WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong physical dependence

  1. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.

  2. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  3. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  4. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  5. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  6. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  7. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  8. "Strong interaction" for particle physics laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A new Web site pooling the communications resources of particle physics centres all over the world has just been launched. The official launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org during the Lepton-Proton 2003 Conference at the American laboratory Fermilab was accompanied by music and a flurry of balloons. On the initiative of Fermilab, the site was created by a collaboration of communication teams from over fifteen of the world's particle physics laboratories, including KEK, SLAC, INFN, JINR and, of course, CERN, who pooled their efforts to develop the new tool. The spectacular launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org at Fermilab on 12 August 2003. A real gateway to particle physics, the site not only contains all the latest news from the laboratories but also offers images, graphics and a video/animation link. In addition, it provides information about scientific policies, links to the universities, a very useful detailed glossary of particle physics and astrophysic...

  9. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  10. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  11. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This abstract summarizes the progress made in the last year and the future plans of our research in the study of strongly correlated atomic systems. In atomic structure and atomic spectroscopy we are investigating the classification and supermultiplet structure of doubly excited states. We are also beginning the systematic study of triply excited states. In ion-atom collisions, we are exploring an AO-MO matching method for treating multi-electron collision systems to extract detailed information such as subshell cross sections, alignment and orientation parameters, etc. We are also beginning ab initio calculations on the angular distributions for electron transfer processes in low-energy (about 10-100eV/amu) ion-atom collisions in a full quantum mechanical treatment of the motion of heavy particles

  12. Why does the martensitic transformation temperature strongly depend on composition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Otsuka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The reason for the strong composition and heat-treatment dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated by a simple Landau-type model. Assuming the anharmonic and coupling coefficients are insensitive to composition, we obtained an important result martensitic transformation occurs at a critical elastic constant c' and a critical TA 2 phonon energy ω η 2 , which are independent of alloy composition. This result gained support from a large body of experimental data of Cu-based alloys. Since c' and phonon energy are strongly dependent on composition, the constancy of c' at Ms demands that the (transformation) temperature must exhibit an opposite effect to compensate the composition effect. Therefore, the lower the c', the higher the Ms is. Because the temperature dependence of c' is weak (due to the 1 st order nature of the transformation), the big c' change by a slight composition change must be compensated by a large change in temperature. Thus Ms has strong composition dependence. The effect of quench is to increase point defects, being equivalent to a composition change, thus has a strong effect on Ms. From the present study, we can conclude that the strong composition dependence of Ms is mainly a harmonic effect. (orig.)

  13. Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2018-01-01

    This textbook extends from the basics of femtosecond physics all the way to some of the latest developments in the field. In this updated edition, the chapter on laser-driven atoms is augmented by the discussion of two-electron atoms interacting with strong and short laser pulses, as well as by a review of ATI rings and low energy structures in photo-electron spectra. In the chapter on laser-driven molecules a discussion of 2D infrared spectroscopy is incorporated. Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. The presentation starts with a brief introduction to pulsed laser physics. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Its analytical as well as numerical solution are laid out in some detail. The light field is treated classically and different possi...

  14. Strong authentication with physical unclonable functions (Chapter 10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyls, P.T.; Skoric, B.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) can be used as a cost-effective means to store cryptographic key material in an unclonable way. They can be employed for strong authentication of objects, e.g., tokens, and of persons possessing such tokens, but also for other purposes. We give a short overview

  15. Results from ATLAS and CMS: Strong Interactions and New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00179262

    2016-01-01

    Measurements on global properties and precision results on fundamental parameters related to the Strong Interaction sector of the Standard Model of particle physics, and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, performed by the two large multi-purpose particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are summarised in this review. Special attention is payed to the new data obtained at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13~TeV in 2015, which offer a first glimpse at the large physics potential offered by the high-energy running of the LHC.

  16. The kaon factory - towards the physics of strongly interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Erich

    1988-01-01

    With the advent of the standard model for quarks and leptons and unified forces there are profound new questions for the physics of strongly interacting systems: the nature of the nucleon, the physics of quark confinement, fundamental symmetries governing hadron decay and the effect of quarks and gluons on nuclear behaviour. Of the new large facilities now planned to respond to these questions the kaon factory is central. It uses very intense (∼100 μA) primary proton beams (∼30 GeV) to generate intense secondary beams of various hadrons and leptons. (author)

  17. Strong Emergence as a Defese of Non-Reductive Physicalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Gillett

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaegwon Kim, and others, have recently posed a powerful challenge to both emergentism and nom-reductive physicalism by providing arguments that these positions are committed to an untenable combination of both ‘upward’ and ‘dounward’ determination. In section 1, I illuminate how the nature of the realization relation underlies such skeptical arguments However, in section 2, I suggest that such conclusions involve a confusion between the implications of physicalism and those of a related thesis the ‘Completeness of Physics' (Co? I show that the truth of CoP poses a very serious obstacle to realized properties being efficacious in a physicalist universe and suggest that abandoning CoP offers hope for defending non-reductive physicalism. I then formulate a schema for a physicalist metaphysics, in section 3, which rejects CoP. This scenario is one where microphysical properties have a few conditional powers that they contribute to individuals when they realize certain properties In such a situation, I argue, though physicalism holds true there is still plausibly both ‘upward’ and ‘downward’ determination, where the latter is crucially an underappreciated form of determination I temn 'non- causal'. Ultimately, I conclude that this metaphysical schema offers a coherent account of Strongly emergent properties that preserves the truth of NRP albeit, in a form that is purged of any commitment to CoP. Finally, in section: 4, I carefully explore which of Kim's assumptions and arguments this metaphysics undermines.

  18. Extreme states of matter in strong interaction physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    This book is a course-tested primer on the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter – a profound and challenging area of both theoretical and experimental modern physics. Analytical and numerical studies of statistical quantum chromodynamics provide the main theoretical tool, while in experiments, high-energy nuclear collisions are the key for extensive laboratory investigations. As such, the field straddles statistical, particle and nuclear physics, both conceptually and in the methods of investigation used. The book addresses, above all, the many young scientists starting their scientific research in this field, providing them with a general, self-contained introduction that highlights the basic concepts and ideas and explains why we do what we do. Much of the book focuses on equilibrium thermodynamics: first it presents simplified phenomenological pictures, leading to critical behavior in hadronic matter and to a quark-hadron phase transition. This is followed by elements of finite temperature latti...

  19. Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...

  20. Strong interactions and electromagnetism in low-energy hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, B.

    2002-10-01

    In the present work, we study various aspects of the entanglement of the strong and electromagnetic interactions as it is manifest in low-energy hadron physics. In the framework of chiral perturbation theory, two aspects are investigated: the test of the structure of baryons as probed by external electromagnetic currents, and the modification of reactions mediated by the strong interactions in the presence of internal (virtual) photons. In the first part of this work, we study the electromagnetic form factors of nucleons and the ground state baryon octet, as well as strangeness form factors of the nucleon. Emphasis is put on the comparison of a new relativistic scheme for the calculation of loop diagrams to the heavy-baryon formalism, and on the convergence of higher-order corrections in both schemes. The new scheme is shown to yield both a phenomenologically more successful description of the data and better convergence behaviour. In the second part, we study isospin violation in pion-kaon scattering as mediated by virtual photon effects and the light quark mass difference. This investigation is of particular importance for the extraction of scattering lengths from measurements of lifetime and energy levels in pion-kaon atoms. The isospin breaking corrections are shown to be small and sufficiently well under control. (orig.)

  1. Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wolter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strong-field physics is currently experiencing a shift towards the use of mid-IR driving wavelengths. This is because they permit conducting experiments unambiguously in the quasistatic regime and enable exploiting the effects related to ponderomotive scaling of electron recollisions. Initial measurements taken in the mid-IR immediately led to a deeper understanding of photoionization and allowed a discrimination among different theoretical models. Ponderomotive scaling of rescattering has enabled new avenues towards time-resolved probing of molecular structure. Essential for this paradigm shift was the convergence of two experimental tools: (1 intense mid-IR sources that can create high-energy photons and electrons while operating within the quasistatic regime and (2 detection systems that can detect the generated high-energy particles and image the entire momentum space of the interaction in full coincidence. Here, we present a unique combination of these two essential ingredients, namely, a 160-kHz mid-IR source and a reaction microscope detection system, to present an experimental methodology that provides an unprecedented three-dimensional view of strong-field interactions. The system is capable of generating and detecting electron energies that span a 6 order of magnitude dynamic range. We demonstrate the versatility of the system by investigating electron recollisions, the core process that drives strong-field phenomena, at both low (meV and high (hundreds of eV energies. The low-energy region is used to investigate recently discovered low-energy structures, while the high-energy electrons are used to probe atomic structure via laser-induced electron diffraction. Moreover, we present, for the first time, the correlated momentum distribution of electrons from nonsequential double ionization driven by mid-IR pulses.

  2. Strong temperature dependence of extraordinary magnetoresistance correlated to mobility in a two-contact device

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-02-21

    A two-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device has been fabricated and characterized at various temperatures under magnetic fields applied in different directions. Large performance variations across the temperature range have been found, which are due to the strong dependence of the EMR effect on the mobility. The device shows the highest sensitivity of 562ω/T at 75 K with the field applied perpendicularly. Due to the overlap between the semiconductor and the metal shunt, the device is also sensitive to planar fields but with a lower sensitivity of about 20 to 25% of the one to perpendicular fields. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  3. Strong dependence of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2010-01-01

    We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients depend only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d 4(L+(1/2)) where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d 6 . We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d -4 for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.

  4. Prospects for strong interaction physics at ISABELLE. [Seven papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, D P; Trueman, T L

    1977-01-01

    Seven papers are presented resulting from a conference intended to stimulate thinking about how ISABELLE could be used for studying strong interactions. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (PMA)

  5. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    2015-04-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression than their weaker male counterparts. The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We capitalized on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimated adolescent change in upper-body strength using the slope parameter from a latent growth model. We found that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Studies of the wavelength dependence of non-sequential double ionization of xenon in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, P.; Wiehle, R.; Kamke, W.; Helm, H.; Witzele, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The non-sequential double ionization of noble gases in strong fields is still a process which is not completely understood. The most challenging question is: what is the dominant physical process behind the knee structure in the yield of doubly charged ions which are produced in the focus of an ultrashort laser pulse in dependence of the intensity? Numerous studies can be explained with the so-called rescattering model, where an electron is freed by the strong laser field and then driven back to its parent ion due to the oscillation of the field. Through this backscattering process it is possible to kick out a second electron. However in the low intensity or multiphoton (MPI) region this model predicts that the first electron can not gain enough energy in the oscillating electric field to further ionize or excite the ion. We present experimental results for xenon in the MPI region which show a significant contribution of doubly charged ions. A Ti:sapphire laser system (800 nm, 100 fs) is used to ionize the atoms. The coincident detection of the momentum distribution of the photoelectrons with an imaging spectrometer and the time of flight spectrum of the ions allows a detailed view into the ionization process. For the first time we also show a systematic study of the wavelength dependence (780-830 nm and 1180-1550 nm) on the non-sequential double ionization. The ratio Xe 2+ /Xe + shows a surprising oscillatory behavior with varying wavelength. Ref. 1 (author)

  7. The strong interactions beyond the standard model of particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, Georg [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    SuperMUC is one of the most convenient high performance machines for our project since it offers a high performance and flexibility regarding different applications. This is of particular importance for investigations of new theories, where on the one hand the parameters and systematic uncertainties have to be estimated in smaller simulations and on the other hand a large computational performance is needed for the estimations of the scale at zero temperature. Our project is just the first investigation of the new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics and we hope to proceed with our studies towards more involved Technicolour candidates, supersymmetric QCD, and extended supersymmetry.

  8. D-brane physics. From weak to strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Lopes, Daniel Ordine

    2013-01-10

    In this thesis we discuss two aspects of branes relevant to high-energy phenomenology. First, we consider a single D6-brane wrapping a special Lagrangian cycle and the background space compactified in a Calabi-Yau orientifold the conditions needed to obtain a four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theory. We calculate the bosonic part of the effective action by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the brane seven-dimensional action, and obtain the N=1 characteristic data. To discuss the moduli, we first fix the moduli from deformations of the background Calabi-Yau and study the D-brane deformation moduli space. We next allow for Calabi-Yau deformations, and show that the moduli space for complex structure deformations is corrected by the fields living on the D6-brane. We also calculate the scalar potential from D- and F-terms generated from brane and background configurations that would break the supersymmetry condition. We then, via Mirror Symmetry, relate the spectrum obtained in our work to the spectrum in Type IIB effective theory with D3- D5- and D7-branes, and we propose a Kaehler potential for the moduli space of brane deformations in Type IIB theories. In the second part of the thesis we discuss effects of brane intersections when the string coupling can become strong, and we work in the framework of F-theory. After reviewing the basics of F-theory constructions and a particular SU(5) model already discussed in the literature, we construct a model which contains a point of E{sub 8} singularity, and curves of E{sub 6} singularity. By explicitly resolving the space, we show that the resolution requires the introduction of higher dimensional fibers, and argue how we can circumvent this problem for the E{sub 6} curve, leading to the expected resolution that generate an E{sub 6} group, while at the E{sub 8} point we cannot make the resolution lead to an expected E{sub 8} structure.

  9. Process depending morphology and resulting physical properties of TPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@hs-aalen.de; Spadaro, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.spadaro@hs-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), Aalen University (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a rubber like material with outstanding properties, e.g. for seal applications. TPU basically provides high strength, low frictional behavior and excellent wear resistance. Though, due to segmented structure of TPU, which is composed of hard segments (HSs) and soft segments (SSs), physical properties depend strongly on the morphological arrangement of the phase separated HSs at a certain ratio of HSs to SSs. It is obvious that the TPU deforms differently depending on its bulk morphology. Basically, the morphology can either consist of HSs segregated into small domains, which are well dispersed in the SS matrix or of few strongly phase separated large size HS domains embedded in the SS matrix. The morphology development is hardly ruled by the melt processing conditions of the TPU. Depending on the morphology, TPU provides quite different physical properties with respect to strength, deformation behavior, thermal stability, creep resistance and tribological performance. The paper deals with the influence of important melt processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure and shear conditions, on the resulting physical properties tested by tensile and relaxation experiments. Furthermore the morphology is studied employing differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), transmission light microscopy (TLM), scanning electron beam microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron beam microscopy (TEM) investigations. Correlations between processing conditions and resulting TPU material properties are elaborated. Flow and shear simulations contribute to the understanding of thermal and flow induced morphology development.

  10. Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process

  11. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  12. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...

  13. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  14. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  15. Internuclear Separation Dependent Ionization of the Valence Orbitals of I2 by Strong Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Tagliamonti, V.; Gibson, G. N.

    2012-11-01

    Using a pump-dump-probe technique and Fourier-transform spectroscopy, we study the internuclear separation R dependence and relative strength of the ionization rates of the π and σ electrons of I2, whose valence orbitals are σg2πu4πg4σu0. We find that ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-2 (σg) has a strong dependence on R while the HOMO and HOMO-1 do not. Surprisingly, the ionization rate of the HOMO-2 exceeds the combined ionization rate of the less bound orbitals and this branching ratio increases with R. Since our technique produces target molecules that are highly aligned with the laser polarization, the σ orbitals will be preferentially ionized and undergo enhanced ionization at larger R compared to the π orbitals. Nevertheless, it is highly unusual that an inner orbital provides the dominant strong field ionization pathway in a small molecule.

  16. Bimodal voltage dependence of TRPA1: mutations of a key pore helix residue reveal strong intrinsic voltage-dependent inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Lu, Yungang; Chen, Xueqin; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Yuanda; Li, Ping; Xia, Bingqing; Li, Min; Zhu, Michael X; Gao, Zhaobing

    2014-07-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is implicated in somatosensory processing and pathological pain sensation. Although not strictly voltage-gated, ionic currents of TRPA1 typically rectify outwardly, indicating channel activation at depolarized membrane potentials. However, some reports also showed TRPA1 inactivation at high positive potentials, implicating voltage-dependent inactivation. Here we report a conserved leucine residue, L906, in the putative pore helix, which strongly impacts the voltage dependency of TRPA1. Mutation of the leucine to cysteine (L906C) converted the channel from outward to inward rectification independent of divalent cations and irrespective to stimulation by allyl isothiocyanate. The mutant, but not the wild-type channel, displayed exclusively voltage-dependent inactivation at positive potentials. The L906C mutation also exhibited reduced sensitivity to inhibition by TRPA1 blockers, HC030031 and ruthenium red. Further mutagenesis of the leucine to all natural amino acids individually revealed that most substitutions at L906 (15/19) resulted in inward rectification, with exceptions of three amino acids that dramatically reduced channel activity and one, methionine, which mimicked the wild-type channel. Our data are plausibly explained by a bimodal gating model involving both voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of TRPA1. We propose that the key pore helix residue, L906, plays an essential role in responding to the voltage-dependent gating.

  17. Sex-dependent differences in voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-01-02

    Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In rodents, the amount of time engaged in spontaneous activity within the home cage is a strong predictor of later adiposity and weight gain. Thus, it is important to understand primary motivators stimulating physical activity (PA). There are normal sex differences in PA levels in rodents and humans. The perinatal environment can induce sex-dependent differences in PA disturbances. This Review considers the current evidence for sex differences in PA in rodents and humans. The rodent studies showing that early exposure to environmental chemicals can shape later adult PA responses are discussed. Next, whether there are different motivators stimulating exercise in male vs. female humans are examined. Finally, the brain regions, genes, and pathways that modulate PA in rodents, and possibly by translation in humans, are described. A better understanding of why each sex remains physically active through the life span could open new avenues for preventing and treating obesity in children and adults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Position-Dependent Dynamics Explain Pore-Averaged Diffusion in Strongly Attractive Adsorptive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekelberg, William P; Siderius, Daniel W; Shen, Vincent K; Truskett, Thomas M; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-12

    Using molecular simulations, we investigate the relationship between the pore-averaged and position-dependent self-diffusivity of a fluid adsorbed in a strongly attractive pore as a function of loading. Previous work (Krekelberg, W. P.; Siderius, D. W.; Shen, V. K.; Truskett, T. M.; Errington, J. R. Connection between thermodynamics and dynamics of simple fluids in highly attractive pores. Langmuir 2013, 29, 14527-14535, doi: 10.1021/la4037327) established that pore-averaged self-diffusivity in the multilayer adsorption regime, where the fluid exhibits a dense film at the pore surface and a lower density interior pore region, is nearly constant as a function of loading. Here we show that this puzzling behavior can be understood in terms of how loading affects the fraction of particles that reside in the film and interior pore regions as well as their distinct dynamics. Specifically, the insensitivity of pore-averaged diffusivity to loading arises from the approximate cancellation of two factors: an increase in the fraction of particles in the higher diffusivity interior pore region with loading and a corresponding decrease in the particle diffusivity in that region. We also find that the position-dependent self-diffusivities scale with the position-dependent density. We present a model for predicting the pore-average self-diffusivity based on the position-dependent self-diffusivity, which captures the unusual characteristics of pore-averaged self-diffusivity in strongly attractive pores over several orders of magnitude.

  19. Proceedings of Summer Institute of Particle Physics, July 27-August 7, 1981: the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, A. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The ninth SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics was held in the period July 27 to August 7, 1981. The central topic was the strong interactions with the first seven days spent in a pedagogic mode and the last three in a topical conference. In addition to the morning lectures on experimental and theoretical aspects of the strong interactions, three were lectures on machine physics; this year it was electron-positron colliding beam machines, both storage rings and linear colliders. Twenty-three individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  20. Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahuan; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mucsi, Ashley D; Meng, Junchen; Yan, Jiacong; Detampel, Pascal; Munro, Fay; Zhang, Zongde; Wu, Mei; Hari, Aswin; Stenner, Melanie D; Zheng, Wencheng; Kubes, Paul; Xia, Tie; Amrein, Matthias W; Qi, Hai; Shi, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are targeted by regulatory T (T reg) cells, in a manner that operates as an indirect mode of T cell suppression. In this study, using a combination of single-cell force spectroscopy and structured illumination microscopy, we analyze individual T reg cell-DC interaction events and show that T reg cells exhibit strong intrinsic adhesiveness to DCs. This increased DC adhesion reduces the ability of contacted DCs to engage other antigen-specific cells. We show that this unusually strong LFA-1-dependent adhesiveness of T reg cells is caused in part by their low calpain activities, which normally release integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, and thereby reduce adhesion. Super resolution imaging reveals that such T reg cell adhesion causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. Although it is reversible upon T reg cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of DCs, leading to reduced T cell priming. Our results reveal a dynamic cytoskeletal component underlying T reg cell-mediated DC suppression in a contact-dependent manner. © 2017 Chen et al.

  1. Experimental evidence that density dependence strongly influences plant invasions through fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-04-01

    Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity. To test the hypothesized interaction between habitat patchiness and density dependence, we simultaneously manipulated these factors in a greenhouse system of annual plants spreading through replicated experimental landscapes. We found that increasing the size of gaps and amplifying the strength of density dependence both slowed spread velocity, but contrary to predictions, the effect of amplified density dependence was similar across all landscape types. Our results demonstrate that the discrete nature of individuals in spreading populations has a strong influence on how both landscape patchiness and density dependence influence spread through demographic and dispersal stochasticity. Both finiteness and landscape structure should be critical components to theoretical predictions of future spread for range expanding native species or invasive species colonizing new habitat. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  3. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  4. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  5. Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D Loprinzi; Jerome F Walker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used....

  6. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  7. HIV-gp120 and physical dependence to buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J; Abood, M E; Benamar, K

    2015-05-01

    Opioids are among the most effective and commonly used analgesics in clinical practice for severe pain. However, the use of opioid medications is clinically limited by several adverse properties including dependence. While opioid dependence is a complex health condition, the treatment of HIV-infected individuals with opioid dependence presents additional challenges. The goal of this study was to examine the physical dependence to buprenorphine in the context of HIV. Young adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were pretreated with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injected into the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) and we examined the impact on physical dependence to opioid. It was found that the physical dependence to methadone occurred earlier than that to buprenorphine, and that gp120 did not enhance or precipitate the buprenorphine withdrawal. The results suggest that buprenorphine could be the better therapeutic option to manage opioid dependence in HIV. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: C.Byrnes@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.

  9. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  10. Levels of physical dependence on tobacco among adolescent smokers in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophi, Costas A; Pampaka, Despina; Paisi, Martha; Ioannou, Solonas; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess tobacco dependence among Cypriot adolescents and examine its association to cigarette consumption and attitudes towards smoking. The current study used cross-sectional data from the 2011 Cyprus Global Youth Tobacco Survey which adopted multistage cluster sampling methods to select adolescents registered in middle and high schools in Cyprus. Tobacco use, physical dependence on tobacco, and attitudes towards tobacco use were measured in 187 adolescents aged 13-18years old who reported that they had smoked at least once in the preceding 30days. Physical dependence was assessed using the Levels of Physical Dependence scale. Physical dependence was present in 86% of the adolescent smokers. The mean latency to needing among smokers in the highest dependence group was 101h. Significant associations were observed between physical dependence and the perceived difficulty in quitting (OR=13.1, 95% CI: 4.0, 43.0) as well as the expectation to continue smoking for the next five years (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 8.4). Significant associations were also observed between physical dependence and the number of smoking days per month, daily smoking, daily cigarette consumption, lifetime cigarette consumption, and perceived difficulty in abstaining from smoking for one week. Physical dependence provides a symptom-based approach to assess dependence and it is a strong predictor of adolescents' perceptions of their ability to quit or to refrain from smoking for a week. Physical dependence on tobacco was highly prevalent among adolescent smokers in Cyprus and it was associated with greater perceived difficulty in quitting. Interventions targeting adolescent smoking must account for the high prevalence of physical dependence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Plasma Physics in a Strong Magnetic Field: Paradigms and Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Krommes

    2004-03-19

    An overview is given of certain aspects of fundamental statistical theories as applied to strongly magnetized plasmas. Emphasis is given to the gyrokinetic formalism, the historical development of realizable Markovian closures, and recent results in the statistical theory of turbulent generation of long-wavelength flows that generalize and provide further physical insight to classic calculations of eddy viscosity. A Hamiltonian formulation of turbulent flow generation is described and argued to be very useful.

