiloma virus, indicating that these cells are not infected by such a viral agent. Also, interestingly, and in contrast to NCx-MSCs, CeCa-MSCs induced significant downregulation of surface HLA class I molecules (HLA-A*0201) on CaSki cells and other CeCa cell lines. We further observed that CeCa-MSCs inhibited antigen-specific T cell recognition of CaSki cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HLA class I downregulation on CeCa cells correlated with the production of IL-10 in cell cocultures. Importantly, this cytokine strongly suppressed recognition of CeCa cells by CTLs. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of MSCs in CeCa and suggests that tumor-derived MSCs may provide immune protection to tumor cells by inducing downregulation of HLA class I molecules. This mechanism may have important implications in tumor growth. PMID:23656504

  17. The role and potentialities of the NRPI in the education of the health professionals and in the public information in the field of radiation protection in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, H.; Horakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)

  18. Calmodulin protects cells from death under normal growth conditions and mitogenic starvation but plays a mediating role in cell death upon B-cell receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmalzigaug, R; Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    2001-01-01

    stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR), the resting Ca2+ levels remain elevated after the initial transient in CaMII-/- cells. Despite higher Ca2+ resting levels, the CaMII-/- cells are partially protected from BCR induced apoptosis indicating that CaM plays a dual role in apoptotic processes....

  19. Selective recruitment of Th I cells induced by re-infection of succeptible and resistant mice with Pseudomonas aerugionosa in the lungs indicates protective role of IL-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Jensen, P O; Kobayashi, O

    2002-01-01

    , resistance to re-infection was paralleled by a shift towards a Th1-dominated response and increased IL-12 production. No significant increase in serum IgG was observed in the re-infected mice. In conclusion, these results indicate a protective role for a Th1-dominated response, independent of antibody...

  20. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  1. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  2. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elwahab, Azza H; Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-01

    decreased GSH levels, along with stimulated caspase-3 and decline in BcL-2 hepatic levels. These pathological disturbances were significantly ameliorated by taurine supplementation and evidenced histopathologically. The cross talk between hepatic FGF-21 and SIRT1 and their association to the induced perturbations are novel findings in this study. Taurine's efficacy in restoration of hepatic structure and function is partially via the increase in SIRT1 and associated reduction of FGF-21. The findings of the current study prove the protective role of taurine in NAFLD via a novel role in the amelioration of FGF-21/ SIRT1 axis, which could be considered a new therapeutic target. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza H. Abd Elwahab

    2017-09-01

    , reflected by increased hepatic MDA and decreased GSH levels, along with stimulated caspase-3 and decline in BcL-2 hepatic levels. These pathological disturbances were significantly ameliorated by taurine supplementation and evidenced histopathologically. The cross talk between hepatic FGF-21 and SIRT1 and their association to the induced perturbations are novel findings in this study. Taurine's efficacy in restoration of hepatic structure and function is partially via the increase in SIRT1 and associated reduction of FGF-21. Conclusion: The findings of the current study prove the protective role of taurine in NAFLD via a novel role in the amelioration of FGF-21/ SIRT1 axis, which could be considered a new therapeutic target.

  4. Protective role of selenium and vitamins A, C and E against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiub, N.I.; Abd El-maguid, A.; Saad, T.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of selenium and vitamins A, C and E on the oxidative stress in alloxan injected and/or irradiated rats. Rats were received a daily intraperitoneal administration of selenium (0.9 mg/rat) and vitamin A (14 IU/rat), vitamin C (0.8 mg/rat) and vitamin E (0.25 mg/rat) daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection with alloxan (60 mg/kg body weight) and/or gamma irradiation exposure (6.5 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the tenth day post-irradiation and/or alloxan treatment. Histological examinations were made on eye tissue and blood was removed for biochemical analysis. The histological results obtained revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused histopathological damage in the eye tissue manifested as a congestion in retinal blood capillaries, vacuolation in ganglionic cells and degeneration in nuclear cells of retina. The lens became coagulated, homogenous and oesinophilic while the cornea showed vacuolations in its epithelium, edema and hyalinosis of substantia propria.The biochemical results showed that exposure to single dose (6.5 Gy) of ionizing radiation or treatment with alloxan caused significant elevation in lipid peroxide content (MDA), glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied with significant depletion in reduced glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood samples. Administration of selenium and vitamin A, C and E before gamma radiation exposure and/or alloxan treatment exerted marked amelioration of the histological changes in the eye and of the biochemical changes in rats induced by radiation but did not ameliorate that due to alloxan treatment in the tested parameters, thus diminishing the magnitude of injury due to radiation only. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that selenium and vitamin A, C and E (a