  12. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as "dauer pheromones" because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development.Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were strongly dependent on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, strongly supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone. After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides strongly correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions.Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings

  13. Proceedings of the summer institute on particle physics: The strong interaction, from hadrons to partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.; DePorcel, L.; Dixon, L.

    1997-06-01

    This conference explored the role of the strong interaction in the physics of hadrons and partons. The Institute attracted 239 physicists from 16 countries to hear lectures on the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics, modern theoretical calculational techniques, and experimental investigation of the strong interaction as it appears in various phenomena. Different regimes in which one can calculate reliably in QCD were addressed in series of lectures on perturbation theory, lattice gauge theories, and heavy quark expansions. Studies of QCD in hadron-hadron collisions, electron-positron annihilation, and electron-proton collisions all give differing perspectives on the strong interaction--from low-x to high-Q 2 . Experimental understanding of the production and decay of heavy quarks as well as the lighter meson states has continued to evolve over the past years, and these topics were also covered at the School. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Planck-scale physics and solutions to the strong CP-problem without axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-12-01

    We analyse the impact of quantum gravity on the possible solutions to the strong CP problem which utilize the spontaneously broken discrete symmetries, such as parity and time reversal invariance. We find that the stability of the solution under Planck scale effects provides an upper limit on the scale Λ of relevant symmetry breaking. This result is mode dependent and the bound is most restrictive for the seesaw type models of fermion masses, with Λ 6 GeV. (author). 32 refs

  15. Perceptions of Family Dependence by the Physically Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.; Britton, Jean O.

    1973-01-01

    The ralationship between six demographic characteristics and perceptions of family dependence were investigated for 170 physically disabled adults using Osgood's semantic differential technique. Implications of these findings for rehabilitation practice and further research are presented. (Author)

  16. Physical and psychological nicotine dependence in Greeks: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.

  17. Strong composition-dependent disorder in InAs1-xNx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaissa, H.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the main causes of disorder in the InAs 1-x N x alloys (x = 0, 0.03125, 0.0625, 0.09375, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 0.90625, 0.9375, 0.96875 and 1). The calculation is based on the density-functional theory in the local-density approximation. We use a plane wave-expansion non-norm conserving ab initio Vanderbilt pseudopotentials. To avoid the difficulty of considering the huge number of atomic configurations, we use an appropriate strategy in which we consider four configurations for a given composition where the N atoms are not randomly distributed. We mainly show that the band gap decreases (increases) rapidly with increasing (decreasing) compositions of N. As a consequence the optical band gap bowing is found to be strong and composition dependent. The obtained compounds, from these alloys, may change from semi-conducting to metal (passing to a negative bowing) and could be useful for device applications, especially at certain composition.

  18. Spatial occupancy models applied to atlas data show Southern Ground Hornbills strongly depend on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M; Johnson, Devin S; Altwegg, Res; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-03-01

    Determining the range of a species and exploring species--habitat associations are central questions in ecology and can be answered by analyzing presence--absence data. Often, both the sampling of sites and the desired area of inference involve neighboring sites; thus, positive spatial autocorrelation between these sites is expected. Using survey data for the Southern Ground Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) from the Southern African Bird Atlas Project, we compared advantages and disadvantages of three increasingly complex models for species occupancy: an occupancy model that accounted for nondetection but assumed all sites were independent, and two spatial occupancy models that accounted for both nondetection and spatial autocorrelation. We modeled the spatial autocorrelation with an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model and with a restricted spatial regression (RSR) model. Both spatial models can readily be applied to any other gridded, presence--absence data set using a newly introduced R package. The RSR model provided the best inference and was able to capture small-scale variation that the other models did not. It showed that ground hornbills are strongly dependent on protected areas in the north of their South African range, but less so further south. The ICAR models did not capture any spatial autocorrelation in the data, and they took an order, of magnitude longer than the RSR models to run. Thus, the RSR occupancy model appears to be an attractive choice for modeling occurrences at large spatial domains, while accounting for imperfect detection and spatial autocorrelation.

  19. Strongly and weakly directed approaches to teaching multiple representation use in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Kohl

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Good use of multiple representations is considered key to learning physics, and so there is considerable motivation both to learn how students use multiple representations when solving problems and to learn how best to teach problem solving using multiple representations. In this study of two large-lecture algebra-based physics courses at the University of Colorado (CU and Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, we address both issues. Students in each of the two courses solved five common electrostatics problems of varying difficulty, and we examine their solutions to clarify the relationship between multiple representation use and performance on problems involving free-body diagrams. We also compare our data across the courses, since the two physics-education-research-based courses take substantially different approaches to teaching the use of multiple representations. The course at Rutgers takes a strongly directed approach, emphasizing specific heuristics and problem-solving strategies. The course at CU takes a weakly directed approach, modeling good problem solving without teaching a specific strategy. We find that, in both courses, students make extensive use of multiple representations, and that this use (when both complete and correct is associated with significantly increased performance. Some minor differences in representation use exist, and are consistent with the types of instruction given. Most significant are the strong and broad similarities in the results, suggesting that either instructional approach or a combination thereof can be useful for helping students learn to use multiple representations for problem solving and concept development.

  20. Physics of strong internal transport barriers in JT-60U reversed-magnetic-shear plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N; Takizuka, T; Sakamoto, Y; Fujita, T; Kamada, Y; Ide, S; Koide, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The physics of strong internal transport barriers (ITBs) in JT-60U reversed-magnetic-shear (RS) plasmas has been studied through the modelling on the 1.5 dimensional transport simulation. The key physics to produce two scalings on the basis of the JT-60U box-type ITB database are identified. As for the scaling for the narrow ITB width proportional to the ion poloidal gyroradius, the following three physics are important: (1) the sharp reduction of the anomalous transport below the neoclassical level in the RS region, (2) the autonomous formation of pressure and current profiles through the neoclassical transport and the bootstrap current and (3) the large difference between the neoclassical transport and the anomalous transport in the normal-shear region. As for the scaling for the energy confinement inside ITB ({epsilon}{sub f}{beta}{sub p,core} {approx} 0.25, where {epsilon}{sub f} is the inverse aspect ratio at the ITB foot and {beta}{sub p,core} is the core poloidal beta value), the value of 0.25 is found to be a saturation value due to the MHD equilibrium. The value of {epsilon}{sub f}{beta}{sub p,core} reaches the saturation value, when the box-type ITB is formed in the strong RS plasma with a large asymmetry of the poloidal magnetic field, regardless of the details of the transport and the non-inductively driven current.

  1. Haloperidol Disrupts Opioid-Antinociceptive Tolerance and Physical Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Chen, Yan; Tang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory and others have implicated a critical role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in opioid tolerance and dependence. Translational research targeting the CaMKII pathway is challenging, if not impossible, because of a lack of selective inhibitors. We discovered in a preliminary study that haloperidol, a butyrophenone antipsychotic drug, inhibited CaMKII, which led us to hypothesize that haloperidol can attenuate opioid tolerance and dependence by inhibiting CaMKII. The hypothesis was tested in two rodent models of opioid tolerance and dependence. Pretreatment with haloperidol (0.2–1.0 mg/kg i.p.) prevented the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in a dose-dependent manner. Short-term treatment with haloperidol (0.06–0.60 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reversed the established morphine-antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. Correlating with behavioral effects, pretreatment or short-term treatment with haloperidol dose-dependently inhibited morphine-induced up-regulation of supraspinal and spinal CaMKIIα activity. Moreover, haloperidol given orally was also effective in attenuating morphine-induced CaMKIIα activity, antinociceptive tolerance, and physical dependence. Taken together, these data suggest that haloperidol attenuates opioid tolerance and dependence by suppressing CaMKII activity. Because haloperidol is a clinically used drug that can be taken orally, we propose that the drug may be of use in attenuating opioid tolerance and dependence. PMID:21436292

  2. Physics of heavy fermions heavy fermions and strongly correlated electrons systems

    CERN Document Server

    Onuki, Yoshichika

    2018-01-01

    A large variety of materials prove to be fascinating in solid state and condensed matter physics. New materials create new physics, which is spearheaded by the international experimental expert, Prof Yoshichika Onuki. Among them, the f electrons of rare earth and actinide compounds typically exhibit a variety of characteristic properties, including spin and charge orderings, spin and valence fluctuations, heavy fermions, and anisotropic superconductivity. These are mainly manifestations of better competitive phenomena between the RKKY interaction and the Kondo effect. The present text is written so as to understand these phenomena and the research they prompt. For example, superconductivity was once regarded as one of the more well-understood many-body problems. However, it is, in fact, still an exciting phenomenon in new materials. Additionally, magnetism and superconductivity interplay strongly in heavy fermion superconductors. The understanding of anisotropic superconductivity and magnetism is a challengin...

  3. Effect of scaffolding on helping introductory physics students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that introductory physics students often have alternative conceptions that are inconsistent with established physical principles and concepts. Invoking alternative conceptions in the quantitative problem-solving process can derail the entire process. In order to help students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions correctly, appropriate scaffolding support can be helpful. The goal of this study is to examine how different scaffolding supports involving analogical problem-solving influence introductory physics students' performance on a target quantitative problem in a situation where many students' solution process is derailed due to alternative conceptions. Three different scaffolding supports were designed and implemented in calculus-based and algebra-based introductory physics courses involving 410 students to evaluate the level of scaffolding needed to help students learn from an analogical problem that is similar in the underlying principles involved but for which the problem-solving process is not derailed by alternative conceptions. We found that for the quantitative problem involving strong alternative conceptions, simply guiding students to work through the solution of the analogical problem first was not enough to help most students discern the similarity between the two problems. However, if additional scaffolding supports that directly helped students examine and repair their knowledge elements involving alternative conceptions were provided, e.g., by guiding students to contemplate related issues and asking them to solve the targeted problem on their own first before learning from the analogical problem provided, students were more likely to discern the underlying similarities between the problems and avoid getting derailed by alternative conceptions when solving the targeted problem. We also found that some scaffolding supports were more effective in the calculus-based course than in the algebra

  4. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  5. Spontaneous appetence for wheel-running: a model of dependency on physical activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anthony; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Boyer, Patrice; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Jouvent, Roland; Cohen-Salmon, Charles

    2006-12-01

    According to human observations of a syndrome of physical activity dependence and its consequences, we tried to examine if running activity in a free activity paradigm, where rats had a free access to activity wheel, may present a valuable animal model for physical activity dependence and most generally to behavioral dependence. The pertinence of reactivity to novelty, a well-known pharmacological dependence predictor was also tested. Given the close linkage observed in human between physical activity and drugs use and abuse, the influence of free activity in activity wheels on reactivity to amphetamine injection and reactivity to novelty were also assessed. It appeared that (1) free access to wheel may be used as a valuable model for physical activity addiction, (2) two populations differing in activity amount also differed in dependence to wheel-running. (3) Reactivity to novelty did not appeared as a predictive factor for physical activity dependence (4) activity modified novelty reactivity and (5) subjects who exhibited a high appetence to wheel-running, presented a strong reactivity to amphetamine. These results propose a model of dependency on physical activity without any pharmacological intervention, and demonstrate the existence of individual differences in the development of this addiction. In addition, these data highlight the development of a likely vulnerability to pharmacological addiction after intense and sustained physical activity, as also described in man. This model could therefore prove pertinent for studying behavioral dependencies and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. These results may influence the way psychiatrists view behavioral dependencies and phenomena such as doping in sport or addiction to sport itself.

  6. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  7. Spatial characterization of Bessel-like beams for strong-field physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Adam M; Yu, Xiaoming; Wang, Xinya; Raoul, Maxime; Nelson, Josh; Todd, Daniel; Zigo, Stefan; Lei, Shuting; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A

    2017-02-06

    We present a compact, simple design for the generation and tuning of both the spot size and effective focal length of Bessel-like beams. In particular, this setup provides an important tool for the use of Bessel-like beams with high-power, femtosecond laser systems. Using a shallow angle axicon in conjunction with a spherical lens, we show that it is possible to focus Bessel-like modes to comparable focal spot sizes to sharp axicons while maintaining a long effective focal length. The resulting focal profiles are characterized in detail using an accurate high dynamic range imaging technique. Quantitatively, we introduce a metric (R0.8) which defines the spot-size containing 80% of the total energy. Our setup overcomes the typical compromise between long working distances and small spot sizes. This is particularly relevant for strong-field physics where most experiments must operate in vacuum.

  8. Methyl Parathion Masks Withdrawal from Physical Dependence on Morphine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong; Ho, Ing K.; Kramer, Robert E.; Baker, Rodney C.; Rockhold, Robin W.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: The cholinergic system has been proposed to participate in the development of dependence on opioids. The present study examined effects of dermal pretreatment with methyl parathion (MP), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the development of physical dependence on morphine. Opioid dependence was induced by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of morphine (26 nmol/μl/h) for 3 days in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two doses of MP, 12.5 mg/kg, d...

  9. Strong field physics and QED experiments with ELI-NP 2×10PW laser beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcu, I. C. E., E-mail: Edmond.Turcu@eli-np.ro; Balascuta, S., E-mail: Edmond.Turcu@eli-np.ro; Negoita, F., E-mail: Edmond.Turcu@eli-np.ro [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, ELI-NP, Str. Reactorului, nr. 30, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Jaroszynski, D.; McKenna, P. [University of Strathclyde, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-24

    The ELI-NP facility will focus a 10 PW pulsed laser beam at intensities of ∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2} for the first time, enabling investigation of the new physical phenomena at the interfaces of plasma, nuclear and particle physics. The electric field in the laser focus has a maximum value of ∼10{sup 15} V/m at such laser intensities. In the ELI-NP Experimental Area E6, we propose the study of Radiation Reaction, Strong Field Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) effects and resulting production of Ultra-bright Sources of Gamma-rays which could be used for nuclear activation. Two powerful, synchronized 10 PW laser beams will be focused in the E6 Interaction Chamber on either gas or solid targets. One 10 PW beam is the Pump-beam and the other is the Probe-beam. The focused Pump beam accelerates the electrons to relativistic energies. The accelerated electron bunches interact with the very high electro-magnetic field of the focused Probe beam. The layout of the experimental area E6 will be presented with several options for the experimental configurations.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almedina Numanović

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Excessive physical exercise combined with certain psychic and sociodemographic factors can lead to dependence. Objective: To examine which factors lead to the emergence of exercise dependence. Methods: Sample consisted of 103 men (mean age 27.3 years, SD 6.127 who performed exercises at gyms at least three times a week in the last year or more in Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Raska and Tutin, Serbia. Participants completed questionnaires and took appropriate tests. Results: Our results showed that there is no association between exercise dependence and financial status, number of siblings, level of education, family stability, health, and medication use among the interviewees. However, it was found that the degree of exercise dependence is associated with marital status and problems with the law. Regression analysis showed that body dysmorphia, body mass index and aggressiveness are better predictors of exercise dependence. Conclusion: People whose self-perception is dismorphic have lower self-esteem, and exercise in gyms to improve their physical appearance. If we consider other characteristics, such as unfavorable BMI, problems with the lаw and being single, it is hardly surprising these individuals cross the line between healthy exercise and exercise dependence. An important finding is that aggressiveness and exercise dependence are related to problems with the law due to aggression, and body dysmorphia. Level of Evidence; Diagnostic studies - Investigating a diagnostic test.

  11. Strong renormalization scheme dependence in τ-lepton decay: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    1995-01-01

    The question of the renormalization scheme dependence of the τ semileptonic decay rate is examined in response to a recent criticism. Particular attention is payed to a distinction between a consistent quantitative description of this dependence and the actual selection of a subset of ''acceptable'' renormalization schemes. It is pointed out that this criticism is valid only within a particular definition of the ''strength'' of the renormalization scheme dependence and should not discourage further attempts to use the semileptonic τ decay rate for quantitative tests of perturbative QCD

  12. Photon and spin dependence of the resonance line shape in the strong coupling regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Shirai, Tatsuhiko; Mori, Takashi; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Chiorescu, Irinel

    2012-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a spin ensemble coupled to cavity photons. Recently, related experimental results have been reported, showing the existence of the strong coupling regime in such systems. We study the eigenenergy distribution of the multi-spin system (following the Tavis-Cummings

  13. Model-Based Dependability Analysis of Physical Systems with Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tundis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an innovative, equation-based, and acausal language that allows modeling complex physical systems, which are made of mechanical, electrical, and electrotechnical components, and evaluates their design through simulation techniques. Unfortunately, the increasing complexity and accuracy of such physical systems require new, more powerful, and flexible tools and techniques for evaluating important system properties and, in particular, the dependability ones such as reliability, safety, and maintainability. In this context, the paper describes some extensions of the Modelica language to support the modeling of system requirements and their relationships. Such extensions enable the requirement verification analysis through native constructs in the Modelica language. Furthermore, they allow exporting a Modelica-based system design as a Bayesian Network in order to analyze its dependability by employing a probabilistic approach. The proposal is exemplified through a case study concerning the dependability analysis of a Tank System.

  14. Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Robert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing

  15. Strong-field physics using lasers and relativistic heavy ions at the high-energy storage ring HESR at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T; Bagnoud, V; Stoehlker, T; Litvinov, Y; Winters, D F A; Zielbauer, B; Backe, H; Spielmann, Ch; Seres, J; Tünnermann, A; Neumayer, P; Aurand, B; Namba, S; Zhao, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The HESR high-energy ion storage ring at FAIR will provide unprecedented possibilities for strong-field physics using novel laser sources on relativistic heavy ions. An overview on the planning will be given.

  16. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  17. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Physical Correlates in Alcohol-dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauba, Deepak; Thomas, Pramod; Balhara, Yatan P S; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and pattern of comorbidity in alcohol dependence and its relationship with physical and laboratory findings. Eighty males with alcohol dependence were examined using the Hindi version of Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the International Classification of Disease-10 th Edition Personality Disorder Examination, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for alcohol use, global assessment of functioning, blood sampling electrocardiogram, and ultrasonogram. Eighty-seven percent had a comorbid Axis I or an Axis II psychiatric disorder, over 78% had nicotine dependence, and 56% had comorbid Axis II disorder, antisocial personality being the most common. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels were significantly associated with comorbidity. High comorbidity of Axis I psychiatric disorders was found among persons with alcohol dependence. Axis II disorders were also present.

  18. Strong dopant dependence of electric transport in ion-gated MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piatti, Erik; Chen, Qihong; Ye, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of MoS2 thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with Li+ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with K+ leads

  19. A note on the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove some almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences under some mild conditions. The results extend the ASCLT to nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences and give substantial improvements for the weight sequence obtained by Lin et al. (Comput. Math. Appl. 62(2:635-640, 2011.

  20. On an nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a strongly almost periodic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aribindi Satyanarayan Rao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Banach space, if u is a Stepanov almost periodic solution of a certain nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a Stepanov almost periodic forcing function, then u,u′,…,u (n−2 are all strongly almost periodic and u (n−1 is weakly almost periodic.

  1. Strong diameter-dependence of nanowire emission coupled to waveguide modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Dick van, E-mail: a.d.v.dam@tue.nl; Haverkort, Jos E. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Abujetas, Diego R.; Sánchez-Gil, José A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Serrano, 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bakkers, Erik P. A. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Gómez Rivas, Jaime, E-mail: j.gomezrivas@differ.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research DIFFER, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-21

    The emission from nanowires can couple to waveguide modes supported by the nanowire geometry, thus governing the far-field angular pattern. To investigate the geometry-induced coupling of the emission to waveguide modes, we acquire Fourier microscopy images of the photoluminescence of nanowires with diameters ranging from 143 to 208 nm. From the investigated diameter range, we conclude that a few nanometers difference in diameter can abruptly change the coupling of the emission to a specific mode. Moreover, we observe a diameter-dependent width of the Gaussian-shaped angular pattern in the far-field emission. This dependence is understood in terms of interference of the guided modes, which emit at the end facets of the nanowire. Our results are important for the design of quantum emitters, solid state lighting, and photovoltaic devices based on nanowires.

  2. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  3. Laser based imaging of time depending microscopic scenes with strong light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Wilhelm, Eugen; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely strong light emission. As a side effect a schlieren movie is gathered without any special effort. The fact that microscopic features of short time processes with high emission and material flow might be imaged without endangering valuable equipment makes this technique at least as interesting as the intended one. So we decided to present our results - including latest video and photo material - instead of a more theoretical paper on our progress concerning the primary goal.

  4. Polarization-dependent solitons in the strong coupling regime of semiconductor microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of polarization on formation of vectorial polariton soliton in semiconductor microcavities through numerical simulations. It is found that the polariton solution greatly depends on the polarization of both the pump and exciting fields. By properly choosing the pump and exciting field polarization, bright–bright or bright–dark vectorial polariton solitons can be formed. Especially, when the input conditions of pump or exciting field of the two opposite polarizations are slightly asymmetric, an interesting phenomenon that the dark solitons transform into bright solitons occurs in the branch of soliton solutions.

  5. Strong composition dependence of adhesive properties of ultraviolet curing adhesives with modified acrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Li, Yandong; Wang, Fupeng; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Zhichao; Hu, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesives have been widely researched in fields of health care and electronic components. UV curing systems with modified acrylic ester prepolymers have been frequently employed. In order to clarify composition dependence of adhesive properties of adhesives containing modified acrylates, in this work, several UV curing adhesives bearing urethane and epoxy acrylates were designed and fabricated. The effects of prepolymer, diluent, feed ratio, initiator and assistant on adhesive performances were investigated. This work might offer a facile route to gain promising high-performance UV curable adhesives with desired adhesive traits through regulating their compositions.

  6. Atomic physics of strongly correlated systems: Progress report, 1 February 1988--15 January 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chii-Dong.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the progress made in our continuing study of strongly correlated atomic systems for the last contract period. In the area of hyperspherical coordinates for Coulombic three-body systems of arbitrary masses a general computing code has been developed. Calculation of the adiabatic potential curves have been accomplished for the e/sup /minus//e + e/sup /minus// system of arbitrary L, S and parity π. It was found that these curves behave very similar to the potential curves of H/sup /minus// except for a mass scaling. We have also examined the mass dependence of the ground state potential curves for systems of three charged particles, AAB, and showed that the curves become more attractive as the mass m/sub A/ becomes larger than m/sub B/. For ion-atom collisions we have examined the transfer-excitation (TE) processes to establish the importance of electron correlations in these two-electron transitions. We have also examined the orientation parameters for excited states formed in collisions with positive and negative charged particles to establish the relation between the sign of the charge of the incident particles to the sign of

  7. Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.

  8. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  9. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  10. Orientation dependent slip and twinning during compression and tension of strongly textured magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: al-samman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Chowdhury, S. Ghosh [CSIR National Metallurgical Laboratory, MST Division, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Over recent years there have been a remarkable number of studies dealing with compression of magnesium. A literature search, however, shows a noticeably less number of papers concerned with tension and a very few papers comparing both modes, systematically, in one study. The current investigation reports the anisotropic deformation behavior and concomitant texture and microstructure evolution investigated in uniaxial tension and compression tests in two sample directions performed on an extruded commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 at different Z conditions. For specimens with the loading direction parallel to the extrusion axis, the tension-compression strength anisotropy was pronounced at high Z conditions. Loading at 45{sup o} from the extrusion axis yielded a tension-compression strength behavior that was close to isotropic. During tensile loading along the extrusion direction the extrusion texture resists twinning and favors prismatic slip (contrary to compression). This renders the shape change maximum in the basal plane and equal to zero along the c-axis, which resulted in the orientation of individual grains remaining virtually intact during all tension tests at different Z conditions. For the other investigated sample direction, straining was accommodated along the c-axis, which was associated with a lattice rotation, and thus, a change of crystal orientation. Uniaxial compression at a low Z condition (400 deg. C/10{sup -4} s{sup -1}) yielded a desired texture degeneration, which was explained on the basis of a more homogeneous partitioning of slip systems that reduces anisotropy and enhanced dynamic recrystallization (DRX), which counteracts the strong deformation texture. The critical strains for the nucleation of DRX in tensiled specimens at the highest investigated Z condition (200 deg. C/10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were found to range between 4% and 5.6%.

  11. Tunable photonic crystal for THz radiation in layered superconductors: Strong magnetic-field dependence of the transmission coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation

  12. PROLARM: Cancer risk from medical diagnostic exposures is strongly dependent upon patients' prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Matthias; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: a) To evaluate the impact of the reduced life expectancy of patients (compared to a non-patient group with same age distribution) on their risk of developing cancer from the diagnostic use of radiation. b) To find an approximation to such reduction in risk which depends only on the patient's age, a, and his life expectancy, but is independent of the choice of values for the baseline risk of cancer incidence, m(a), and the enhanced relative risk ERR(a) from radiation exposure. Method: The lifetime attributable risk LAR (of a radiation-induced malignancy to manifest itself) is a function of age at exposure, e, and given by integrating over attained age, a, the product of ERR(a), baseline cancer risk m(a) and the relative probability of surviving to age a, S'(a,e). We define a 'prognosis-based LAR modifier' (PROLARM) as the ratio of risks for non-patient, LAR(a), and patient, LAR p (a), a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of reduction of LAR due to the patient's prognosis. With the survival of the patient group, S p ' (a,e), and for any choice of fitted function for ERR(a) like those used in BEIR VII report, PROLARM ≥∫d'(a,e) da/∫S p '(a,e) da, i.e. the ratio of the survival integrals gives a lower (thus conservative) estimate of the reduction in risk. Results: The method was applied to n=4285 patients with metastatic breast cancer for whom survival as a function of age at metastasis was known. Figure shows that LAR is decreased significantly for all ages at exposure. At younger ages, this decrease is more pronounced (PROLARM ≥ 20 for e ≤ 65). Example: using ERR values of BEIR VII, the LAR due to 10 mSv effective dose at age a = 50 would drop from 1.2 E-3 for non-patient to 4.3E-5 for a patient, i.e. by a factor (PROLARM) of 29. Using only survival data, that factor is 27 (but no LAR can be computed). In other words: 10 mSv for a patient correspond risk-wise to 0.4 mSv for non-patient. The method can be applied to any pathology

  13. PAH effects on meio- and microbial benthic communities strongly depend on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    The effects of anthropogenic pollutants in dissimilar habitats can vary depending on differences in bioavailability. The factors determining bioavailability are not yet fully understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether analysis of total PAH concentrations in sediments is a satisfactory measurement to indicate environmental effects or if bioavailability is needed to be taken into account. We have here performed a 60-day experiment, where nominal PAH concentrations of 1,300 μg/kg sediment were added to three different marine sediments. Meiofaunal and microbial communities were analyzed for alterations in community response at 30 and 60 days. Results showed that bioavailability of PAHs varied between the three different sediments. Nonetheless, the petroleum addition gave rise to significant negative effects on all three sediments at both time points. The two direct measurements of toxicity on the microbial community, potential nitrification and denitrification, displayed a lower effect of the PAH addition in the muddy sediment at both time points, compared to the other two sediment types. No effects were seen in the analysis of meiofaunal community structure. Measurements of PAH bioavailability in the three sediment types concurred with the results from the microbial community, revealing a lower bioavailability in the muddy sediment compared to the other two sediment types, 34% compared to sandy and 18% compared to organic at day 0. At day 60 it was 61% lower compared to sandy and 20% lower compared to organic. The negative effects of the PAH addition on the microbial nitrogen cycle were in six out of eight cases best correlated to the amount of alkylated bioavailable PAH in the sediments, and thus microbial nitrogen cycle is a possible good indicator for assessing PAH-induced stress. The results presented here have implications for risk analysis studies of petroleum-contaminated marine sediments; consequently, sediment characteristics and its effects on

  14. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior.

  15. Current dependent angular magnetoresistance in strongly Pr-doped Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, V; Gyawali, P; Katuwal, T; Almasan, C C; Taylor, B J; Maple, M B

    2009-01-01

    We report a strong dependence of the angular magnetoresistance (AMR) on the current density in Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ single crystal above the critical temperature T c = 13 K for any applied field up to 14 T. We estimated the current dependence from the angular dependence of the top resistance R top , as measured on the face where the current is applied, and the bottom resistance R bot as measured on the opposite face. At any temperature, both below and above T c , R top decreases as the field becomes parallel to the current and ab-plane with an angle dependence that suggests an important contribution arising from the vortex flow. R bot evolves from a monotonic to nonmonotonic angle dependence with three minima and two maxima in the angle range 0 - 180 deg. as the temperature increases. For less Pr-doped samples, Y 0.58 Pr 0.42 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (T c = 39 K) and Y 0.68 rP 0.32 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (T c = 55 K), where the interplane resistivity is much lower, both R top and R bot follow the same monotonic angle dependence in all temperature and field range.

  16. What is the physical origin of strong Lyα emission? I. Demographics of Lyα emitter structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of structure analyses for a large sample of 426 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z ∼ 2.2 that are observed with the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3-IR during deep extra-galactic legacy surveys. We confirm that the merger fraction and the average ellipticity of LAE's stellar component are 10%-30% and 0.4-0.6, respectively, that are comparable with previous study results. We successfully identify that some LAEs have a spatial offset between Lyα and stellar-continuum emission peaks, δ Lyα , by ∼2.5-4 kpc beyond our statistical errors. To uncover the physical origin of strong Lyα emission found in LAEs, we investigate the Lyα equivalent width (EW) dependences of three structural parameters: merger fraction, δ Lyα , and ellipticity of stellar distribution in the range of EW(Lyα) = 20-250 Å. Contrary to expectations, we find that the merger fraction does not significantly increase with Lyα EW. We reveal an anti-correlation between δ Lyα and EW(Lyα) using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test. There is a trend that the LAEs with a large Lyα EW have a small ellipticity. This is consistent with the recent theoretical claims that Lyα photons can more easily escape from face-on disks having a small ellipticity, due to less inter-stellar gas along the line of sight, although our K-S test indicates that this trend is not statistically significant. Our results of Lyα-EW dependence generally support the idea that an H I column density is a key quantity determining Lyα emissivity.

  17. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  18. Methyl Parathion Masks Withdrawal from Physical Dependence on Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W. Rockhold

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The cholinergic system has been proposed to participate in the development of dependence on opioids. The present study examined effects of dermal pretreatment with methyl parathion (MP, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the development of physical dependence on morphine. Opioid dependence was induced by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. infusion of morphine (26 nmol/μl/h for 3 days in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two doses of MP, 12.5 mg/kg, dermally, initially, 3 days prior to initiation of i.c.v. morphine infusion and again on the first day of infusion. Withdrawal was precipitated after 3 days of infusion by administering an opioid antagonist, naloxone (48 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.. Twelve of 23 MP-treated rats exhibited signs of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor intoxication (mild tremors and showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activity (tested by an open field test, prior to naloxone. The brain cholinesterase activity in these 12 rats was 13% of levels in control rats. Eleven rats that did not show toxic signs, exhibited cholinesterase activities that were 20% of control (not significant versus toxic group. The group that showed signs of MP intoxication exhibited a significantly lower incidence of opioid withdrawal jumping, rearing and wet dog shakes compared with the non-toxic group. No differences between quantal withdrawal signs (ptosis, penis-licking, and vocalization were noted between the two groups. The results suggest that toxic inhibition of acetylcholinesterase non-specifically reduces locomotor activity and may obscure certain behavioral signs of withdrawal from opioid dependence. This indicates that caution should be used in interpreting a direct involvement of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in preventing opioid dependence.

  19. TGFβ affects collagen cross-linking independent of chondrocyte phenotype but strongly depending on physical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Koevoet, W.; Bart, A.C.W. de; Zuurmond, A.-M.; Bank, R.A.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Groot, J. de; Osch, G.J.V.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is often used in cartilage tissue engineering to increase matrix formation by cells with various phenotypes. However, adverse effects of TGFβ, such as extensive cross-linking in cultured fibroblasts, have also been reported. Our goal was to study effects of

  20. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories

  1. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews research done on theoretical high energy physics. Areas of discussion are: chiral symmetry; quantum chromodynamics; quark-gluon plasma; particle decay of kaons; photonuclear reactions from cosmic ray showers; symmetry breaking and other related topics

  2. Electrical Control of Structural and Physical Properties via Strong Spin-Orbit Interactions in Sr2IrO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G.; Terzic, J.; Zhao, H. D.; Zheng, H.; De Long, L. E.; Riseborough, Peter S.

    2018-01-01

    Electrical control of structural and physical properties is a long-sought, but elusive goal of contemporary science and technology. We demonstrate that a combination of strong spin-orbit interactions (SOI) and a canted antiferromagnetic Mott state is sufficient to attain that goal. The antiferromagnetic insulator Sr2IrO4 provides a model system in which strong SOI lock canted Ir magnetic moments to IrO6 octahedra, causing them to rigidly rotate together. A novel coupling between an applied electrical current and the canting angle reduces the Néel temperature and drives a large, nonlinear lattice expansion that closely tracks the magnetization, increases the electron mobility, and precipitates a unique resistive switching effect. Our observations open new avenues for understanding fundamental physics driven by strong SOI in condensed matter, and provide a new paradigm for functional materials and devices.

  3. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  4. Methane spectral line widths and shifts, and dependences on physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K.; Quillen, D. T.; Jennings, D. E.; Wagner, J.; Plymate, C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed report of the recent high-resolution spectroscopic research on widths and shifts measured for a strong infrared-active fundamental of methane is presented. They were measured in collision with several rare gases and diatomic molecules, in the vibrational-rotational fundamental near 3000/cm. These measurements were made at an ambient temperature of 294 K over a range of pressures from 100 to 700 torr. The measurements are discussed in a preliminary but detailed and quantitative manner with reference to masses, polarizabilities, and quadrupole moments. Some functional dependences on these physical parameters are considered. The present data are useful for studies of corresponding planetary spectra.

  5. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y; Ejiri, J [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Physical growth in children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish K Pemde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Harish K Pemde, Jagdish Chandra, Divya Gupta, Varinder Singh, Rajni Sharma, AK DuttaDepartment of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, IndiaObjective: To describe physical growth and related factors in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the records of the patients registered at and being followed up by the Thalassemia Day Care Center (TDCC at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded on a spreadsheet for analysis. Clinical parameters included weight, height, sexual maturity ratings, and general and systemic physical examination. Laboratory parameters included pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb, periodic serum ferritin, and tests for viral markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B and C. Z-scores for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI were calculated using World Health Organization reference data. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel® and Stata® software.Results: Out of 214 patients registered at the TDCC since 2001, 154 were included in this study. The mean age of patients was 9.19 years (range 0.5–20 years. Pretransfusion Hb was well maintained (mean 9.21 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.06–9.36, but the mean serum ferritin levels were approximately three times (3112 ng/mL the desired value despite the patients being on deferiprone (72% or deferasirox (25%. One-third (33.11% of the patients had short stature, 13% were thin, and 10.82% were very thin (BMI z-score <-3. No patient was overweight or obese. Linear regression coefficient showed that for every 1-year increase in age, the mean ferritin value increased by 186.21 pg/mL (95% CI: 143.31–228.27. Height z-scores had significant correlation with mean ferritin levels, whereas correlation with mean pretransfusion Hb was not significant statistically. Mean ferritin levels

  7. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  8. One physical educator's career cycle: strong start, great run, approaching finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Lynn, Susan K

    2014-03-01

    This article is nested within a longitudinal project examining 6 teachers' journeys along their career cycles (Lynn & Woods, 2010; Woods & Earls, 1995; Woods & Lynn, 2001). Two participants from the initial 6 continue to teach K-12 physical education; 1 of these participants, Everett, is examined in the current study. This veteran teacher's career-cycle movement and the environmental factors that both enhanced and constrained his career development are examined through the lens of Fessler and Christensen's career cycle model (1992). Data sources included: 8 formal interviews with Everett; formal interviews with his university teacher educators, student-teacher supervisor, principal, and spouse; informal interviews; field notes; and systematic teaching observations. An interpretative framework was used to assess the perceptions and meanings Everett gave to experiences as a physical educator and coach. Several factors acutely influenced Everett's career progression, including: (a) his individual disposition, (b) the impact and continued influence of a professional preparation program, and (c) his school and community support. He entered the profession with great promise and spent most of his career in the enthusiastic and growing, and the career stability, stages before shifting into the career frustration stage where he currently remains. Everett was able to negotiate personal and organizational environmental factors that have been identified as barriers for some physical educators. Therefore, viewing his professional life through the lens of the career cycle provides insights into the areas of change necessary to motivate and retain high-quality physical educators such as Everett.

  9. High performance multi-scale and multi-physics computation of nuclear power plant subjected to strong earthquake. An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinobu; Kawai, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Shin'ichiro; Hori, Muneo; Nakajima, Norihiro; Kobayashi, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Recently importance of nuclear energy has been recognized again due to serious concerns of global warming and energy security. In parallel, it is one of critical issues to verify safety capability of ageing nuclear power plants (NPPs) subjected to strong earthquake. Since 2007, we have been developing the multi-scale and multi-physics based numerical simulator for quantitatively predicting actual quake-proof capability of ageing NPPs under operation or just after plant trip subjected to strong earthquake. In this paper, we describe an overview of the simulator with some preliminary results. (author)

  10. Dependence of Nanoparticle Toxicity on Their Physical and Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Bozrova, Svetlana; Sokolov, Pavel; Berestovoy, Mikhail; Karaulov, Alexander; Nabiev, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Studies on the methods of nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, analysis of their characteristics, and exploration of new fields of their applications are at the forefront of modern nanotechnology. The possibility of engineering water-soluble NPs has paved the way to their use in various basic and applied biomedical researches. At present, NPs are used in diagnosis for imaging of numerous molecular markers of genetic and autoimmune diseases, malignant tumors, and many other disorders. NPs are also used for targeted delivery of drugs to tissues and organs, with controllable parameters of drug release and accumulation. In addition, there are examples of the use of NPs as active components, e.g., photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy and in hyperthermic tumor destruction through NP incorporation and heating. However, a high toxicity of NPs for living organisms is a strong limiting factor that hinders their use in vivo. Current studies on toxic effects of NPs aimed at identifying the targets and mechanisms of their harmful effects are carried out in cell culture models; studies on the patterns of NP transport, accumulation, degradation, and elimination, in animal models. This review systematizes and summarizes available data on how the mechanisms of NP toxicity for living systems are related to their physical and chemical properties.

  11. A conceptual model of independence and dependence for adults with chronic physical illness and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, M A; Cott, C

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of physical independence and dependence as it relates to adult onset, chronic physical illness and disability. Physical independence and dependence are presented as two separate, continuous, and multiply determined constructs, and illustrations are provided of situations where people can be independent, dependent, not independent, or experience imposed dependence. The paper also discusses potential determinants of physical independence and dependence, including different domains of disability, the role of subjective perceptions, demographics, the physical and social/political environments, personal resources, attitudes and coping resources, illness and efficacy appraisals, and the nature of the assistive relationship. The paper extends work on physical independence and dependence by synthesizing the findings from previous studies and incorporating the findings from other relevant areas of research into the area. It also expands on the concepts of physical independence and dependence, as well as their determinants, and relates independence and dependence to other outcomes of interest such as service delivery.

  12. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  13. Bombarding energy dependence of nucleon exchange and energy dissipation in the strongly damped reaction 209Bi + 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.; Schroeder, W.U.; Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.; Randrup, J.

    1980-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of strongly damped reactions at energies several MeV/u above the Coulomb barrier, some important experimental results are not yet clearly understood. Among these is the degree of correlation between the nucleon exchange and the large energy losses observed. Experimental evidence suggesting nucleon exchange as described by a one-body model to be the major component of the dissipation mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that the previously unexplained bombarding energy dependence between energy loss and fragment charge dispersion can be understood on the basis of a nucleon exchange model, provided the Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account. No necessity is seen to invoke further energy dissipation mechanisms. 7 figures

  14. Proceedings of the 24. SLAC summer institute on particle physics: The strong interaction, from hadrons to partons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.; DePorcel, L.; Dixon, L. [eds.

    1997-06-01

    This conference explored the role of the strong interaction in the physics of hadrons and partons. The Institute attracted 239 physicists from 16 countries to hear lectures on the underlying theory of Quantum Chromodynamics, modern theoretical calculational techniques, and experimental investigation of the strong interaction as it appears in various phenomena. Different regimes in which one can calculate reliably in QCD were addressed in series of lectures on perturbation theory, lattice gauge theories, and heavy quark expansions. Studies of QCD in hadron-hadron collisions, electron-positron annihilation, and electron-proton collisions all give differing perspectives on the strong interaction--from low-x to high-Q{sup 2}. Experimental understanding of the production and decay of heavy quarks as well as the lighter meson states has continued to evolve over the past years, and these topics were also covered at the School. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction. Comment on the nobel prize in physics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaoxi

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David J. Gross, Frank Wilczek and H. David Politzer for their decisive contributions to the theory of the asymptotic freedom of the strong interaction (a fundamental interaction). The fundamental elements of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the theory of the strong interaction are briefly reviewed in their historical context. How to achieve asymptotic freedom is introduced and its physical meaning explained. The latest experimental tests of asymptotic freedom are presented, and it is shown that the theoretical prediction agrees excellently with the experimental measurements. Perturbative QCD which is based on the asymptotic freedom is outlined. It is pointed out that the theoretical discovery and experimental proof of the asymptotic freedom are crucial for QCD to be the correct theory of strong interaction. Certain frontier research areas of QCD, such as 'color confinement', are mentioned. The discovery and confirmation of asymptotic freedom has indeed deeply affected particle physics, and has led to QCD becoming a main content of the standard model, and to further development of the so-called grand unification theories of interactions. (author)

  16. Exploring the physics of superconducting qubits strongly coupled to microwave frequency photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallraff, Andreas [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the properties of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. In such circuits the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems allows us to probe fundamental quantum properties of light and to develop components for applications in quantum information technology. Here, I present experiments in which we have created and probed entanglement between stationary qubits and microwave photons freely propagating down a transmission line. In these experiments we use superconducting parametric amplifiers realized in our lab to detect both qubit and photon states efficiently. Using similar techniques we aim at demonstrating a deterministic scheme for teleportation of quantum states in a macroscopic system based on superconducting circuits.

  17. Nonlinear physics of plasmas. Spatiotemporal structures in strong turbulence. Lecture notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, Milos M.

    2008-05-01

    This material has been prepared and partly delivered in a series of lectures given at NIFS to Doctor course students of the SOKENDAI (Graduate University of Advanced Studies, Japan) in academic 2007/08 year. Special gratitude is due to colleagues for fruitful collaboration: Profs. K. Mima, Lj. Hadzievski, S. Ishiguro, A. Maluckov, M. Rajkovic and Dr Li Baiwen and Dr Lj. Nikolic, in particular, and to Prof. Mitsuo Kono for motivating the work on this text. I wish to pay unique tribute to close friends and longtime collaborators, Prof. Dik ter Haar and Prof. Moma Jovanovic who are no longer with us. This report contains Chapter 1 (Strong Langmur Turbulence), Chapter 2 (Wave Collapse in Plasmas), Chapter 3 (Spatiotemporal Complexity in Plasmas), Chapter 4 (Relativistic Plasma Interactions) and Chapter 5 (Ponderomotive Potential and Magnetization). (J.P.N.)

  18. Physical implementation of pair-based spike timing dependent plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azghadi, M.R.; Al-Sarawi, S.; Iannella, N.; Abbott, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Objective Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STOP) is one of several plasticity rules which leads to learning and memory in the brain. STOP induces synaptic weight changes based on the timing of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. A neural network which can mimic the adaptive capability of biological brains in the temporal domain, requires the weight of single connections to be altered by spike timing. To physically realise this network into silicon, a large number of interconnected STOP circuits on the same substrate is required. This imposes two significant limitations in terms of power and area. To cover these limitations, very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) technology provides attractive features in terms of low power and small area requirements. An example is demonstrated by (lndiveli et al. 2006). The objective of this paper is to present a new implementation of the STOP circuit which demonstrates better power and area in comparison to previous implementations. Methods The proposed circuit uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as depicted in Fig. I. The synaptic weight can be stored on a capacitor and charging/discharging current can lead to potentiation and depression. HSpice simulation results demonstrate that the average power, peak power, and area of the proposed circuit have been reduced by 6, 8 and 15%, respectively, in comparison with Indiveri's implementation. These improvements naturally lead to packing more STOP circuits onto the same substrate, when compared to previous proposals. Hence, this new implementation is quite interesting for real-world large neural networks.

  19. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-05-14

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN.

  20. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-14

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN.

  1. Field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao

    2006-06-01

    Field-independent individuals, compared with field-dependent individuals, have higher sports potential and advantages in sport-related settings. Little research, however, has been conducted on the association of field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity. The study examined this association for college students who participated in physical activities in and beyond physical education classes. The Group Embedded Figures Test distinguished 40 field-dependent from 40 field-independent participants. Activity logs during one semester showed that field-independent participants were significantly more physically active and their physical activity behaviors were more sport-related than those of field-dependent participants.

  2. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819

  3. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  4. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  5. Strong-Isospin-Breaking Correction to the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment from Lattice QCD at the Physical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, B.; Davies, C. T. H.; Detar, C.; El-Khadra, A. X.; Gámiz, E.; Gottlieb, Steven; Hatton, D.; Koponen, J.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Laiho, J.; Lepage, G. P.; Liu, Yuzhi; MacKenzie, P. B.; McNeile, C.; Neil, E. T.; Simone, J. N.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; van de Water, R. S.; Vaquero, A.; Fermilab Lattice, Hpqcd,; Milc Collaborations

    2018-04-01

    All lattice-QCD calculations of the hadronic-vacuum-polarization contribution to the muon's anomalous magnetic moment to date have been performed with degenerate up- and down-quark masses. Here we calculate directly the strong-isospin-breaking correction to aμHVP for the first time with physical values of mu and md and dynamical u , d , s , and c quarks, thereby removing this important source of systematic uncertainty. We obtain a relative shift to be applied to lattice-QCD results obtained with degenerate light-quark masses of δ aμHVP ,mu≠md=+1.5 (7 )% , in agreement with estimates from phenomenology.

  6. Facile synthesis and strongly microstructure-dependent electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhongxing; Sun, Ping; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-09-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are strongly microstructure dependent. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles.