  5. Roles of Mn-catalase and a possible heme peroxidase homologue in protection from oxidative stress in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Akio; Manzoku, Miho; Fukui, Kenji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Morita, Rihito; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produces hydroxyl radicals that directly attack a variety of biomolecules and cause severe cellular dysfunction. An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus HB8, possesses at least three enzymes that can scavenge H2O2: manganese-containing catalase (TTHA0122, MnCAT), a possible peroxiredoxin homologue (TTHA1300), and a possible heme peroxidase (HPX) homologue (TTHA1714). To investigate the roles of these proteins, we attempted to disrupt each of these genes in T. thermophilus HB8. Although we were able to completely disrupt ttha1300, we were unable to completely delete ttha0122 and ttha1714 because of polyploidy. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that, compared to the wild type, 31 % of ttha0122 and 11 % of ttha1714 remained in the ∆ttha0122 and ∆ttha1714 disruption mutants, respectively. Mutants with reduced levels of ttha0122 or ttha1714 exhibited a significant increase in spontaneous mutation frequency. ∆ttha1714 grew slower than the wild type under normal conditions. ∆ttha0122 grew very poorly after exposure to H2O2. Moreover, ∆ttha0122 did not show H2O2-scavenging activity, whereas ∆ttha1300 and ∆ttha1714 scavenged H2O2, a property similar to that exhibited by the wild type. MnCAT purified from T. thermophilus HB8 cells scavenged H2O2 in vitro. The recombinant form of the possible HPX homologue, reconstituted with hemin, showed peroxidase activity with H2O2 as an oxidant substrate. Based on these results, we propose that not only MnCAT but also the possible HPX homologue is involved in protecting the cell from oxidative stress in T. thermophilus.

  6. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Aziem, Sekena H Abd; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2008-01-14

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals.

  7. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation

  8. Light alcohol consumption plays a protective role against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Japanese men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Masahiro; Okahisa, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Tomonari, Tetsu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Nakasono, Masahiko; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-06-01

    Although excess alcohol consumption has been believed to cause liver injury, light alcohol consumption (LAC) has been reported to play a protective role against fatty liver in recent studies. However, the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and LAC in men with metabolic syndrome (MS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between NAFLD and LAC in men with MS. Subjects were 1055 men with MS who underwent a regular health check-up and drank less 20 g/day of alcohol. A distinction was made between non-drinkers and light drinkers and the association between NAFLD and LAC in men with MS was elucidated. NAFLD was referred as fatty liver with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ≧31 IU/L in this study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the prevalence of NAFLD were significantly lower in light drinkers than in non-drinkers. Logistic regression analysis showed body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), uric acid (UA), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), visceral fat type MS and LAC (odds ratios: 0.654; 95% confidence intervals: 0.473-0.906; <0.05) were significant predictors of the prevalence of NAFLD. The prevalence of NAFLD in light drinkers was significantly lower than in non-drinkers, and supporting previous reports studying the general population, LAC is one of the significant predictors of a decreased prevalence of NAFLD in men with MS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Investigation on the Protective Role of Nitric Oxide in Reducing Damages Induced by Salinity Stress in Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam jabbarzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors that regulates plant growth and development, and limits plant production. Researchers have shown that some plant growth regulators such as nitric oxide improve the plants resistance to environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought and salinity. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP commonly has been used as nitric oxide (NO donor in plants. NO is a diffusible gaseous free radical. Low concentrations of NO inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species and protect plants against ROS damages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of SNP as NO donor on salt tolerance of Calendula officinalis and its effects on some morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of this plant. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of salinity (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and sodium nitroprusside (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mM on morphological and physiological characteristics of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. Total leaf area and number of leaves were determined in the end of the experiment. Electrolyte leakage was used to asses’ membrane permeability. This procedure was based on Lutts et al.,1995. Soluble sugars were extracted and estimated by the method of Irigoyen et al., 1992. Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid content were calculated from the absorbance of extract at 653, 666 and 470 nm using the formula of Dere et al., 1998. Proline was extracted by the method of Bates et al., 1973. DPPH radical- scavenging activity of sample was performed as described previously of Cleep et al., 2012. The SAS software was used for the analysis of variance (ANOVA, comparisons with P