  7. Facile synthesis and strongly microstructure-dependent electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are strongly microstructure dependent. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles. PACS 81.05.ue; 78.67.Sc; 88.80.fh PMID:25258609

  8. Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows strong dependence on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, A; Ineson, P; Ostle, N; Fitter, A H

    2006-01-01

    * Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, their basic biology and, in particular, their respiratory response to temperature remain obscure. * A pulse label of the stable isotope (13)C was applied to Plantago lanceolata, either uninoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. The extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of the fungus was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment excluding roots. We determined the carbon costs of the ERM and tested for a direct temperature effect on its respiration by measuring total carbon and the (13)C:(12)C ratio of respired CO(2). With a second pulse we tested for acclimation of ERM respiration after 2 wk of soil warming. * Root colonization remained unchanged between the two pulses but warming the hyphal compartment increased ERM length. delta(13)C signals peaked within the first 10 h and were higher in mycorrhizal treatments. The concentration of CO(2) in the gas samples fluctuated diurnally and was highest in the mycorrhizal treatments but was unaffected by temperature. Heating increased ERM respiration only after the first pulse and reduced specific ERM respiration rates after the second pulse; however, both pulses strongly depended on radiation flux. * The results indicate a fast ERM acclimation to temperature, and that light is the key factor controlling carbon allocation to the fungus.

  9. Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: evidence from the Naskapi people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A

    2011-08-01

    Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank exhibited strong psychometric properties in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crins, Martine H P; Terwee, Caroline B; Klausch, Thomas; Smits, Niels; de Vet, Henrica C W; Westhovens, Rene; Cella, David; Cook, Karon F; Revicki, Dennis A; van Leeuwen, Jaap; Boers, Maarten; Dekker, Joost; Roorda, Leo D

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank in Dutch patients with chronic pain. A bank of 121 items was administered to 1,247 Dutch patients with chronic pain. Unidimensionality was assessed by fitting a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis and evaluating resulting fit statistics. Items were calibrated with the graded response model and its fit was evaluated. Cross-cultural validity was assessed by testing items for differential item functioning (DIF) based on language (Dutch vs. English). Construct validity was evaluated by calculation correlations between scores on the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function measure and scores on generic and disease-specific measures. Results supported the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank's unidimensionality (Comparative Fit Index = 0.976, Tucker Lewis Index = 0.976) and model fit. Item thresholds targeted a wide range of physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.2 to 5.6). Cross-cultural validity was good as four items only showed DIF for language and their impact on item scores was minimal. Physical Function scores were strongly associated with scores on all other measures (all correlations ≤ -0.60 as expected). The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank exhibited good psychometric properties. Development of a computer adaptive test based on the large bank is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current topics in condensed matter and particle physics. Non-perturbative phenomena and strongly correlated systems. Kathmandu summer school lecture notes. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.; Shafi, Q.; Yu Lu

    1993-01-01

    This is a collection of five lectures on quantum field theory and its applications, two lectures on aspects of particle and nuclear physics (unification in the superstring context; and topics in P and CP violation in nuclear and particle physics), and ten lectures mainly on the physics of strong correlations, all but one of which are within the INIS scope. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Moisture dependent of some physical and morphological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The static coefficients for friction of dent corn seeds were determined steel, plywood, wood, glass and galvanized sheet at various moisture contents. The highest static coefficient of friction was found on the wood and the lowest on the glass sheet among the materials tested. Key words: Dent corn, physical properties, ...

  13. Nicotine dependence matters: examining longitudinal association between smoking and physical activity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-11-01

    A number of studies point to the inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking; however, none has examined the role of nicotine dependence in physical activity participation among smokers. This study examined whether levels of nicotine dependence modify the association between leisure time physical activity and smoking status. The study used longitudinal data on 6795 adults from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between physical activity, smoking, and nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine dependent smokers were significantly less likely to be physically active compared to non-smokers. Specifically, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine dependent smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76) were less likely to be physically active while no significant difference was found for non-dependent smokers (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02) compared to non-smokers. Nicotine dependence matters in shaping engagement in physical activity among daily smokers. Efforts directed at promoting smoking cessation through nicotine dependence treatment intervention may provide additional benefits to health and well-being through an increased participation in physical activity. © 2013.

  14. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  15. Stages of physical dependence in New Zealand smokers: Prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Darren; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Li, Judy; Tu, Danny; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2016-12-01

    Physically dependent smokers experience symptoms of wanting, craving or needing to smoke when too much time has passed since the last cigarette. There is interest in whether wanting, craving and needing represent variations in the intensity of a single physiological parameter or whether multiple physiological processes may be involved in the developmental progression of physical dependence. Our aim was to determine how a population of cigarette smokers is distributed across the wanting, craving and needing stages of physical dependence. A nationwide survey of 2594 New Zealanders aged 15years and over was conducted in 2014. The stage of physical dependence was assessed using the Levels of Physical Dependence measure. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess relations between physical dependence and other variables. Among 590 current smokers (weighted 16.2% of the sample), 22.3% had no physical dependence, 23.5% were in the Wanting stage, 14.4% in the Craving stage, and 39.8% in the Needing stage. The stage of physical dependence was predicted by daily cigarette consumption, and the time to first cigarette, but not by age, gender, ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Fewer individuals were in the craving stage than either the wanting or needing stages. The resulting inverted U-shaped curve with concentrations at either extreme is difficult to explain as a variation of a single biological parameter. The data support an interpretation that progression through the stages of wanting, craving and needing may involve more than one physiological process. Physical dependence to tobacco develops through a characteristic sequence of wanting, craving and needing which correspond to changes in addiction pathways in the brain. It is important to neuroscience research to determine if the development of physical dependence involves changes in a single brain process, or multiple processes. Our data suggests that more than one physiologic process is involved in the

  16. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  17. Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.

  18. QUASAR CLUSTERING FROM SDSS DR5: DEPENDENCES ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bahcall, Neta A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Weinberg, David H.; Shankar, Francesco; Connolly, Andrew J.; Fan Xiaohui; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Brunner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of 38,208 quasars with a sky coverage of ∼4000 deg. 2 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Five quasar catalog, we study the dependence of quasar clustering on luminosity, virial black hole (BH) mass, quasar color, and radio loudness. At z 13 h -1 M sun , compared to ∼2 x 10 12 h -1 M sun for radio-quiet quasar hosts at z ∼ 1.5.

  19. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P

    2016-09-07

    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources.

  20. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  1. Ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics of H2 in an elliptical strong laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-18

    We study the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold (NT) harmonics of pre-aligned H2 molecules using the time-dependent density functional theory. The anomalous maximum appearing at a non-zero ellipticity for the generated NT harmonics can be attributed to multiphoton effects of the orthogonally polarized component of the elliptical driving laser field. Our calculation also shows that the structure of the bound-state, such as molecular alignment and bond length, can be sensitively reflected on the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics.

  2. Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Evans, S M; Heishman, S J; Preston, K L; Sannerud, C A; Wolf, B; Woodson, P P

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of terminating low dose levels of caffeine (100 mg/day) in 7 normal humans. Substitution of placebo capsules for caffeine capsules occurred under double-blind conditions while subjects rated various dimensions of their mood and behavior. In the first phase of the study, substitution of placebo for 12 consecutive days resulted in an orderly withdrawal syndrome in 4 subjects which peaked on days 1 or 2 and progressively decreased toward prewithdrawal levels over about 1 week. Data from the remaining three subjects provided no evidence of withdrawal. In the second phase of the study, the generality of the withdrawal effect was examined by repeatedly substituting placebo for 100 mg/day of caffeine for 1-day periods separated by an average of 9 days. Despite differences within and across subjects with respect to the presence, nature and magnitude of symptoms, each of the seven subjects demonstrated a statistically significant withdrawal effect. Although the phenomenon of caffeine withdrawal has been described previously, the present report documents that the incidence of caffeine withdrawal is higher (100% of subjects), the daily dose level at which withdrawal occurs is lower (roughly equivalent to the amount of caffeine in a single cup of strong brewed coffee or 3 cans of caffeinated soft drink) and the range of symptoms experienced is broader (including headache, fatigue and other dysphoric mood changes, muscle pain/stiffness, flu-like feelings, nausea/vomiting and craving for caffeine) than heretofore recognized.

  3. Surface-termination-dependent magnetism and strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of an FeRh(001) thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jekal, S.; Rhim, S.H.; Hong, S.C.; Son, W.-J.; Shick, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2015), " 064410-1"-" 064410-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-07172S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * magnetic recording * surface science Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  4. Crucial Physical Dependencies of the Core-Collapse Supernova Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A.; Vartanyan, D.; Dolence, J. C.; Skinner, M. A.; Radice, D.

    2018-02-01

    We explore with self-consistent 2D F ornax simulations the dependence of the outcome of collapse on many-body corrections to neutrino-nucleon cross sections, the nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung rate, electron capture on heavy nuclei, pre-collapse seed perturbations, and inelastic neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Importantly, proximity to criticality amplifies the role of even small changes in the neutrino-matter couplings, and such changes can together add to produce outsized effects. When close to the critical condition the cumulative result of a few small effects (including seeds) that individually have only modest consequence can convert an anemic into a robust explosion, or even a dud into a blast. Such sensitivity is not seen in one dimension and may explain the apparent heterogeneity in the outcomes of detailed simulations performed internationally. A natural conclusion is that the different groups collectively are closer to a realistic understanding of the mechanism of core-collapse supernovae than might have seemed apparent.

  5. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  6. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy-ion collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Anderson, B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Badyal, S. K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bnzarov, I.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B.E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A.V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T.P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon, M.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Chen, J.Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L. (ed.); Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Lordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Konzer, J.; Kopytine, M.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Millner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M.M.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Pujahari, P.R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L.H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlustý, David; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.M.S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, K.-Y.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 5 (2010), 054908/1-054908/15 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS * TIME PROJECTION CHAMBER * QUARK-GLUON PLASMA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2010

  7. On the model dependence of the determination of the strong coupling constant in second order QCD from e+e--annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Forstbauer, B.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Henkes, T.; Hopp, G.; Krueger, M.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bonneaud, G.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Ros, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-12-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA are compared with second order QCD predictions using different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. We find that the model dependence in the determination of the strong coupling constant persists when going from first to second order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  8. Time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons as the strong-coupling limit of the fermionic broken-symmetry random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strinati, G.C.; Pieri, P.

    2004-01-01

    The linear response to a space- and time-dependent external disturbance of a system of dilute condensed composite bosons at zero temperature, as obtained from the linearized version of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, is shown to result also from the strong-coupling limit of the time-dependent BCS (or broken-symmetry random-phase) approximation for the constituent fermions subject to the same external disturbance. In this way, it is possible to connect excited-state properties of the bosonic and fermionic systems by placing the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in perspective with the corresponding fermionic approximations

  9. Methods for evaluating physical processes in strong external fields at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Furry picture and quasi-classical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Stefano [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Hartin, Anthony [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Future linear colliders designs, ILC and CLIC, are expected to be powerful machines for the discovery of Physics Beyond the Standard Model and subsequent precision studies. However, due to the intense beams (high luminosity, high energy), strong electromagnetic fields occur in the beam-beam interaction region. In the context of precision high energy physics, the presence of such strong fields may yield sensitive corrections to the observed electron-positron processes. The Furry picture of quantum states gives a conceptually simple tool to treat physics processes in an external field. A generalization of the quasi-classical operator method (QOM) as an approximation is considered too.

  10. Strong Temperature Dependence in the Reactivity of H 2 on RuO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Dahal, Arjun; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2016-08-04

    The ability of hydrogen to facilitate many types of heterogeneous catalysis starts with its adsorption. As such, understanding the temperature-dependence sticking of H2 is critical toward controlling and optimizing catalytic conditions in those cases where adsorption is rate-limiting. In this work, we examine the temperature-dependent sticking of H2/D2 to the clean RuO2(110) surface using the King & Wells molecular beam approach, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We show that the sticking probability (molecular or dissociative) of H2/D2 on this surface is highly temperature-dependent, decreasing from ~0.4-0.5 below 25 K to effectively zero above 200 K. Both STM and TPD reveal that OH/OD formation is severely limited for adsorption temperatures above ~150 K. Previous literature reports of extensive surface hydroxylation from H2/D2 exposures at room temperature were most likely the result of inadvertent contamination brought about from dosing by chamber backfilling.

  11. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  12. Energy dependence of jet-structures and determination of the strong coupling constant αsub(s) in e+e- annihilation with the CELLO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, G.

    1985-07-01

    We considered multihadronic events and we studied the energy dependence of the jet-structure of those events. We confirmed the existence of 3-jet and 4-jet events in high energy data as predicted by QCD. In parallel we checked the energy dependence of different jet-measures which is predicted by the fragmentation models. We determined the strong coupling constant αsub(s) using different methods and we found a strong model dependence of the αsub(s) determination in second order QCD. The study of the particle density between the jet-axes resulted in a light preference for the LUND-String model as compared to models with independent jet-fragmentation. (orig.) [de

  13. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na x CoO 2 and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general considerations on

  14. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-02-08

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general

  15. Proof of the formula for the ideal gas scattering kernel for nuclides with strongly energy dependent scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.

    2004-01-01

    The current study is a sequel to a paper by Rothenstein and Dagan [Ann. Nucl. Energy 25 (1998) 209] where the ideal gas based kernel for scatterers with internal structure was introduced. This double differential kernel includes the neutron energy after scattering as well as the cosine of the scattering angle for isotopes with strong scattering resonances. A new mathematical formalism enables the inclusion of the new kernel in NJOY [MacFarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91 (LA-12740-m)]. Moreover the computational time of the new kernel is reduced significantly, feasible for practical application. The completeness of the new kernel is proven mathematically and demonstrated numerically. Modifications necessary to remove the existing inconsistency of the secondary energy distribution in NJOY are presented

  16. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  17. Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Alvaro; González-Cutre, David

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context.

  18. Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley M. Stewart; R. Terry Bowyer; Brian L. Dick; Bruce K. Johnson; John G. Kie

    2005-01-01

    Density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. We designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density...

  19. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  20. Substrate dependent physical properties of evaporated CdO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Anuradha; Chander, S.; Patel, S.L. [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Rangra, K.J. [Sensors and Transducers Group, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani-333031 (India); Dhaka, M.S., E-mail: msdhaka75@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Substrate dependent physical properties of CdO thin films are carried out. • XRD patterns reveal that the films have cubic structure of space group Fm3m. • Optical direct band gap is found to vary with the substrates. • SEM images show that the films are compact and homogeneous. • I–V characteristics show ohmic behavior of the deposited CdO films. - Abstract: In this study, CdO thin films were grown by e-beam evaporation technique on glass, indium tin oxide (ITO), fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and silicon (Si) wafer. The deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and source meter (current–voltage) for structural, optical, surface morphological, elemental and electrical analysis, respectively. The films have single phase of cubic structure (space group Fm3m) with (200) preferred orientation. The structural parameters viz. inter-planar spacing, grain size, lattice constant, internal strain and dislocation density are calculated and found to vary with the nature of the substrates. The optical band gap was found in the range 2.24–3.95 eV and strongly dependents on the substrates. The SEM analysis shows that the films are compact, homogeneous and have granular structure without any defects like pin holes and cracks. The EDS spectra confirmed the presence of cadmium (Cd) and oxygen (O) in the films deposited on different substrates. The current–voltage characteristics of the films show ohmic behavior.

  1. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  2. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class

  3. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  5. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  6. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Recalled first reactions to inhaling nicotine predict the level of physical dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    The level of physical dependence is a measure of addiction that correlates highly with addiction-associated changes in brain structure. We sought to determine whether age at first inhalation and initial reactions to inhaling nicotine are related to level of physical dependence in early adulthood. Young adults (n=312; mean age=24 years; 51% female) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens study who had smoked at least once in the preceding three months completed self-report questionnaires in 2011-12. We assessed level of physical dependence with three validated self-report items assessing 'wanting,' 'craving' and 'needing' triggered by nicotine deprivation. Survey items assessed smoking behavior, including age at first inhalation, and recalled first reactions to inhaling nicotine. After adjusting for covariates, experiencing relaxation, heart racing/pounding, rush or "buzz" (OR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.94) and dizziness (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.18) at first nicotine inhalation were associated with an increased odds of being at a higher level of physical dependence in young adulthood; the association for experiencing relaxation (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.64) and heart racing/pounding (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.28) persisted after additionally controlling for all other first reactions. Neither age at first inhalation nor unpleasant first reactions predicted level of physical dependence. In accordance with prior research, our findings suggest that smokers who are particularly sensitive to the pleasant, "buzz-related" and generally arousing effects of nicotine may be more likely to attain higher levels of physical dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could be a useful way to boost the diagnosis of cocaine dependence. A cross-sectional study of 221 cocaine users from several outpatient addiction treatment services in France, addressing the most severe period of cocaine use. DSM-IV cocaine dependence was determined with the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Physical symptoms before using cocaine were retrospectively assessed with a single item rated on a 0-5 scale. The prevalence of DSM-IV cocaine dependence was 84.6%. The mean score on the physical symptoms item was 1.3 (SD 1.3). A cut-off score of ≥ 1 on this item alone resulted in a sensitivity of 62%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 96.6% and a negative predictive value of 29.7% to detect DSM IV cocaine dependence in this sample. Adding this item to a model with the frequency of cocaine use significantly increased the predictive power: Nagelkerke's R(2) increased from .149 to .326 (p physical signs of cocaine craving is associated with a clinical diagnosis of lifetime cocaine dependence and could be a simple way to improve its detection in clinical settings. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a strong magnetic field using a density dependent bag constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.

  10. Physical activity level is impaired and diet dependent in preterm newborn pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    and neonatal physical activity. METHODS: In experiment 1, preterm and term pigs were fed parenteral nutrition (PN) or PN plus bovine colostrum (BC, 16-64 ml/kg/d enterally) for 5 d. In experiment 2, preterm pigs were fed PN+BC or PN+formula for 5 d. In experiment 3, preterm pigs were fed BC, formula, or human...... feeding increased HCA, intestinal weights, and necrotizing enteritis resistance, relative to formula (experiment 3). CONCLUSION: Preterm pigs show decreased physical activity, and the first enteral feeds diet dependently stimulate both gut growth and physical activity. The effects may arise from...

  11. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  12. Isospin dependence of physical observables in Incomplete Fusion reactions at 25 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, I., E-mail: ilombardo@lns.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Berceanu, I. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chatterjee, M.B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Coniglione, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); DeFilippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); DiPietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Geraci, E.; Giuliani, G.; Grassi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Grzeszczuk, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); LaGuidara, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Libera Universita Kore, Enna (Italy); LeNeindre, N. [LPC Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, Caen (France)

    2010-03-01

    Isospin dependence of dynamical and thermodynamical physical quantities observed in the reactions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40,48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca + {sup 46}Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon has been analyzed by means of the CHIMERA multi-detector.

  13. Time-dependent solutions for stochastic systems with delays: Perturbation theory and applications to financial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    First-order approximations of time-dependent solutions are determined for stochastic systems perturbed by time-delayed feedback forces. To this end, the theory of delay Fokker-Planck equations is applied in combination with Bayes' theorem. Applications to a time-delayed Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the geometric Brownian walk of financial physics are discussed

  14. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could

  15. External K+ dependence of strong inward rectifier K+ channel conductance is caused not by K+ but by competitive pore blockade by external Na.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiko

    2018-06-15

    Strong inward rectifier K + (sKir) channels determine the membrane potentials of many types of excitable and nonexcitable cells, most notably the resting potentials of cardiac myocytes. They show little outward current during membrane depolarization (i.e., strong inward rectification) because of the channel blockade by cytoplasmic polyamines, which depends on the deviation of the membrane potential from the K + equilibrium potential ( V - E K ) when the extracellular K + concentration ([K + ] out ) is changed. Because their open - channel conductance is apparently proportional to the "square root" of [K + ] out , increases/decreases in [K + ] out enhance/diminish outward currents through sKir channels at membrane potentials near their reversal potential, which also affects, for example, the repolarization and action-potential duration of cardiac myocytes. Despite its importance, however, the mechanism underlying the [K + ] out dependence of the open sKir channel conductance has remained elusive. By studying Kir2.1, the canonical member of the sKir channel family, we first show that the outward currents of Kir2.1 are observed under the external K + -free condition when its inward rectification is reduced and that the complete inhibition of the currents at 0 [K + ] out results solely from pore blockade caused by the polyamines. Moreover, the noted square-root proportionality of the open sKir channel conductance to [K + ] out is mediated by the pore blockade by the external Na + , which is competitive with the external K + Our results show that external K + itself does not activate or facilitate K + permeation through the open sKir channel to mediate the apparent external K + dependence of its open channel conductance. The paradoxical increase/decrease in outward sKir channel currents during alternations in [K + ] out , which is physiologically relevant, is caused by competition from impermeant extracellular Na . © 2018 Ishihara.

  16. [Depression and burden on primary caregivers of elderly persons with physical dependence of the UMF 171].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sandoval, Cristina; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela; Sahagún-Cuevas, Minerva Natalia

    2017-01-01

    According to the National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2012, more than a quarter of older adults (26.9%) have some degree of disability, requiring a primary caregiver to perform basic activities of daily living. The aim is to determine the prevalence of depression and burden on primary caregivers of elderly persons with physical dependence. A descriptive cross-sectional study with non-probability sampling that included the primary caregivers of elderly patients with physical dependence. Barthel scale was applied as a tool to measure the level of physical dependence in elderly patients; while the primary caregivers were applied to the Beck Depression and Zarit scale for assessing the level of caregiver burden. A sample of 76 primary caregivers was calculated and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Of the 76 primary caregivers, 55.3% were without depression, 32.9% had mild depression, and 11.8% with moderate depression. According to the Zarit scale, 40.8% had no burden, 44.7% had burden light, and 14.5% intense burden. The role of primary caregiver is a stressful task which can interfere with their family health; so our role is to provide care not only to the geriatric dependent patients, but also to their caregiver.

  17. A unified dislocation density-dependent physical-based constitutive model for cold metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, K.; Motaman, A. H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W.

    2017-10-01

    Dislocation-density-dependent physical-based constitutive models of metal plasticity while are computationally efficient and history-dependent, can accurately account for varying process parameters such as strain, strain rate and temperature; different loading modes such as continuous deformation, creep and relaxation; microscopic metallurgical processes; and varying chemical composition within an alloy family. Since these models are founded on essential phenomena dominating the deformation, they have a larger range of usability and validity. Also, they are suitable for manufacturing chain simulations since they can efficiently compute the cumulative effect of the various manufacturing processes by following the material state through the entire manufacturing chain and also interpass periods and give a realistic prediction of the material behavior and final product properties. In the physical-based constitutive model of cold metal plasticity introduced in this study, physical processes influencing cold and warm plastic deformation in polycrystalline metals are described using physical/metallurgical internal variables such as dislocation density and effective grain size. The evolution of these internal variables are calculated using adequate equations that describe the physical processes dominating the material behavior during cold plastic deformation. For validation, the model is numerically implemented in general implicit isotropic elasto-viscoplasticity algorithm as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in ABAQUS/Standard and used for finite element simulation of upsetting tests and a complete cold forging cycle of case hardenable MnCr steel family.

  18. Morphine Tolerance and Physical Dependence Are Altered in Conditional HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Sylvia; Stevens, David L; Khan, Fayez A; Scoggins, Krista L; Enga, Rachel M; Beardsley, Patrick M; Knapp, Pamela E; Dewey, William L; Hauser, Kurt F

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that chronic opiate use selectively affects the pathophysiologic consequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the nervous system, few studies have examined whether neuro-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) might intrinsically alter the pharmacologic responses to chronic opiate exposure. This is an important matter because HIV-1 and opiate abuse are interrelated epidemics, and HIV-1 patients are often prescribed opiates as a treatment of HIV-1-related neuropathic pain. Tolerance and physical dependence are inevitable consequences of frequent and repeated administration of morphine. In the present study, mice expressing HIV-1 Tat in a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible manner [Tat(+)], their Tat(-) controls, and control C57BL/6 mice were chronically exposed to placebo or 75-mg morphine pellets to explore the effects of Tat induction on morphine tolerance and dependence. Antinociceptive tolerance and locomotor activity tolerance were assessed using tail-flick and locomotor activity assays, respectively, and physical dependence was measured with the platform-jumping assay and recording of other withdrawal signs. We found that Tat(+) mice treated with DOX [Tat(+)/DOX] developed an increased tolerance in the tail-flick assay compared with control Tat(-)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Equivalent tolerance was developed in all mice when assessed by locomotor activity. Further, Tat(+)/DOX mice expressed reduced levels of physical dependence to chronic morphine exposure after a 1-mg/kg naloxone challenge compared with control Tat(-)/DOX and/or C57/DOX mice. Assuming the results seen in Tat transgenic mice can be generalized to neuroAIDS, our findings suggest that HIV-1-infected individuals may display heightened analgesic tolerance to similar doses of opiates compared with uninfected individuals and show fewer symptoms of physical dependence. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  19. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with Strong Vortex Pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, strong pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness dependent at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness dependent. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.

  20. A note on the physical interpretation of frequency dependent boundary conditions in a digital waveguide mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escolano-Carrasco, José; Jacobsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Digital waveguide mesh (DWM) is a popular method for time domain modelling of sound fields. DWM consists of a recursive digital filter structure where a D'Alembert solution of the wave equation is propagated. One of the attractive characteristics of this method is related to the simplicity...... model of the boundary does not agree with the behaviour of a locally reacting surface, and this can give rise to contradictions in the physical interpretation of the reflected sound field. This paper analyses the behaviour of frequency dependent boundary conditions in DWM in order to obtain a physical...

  1. Oxycodone physical dependence and its oral self-administration in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enga, Rachel M; Jackson, Asti; Damaj, M Imad; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-10-15

    Abuse of prescription opioids, such as oxycodone, has markedly increased in recent decades. While oxycodone's antinociceptive effects have been detailed in several preclinical reports, surprisingly few preclinical reports have elaborated its abuse-related effects. This is particularly surprising given that oxycodone has been in clinical use since 1917. In a novel oral operant self-administration procedure, C57BL/6J mice were trained to self-administer water before introducing increasing concentrations of oxycodone (0.056-1.0mg/ml) under post-prandial conditions during daily, 3-h test sessions. As the concentration of oxycodone increased, the numbers of deliveries first increased, then decreased in an inverted U-shape fashion characteristic of the patterns of other drugs self-administered during limited access conditions. After post-prandial conditions were removed, self-administration at the highest concentration was maintained suggesting oral oxycodone served as a positive reinforcer. In other mice, using a novel regimen of physical dependence, mice were administered increasing doses of oxycodone (9.0-33.0mg/kg, s.c.) over 9 days, challenged with naloxone (0.1-10.0mg/kg, s.c.), and then observed for 30min. Naloxone dose-dependently increased the observed number of somatic signs of withdrawal, suggesting physical dependence of oxycodone was induced under this regimen. This is the first report demonstrating induction of oral operant self-administration of oxycodone and dose-dependent precipitations of oxycodone withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. The use of oral operant self-administration as well as the novel physical dependence regimen provides useful approaches to further examine the abuse- and dependence-related effects of this highly abused prescription opioid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Strongly-Coupled Field Theories at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.

  3. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Strongly-Coupled Field Theories at the Intensity and Energy Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Physics and ECE Depts.

    2016-11-08

    This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.

  4. [Studies on the physical dependence liability of chlorphenesin carbamate (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, M; Tarumoto, Y; Aihara, H; Tanaka, Y; Saito, S

    1977-05-01

    Physical dependence liability of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) was studied in parallel with phenobarbital-Na (PB). Beagle dogs were used and the overall duration of the experiment was 85 days, i.e. the first dosing period was 42 dyas (6 weeks) in which drugs were repeatedly administered orally once daily, followed by a withdrawal period (7 days), the second dosing period was continued from the 50th-78th day in which the form and schedule of drug administration was as in the first dosing period. The last 79th to 85th days were used for substitution experiments. In both dosing periods, PB but not CPC showed signs of tolerance formation. Severe withdrawal syndrome was observed in PB administered dogs whereas there were no changes of behavior observed in CPC-dogs by withdrawal and substitution procedures, respectively. CPC apparently does not have a physical dependence liability.

  5. Effect of Strongly Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Silk Degumming and the Physical Properties of the Fibroin Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Cao

    Full Text Available Strongly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAEW was prepared by electrolysis of tap water in a laboratory-made water electrolyzer. The pH of stored SAEW was stable for more than one month. The hardness of the electrolyzed water was 30% lower and the Na(+ concentration was 18% higher than those of the tap water. Silkworm cocoon shells were boiled in pH 11.50 SAEW at a ratio of 1∶40∼80 (W/V for 20 min and the sericin layers around the silk fibroin fibers were removed completely. The tensile properties and thermal decomposition temperature of a single filament of silk fibroin obtained by the SAEW method were almost the same as those for the fiber obtained by the neutral soap, and much higher than those for the fiber obtained by Na2CO3 degumming. The results demonstrate that SAEW is an environmentally friendly and pollution-free silk degumming agent that allows highly efficient, low cost recovery of sericin.

  6. Global existence and large time asymptotic behavior of strong solutions to the Cauchy problem of 2D density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Boqiang; Shi, Xiaoding; Zhong, Xin

    2018-06-01

    We are concerned with the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional (2D) nonhomogeneous incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum as far-field density. It is proved that if the initial density decays not too slow at infinity, the 2D Cauchy problem of the density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations on the whole space admits a unique global strong solution. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large and the initial density can contain vacuum states and even have compact support. Furthermore, we also obtain the large time decay rates of the spatial gradients of the velocity and the pressure, which are the same as those of the homogeneous case.

  7. Activity-dependent neurorehabilitation beyond physical trainings: "mental exercise" through mirror neuron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sa, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot mak...

  8. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  9. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  10. Physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B E; Griffiths, R R

    1998-10-01

    Using a within-subject cross-over design, this study examined the role of physical dependence in caffeine reinforcement by experimentally manipulating physical dependence. Each subject was exposed to two chronic drug phases (300 mg/70 kg/day caffeine and placebo) for 9-12 days, with order of phases counterbalanced across subjects. On 2 separate days immediately following each of the chronic drug exposures, subjects received acute doses of either caffeine (300 mg/70 kg) or placebo in counterbalanced order. The reinforcing effects of these drugs were then determined by using a multiple-choice procedure in which subjects made a series of discrete choices between receiving varying amounts of money or receiving the drug again, and a choice between the two drugs. To ensure that subjects completed the form carefully, following exposure to both of the acute drug administrations, one of the subject's previous choices from the multiple-choice form was randomly selected and the consequence of that choice was implemented. When subjects were maintained on chronic caffeine, they were willing to forfeit significantly more money and showed significant increases in typical withdrawal symptoms (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbance) after receiving placebo as compared to the other three conditions. When subjects were maintained on chronic caffeine, they also chose to receive caffeine over placebo twice as often than when they were maintained on chronic placebo. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date indicating that caffeine physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine versus placebo.

  11. Ondansetron does not prevent physical dependence in patients taking opioid medications chronically for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Larry F; Rico, Tom; Cornell, Erika; Obasi, Hannah; Encisco, Ellen M; Vertelney, Haley; Gamble, Jamison G; Crawford, Clayton W; Sun, John; Clemenson, Anna; Erlendson, Matthew J; Okada, Robin; Carroll, Ian; Clark, J David

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the co-administration of ondansetron with morphine, and whether it could prevent the development of physical dependence in patients taking opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. A total of 48 chronic back pain patients (N = 48) participated in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Patients were titrated onto sustained-release oral morphine and randomized to take 8 mg ondansetron or placebo three times daily concurrently with morphine during the 30-day titration. Following titration, patients underwent Naloxone induced opioid withdrawal. Opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms were then assessed by a blinded research assistant (objective opioid withdrawal score: OOWS) and by the research participant (subjective opioid withdrawal score: SOWS). We observed clinically significant signs of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in all participants (ΔOOWS = 4.3 ± 2.4, p physical dependence in human subjects when co-administered with opioids, but found no difference in naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal scores between ondansetron and placebo treatment groups. These results suggest that further studies are needed to determine if 5HT 3 receptor antagonists are useful in preventing opioid physical dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joao

    2017-10-01

    Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.

  14. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.

  15. Physical and morphological properties of z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies: dependence on Lyα line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Scarlata, C.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical and morphological properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift ~2.5 to ~3.5, to determine if and how they depend on the nature and strength of the Lyα emission. Methods: We selected U-dropout galaxies from the z-detected GOODS-MUSIC catalog by adapting the classical Lyman break criteria on the GOODS filter set. We kept only those galaxies with spectroscopic confirmation, mainly from VIMOS and FORS public observations. Using the full multi-wavelength 14-bands information (U to IRAC), we determined the physical properties of the galaxies through a standard spectral energy distribution fitting procedure with the updated Charlot & Bruzual (2009) templates. We also added other relevant observations of the GOODS field, i.e. the 24 μm observations from Spitzer/MIPS and the 2 MSec Chandra X-ray observations. Finally, using non parametric diagnostics (Gini, Concentration, Asymmetry, M20 and ellipticity), we characterized the rest-frame UV morphologies of the galaxies. We then analyzed how these physical and morphological properties correlate with the presence of the Lyα emission line in the optical spectra. Results: We find that unlike at higher redshift, the dependence of physical properties on the Lyα line is milder: galaxies without Lyα in emission tend to be more massive and dustier than the rest of the sample, but all other parameters, ages, star formation rates (SFR), X-ray emission and UV morphology do not depend strongly on the presence of the Lyα emission. A simple scenario where all LBGs have intrinsically high Lyα emission, but where the dust and neutral hydrogen content (which shapes the final appearance of the Lyα) depend on the mass of the galaxies, is able to reproduce the majority of the observed properties at z˜3. Some modification might be needed to account for the observed evolution of these properties with cosmic epoch, which is also discussed.

  16. Risk factor characteristics in carers who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, A M; Browne, K D

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.

  17. The Herschel-ATLAS: magnifications and physical sizes of 500-μm-selected strongly lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enia, A.; Negrello, M.; Gurwell, M.; Dye, S.; Rodighiero, G.; Massardi, M.; De Zotti, G.; Franceschini, A.; Cooray, A.; van der Werf, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.

    2018-04-01

    We perform lens modelling and source reconstruction of Sub-millimetre Array (SMA) data for a sample of 12 strongly lensed galaxies selected at 500μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). A previous analysis of the same data set used a single Sérsic profile to model the light distribution of each background galaxy. Here we model the source brightness distribution with an adaptive pixel scale scheme, extended to work in the Fourier visibility space of interferometry. We also present new SMA observations for seven other candidate lensed galaxies from the H-ATLAS sample. Our derived lens model parameters are in general consistent with previous findings. However, our estimated magnification factors, ranging from 3 to 10, are lower. The discrepancies are observed in particular where the reconstructed source hints at the presence of multiple knots of emission. We define an effective radius of the reconstructed sources based on the area in the source plane where emission is detected above 5σ. We also fit the reconstructed source surface brightness with an elliptical Gaussian model. We derive a median value reff ˜ 1.77 kpc and a median Gaussian full width at half-maximum ˜1.47 kpc. After correction for magnification, our sources have intrinsic star formation rates (SFR) ˜ 900-3500 M⊙ yr-1, resulting in a median SFR surface density ΣSFR ˜ 132 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 (or ˜218 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the Gaussian fit). This is consistent with that observed for other star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts, and is significantly below the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure regulated starburst.

  18. Healthy and maladaptive dependency and its relationship to pain management and perceptions in physical therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Hoban, Patrick; Boys, Ashley; Rosen, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the association among healthy and maladaptive aspects of interpersonal dependency and the management of pain in physical therapy outpatients. Ninety-eight patients were administered the Relationship Profile Test, West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Results indicated that Destructive Overdependence was positively associated with an increased number of office visits, pain interference in one's daily life, pain severity, affective distress, and receiving positive partner responses. Dysfunctional Detachment was associated with affective distress, pain interference in one's daily life, and rumination about pain. Healthy Dependency was only associated with receiving distracting responses from others. Believing that a spouse/partner is supportive and caring about one's pain partially mediated the relationship between overdependency and pain interfering in one's life. These results support the clinical utility of assessing interpersonal dependency for its relationship to managing one's pain and health care utilization.

  19. The relation of autonomic function to physical fitness in patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbsleb, Marco; Schulz, Steffen; Ostermann, Stephanie; Donath, Lars; Eisenträger, Daniela; Puta, Christian; Voss, Andreas; Gabriel, Holger W; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Reduced cardio-vascular health has been found in patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Low cardio-respiratory fitness is an independent predictor of cardio-vascular disease. We investigated physical fitness in 22 alcohol-dependent patients 10 days after acute alcohol withdrawal and compared results with matched controls. The standardized 6-min walk test (6 MWT) was used to analyze the relationship of autonomic dysfunction and physical fitness. Ventilatory indices and gas exchanges were assessed using a portable spiroergometric system while heart rate recordings were obtained separately. We calculated walking distance, indices of heart rate variability and efficiency parameters of heart rate and breathing. In addition, levels of exhaled carbon monoxide were measured in all participants to account for differences in smoking behaviour. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were performed to investigate differences between patients and controls with regard to autonomic and efficiency parameters. Patients walked a significantly shorter distance in comparison to healthy subjects during the 6 MWT. Significantly decreased heart rate variability was observed before and after the test in patients when compared to controls, while no such difference was observed during exercise. The efficiency parameters indicated significantly reduced efficiency in physiological regulation when the obtained parameters were normalized to the distance. The 6 MWT is an easily applied instrument to measure physical fitness in alcohol dependent patients. It can also be used during exercise interventions. Reduced physical fitness, as observed in our study, might partly be caused by autonomic dysfunction, leading to less efficient regulation of physiological processes during exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  1. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Perry, Frank A; Schmitt, James G

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings. Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies. Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical processes. The

  2. Perinatal methadone exposure produces physical dependence and altered behavioral development in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Smith, J A; Wallace, M J; Maher, J R; Saady, J J; Robinson, S E

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that the following prenatal/postnatal exposure groups were obtained: water/water, methadone/water, water/methadone and methadone/methadone. Methadone slightly reduced litter size, particularly the number of male offspring, and reduced litter birth weight. The induction or maintenance of physical dependence in the postnatal methadone exposure groups was confirmed by an experiment in which PD19 pups were challenged with naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Methadone concentrations were assayed in pup brain on postnatal days 4, 10 and 22. Postnatal exposure to methadone via maternal milk produced measurable levels of methadone which decreased with age. Neuromuscular and physical development were assessed. Exposure to methadone accelerated acquisition of the righting reflex, but tended to delay the acquisition of the negative geotaxic response. Postnatal exposure to methadone was associated with decreased somatic growth as measured through postnatal day 21. The older pups (postnatal day 21) exposed to methadone exhibited variations in activity levels: pups exposed to methadone both prenatally and postnatally exhibited the least amount of spontaneous locomotor activity and pups exposed only postnatally exhibited the most activity. Therefore, it is possible to induce and/or maintain physical dependence via lactation in rat pups fostered to methadone-treated dams. Perinatal exposure to methadone by this route produces several subtle disruptions of pup development in the absence of gross maternal or fetal toxicity.

  3. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  4. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  5. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  6. Vibrational tug-of-war: The pKA dependence of the broad vibrational features of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-04-01

    of strongly hydrogen-bonded structures depend on the relative pKA and other structural parameters will guide studies of biological structures and analysis of proton transfer studies using photoacids.

  7. The Dependence of the Physical Mechanical Properties of Expanded-Clay Lightweight Concrete on the Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vaičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Binder material is the most expensive raw component of concrete; thus, scientists are looking for cheaper substitute materials. This paper shows that when manufacturing, a part of the binder material of expanded-clay lightweight concrete can be replaced with active filler. The conducted studies show that technogenic – catalyst waste could act as similar filler. The study also includes the dependence of the physical and mechanical properties of expanded-clay lightweight concrete on the concrete mixture and the chemical composition of the samples obtained. Different formation and composition mixtures of expanded-clay lightweight concrete were chosen to determine the properties of physical-mechanical properties such as density, water absorption and compressive strength.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  9. Atomic and electronic structure of trilayer graphene/SiC(0001): Evidence of Strong Dependence on Stacking Sequence and charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Debora; Brumme, Thomas; Girard, Jean-Christophe; Calandra, Matteo; Silly, Mathieu G; Sirotti, Fausto; Barbier, Antoine; Mauri, Francesco; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-09-15

    The transport properties of few-layer graphene are the directly result of a peculiar band structure near the Dirac point. Here, for epitaxial graphene grown on SiC, we determine the effect of charge transfer from the SiC substrate on the local density of states (LDOS) of trilayer graphene using scaning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Different spectra are observed and are attributed to the existence of two stable polytypes of trilayer: Bernal (ABA) and rhomboedreal (ABC) staking. Their electronic properties strongly depend on the charge transfer from the substrate. We show that the LDOS of ABC stacking shows an additional peak located above the Dirac point in comparison with the LDOS of ABA stacking. The observed LDOS features, reflecting the underlying symmetry of the two polytypes, were reproduced by explicit calculations within density functional theory (DFT) including the charge transfer from the substrate. These findings demonstrate the pronounced effect of stacking order and charge transfer on the electronic structure of trilayer or few layer graphene. Our approach represents a significant step toward understand the electronic properties of graphene layer under electrical field.

  10. Brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation after acute amphetamine administration: its relationship to brain c-fos induction is strongly dependent on the particular brain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests a critical role of chromatin remodelling in the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs. We reasoned that Immunohistochemical detection of certain histone modifications may be a more specific tool than induction of immediate early genes (i.e. c-fos) to detect brain areas and neurons that are critical for the action of addictive drugs. Thus, in the present work we studied in adult male rats the effects of a high dose of amphetamine on brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation in serine 10 (pH3S(10)) and c-fos expression. We firstly observed that amphetamine-induced an increase in the number of pH3S(10) positive neurons in a restricted number of brain areas, with maximum levels at 30 min after the drug administration that declined at 90 min in most areas. In a second experiment we studied colocalization of pH3S(10) immunoreactivity (pH3S(10)-IR) and c-fos expression. Amphetamine increased c-fos expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (Acb), major Island of Calleja (ICjM), central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis lateral dorsal (BSTld) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Whereas no evidence for increase in pH3S(10) positive neurons was found in the mPFC and the PVN, in the striatum and the Acb basically all pH3S(10) positive neurons showed colocalization with c-fos. In ICjM, CeA and BSTld a notable degree of colocalization was found, but an important number of neurons expressing c-fos were negative for pH3S(10). The present results give support to the hypothesis that amphetamine-induced pH3S(10)-IR showed a more restricted pattern than brain c-fos induction, being this difference strongly dependent on the particular brain area studied. It is likely that those nuclei and neurons showing pH3S(10)-IR are more specifically associated to important effects of the drug, including neural plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors strongly sensitise neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a caspases-dependent increase of the pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mühlethaler-Mottet, Annick; Flahaut, Marjorie; Bourloud, Katia Balmas; Auderset, Katya; Meier, Roland; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Gross, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are strongly needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in most tumour cells, but not in normal tissues and therefore represents a valuable candidate in apoptosis-inducing therapies. Caspase-8 is silenced in a subset of highly malignant NB cells, which results in full TRAIL resistance. In addition, despite constitutive caspase-8 expression, or its possible restoration by different strategies, NB cells remain weakly sensitive to TRAIL indicating a need to develop strategies to sensitise NB cells to TRAIL. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a new class of anti-cancer agent inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Although HDACIs were recently shown to increase death induced by TRAIL in weakly TRAIL-sensitive tumour cells, the precise involved sensitisation mechanisms have not been fully identified. NB cell lines were treated with various doses of HDACIs and TRAIL, then cytotoxicity was analysed by MTS/PMS proliferation assays, apoptosis was measured by the Propidium staining method, caspases activity by colorimetric protease assays, and (in)activation of apoptotic proteins by immunoblotting. Sub-toxic doses of HDACIs strongly sensitised caspase-8 positive NB cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis in a caspases dependent manner. Combined treatments increased the activation of caspases and Bid, and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-x, RIP, and survivin, thereby increasing the pro- to anti-apoptotic protein ratio. It also enhanced the activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, the kinetics of caspases activation and inactivation of anti-apoptotic proteins is accelerated by combined treatment with TRAIL and HDACIs compared to TRAIL alone. In contrast, cell surface expression of TRAIL

  12. Swimming reduces the severity of physical and psychological dependence and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Atefeh; Gorji, Hossein Miladi; Hosseini, Shahrokh Makvand

    2015-01-15

    Previous studies have indicated that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. This study examined the effects of regular swimming exercise during the development of dependency and spontaneous morphine withdrawal on the anxiety-depression profile and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats. The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 14 days. The exercising rats were allowed to swim (45 min/d, five days per a week, for 14 or 21 days) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice paradigm in animal models of craving. The results showed that withdrawal signs were decreased in swimmer morphine dependent rats than sedentary rats (Pmorphine-dependent and withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries (Pmorphine was less in the swimmer morphine-withdrawn rats than the sedentary groups during four periods of the intake of drug (Pmorphine dependence and voluntary morphine consumption with reducing anxiety and depression in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, swimming exercise may be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioral consequences of morphine dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Autoinactivation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex: subunit-dependency and independence from physical dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Semenov

    Full Text Available Agonist responses and channel kinetics of native α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors are modulated by transmembrane accessory proteins. Stargazin, the prototypical accessory protein, decreases desensitization and increases agonist potency at AMPA receptors. Furthermore, in the presence of stargazin, the steady-state responses of AMPA receptors show a gradual decline at higher glutamate concentrations. This "autoinactivation" has been assigned to physical dissociation of the stargazin-AMPA receptor complex and suggested to serve as a protective mechanism against overactivation. Here, we analyzed autoinactivation of GluA1-A4 AMPA receptors (all flip isoform expressed in the presence of stargazin. Homomeric GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 channels showed pronounced autoinactivation indicated by the bell-shaped steady-state dose response curves for glutamate. In contrast, homomeric GluA2i channels did not show significant autoinactivation. The resistance of GluA2 to autoinactivation showed striking dependence on the splice form as GluA2-flop receptors displayed clear autoinactivation. Interestingly, the resistance of GluA2-flip containing receptors to autoinactivation was transferred onto heteromeric receptors in a dominant fashion. To examine the relationship of autoinactivation to physical separation of stargazin from the AMPA receptor, we analyzed a GluA4-stargazin fusion protein. Notably, the covalently linked complex and separately expressed proteins expressed a similar level of autoinactivation. We conclude that autoinactivation is a subunit and splice form dependent property of AMPA receptor-stargazin complexes, which involves structural rearrangements within the complex rather than any physical dissociation.