  10. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H.; El-Aziem, Sekena H. Abd; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals

  11. A role for immune responses against non-CS components in the cross-species protection induced by immunization with irradiated malaria sporozoites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Mauduit

    Full Text Available Immunization with irradiated Plasmodium sporozoites induces sterile immunity in rodents, monkeys and humans. The major surface component of the sporozoite the circumsporozoite protein (CS long considered as the antigen predominantly responsible for this immunity, thus remains the leading candidate antigen for vaccines targeting the parasite's pre-erythrocytic (PE stages. However, this role for CS was questioned when we recently showed that immunization with irradiated sporozoites (IrrSpz of a P. berghei line whose endogenous CS was replaced by that of P. falciparum still conferred sterile protection against challenge with wild type P. berghei sporozoites. In order to investigate the involvement of CS in the cross-species protection recently observed between the two rodent parasites P. berghei and P. yoelii, we adopted our gene replacement approach for the P. yoelii CS and exploited the ability to conduct reciprocal challenges. Overall, we found that immunization led to sterile immunity irrespective of the origin of the CS in the immunizing or challenge sporozoites. However, for some combinations, immune responses to CS contributed to the acquisition of protective immunity and were dependent on the immunizing IrrSpz dose. Nonetheless, when data from all the cross-species immunization/challenges were considered, the immune responses directed against non-CS parasite antigens shared by the two parasite species played a major role in the sterile protection induced by immunization with IrrSpz. This opens the perspective to develop a single vaccine formulation that could protect against multiple parasite species.

  12. Role of methods and technology of management in the sphere of protecting the rights and freedoms of the imprisoned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matyukhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to form the sciencebased knowledge about the place and the role of technology and methods of management system in solving the problems of the penal system in the sphere of protection of the rights and freedoms of the imprisoned. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition analysis analogy and systemicstructural and abstractlogical methods. Results it was found that the combination of structural elements of the Federal Execution Service of Russia whose activities are in one way or another aimed at enabling prisoners to use their rights and freedoms has a systemic character. It was determined that the efficiency of functioning of any system including the criminalexecutive is provided by managing it its elements. The crucial role of the used methods and technologies is shown. The opinion is formed and justified that their skilled application in the management of the criminalexecutive system will improve the efficiency of solving its tasks including in the sphere of protection of the rights and freedoms of the imprisoned. Scientific novelty the attempt to examine the role of technology and management practices in the functioning of the system ensuring protection of the rights and freedoms of the imprisoned. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used both in scientific and practical activities of managers of different levels and units of the penal system to address the challenges they face including on the protection of the rights and freedoms of the imprisoned. nbsp

  13. Extracellular adenosine-induced Rac1 activation in pulmonary endothelium: Molecular mechanisms and barrier-protective role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Kasa, Anita; Kim, Kyung Mi; Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Black, Stephen M; Fulton, David J; Verin, Alexander D