  14. Modulation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence by co-administration of simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaee, Amirhossein; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Naghizadeh, Bahareh

    2015-10-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in the management of different diseases beyond their primary indication for lowering cholesterol. Previous studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in different animal models. In the present study, we examined the effects of simvastatin (30, 60, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o.) on the development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. For the induction of morphine tolerance and dependence, mice were twice daily treated with morphine (10mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 consecutive days. Tolerance was evaluated by the hot-plate test and physical dependence by naloxone challenge, on the sixth day. The results showed that oral administration of simvastatin produced antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent way. Co-administration of simvastatin with morphine did not affect the acute morphine-induced analgesia (10mg/kg, s.c.). However, repeated co-administration of simvastatin with morphine significantly attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine and inhibited the naloxone (5mg/kg, s.c.)-precipitated withdrawal signs (jumping and body weight loss). Also, simvastatin at doses of 100 and 300mg/kg attenuated the expression of morphine-induced tolerance and dependence. These data indicated that, while simvastatin can alleviate both development and expression of morphine-induced tolerance, it cannot enhance morphine-induced antinociception. Taken together, simvastatin may be used as an adjutant therapeutic agent in combination with morphine and or other opioids in patients with severe chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence and Physical Health Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Denise B

    2016-05-01

    To examine the prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders nicotine dependence (ND) and other individual and parental factors in adolescence on self-reported health symptoms in early adulthood. Multiethnic prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents from grades 6-10 and a parent (N = 908) from the Chicago Public Schools. Adolescents were interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and once 4.5 years later (Wave 6). Parents were interviewed annually three times (W1, W3, W5). Multivariate regressions estimated prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ND, other individual and familial risk factors in adolescence (mean age 16.6) on physical health symptoms in early adulthood (mean age 21.3), controlling for health symptoms in adolescence. Levels of health symptoms declined from adolescence to early adulthood, except among dependent smokers. Nicotine dependent adolescents reported more health symptoms as young adults than nonsmokers and nondependent smokers, especially if depressed. ND and health symptoms in adolescence were the strongest predictors of health in early adulthood. These two adolescent factors, depression, and the familial factors of parental ND, depression and health conditions, each independently predicted health symptoms in young adulthood. Females reported more symptoms than males. There is continuity of health status over time. ND, depression, and parental factors in adolescence contribute to poor health in early adulthood. The findings highlight not only the role of adolescent behavior, but the importance of the family in the development of young adult health. Reducing smoking, particularly ND, and depression among adolescents and parents will decrease physical health burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  18. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  19. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  20. Temperature dependence of the physical properties of Bose–Einstein condensed gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the presence of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) in any N particle system, the N particle Schrödinger wave functions of thermally occupied states are the sum of a ‘localized’ component and a ‘delocalized’ component, identical to the ground state wave function. It is shown that if N is sufficiently large, this implies that all physical properties of the system are the sum of two independent contributions from these two components. These results are used here to provide quantitative explanations of fundamental properties of BE condensed liquid 4 He, unexplained even qualitatively by existing theory; why BE condensed liquid 4 He is the only known physical system in which pair correlations between atomic positions reduce as it is cooled, why it is the only known liquid with sharp peaks in its dynamic structure factor, why the liquid expands with cooling and how the condensate fraction is related to the superfluid fraction. It is shown that these results also provide a relatively simple, physically transparent and quantitative explanation from first principles of macroscopic quantum effects. A new algorithm is given for the calculation of the time development of the macroscopic density of any BE condensed liquid or gas at any temperature. Unlike the Gross–Pitaevskii equation, this algorithm is valid for both strongly and weakly interacting systems. It is used here to show that macroscopic quantum interference fringes, observed between overlapping clouds of BE condensed atoms, are a necessary consequence of BEC and the N particle Schrödinger equation for the atoms in the clouds. It follows that the widely held view that these fringes are created by measurement is unnecessary. New, experimentally testable predictions are made of how the visibility of these fringes will vary with temperature. (paper)

  1. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  2. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  3. Supercomputations and big-data analysis in strong-field ultrafast optical physics: filamentation of high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses propagating in gas media or in condensed matter undergo complex nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution where temporal transformations of optical field waveforms are strongly coupled to an intricate beam dynamics and ultrafast field-induced ionization processes. At the level of laser peak powers orders of magnitude above the critical power of self-focusing, the beam exhibits modulation instabilities, producing random field hot spots and breaking up into multiple noise-seeded filaments. This problem is described by a (3  +  1)-dimensional nonlinear field evolution equation, which needs to be solved jointly with the equation for ultrafast ionization of a medium. Analysis of this problem, which is equivalent to solving a billion-dimensional evolution problem, is only possible by means of supercomputer simulations augmented with coordinated big-data processing of large volumes of information acquired through theory-guiding experiments and supercomputations. Here, we review the main challenges of supercomputations and big-data processing encountered in strong-field ultrafast optical physics and discuss strategies to confront these challenges.

  4. Physical and mental health and social functioning in older alcohol-dependent inpatients: the role of age of onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; Hermes, Jolanda S. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Blanken, Peter; Kist, Nicolien; Kok, Rob M.

    2014-01-01

    Age of onset is an important criterion to distinguish subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients. This study investigated physical and mental health and social functioning of older inpatients with early (age <25), late (25-44), and very late (≥45) onset of alcohol dependence. In a specialized

  5. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  6. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  7. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  8. Strong Relation between Muscle Mass Determined by D3-creatine Dilution, Physical Performance and Incidence of Falls and Mobility Limitations in a Prospective Cohort of Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Orwoll, Eric S; Peters, Katherine E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Kado, Deborah M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Shikany, James M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Glynn, Nancy W; Caserotti, Paolo; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Hellerstein, Marc; Cummings, Steven R; Evans, William J

    2018-06-12

    Direct assessment of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is clinically challenging. Relationships between lean mass and late-life outcomes have been inconsistent. The D3-creatine dilution method provides a direct assessment of muscle mass. Muscle mass was assessed by D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution in 1,382 men (mean age, 84.2 yrs). Participants completed the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); usual walking speed (6 meters); and DXA lean mass. Men self-reported mobility limitations (difficulty walking 2-3 blocks or climbing 10 steps); recurrent falls (2+); and serious injurious falls in the subsequent year. Across quartiles of D3Cr muscle mass/body mass, multivariate linear models calculated means for SPPB and gait speed; multivariate logistic models calculated odds ratios for incident mobility limitations or falls. Compared to men in the highest quartile, those in the lowest quartile of D3Cr muscle mass/body mass had slower gait speed (Q1: 1.04 vs Q4: 1.17 m/s); lower SPPB (Q1: 8.4 vs Q4: 10.4 points); greater likelihood of incident serious injurious falls (OR Q1 vs Q4: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.54); prevalent mobility limitation (OR Q1 vs Q4,: 6.1, 95%CI: 3.7, 10.3) and incident mobility limitation (OR Q1 vs Q4: 2.15 95% CI: 1.42, 3.26); p for trend strongly related to physical performance, mobility and incident injurious falls in older me.

  9. THE REST-FRAME OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LY α -EMITTERS AT z  ∼ 2.5: THE PHYSICAL ORIGINS OF STRONG LY α EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, Ryan F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Strom, Allison L.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, MC 249-17, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rudie, Gwen C., E-mail: trainor@berkeley.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectroscopic properties of 60 faint ( R {sub AB} ∼ 27; L ∼ 0.1 L {sub *}) Ly α -selected galaxies (LAEs) at z  ≈ 2.56. These LAEs also have rest-UV spectra of their Ly α emission line morphologies, which trace the effects of interstellar and circumgalactic gas on the escape of Ly α photons. We find that the LAEs have diverse rest-optical spectra, but their average spectroscopic properties are broadly consistent with the extreme low-metallicity end of the populations of continuum-selected galaxies selected at z  ≈ 2–3. In particular, the LAEs have extremely high [O iii] λ 5008/H β ratios (log([O iii]/H β ) ∼ 0.8) and low [N ii] λ 6585/H α ratios (log([N ii]/H α ) < 1.15). Coupled with a detection of the [O iii] λ 4364 auroral line, these measurements indicate that the star-forming regions in faint LAEs are characterized by high electron temperatures (T{sub e} ≈ 1.8 × 10{sup 4} K), low oxygen abundances (12 + log(O/H) ≈ 8.04, Z{sub neb} ≈ 0.22 Z {sub ⊙}), and high excitations with respect to their more luminous continuum-selected analogs. Several of our faintest LAEs have line ratios consistent with even lower metallicities, including six with 12 + log(O/H) ≈ 6.9–7.4 (Z {sub neb} ≈ 0.02–0.05 Z{sub ⊙}). We interpret these observations in light of new models of stellar evolution (including binary interactions) that have been shown to produce long-lived populations of hot, massive stars at low metallicities. We find that strong, hard ionizing continua are required to reproduce our observed line ratios, suggesting that faint galaxies are efficient producers of ionizing photons and important analogs of reionization-era galaxies. Furthermore, we investigate the physical trends accompanying Ly α emission across the largest current sample of combined Ly α and rest-optical galaxy spectroscopy, including both the 60 KBSS-Ly α LAEs and 368 more luminous galaxies at similar redshifts. We

  10. Sex differences in disinhibition and its relationship to physical abuse in a sample of stimulant-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses pre-morbid functioning and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained the FrSBe from 118 methamphetamine- and/or cocaine-dependent participants. Lifetime physical abuse was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The proportion reporting clinically significant disinhibition was significantly higher in women (64.9%) than in men (45.0%, p=0.04), with no significant difference on the other FrSBe scales. Physical abuse in women, but not men, was associated with worse functioning, with physically abused, relative to non-abused, women having a significantly greater proportion with clinically significant disinhibition (pabuse and that physical abuse in women is associated with greater disinhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C 4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C 3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m 2 plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  12. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  13. Spatial Dependence of Physical Attributes and Mechanical Properties of Ultisol in a Sugarcane Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Uilka Elisa; Rolim, Mário Monteiro; de Oliveira, Veronildo Souza; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis; Siqueira, Glécio Machado; Magalhães, Adriana Guedes

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of conventional tillage and application of the monoculture of sugar cane on soil health. Variables like density, moisture, texture, consistency limits, and preconsolidation stress were taken as indicators of soil quality. The measurements were made at a 120 × 120 m field cropped with sugar cane under conventional tillage. The objective of this work was to characterize the soil and to study the spatial dependence of the physical and mechanical attributes. Then, undisturbed soil samples were collected to measure bulk density, moisture content and preconsolidation stress and disturbed soil samples for classification of soil texture, and consistency limits. The soil texture indicated that soil can be characterized as sandy clay soil and a sandy clay loam soil, and the consistency limits indicated that the soil presents an inorganic low plasticity clay. The preconsolidation tests tillage in soil moisture content around 19% should be avoided or should be chosen a management of soil with lighter vehicles in this moisture content, to avoid risk of compaction. Using geostatistical techniques mapping was possible to identify areas of greatest conservation soil and greater disturbance of the ground.

  14. Induction of complex immune responses and strong protection against retrovirus challenge by adenovirus-based immunization depends on the order of vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfuß, Meike; Wensing, Ina; Windmann, Sonja; Hrycak, Camilla Patrizia; Bayer, Wibke

    2017-02-06

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To optimize the immunization outcome we evaluated vaccination strategies using combinations of these vaccines. While the vaccines on their own confer strong protection from a subsequent Friend virus challenge, the simple combination of the vaccines for the establishment of an optimized immunization protocol did not result in a further improvement of vaccine effectivity. We demonstrate that the co-immunization with GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vectors together with envelope-encoding vectors abrogates the induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells, and in successive immunization protocols the immunization with the GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vector had to precede the immunization with an envelope encoding vector for the efficient induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells. Importantly, the antibody response to envelope was in fact enhanced when the mice were adenovirus-experienced from a prior immunization, highlighting the expedience of this approach. To circumvent the immunosuppressive effect of envelope on immune responses to simultaneously or subsequently administered immunogens, we developed a two immunizations-based vaccination protocol that induces strong immune responses and confers robust protection of highly Friend virus-susceptible mice from a lethal Friend virus challenge.

  15. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  16. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  17. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taanila, Henri; Hemminki, Antti J M; Suni, Jaana H; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parkkari, Jari

    2011-07-25

    Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs) for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133) were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59) and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39) disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4), poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0), poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2), and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6) were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The findings suggest that increasing both aerobic and muscular

  18. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taanila Henri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. Methods We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133 were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59 and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39 disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4, poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0, poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2, and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6 were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The

  19. Outcome of Treatment of Human HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells With Roscovitine Strongly Depends on the Dosage and Cell Cycle Status Prior to the Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Borza, A.; Walzi, E.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Maurer, M.; Komina, O.; Wandl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2009), s. 937-955 ISSN 0730-2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CELL CYCLE ARREST * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  20. Stress-associated cardiovascular reaction masks heart rate dependence on physical load in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, A A; Popova, A S; Borovik, A S; Dolgov, O N; Tsvirkun, D V; Custaud, M; Vinogradova, O L

    2014-06-10

    When tested on the treadmill mice do not display a graded increase of heart rate (HR), but rather a sharp shift of cardiovascular indices to high levels at the onset of locomotion. We hypothesized that under test conditions cardiovascular reaction to physical load in mice is masked with stress-associated HR increase. To test this hypothesis we monitored mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to stressful stimuli, during spontaneous locomotion in the open-field test, treadmill running or running in a wheel installed in the home cage. Mice were treated with β1-adrenoblocker atenolol (2mg/kg ip, A), cholinolytic ipratropium bromide (2mg/kg ip, I), combination of blockers (A+I), anxiolytic diazepam (5mg/kg ip, D) or saline (control trials, SAL). MAP and HR in mice increased sharply after handling, despite 3weeks of habituation to the procedure. Under stressful conditions of open field test cardiovascular parameters in mice were elevated and did not depend on movement speed. HR values did not differ in I and SAL groups and were reduced with A or A+I. HR was lower at rest in D pretreated mice. In the treadmill test HR increase over speeds of 6, 12 and 18m/min was roughly 1/7-1/10 of HR increase observed after placing the mice on the treadmill. HR could not be increased with cholinolytic (I), but was reduced after sympatholytic (A) or A+I treatment. Anxiolytic (D) reduced heart rate at lower speeds of movement and its overall effect was to unmask the dependency of HR on running speed. During voluntary running in non-stressful conditions of the home cage HR in mice linearly increased with increasing running speeds. We conclude that in test situations cardiovascular reactions in mice are governed predominantly by stress-associated sympathetic activation, rendering efforts to evaluate HR and MAP reactions to workload unreliable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical and Chemical Aerosol Properties At An Urban and A Rural Site During An Episode of Strong Photochemical Activity During Escompte

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dingenen, R.; Putaud, J. P.; dell'Acqua, A.; Martins-Dos Santos, S.; Viidanoja, J.; Raes, F.

    During the ESCOMPTE campaign (10 June to 14 July, 2001), JRC mobile laboratories for aerosol physical and chemical measurements were deployed at two ground-based sites: Vallon Dol, located at the Northern edge of the Marseille agglomeration and Vi- non, a rural site about 80 km North-East of Marseille. Both sites were equipped with on-line instrumentation for number size distributions in the diameter size range 6nm to 10µm (10 minute time resolution), equivalent black carbon (15 minute time reso- lution), major anions and cations (15 minute time resolution). Time-integrated filter sampling at each site with a time resolution of 6-12 hours was performed with 2 sets of virtual impactors, separating the fine and coarse aerosol fraction. One set, loaded with quartz filters, was analyzed off-line using the `evolved gas analysis` technique for organic and elemental carbon. The second set, loaded with paper filters, was analyzed for dust (by ashing) and ionic composition. On top of the common instrumentation, the urban site was additionally performing on-line PM10 measurements (TEOM with sample equilibration system, 10 minute time resolution) and, during intensive obser- vation periods (IOP), size-segregated sampling with a 8 stage low-pressure Berner im- pactor (6-12 hours time resolution). In this presentation we will focus on data obtained during the second IOP (20-6 to 26-6). During this episode, the sea-breeze transported Marseille pollution plume was clearly observed at the Vinon rural site. Comparison of the aerosol properties at both sites will allow to evaluate the processes that contribute to the (trans)formation of particulate matter in the particular conditions of a marine air mass, mixed with local pollution and undergoing strong photochemical processes during in-land transport.

  2. Quantum physics. Vol. 2. From time-dependent dynamics to many-body physics and quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This two-volume set can be naturally divided into two semester courses, and contains a full modern graduate course in quantum physics. The idea is to teach graduate students how to practically use quantum physics and theory, presenting the fundamental knowledge, and gradually moving on to applications, including atomic, nuclear and solid state physics, as well as modern subfields, such as quantum chaos and quantum entanglement. The book starts with basic quantum problems, which do not require full quantum formalism but allow the student to gain the necessary experience and elements of quantum thinking. Only then does the fundamental Schrodinger equation appear. The author has included topics that are not usually covered in standard textbooks and has written the book in such a way that every topic contains varying layers of difficulty, so that the instructor can decide where to stop. Although supplementary sources are not required, ''Further reading'' is given for each chapter, including references to scientific journals and publications, and a glossary is also provided. Problems and solutions are integrated throughout the text. (orig.)

  3. Quantum physics. Vol. 2. From time-dependent dynamics to many-body physics and quantum chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelevinsky, Vladimir [NSCL Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2011-07-01

    This two-volume set can be naturally divided into two semester courses, and contains a full modern graduate course in quantum physics. The idea is to teach graduate students how to practically use quantum physics and theory, presenting the fundamental knowledge, and gradually moving on to applications, including atomic, nuclear and solid state physics, as well as modern subfields, such as quantum chaos and quantum entanglement. The book starts with basic quantum problems, which do not require full quantum formalism but allow the student to gain the necessary experience and elements of quantum thinking. Only then does the fundamental Schrodinger equation appear. The author has included topics that are not usually covered in standard textbooks and has written the book in such a way that every topic contains varying layers of difficulty, so that the instructor can decide where to stop. Although supplementary sources are not required, ''Further reading'' is given for each chapter, including references to scientific journals and publications, and a glossary is also provided. Problems and solutions are integrated throughout the text. (orig.)

  4. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: [Technical progress report, 5/1/86-4/30/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The research reported includes: low energy quark-hadron dynamics; quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays and structure; mathematical and physical properties of nonlinear sigma models, Yang-Mills theories, and Coulomb gases, which are of interest in both particle physics and condensed matter physics; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production. 28 refs

  5. Physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury: A critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, J.A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Stam, H.J.; Bergen, M.P.; Sluis, T.A.; Bussmann, J.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Study design: Review of publications. Objective: To assess the level of physical capacity (peak oxygen uptake, peak power output, muscle strength of the upper extremity and respiratory function) in wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Erasmus MC, University Medical

  6. Physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, J. A.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Stam, H. J.; Bergen, M. P.; Sluis, T. A. R.; Bussmann, J. B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Study design: Review of publications. Objective: To assess the level of physical capacity ( peak oxygen uptake, peak power output, muscle strength of the upper extremity and respiratory function) in wheelchair-dependent persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Erasmus MC, University

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  8. The role of self-dependence in modern health improvemental technologies of physical students' education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumakov O.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A normative base is considered on the problems of physical education, physical culture and independent work of students. An analysis is conducted scientifically-methodical and special literature on issue of research. Basic features and modern going are selected near independent work in health technologies of physical education of students. A concept «Independent work» is examined as activity of man and as a teaching method. A teaching method plugs in itself independent employments by physical exercises. During correct organization they can substantially increase motive activity of students.

  9. Diameter-dependent photoluminescence properties of strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwang365@163.com [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China); School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Ji, Ziwu, E-mail: jiziwu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Zhou, Yufan; Wang, Xuelin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Baoli [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Xu, Xiangang [Key Laboratory of Functional Crystal Materials and Device (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Gao, Xingguo; Leng, Jiancai [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanopillar LED with smaller diameter shows a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green peak is smaller than that of blue peak. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green/blue peak at 300 K is smaller than at 4 K. • PL intensity decreases with reducing nanopillar diameter with same pillar density. - Abstract: In this paper, strong phase-separated blue/green dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar (NP) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with the same NP density and various NP diameters were fabricated using focused ion beam etching. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to show the effect of NP diameter on the strain relaxation in the multi-quantum-wells (MQWs). The effect of NP diameter on optical behaviors of the strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN NP LEDs was investigated for the first time by using micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The blue shifts of PL peak energies of the NP LEDs showed that the NP LED with a smaller diameter exhibited a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs, as confirmed by micro-Raman results. And the blue shift of green emission was smaller than that of blue emission. The total integrated PL intensities from the NP arrays were enhanced compared to the as-grown sample due to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency. The enhancement factor decreased with decreasing the NP diameter in our experiments, which indicated that the loss of active volume was gradually dominant for the luminous efficiency of NP LEDs compared to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency.

  10. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  11. Strong composition dependence of resistive switching in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films on semiconducting substrates and its thermodynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moradi, Omid; Şen, Canhan; Sen, Canhan; Boni, A. G.; Pintilie, L.; Mısırlıoğlu, Burç; Misirlioglu, Burc

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report on the variability of the Schottky effect in solution processed Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films (BST, x = 0, 0.5) grown on 0.5% Nb doped SrTiO3 substrates with top Pt electrodes (NSTO/BST/Pt). The films display leakage currents accompanied by varying degrees of hystereses in the current-voltage measurements. The magnitude of the leakage and hystereses depend on the Sr content. We focus on the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of our samples in the light of thermodynamic theory of ferr...

  12. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling, E-mail: kongzl@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B. [National Taiwan Ocean University, Department of Food Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  13. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-09-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  14. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica–chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica–chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica–chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

  15. Physical health correlates of pathological and healthy dependency in urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Bornstein, Robert F; Markova, Tsveti; Huprich, Steven K

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the relationship between dependency and indicators of health/illness, healthcare costs, and utilization. Dependency ratings were obtained using the Relationship Profile Test (Bornstein and Languirand, 2003), a questionnaire that assesses healthy and pathological dependency: destructive overdependence (DO), dysfunctional detachment (DD), and healthy dependency (HD). The sample consisted of primarily low-income, African-American, and female primary care patients (N = 110). DO and DD were significantly associated with indices of increased illness, with DO evidencing slightly larger effect sizes than DD. HD was significantly (negatively) associated with 1 health/illness variable. DD and DO were associated with higher total outpatient costs with DD also being associated with average costs per visit. DO and HD were associated with utilization (increased hospital days and fewer emergency room visits, respectively). Further research is recommended to inform researchers and clinicians about the dependency-illness relationship and to develop interventions that maximize HD and minimize pathological dependency.

  16. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  17. Long term health-related quality of life after burns is strongly dependent on pre-existing disease and psychosocial issues and less due to the burn itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwelius, L; Willebrand, M; Gerdin, B; Ekselius, L; Fredrikson, M; Sjöberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced after a burn, and is affected by coexisting conditions. The aims of the investigation were to examine and describe effects of coexisting disease on HRQoL, and to quantify the proportion of burned people whose HRQoL was below that of a reference group matched for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. A nationwide study covering 9 years and examined HRQoL 12 and 24 months after the burn with the SF-36 questionnaire. The reference group was from the referral area of one of the hospitals. The HRQoL of the burned patients was below that of the reference group mainly in the mental dimensions, and only single patients were affected in the physical dimensions. The factor that significantly affected most HRQoL dimensions (n=6) after the burn was unemployment, whereas only smaller effects could be attributed directly to the burn. Poor HRQoL was recorded for only a small number of patients, and the decline were mostly in the mental dimensions when compared with a group adjusted for age, gender, and coexisting conditions. Factors other than the burn itself, such as mainly unemployment and pre-existing disease, were most important for the long term HRQoL experience in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Field Dependence-Independence and Physical Activity Engagement among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose

    2009-01-01

    Background: Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a tendency to rely on external frames (given situations and authoritative people) or internal frames (oneself, including one's own body) for one's information processing and behavior. Literature has constantly reported that field-dependent (FD) individuals, who are less autonomous in…

  20. Dose-dependent interaction between gemfibrozil and repaglinide in humans: strong inhibition of CYP2C8 with subtherapeutic gemfibrozil doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalammi, Johanna; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2011-10-01

    Gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide inactivates CYP2C8 irreversibly. We investigated the effect of gemfibrozil dose on CYP2C8 activity in humans using repaglinide as a probe drug. In a randomized, five-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 0.25 mg of repaglinide 1 h after different doses of gemfibrozil or placebo. Concentrations of plasma repaglinide, gemfibrozil, their metabolites, and blood glucose were measured. A single gemfibrozil dose of 30, 100, 300, and 900 mg increased the area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide 1.8-, 4.5-, 6.7-, and 8.3-fold (P Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetics was characterized by a slightly more than dose-proportional increase in the area under the curve of gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction could be mainly explained by gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide concentration-dependent, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, with a minor contribution by competitive inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 at the highest gemfibrozil dose. The findings are consistent with ∼50% inhibition of CYP2C8 already with a single 30-mg dose of gemfibrozil and >95% inhibition with 900 mg. In clinical drug-drug interaction studies, a single 900-mg dose of gemfibrozil can be used to achieve nearly complete inactivation of CYP2C8.

  1. Association of Physical Activity with Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in a Nationally-Representative U.S. Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, April Joy; Mendelson, Tamar

    2017-11-10

    Alcohol use is a pervasive and costly public health problem in the United States. Relapse rates from alcohol use disorders are high. Although exercise has been proposed as a strategy to prevent relapse, lifestyle modification is the least studied aspect of relapse prevention programs, especially among racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study assessed whether being physically active was associated with remission from alcohol abuse or dependence among Black (African American and Afro Caribbean) adults in the U.S. We utilized data on Black adult participants (n = 4,828) from the nationally representative National Survey of American Life (NSAL) conducted in 2001-2003. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the odds of being in 12-month remission or currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence based on level of physical activity, adjusting for socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics. People who endorsed being physically active had higher odds of being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.17) than people who were physically inactive, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics. People who were physically active did not differ significantly from those who were inactive with respect to odds of currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Conclusions/Importance: Physical activity was positively associated with being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal ordering and to explore exercise as a potential relapse prevention strategy for alcohol use problems.

  2. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  4. Causal reports: Context-dependent contributions of intuitive physics and visual impressions of launching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicovaro, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Everyday causal reports appear to be based on a blend of perceptual and cognitive processes. Causality can sometimes be perceived automatically through low-level visual processing of stimuli, but it can also be inferred on the basis of an intuitive understanding of the physical mechanism that underlies an observable event. We investigated how visual impressions of launching and the intuitive physics of collisions contribute to the formation of explicit causal responses. In Experiment 1, participants observed collisions between realistic objects differing in apparent material and hence implied mass, whereas in Experiment 2, participants observed collisions between abstract, non-material objects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that ratings of causality were mainly driven by the intuitive physics of collisions, whereas the results of Experiment 2 provide some support to the hypothesis that ratings of causality were mainly driven by visual impressions of launching. These results suggest that stimulus factors and experimental design factors - such as the realism of the stimuli and the variation in the implied mass of the colliding objects - may determine the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual cognitive processes to explicit causal responses. A revised version of the impetus transmission heuristic provides a satisfactory explanation for these results, whereas the hypothesis that causal responses and intuitive physics are based on the internalization of physical laws does not. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-perception and dissatisfaction with weight does not depend on the frequency of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Denise Sardinha Mendes Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of satisfaction with body weight and the self-perception of the weight/height ratio and to verify the influence of the frequency of present and past physical activity on these variables. METHODS: Using questionnaires or interviews, we obtained height data, reported and desired weight, self-perception of the weight/height ratio, and the frequency of current physical activity in 844 adults (489 women. Of these, evaluated the frequency of physical activity during high school of 193 individuals,and we measured their height and weight. RESULTS: Less than 2/3 of the individuals had body mass index between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2. A tendency existed to overestimate height by less than 1 cm and to underestimate weight by less than 1kg. Desired weight was less than that reported (p<0.001, and only 20% were satisfied with their current weight. Only 42% of men and 25% of women exercised regularly. No association was found between the frequency of physical activity and the variables height, weight, and body mass index, and the level of satisfaction with current weight. CONCLUSION: Height and weight reported seem to be valid for epidemological studies, and great dissatisfaction with body weight and a distorted self-perception of height/weight ratio exists, especially in women, regardless of the frequency of physical activity.

  6. The adaptive and maladaptive faces of dependency in later life: links to physical and psychological health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine; Consedine, Nathan; Magai, Carol

    2008-11-01

    Negotiating the balance between reliance on others and desires for autonomy is a fundamental task of successful aging. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend a three-factor model of interpersonal dependency in a sample of older adults, and to examine the physical and psychological health correlates of this multifaceted construct. Data come from the third wave of a population-based study of older Americans (n = 166; mean age 80 years). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of selected dependency items from two scales, and then conducted logistic and hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the association of dependency factors with self-reported health, use of hypertension medication, depressed affect and positive affect. We found three factors closely paralleling those of Bornstein and Languirand's (Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 3-23, 2004) measure: destructive overdependence, healthy dependency and dysfunctional detachment, as well as a fourth factor we labeled 'healthy independence'. Healthy dependency was associated with better self-reported health. Dysfunctional detachment was related to a greater likelihood and healthy independence a lesser likelihood of taking hypertension medication. Whereas both healthy independence and healthy dependency were positively related to positive affect and negatively related to depressed affect, destructive overdependence was positively related to depressed affect. Understanding the complex nature of interpersonal dependency and autonomy in old age, as well as their implications for health and wellbeing, may enable practitioners to assist older adults in negotiating the task of balancing these needs.

  7. Effects of space-dependent cross sections on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum space power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Hanan, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of multigroup neutron cross section generation procedures on core physics parameters for compact fast spectrum reactors have been examined. Homogeneous and space-dependent multigroup cross section sets were generated in 11 and 27 groups for a representative fast reactor core. These cross sections were used to compute various reactor physics parameters for the reference core. Coarse group structure and neglect of space-dependence in the generation procedure resulted in inaccurate computations of reactor flux and power distributions and in significant errors regarding estimates of core reactivity and control system worth. Delayed neutron fraction was insensitive to cross section treatment, and computed reactivity coefficients were only slightly sensitive. However, neutron lifetime was found to be very sensitive to cross section treatment. Deficiencies in multigroup cross sections are reflected in core nuclear design and, consequently, in system mechanical design

  8. Attenuation of Morphine Physical Dependence and Blood Levels of Cortisol by Central and Systemic Administration of Ramelteon in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic administration of morphine cause physical dependence but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. The aim of this study is the assessment of systemic and intracerebroventricular (icv administration of ramelteon (a melatonin receptor agonist on morphine physical dependence. Methods: 88 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups, namely “systematic” and “central” administration of ramelteon. In the first category, systemic administration of ramelteon at various dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with positive (received morphine and saline as systemic administration, negative control (saline and group under treatment by ramelteon (40 mg/kg groups. In the second category, central administration of ramelteon at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg, was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with the positive control (received morphine and saline as icv and negative control (saline groups, and the group under treatment by ramelteon (50 μg/5 μl/rat. On the test day, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg and were observed for withdrawal signs. Total withdrawal score (TWS was also determined. Finally, to evaluate the stress level of dependent rats, blood cortisols were measured. Results: Central administration of ramelteon in all doses and systemic administration in high doses attenuate withdrawal syndrome in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Both central and systemic administrations of ramelteon can attenuate the blood cortisol level in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that central administration of ramelteon attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms and cortisol level as a stress marker.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  10. The effect of O-1602, an atypical cannabinoid, on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and physical dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mohaddeseh Sadat; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that some non-CB1/non-CB2 effects of cannabinoids are mediated through G protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55). As this receptor is activated by some of cannabinoid receptor ligands and is involved in the modulation of pain, it was hypothesized that this receptor may also interact with opioids. This study examined the effect of atypical cannabinoid O-1602 as a GPR55 agonist on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and physical dependence. We used a biased CPP model to evaluate the effect of O-1602 (0.2, 1 and 5mg/kg, intraperitoneal; ip) on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP in male mice. The locomotor activities of mice were also recorded. Moreover, repeated administration of morphine (50, 50 and 75mg/kg/day) for three days, induced physical dependence. The withdrawal signs such as jumps and diarrhea were precipitated by administration of naloxone (5mg/kg, ip). The effect of O-1602 on the development of morphine physical dependence was assessed by injection of O-1602 (0.2, 1 and 5mg/kg) before morphine administrations. Morphine (40mg/kg, subcutaneous; sc), but not O-1602 (5mg/kg) elicited significant preference in the post-conditioning phase. O-1602 at the doses of 0.2 and 1mg/kg, but not 5mg/kg reduced acquisition of morphine CPP with an increase in locomotor activity at the dose of 5mg/kg. O-1602 at the doses of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/kg also reduced expression of morphine CPP with an increase in locomotor activity at the dose of 5mg/kg. O-1602 had a significant inhibitory effect on development of morphine-induced physical dependence at the dose of 5mg/kg by decreasing jumps and diarrhea during withdrawal syndrome. The present results indicate that O-1602 decreased acquisition and expression of morphine CPP and inhibited development of morphine-induced physical dependence. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. On the Dependence of Cloud Feedbacks on Physical Parameterizations in WRF Aquaplanet Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Grégory; Suselj, Kay; Brient, Florent

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the effects of physical parameterizations on cloud feedback uncertainty in response to climate change. For this purpose, we construct an ensemble of eight aquaplanet simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each WRF-derived simulation, we replace only one parameterization at a time while all other parameters remain identical. By doing so, we aim to (i) reproduce cloud feedback uncertainty from state-of-the-art climate models and (ii) understand how parametrizations impact cloud feedbacks. Our results demonstrate that this ensemble of WRF simulations, which differ only in physical parameterizations, replicates the range of cloud feedback uncertainty found in state-of-the-art climate models. We show that microphysics and convective parameterizations govern the magnitude and sign of cloud feedbacks, mostly due to tropical low-level clouds in subsidence regimes. Finally, this study highlights the advantages of using WRF to analyze cloud feedback mechanisms owing to its plug-and-play parameterization capability.

  12. Age dependent physical and anatomical Indian data for application in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1996-01-01

    The data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic human characteristics of the Indian population in various age groups were obtained for application in internal dosimetry. Only the physical and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population in age groups 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 y and adult are considered here. A comparison of the adult Indian data with that of ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that with the exception of a few smaller organs, the body size as well as the organ weights of Indian subjects are, in general, smaller. With the exception of brain, a statistically significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the body weights and the corresponding organ weights of Indian subjects in different age groups. (author)

  13. Dependability evaluation of computing systems - physical faults, design faults, malicious faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaniche, Mohamed

    1999-01-01

    The research summarized in this report focuses on the dependability of computer systems. It addresses several complementary, theoretical as well as experimental, issues that are grouped into four topics. The first topic concerns the definition of efficient methods that aim to assist the users in the construction and validation of complex dependability analysis and evaluation models. The second topic deals with the modeling of reliability and availability growth that mainly result from the progressive removal of design faults. A method is also defined to support the application of software reliability evaluation studies in an industrial context. The third topic deals with the development and experimentation of a new approach for the quantitative evaluation of operational security. This approach aims to assist the system administrators in the monitoring of operational security, when modifications, that are likely to introduce new vulnerabilities, occur in the system configuration, the applications, the user behavior, etc. Finally, the fourth topic addresses: a) the definition of a development model focused at the production of dependable systems, and b) the development of assessment criteria to obtain justified confidence that a system will achieve, during its operation and up to its decommissioning, its dependability objectives. (author) [fr

  14. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Wi-Young So; Dai-Hyuk Choi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were eva...

  15. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Hyun-A; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Ha, Hyunjung

    2007-04-20

    We have reported previously that PDK1 physically interacts with STRAP, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, and enhances STRAP-induced inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. In this study we show that PDK1 coimmunoprecipitates with Smad proteins, including Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, and that this association is mediated by the pleckstrin homology domain of PDK1. The association between PDK1 and Smad proteins is increased by insulin treatment but decreased by TGF-beta treatment. Analysis of the interacting proteins shows that Smad proteins enhance PDK1 kinase activity by removing 14-3-3, a negative regulator of PDK1, from the PDK1-14-3-3 complex. Knockdown of endogenous Smad proteins, including Smad3 and Smad7, by transfection with small interfering RNA produced the opposite trend and decreased PDK1 activity, protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation, and Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, coexpression of Smad proteins and wild-type PDK1 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcription, as well as TGF-beta-mediated biological functions, such as apoptosis and cell growth arrest. Inhibition was dose-dependent on PDK1, but no inhibition was observed in the presence of an inactive kinase-dead PDK1 mutant. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that wild-type PDK1 prevents translocation of Smad3 and Smad4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as the redistribution of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to TGF-beta. Taken together, our results suggest that PDK1 negatively regulates TGF-beta-mediated signaling in a PDK1 kinase-dependent manner via a direct physical interaction with Smad proteins and that Smad proteins can act as potential positive regulators of PDK1.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  17. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  18. Some physical magnitudes of interest for nuclear reactions and their dependence on the projectile-target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Pacheco, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The design and analysis of experiences with heavy ions requires the knwoledge of several characteristic parameters of the collision and their dependence on the reactant system. In the case of an electrostatic accelerator as the TANDAR, the bombarding energy (function of the projectile) is a direct consequence of the evolution of the charged state distribution for the projectile at the exit of the last stripper, as a function of the atomic number. The complexity resulting from this dependence originated the confection of a series of diagrams. The diagrams correpond to the different physical magnitudes of interest in the analysis of nuclear reactions as a function of the projectile-target combination for terminal tensions similar to those expected to reach at the TANDAR. In each case, the curves are refered to the following physical magnitudes: Ecm/Bc Kinetic energy in the center of the mass system and Coulomb barrier for the projectile-target system, Lgr = angular momentum corresponding to the grazing collisions. Diagrams of the average projectile energy per nucleon for the different values of the terminal tensions with one or two solid strippers are included. The use of the diagrams in some practical applications is illustrated through four examples. The diagrams may be extended, if necesary, to other physical magnitudes, at different accelerator's operating conditions. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Postural Effects of Vestibular Manipulation Depend on the Physical Activity Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Maitre

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on postural control for participants of different physical activity status (i.e. active and non-active. Two groups of participants were recruited: one group of participants who regularly practised sports activities (active group, n = 17, and one group of participants who did not practise physical and/or sports activities (non-active group, n = 17. They were compared in a reference condition (i.e bipedal stance with eyes open and four vestibular manipulation condition (i.e. GVS at 0.5 mA and 3 mA, in accordance with two designs lasting 20 seconds. The centre of foot pressure displacement velocities were compared between the two groups. The main results indicate that the regular practice of sports activities counteracts postural control disruption caused by GVS. The active group demonstrated better postural control than the non-active group when subjected to higher vestibular manipulation. The active group may have developed their ability to reduce the influence of inaccurate vestibular signals. The active participants could identify the relevant sensory input, thought a better central integration, which enables them to switch faster between sensory inputs.

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  1. Influence of the plantar cutaneous information in postural regulation depending on the age and the physical activity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Maitre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n=17 and old (n=17 participants who practised regular physical activity (active groups and two groups of young (n=17 and old (n=17 participants who did not practise physical activity (non-active groups was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the centre of foot pressure displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups.

  2. Effects of multiple electronic shells on strong-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.

  3. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25 mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650 mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20 mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1 h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24) = 3.968, p opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism.

  4. Frequency dependent power fluctuations: a feature of the ESR system or physical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    Full Text Available The k-dependence of the received power in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions, occurring for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs and for real satellites, is investigated by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, where the data are recorded in eight separate channels using different frequencies. For the real satellites we find large variations of the relative powers from event to event, which is probably due to a different number of pulses catching the satellite over the integration period. However, the large power difference remains unexpected in one case. Over short time scale (< 10 s the relative power difference seems to be highly stable. For most NEIAL events the differences between channels are within noise level. In a few cases variations of the relative power well above both the estimated and expected 1-sigma level occur over a signal preintegrated profile. We thus suggest that the frequency dependence of the power in NEIAL events has its origin in the scattering medium itself as the most plausible explanation.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques

  5. Frequency dependent power fluctuations: a feature of the ESR system or physical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ogawa

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The k-dependence of the received power in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions, occurring for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs and for real satellites, is investigated by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, where the data are recorded in eight separate channels using different frequencies. For the real satellites we find large variations of the relative powers from event to event, which is probably due to a different number of pulses catching the satellite over the integration period. However, the large power difference remains unexpected in one case. Over short time scale (< 10 s the relative power difference seems to be highly stable. For most NEIAL events the differences between channels are within noise level. In a few cases variations of the relative power well above both the estimated and expected 1-sigma level occur over a signal preintegrated profile. We thus suggest that the frequency dependence of the power in NEIAL events has its origin in the scattering medium itself as the most plausible explanation.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities; instruments and techniques

  6. Relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation theory and applications to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.Z.

    1984-01-01

    A time-dependent linear-response theory appropriate to the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA) to quantum electrodynamics (QED) is developed. The resulting theory, the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation (RTDLDA) is specialized to the treatment of electric excitations in closed-shell atoms. This formalism is applied to the calculation of atomic photoionization parameters in the dipole approximation. The static-field limit of the RTDLDA is applied to the calculation of dipole polarizabilities. Extensive numerical calculations of the photoionization parameters for the rare gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and for mercury from the RTDLDA are presented and compared in detail with the results of other theories, in particular the relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and with experimental measurements. The predictions of the RTDLDA are comparable with the RRPA calculations made to date. This is remarkable in that the RTDLDA entails appreciably less computational effort. Finally, the dipole polarizabilities predicted by the static-field RTDLDA are compared with other determinations of these quantities. In view of its simplicity, the static-field RTDLDA demonstrates itself to be one of the most powerful theories available for the calculation of dipole polarizabilities

  7. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  8. Physical Origin of Density Dependent Force of the Skyrme Type within the Quark Meson Coupling Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Guichon; Hrayr Matevosyan; N. Sandulescu; Anthony Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A density dependent, effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type is derived from the quark-meson coupling model--a self-consistent, relativistic quark level description of nuclear matter. This new formulation requires no assumption that the mean scalar field is small and hence constitutes a significant advance over earlier work. The similarity of the effective interaction to the widely used SkM* force encourages us to apply it to a wide range of nuclear problems, beginning with the binding energies and charge distributions of doubly magic nuclei. Finding impressive results in this conventional arena, we apply the same effective interaction, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach, to the properties of nuclei far from stability. The resulting two neutron drip lines and shell quenching are quite satisfactory. Finally, we apply the relativistic formulation to the properties of dense nuclear matter in anticipation of future application to the properties of neutron stars

  9. The physical capabilities underlying timed "Up and Go" test are time-dependent in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Junior, Hélio José; Rodrigues, Bruno; Gonçalves, Ivan de Oliveira; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    volunteers in the highest quartile demonstrate a decreased dependence on lower limb muscle strength and an increased contribution of other physical capabilities, such as lower limb muscle power and balance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  11. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were evaluated by VO2max (ml/kg/min, grip strength (kg, sit-ups (reps/min, sit and reach (cm, vertical jump (cm, side steps (reps/30s, and standing on one leg with eyes closed (sec, respectively. For cardiovascular function, we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, resting heart rate (RHR, double product (DP, and vital capacity. There were significant decreases in cardiorespiratory endurance (p < 0.001, power (p < 0.001, and balance (p < 0.001, and increases in muscular strength (p < 0.001. Further, cardiovascular function, including SBP (p < 0.001, DBP (p < 0.001, double product (p < 0.001, and vital capacity (p=0.006 appeared to be lower for the obesity group. We conclude that an obese person exhibits lower fitness level and weaker cardiovascular function than a normal person

  12. Relationships between components of emotional intelligence and physical pain in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Brower, Kirk J; Suszek, Hubert; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Fudalej, Sylwia; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant comorbidity in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). Emotional processing deficits are a substantial component of both AD and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelations between components of emotional intelligence and self-reported pain severity in AD patients. A sample of 103 participants was recruited from an alcohol treatment center in Warsaw, Poland. Information concerning pain level in the last 4 weeks, demographics, severity of current anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as neuroticism was obtained. The study sample was divided into "mild or no pain" and "moderate or greater pain" groups. In the logistic regression model, across a set of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical factors, higher emotion regulation and higher education predicted lower severity, whereas increased levels of anxiety predicted higher severity of self-reported pain during the previous 4 weeks. When the mediation models looking at the association between current severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain severity with the mediating role of emotion regulation were tested, emotion regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between depression severity and pain, and partially the relationship between anxiety severity and pain. The current findings extend previous results indicating that emotion regulation deficits are related to self-reported pain in AD subjects. Comprehensive strategies focusing on the improvement of mood regulation skills might be effective in the treatment of AD patients with comorbid pain symptoms.

  13. The Physics of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. I. Analytic Results and Time Dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Philip A.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    We develop an analytic solution of the radiation transport problem for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and show that it reproduces bolometric light curves produced by more detailed calculations under the assumption of a constant-extinction coefficient. This model is used to derive the thermal conditions in the interior of SNe Ia and to study the sensitivity of light curves to various properties of the underlying supernova explosions. Although the model is limited by simplifying assumptions, it is adequate for demonstrating that the relationship between SNe Ia maximum-light luminosity and rate of decline is most easily explained if SNe Ia span a range in mass. The analytic model is also used to examine the size of various terms in the transport equation under conditions appropriate to maximum light. For instance, the Eulerian and advective time derivatives are each shown to be of the same order of magnitude as other order v/c terms in the transport equation. We conclude that a fully time-dependent solution to the transport problem is needed in order to compute SNe Ia light curves and spectra accurate enough to distinguish subtle differences of various explosion models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  14. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  15. Physical Activity Characteristics across GOLD Quadrants Depend on the Questionnaire Used.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Demeyer

    Full Text Available The GOLD multidimensional classification of COPD severity combines the exacerbation risk with the symptom experience, for which 3 different questionnaires are permitted. This study investigated differences in physical activity (PA in the different GOLD quadrants and patient's distribution in relation to the questionnaire used.136 COPD patients (58±21% FEV1 predicted, 34F/102M completed COPD assessment test (CAT, clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC questionnaire. Exacerbation history, spirometry and 6MWD were collected. PA was objectively measured for 2 periods of 1 week, 6 months apart, in 5 European centres; to minimise seasonal and clinical variation the average of these two periods was used for analysis.GOLD quadrants C+D had reduced PA compared with A+B (3824 [2976] vs. 5508 [4671] steps.d-1, p<0.0001. The choice of questionnaire yielded different patient distributions (agreement mMRC-CAT κ = 0.57; CCQ-mMRC κ = 0.71; CCQ-CAT κ = 0.72 with different clinical characteristics. PA was notably lower in patients with an mMRC score ≥2 (3430 [2537] vs. 5443 [3776] steps.d-1, p <0.001 in both the low and high risk quadrants.Using different questionnaires changes the patient distribution and results in different clinical characteristics. Therefore, standardization of the questionnaire used for classification is critical to allow comparison of different studies using this as an entry criterion.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01388218.