    2018-08-01

    We have previously shown that Gs-coupled adenosine receptors (A2a) are primarily involved in adenosine-induced human pulmonary artery endothelial cell (HPAEC) barrier enhancement. However, the downstream events that mediate the strengthening of the endothelial cell (EC) barrier via adenosine signaling are largely unknown. In the current study, we tested the overall hypothesis that adenosine-induced Rac1 activation and EC barrier enhancement is mediated by Gs-dependent stimulation of cAMP-dependent Epac1-mediated signaling cascades. Adenoviral transduction of HPAEC with constitutively-active (C/A) Rac1 (V12Rac1) significantly increases transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) reflecting an enhancement of the EC barrier. Conversely, expression of an inactive Rac1 mutant (N17Rac1) decreases TER reflecting a compromised EC barrier. The adenosine-induced increase in TER was accompanied by activation of Rac1, decrease in contractility (MLC dephosphorylation), but not Rho inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of Rac1 activity attenuates adenosine-induced increase in TER. We next examined the role of cAMP-activated Epac1 and its putative downstream targets Rac1, Vav2, Rap1, and Tiam1. Depletion of Epac1 attenuated the adenosine-induced Rac1 activation and the increase in TER. Furthermore, silencing of Rac1 specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Vav2 and Rap1a expression significantly attenuated adenosine-induced increases in TER and activation of Rac1. Depletion of Rap1b only modestly impacted adenosine-induced increases in TER and Tiam1 depletion had no effect on adenosine-induced Rac1 activation and TER. Together these data strongly suggest that Rac1 activity is required for adenosine-induced EC barrier enhancement and that the activation of Rac1 and ability to strengthen the EC barrier depends, at least in part, on cAMP-dependent Epac1/Vav2/Rap1-mediated signaling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  15. Roles of adjuvant and route of vaccination in antibody response and protection engendered by a synthetic matrix protein 2-based influenza A virus vaccine in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudic Mare

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M2 ectodomain (M2e of influenza A virus (IAV strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs are capable of restricting IAV replication in vivo but are present only at minimal concentration in human sera, efforts are being made to develop a M2e-specific vaccine. We are exploring a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine and here report on the role of adjuvants (cholera toxin and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide and route of immunization on Ab response and strength of protection. Results Independent of adjuvants and immunization route, on average 87% of the M2e-MAP-induced Abs were specific for M2e peptide and a variable fraction of these M2e(pep-specific Abs (average 15% cross-reacted with presumably native M2e expressed by M2-transfected cells. The titer of these cross-reactive M2e(pep-nat-specific Abs in sera of parenterally immunized mice displayed a sigmoidal relation to level of protection, with EC50 of ~20 μg Ab/ml serum, though experiments with passive M2e(pep-nat Abs indicated that serum Abs did not fully account for protection in parenterally vaccinated mice, particularly in upper airways. Intranasal vaccination engendered stronger protection and a higher proportion of G2a Abs than parenteral vaccination, and the strength of protection failed to correlate with M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Ab titers, suggesting a role of airway-associated immunity in protection of intranasally vaccinated mice. Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. Conclusion M2e-MAP is an effective immunogen as ~15% of the total M2e-MAP-induced Ab response is of desired specificity. While M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Abs have an important

  16. New insight into multifunctional role of peroxiredoxin family protein: Determination of DNA protection properties of bacterioferritin comigratory protein under hyperthermal and oxidative stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangmin, E-mail: taeinlee2011@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jeong Min [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hyung Joong; Won, Jonghan [Advanced Nano Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Suk, E-mail: hsjung@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) is a monomeric conformer acting as a putative thiol-dependent bacterial peroxidase, however molecular basis of DNA-protection via DNA-binding has not been clearly understood. In this study, we characterized the DNA binding properties of BCP using various lengths and differently shaped architectures of DNA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and electron microscopy analysis showed that recombinant TkBCP bound to DNA of a circular shape (double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA) and a linear shape (16–1000 bp) as well as various architectures of DNA. In addition, DNA protection experiments indicated that TkBCP can protect DNA against hyperthermal and oxidative stress by removing highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by protecting DNA from thermal degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that TkBCP is a multi-functional DNA-binding protein which has DNA chaperon and antioxidant functions. - Highlights: • Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) protects DNA from oxidative stress by reducing ROS. • TkBCP does not only scavenge ROS, but also protect DNA from hyperthermal stress. • BCP potentially adopts the multi-functional role in DNA binding activities and anti-oxidant functions.

  17. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  18. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  19. A developmental study of heavy episodic drinking among college students: the role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Costa, Frances M; Krueger, Patrick M; Turbin, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N=975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.

  20. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  1. Potential Role of Specific Antibodies as Important Vaccine Induced Protective Mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Villumsen, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Inger; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    . In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18...... weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in