  16. Physical Activity Characteristics across GOLD Quadrants Depend on the Questionnaire Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Heleen; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hornikx, Miek; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Boer, Willem I.; Karlsson, Niklas; de Jong, Corina; Van der Molen, Thys; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Troosters, Thierry; Polkey, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The GOLD multidimensional classification of COPD severity combines the exacerbation risk with the symptom experience, for which 3 different questionnaires are permitted. This study investigated differences in physical activity (PA) in the different GOLD quadrants and patient’s distribution in relation to the questionnaire used. Methods 136 COPD patients (58±21% FEV1 predicted, 34F/102M) completed COPD assessment test (CAT), clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) questionnaire. Exacerbation history, spirometry and 6MWD were collected. PA was objectively measured for 2 periods of 1 week, 6 months apart, in 5 European centres; to minimise seasonal and clinical variation the average of these two periods was used for analysis. Results GOLD quadrants C+D had reduced PA compared with A+B (3824 [2976] vs. 5508 [4671] steps.d-1, p<0.0001). The choice of questionnaire yielded different patient distributions (agreement mMRC-CAT κ = 0.57; CCQ-mMRC κ = 0.71; CCQ-CAT κ = 0.72) with different clinical characteristics. PA was notably lower in patients with an mMRC score ≥2 (3430 [2537] vs. 5443 [3776] steps.d-1, p <0.001) in both the low and high risk quadrants. Conclusions Using different questionnaires changes the patient distribution and results in different clinical characteristics. Therefore, standardization of the questionnaire used for classification is critical to allow comparison of different studies using this as an entry criterion. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01388218 PMID:26974332

  17. Growth form-dependent response to physical disturbance and thermal stress in Acropora corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, S.; Arakaki, S.; Nagao, M.; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    To predict the community structure in response to changing environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the species-specific reaction and relative impact strength of each disturbance. We investigated the coral communities in two sites, an exposed and a protected site, at Iriomote Island, Japan, from 2005 to 2008. During the study period, a cyclone and thermal stress were observed. All Acropora colonies, classified into four morphologies (arborescent, tabular, corymbose, and digitate), were identified and tracked through time to calculate the annual mortality and growth rate. The mortality of all Acropora colonies in the protected site was lower than that in the exposed site during the period without disturbances. Extremely higher mortality due to bleaching was observed in tabular and corymbose Acropora, compared to other growth forms, at the protected sites after thermal stress. In contrast, physical disturbance by a tropical cyclone induced the highest mortality in arborescent and digitate corals at the exposed site. Moreover, arborescent corals exhibited a remarkable decline 1 year after the tropical cyclone at the exposed site. The growth of colonies that survived coral bleaching did not decrease in the following year compared to previous year for all growth forms, but the growth of arborescent and tabular remnant corals at the exposed site declined severely after the tropical cyclone compared to previous year. The delayed mortality and lowered growth rate after the tropical cyclone were probably due to the damage caused by the tropical cyclone. These results indicate that the cyclone had a greater impact on fragile corals than expected. This study provides useful information for the evaluation of Acropora coral response to progressing global warming conditions, which are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity in the near future.

  18. Moisture-Dependent Physical Properties of Àbèèrè (Picralima nitida Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Aremu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some relevant engineering properties of Àbèèrè (Picralima nitida seeds are needed for the design of its processing equipments. The geometric, gravimetric and frictional properties of Àbèèrè seed in the moisture content ranges of 7.98% - 47.77% (wb were investigated. The average length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity, surface area, volume, true and bulk densities and angles of repose increased from 28.76 – 30.75mm, 16.18 – 19.62mm, 5.75 – 7.15mm, 16.90 – 19.17mm, 13.81 – 16.11mm,0.48 – 0.53, 600.94 – 817.83mm2, 443.00 – 717.92mm3, 2.49×10-3 – 2.60×10-3g/mm3, 1.14×10-3 – 1.50×10-3g/mm3and 27.97o – 30.26o respectively as the moisture content increased from 7.98% to 47.77%. However, values for porosity decreased from 0.54 – 0.42. The static coefficient of friction of Àbèèrè increased linearly over the three material surfaces – plywood, stainless steel and glass – with increasing moisture content from 0.445 – 0.468, 0.286 – 0.384 and 0.357 – 0.389 respectively. The steel surface had the lowest static coefficient of friction whereas the plywood gave the highest value at all moisture content levels. The regression models developed for all the physical properties of the seeds had high coefficient of determination, R2.

  19. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we...... analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depression Inventory. A nationwide sample (n = 1851) of Finnish women aged 48-50 years was analyzed....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  1. Time-Dependent Moment Tensors of the First Four Source Physics Experiments (SPE) Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We use mainly vertical-component geophone data within 2 km from the epicenter to invert for time-dependent moment tensors of the first four SPE explosions: SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3 and SPE-4Prime. We employ a one-dimensional (1D) velocity model developed from P- and Rg-wave travel times for Green's function calculations. The attenuation structure of the model is developed from P- and Rg-wave amplitudes. We select data for the inversion based on the criterion that they show consistent travel times and amplitude behavior as those predicted by the 1D model. Due to limited azimuthal coverage of the sources and the mostly vertical-component-only nature of the dataset, only long-period, diagonal components of the moment tensors are well constrained. Nevertheless, the moment tensors, particularly their isotropic components, provide reasonable estimates of the long-period source amplitudes as well as estimates of corner frequencies, albeit with larger uncertainties. The estimated corner frequencies, however, are consistent with estimates from ratios of seismogram spectra from different explosions. These long-period source amplitudes and corner frequencies cannot be fit by classical P-wave explosion source models. The results motivate the development of new P-wave source models suitable for these chemical explosions. To that end, we fit inverted moment-tensor spectra by modifying the classical explosion model using regressions of estimated source parameters. Although the number of data points used in the regression is small, the approach suggests a way for the new-model development when more data are collected.

  2. Relationships between components of emotional intelligence and physical pain in alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maciej Kopera,1 Kirk J Brower,2 Hubert Suszek,3 Andrzej Jakubczyk,1 Sylwia Fudalej,1 Aleksandra Krasowska,1 Anna Klimkiewicz,1 Marcin Wojnar1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Addiction Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Purpose: Chronic pain is a significant comorbidity in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. Emotional processing deficits are a substantial component of both AD and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze the interrelations between components of emotional intelligence and self-reported pain severity in AD patients. Patients and methods: A sample of 103 participants was recruited from an alcohol treatment center in Warsaw, Poland. Information concerning pain level in the last 4 weeks, demographics, severity of current anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as neuroticism was obtained. The study sample was divided into “mild or no pain” and “moderate or greater pain” groups. Results: In the logistic regression model, across a set of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical factors, higher emotion regulation and higher education predicted lower severity, whereas increased levels of anxiety predicted higher severity of self-reported pain during the previous 4 weeks. When the mediation models looking at the association between current severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and pain severity with the mediating role of emotion regulation were tested, emotion regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between depression severity and pain, and partially the relationship between anxiety severity and pain. Conclusion: The current findings extend previous results indicating that emotion regulation deficits are related to self-reported pain in AD subjects. Comprehensive strategies focusing on the improvement of mood regulation skills might be

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  7. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  8. Antiaromatic bisindeno-[n]thienoacenes with small singlet biradical characters: Syntheses, structures and chain length dependent physical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xueliang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that aromaticity and biradical character play important roles in determining the ground-state structures and physical properties of quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons and oligothiophenes, a kind of molecular materials showing promising applications for organic electronics, photonics and spintronics. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new type of hybrid system, the so-called bisindeno-[n]thienoacenes (n = 1-4), by annulation of quinoidal fused α-oligothiophenes with two indene units. The obtained molecules can be regarded as antiaromatic systems containing 4n π electrons with small singlet biradical character (y0). Their ground-state geometry and electronic structures were studied by X-ray crystallographic analysis, NMR, ESR and Raman spectroscopy, assisted by density functional theory calculations. With extension of the chain length, the molecules showed a gradual increase of the singlet biradical character accompanied by decreased antiaromaticity, finally leading to a highly reactive bisindeno[4]thienoacene (S4-TIPS) which has a singlet biradical ground state (y0= 0.202). Their optical and electronic properties in the neutral and charged states were systematically investigated by one-photon absorption, two-photon absorption, transient absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry, which could be correlated to the chain length dependent antiaromaticity and biradical character. Our detailed studies revealed a clear structure-aromaticity-biradical character-physical properties-reactivity relationship, which is of importance for tailored material design in the future. This journal is

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  10. Hyperosmotic stress strongly potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcriptional activity in ehrlich lettré ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway is transien......Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway......) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation and SRF-dependent transcriptional activity were strongly augmented 5–30¿min and 24¿h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38...... dephosphorylated within 5¿min of shrinkage. MSK1 phosphorylation recovered within 30¿min in a p38-MAPK-dependent manner. CREB was transiently dephosphorylated after shrinkage in a manner exacerbated by p38 MAPK inhibition or MSK1 knockdown, but unaffected by inhibition of RSK. In conclusion, in ELA cells...

  11. Cognitive and physical functions related to the level of supervision and dependence in the toileting of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Okuda, Yutaka; Fujita, Takaaki; Kimura, Norihiko; Hoshina, Noriyuki; Kato, Sayaka; Tanaka, Shigenari

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify which cognitive and physical factors are associated with the need for toileting assistance in stroke patients and to calculate cut-off values for discriminating between independent supervision and dependent toileting ability. This cross-sectional study included 163 first-stroke patients in nine convalescent rehabilitation wards. Based on their FIM Ⓡ instrument score for toileting, the patients were divided into an independent-supervision group and a dependent group. Multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to identify factors related to toileting performance. The Minimental State Examination (MMSE); the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS) score for the affected lower limb, speech, and visuospatial functions; and the Functional Assessment for Control of Trunk (FACT) were analyzed as independent variables. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the FIM Ⓡ instrument score for toileting was associated with the SIAS score for the affected lower limb function, MMSE, and FACT. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, the SIAS score for the affected lower limb function cut-off value was 8/7 points, the MMSE cut-off value was 25/24 points, and the FACT cut-off value was 14/13 points. Affected lower limb function, cognitive function, and trunk function were related with the need for toileting assistance. These cut-off values may be useful for judging whether toileting assistance is needed in stroke patients.

  12. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  13. Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Jacka, Brendan; Degenhardt, Louisa; Murray, Stuart B; Larance, Briony

    2018-02-27

    Emerging research suggests that the sub-population of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users who experience physical appearance concerns may suffer greater psychological dysfunction than other sub-populations, including users with athletic or occupational concerns. Thus, among current AAS users, we sought to determine whether, and to what extent, social physique anxiety-an established measure of appearance concern-was associated with psychological dysfunction. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 74 male AAS users living in Australia. Users completed self-report instruments of the severity of AAS dependence, depression, hazardous and risky drinking, use of non-AAS illicit drugs, psychological side-effects due to AAS use and abnormal test results due to AAS use. Multivariate analyses revealed that greater social physique anxiety was uniquely associated with more severe symptoms of both AAS dependence and depression. Moreover, the effect size of these relationships was large. Social physique anxiety was not associated with hazardous or risky drinking, non-AAS illicit drug use, psychological side-effects or abnormal test results. Limitations notwithstanding, the study is consistent with the notion that AAS users who experience appearance concerns are at heightened risk of co-morbid psychological dysfunction. Given trends indicating an increase in the prevalence of AAS use in Australia and elsewhere, the findings suggest that health-care systems may need to consider prioritising the sub-population of AAS users who experience appearance concerns. Further investigation of the clinical syndrome of AAS dependence is required, including its relation to body image and eating disorders. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Lack of renewal effect in extinction of naturally acquired conditioned eyeblink responses, but possible dependency on physical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, J; Mazilescu, L; Thieme, A; Bracha, V; Timmann, D

    2016-01-01

    Context dependency of extinction is well known and has extensively been studied in fear conditioning, but has rarely been assessed in eyeblink conditioning. One way to demonstrate context dependency of extinction is the renewal effect. ABA paradigms are most commonly used to show the renewal effect of extinguished learned fear: if acquisition takes place in context A, and extinction takes place in context B (extinction phase), learned responses will recover in subsequent extinction trials presented in context A (renewal phase). The renewal effect of the visual threat eyeblink response (VTER), a conditioned eyeblink response, which is naturally acquired in early infancy, was examined in a total of 48 young and healthy participants with two experiments using an ABA paradigm. Twenty paired trials were performed in context A (baseline trials), followed by 50 extinction trials in context B (extinction phase) and 50 extinction trials in context A (renewal phase). In 24 participants, contexts A and B were two different rooms, and in the other 24 participants, two different background colors (orange and blue) and noises were used. To rule out spontaneous recovery, an AAA design was used for comparison. There were significant effects of extinction in both experiments. No significant renewal effects were observed. In experiment 2, however, extinction was significantly less using orange background during extinction compared to the blue background. The present findings suggest that extinction of conditioned eyeblinks depends on the physical context. Findings add to the animal literature that context can play a role in the acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink responses. Future studies, however, need to be performed to confirm the present findings. Lack of renewal effect may be explained by the highly overlearned character of the VTER.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  17. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  18. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  1. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  2. The association between nicotine dependence and physical health among people receiving injectable diacetylmorphine or hydromorphone for the treatment of chronic opioid use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Palis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with chronic opioid use disorder often present to treatment with individual and structural vulnerabilities and remain at risk of reporting adverse health outcomes. This risk is greatly compounded by tobacco smoking, which is highly prevalent among people with chronic opioid use disorder. Despite the known burden of tobacco smoking on health, the relationship between nicotine dependence and health has not been studied among those receiving injectable opioid agonist treatment. As such, the present study aims to explore the association between nicotine dependence and physical health among participants of the Study to Assess Longer-Term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME at baseline and six-months. Methods: SALOME was a double-blind phase III clinical trial testing the non-inferiority of injectable hydromorphone to injectable diacetylmorphine for chronic opioid use disorder. Participants reporting tobacco smoking were included in a linear regression analysis of physical health at baseline (before receiving treatment and at six-months. Results: At baseline, nicotine dependence score, lifetime history of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and prior month safe injection site access were independently and significantly associated with physical health. At six-months nicotine dependence score was the only variable that maintained this significant and independent association with physical health. Conclusions: Findings indicate that after six-months, the injectable treatment effectively brought equity to patients' physical health status, yet the association with nicotine dependence remained. Findings could inform whether the provision of treatment for nicotine dependence should be made a priority in settings where injectable opioid agonist treatment is delivered to achieve improvements in overall physical health in this population.

  3. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  7. Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  8. Basic Physical - Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sičáková, Alena; Števulová, Nadežda

    2017-06-01

    The binding potential of fly ash (FA) as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm) FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm) one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden) can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  9. Social stress engages opioid regulation of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons and induces a state of cellular and physical opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaijale, Nayla N; Curtis, Andre L; Wood, Susan K; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Bhatnagar, Seema; Reyes, Beverly As; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-09-01

    Stress is implicated in diverse psychiatric disorders including substance abuse. The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress response system that is also a point of intersection between stress neuromediators and endogenous opioids and so may be a site at which stress can influence drug-taking behaviors. As social stress is a common stressor for humans, this study characterized the enduring impact of repeated social stress on LC neuronal activity. Rats were exposed to five daily consecutive sessions of social stress using the resident-intruder model or control manipulation. LC discharge rate recorded 2 days after the last manipulation was decreased in stressed rats compared with controls. By 10 days after the last manipulation, LC rates were comparable between groups. Systemic administration of the opiate antagonist, naloxone, robustly increased LC discharge rate in a manner suggestive of opiate withdrawal, selectively in stressed rats when administered 2 or 10 days after the last manipulation. This was accompanied by behavioral signs of mild opiate withdrawal. Western blot and electron microscopic studies indicated that repeated social stress decreased corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor and increased μ-opioid receptor levels in the LC. Together, the results suggest that repeated social stress engages endogenous opioid modulation of LC activity and induces signs of cellular and physical opiate dependence that endure after the stress. These cellular effects may predispose individuals with a history of repeated social stress to substance abuse behaviors.

  10. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  11. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats.

  12. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  18. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Post, Marcel W M; Spooren, Annemie L; Valent, Linda J; Broeksteeg, Rogier; Sluis, Tebbe A; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is an important

  19. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F. J.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Spooren, Annemie L.; Valent, Linda J.; Broeksteeg, Rogier; Sluis, Tebbe A.; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is an important

  20. Exercise self-efficacy and the relation with physical behavior and physical capacity in wheelchair-dependent persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); M.W. Post (Marcel); Spooren, A.L. (Annemie L.); L. Valent (Linda); R. Broeksteeg (Rogier); T.A.R. Sluis (Tebbe); H.J. Stam (Henk); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since physical activity and exercise levels are known to be generally low in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), there seems to be a need for intervention. Exercise self-efficacy (ESE), the confidence persons have in their ability to be physically active and exercise, is

  1. Gender and Age Differences in Levels, Types and Locations of Physical Activity among Older Adults Living in Car-Dependent Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Procter-Gray, E; Churchill, L; Crouter, S E; Kane, K; Tian, J; Franklin, P D; Ockene, J K; Gurwitz, J

    2017-01-01

    A thorough understanding of gender differences in physical activity is critical to effective promotion of active living in older adults. To examine gender and age differences in levels, types and locations of physical activity. Cross-sectional observation. Car-dependent urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County, Massachusetts, USA. 111 men and 103 women aged 65 years and older. From 2012 to 2014, participants were queried on type, frequency and location of physical activity. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Compared to women, men had a higher mean daily step count (mean (SD) 4385 (2122) men vs. 3671(1723) women, p=0.008). Men reported higher frequencies of any physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and a lower frequency of physical activity inside the home. Mean daily step counts and frequency of physical activity outside the home decreased progressively with age for both men and women. Women had a sharper decline in frequencies of self-reported physical activity. Men had a significant decrease in utilitarian walking, which women did not (p=0.07). Among participants who reported participation in any physical activity (n=190), more women indicated exercising indoors more often (59% vs. 44%, p=0.04). The three most commonly cited locations for physical activity away from home for both genders were streets or sidewalks, shopping malls, and membership-only facilities (e.g., YMCA or YWCA). The most common types of physical activity, performed at least once in a typical month, with over 40% of both genders reporting, included light housework, brisk walking, leisurely walking, and stretching. Levels, types and location preferences of physical activity differed substantially by gender. Levels of physical activity decreased progressively with age, with greater decline among women. Consideration of these gender differences is necessary to improve the effectiveness of active living promotion programs among older adults.

  2. The influence of posttraumatic stress disorder numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters in the prediction of physical health status in veterans with chronic tobacco dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Laura H; Chen, Shuo; Baker, Dewleen G; Chow, Bruce; McFall, Miles; Saxon, Andrew; Smith, Mark W

    2011-12-01

    Smoking and PTSD are predictors of poor physical health status. This study examined the unique contribution of PTSD symptoms in the prediction of the SF-36 physical health status subscales accounting for cigarette smoking, chronic medical conditions, alcohol and drug use disorders, and depression. This study examined baseline interview and self-report data from a national tobacco cessation randomized, controlled trial (Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study 519) that enrolled tobacco-dependent veterans with chronic PTSD (N = 943). A series of blockwise multiple regression analyses indicated that PTSD numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters explained a significant proportion of the variance across all physical health domains except for the Physical Functioning subscale, which measures impairments in specific physical activities. Our findings further explain the impact of PTSD on health status by exploring the way PTSD symptom clusters predict self-perceptions of health, role limitations, pain, and vitality.

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  7. Time-Dependent Confounding in the Study of the Effects of Regular Physical Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Application of the Marginal Structural Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Lange, P.; Serra, I.

    2008-01-01

    this type of confounding. We sought to assess the presence of time-dependent confounding in the association between physical activity and COPD development and course by comparing risk estimates between standard statistical methods and MSMs. METHODS: By using the population-based cohort Copenhagen City Heart...

  8. Time-Dependent Confounding in the Study of the Effects of Regular Physical Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Application of the Marginal Structural Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Lange, Peter; Serra, Ignasi

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Results from longitudinal studies about the association between physical activity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have been biased because they did not properly adjust for time-dependent confounders. Marginal structural models (MSMs) have been proposed to address...... this type of confounding. We sought to assess the presence of time-dependent confounding in the association between physical activity and COPD development and course by comparing risk estimates between standard statistical methods and MSMs. METHODS: By using the population-based cohort Copenhagen City Heart...... Study, 6,568 subjects selected from the general population in 1976 were followed up until 2004 with three repeated examinations. RESULTS: Moderate to high compared with low physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of developing COPD both in the standard analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, p = 0...

  9. Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, David

    In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses

  10. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  11. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Effects of BDNF receptor antagonist on the severity of physical and psychological dependence, morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens BDNF levels in morphine- dependent and withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil-Khalili, Masoumeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Yousefi, Behpoor; Jorjani, Hassan; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-03-06

    This study examined the effects of systemic administration of the TrkB receptor antagonist (ANA-12) on the severity of physical and psychological dependence and morphine-induced locomotor sensitization, the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) BDNF levels in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 10 days. Then, rats were tested for naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs, the anxiety (the elevated plus maze-EPM) after the last morphine injection and injection of ANA12 (ip). Also, morphine-induced locomotor sensitization was evaluated after morphine challenge followed by an injection of ANA-12 in morphine-withdrawn rats. The VTA-NAc BDNF levels were assessed in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. The overall Gellert-Holtzman score was significantly higher in morphine-dependent rats receiving ANA-12 than in those receiving saline. Also, the percentage of time spent in the open arms in control and morphine-dependent rats receiving ANA-12 were higher compared to the Cont/Sal and D/Sal rats, respectively. There was no significant difference in the locomotor activity and the VTA-NAc BDNF levels between D/Sal/morphine and D/ANA-12/morphine groups after morphine withdrawal. We conclude that the systemic administration of ANA-12 exacerbates the severity of physical dependence on morphine and partially attenuates the anxiety-like behavior in morphine-dependent rats. However, ANA-12 did not affect morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and the VTA-NAc BDNF levels in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A dependência pela prática de exercícios físicos e o uso de recursos ergogênicos = Physical exercise dependence and the use of ergogenic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Lopes Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se Investigar a ocorrência de dependência por exercícios físicos quanto às características de praticantes de musculação e ginástica em academias, como uso de recursos ergogênicos, sexo e índice de massa corporal. Participaram do estudo 80 sujeitos (27,12 ± 6,60 anos, praticantes de ginástica e/ou musculação em academias, de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se a Escala de Dependência por Exercícios Físicos, a listagem do tipo de suplemento alimentar utilizado como recurso ergogênico e o Índice de Massa Corporal – IMC (Kg/cm². A análise estatística foi realizada por meio da correlação de Spearman e o teste de Wilcoxon (p The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of physical exercise dependence in regards to the characteristics of participants in weight training and exercises at gyms, such as the use ofergogenic resources, gender and body mass index. Eighty subjects (27.12 ± 6.60 years from both genders took part in the study, all of whom practiced gymnastics and/or weight training in gyms. The study utilized the Exercise Dependence Scale, a check list of the kinds of nutritional supplementation used as ergogenic resources, and the Body Mass Index – BMI (Kg cm-². Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation and the Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between physical exercise dependence in men (5.14 ± 1.28 and women (5.60 ± 1.45. The body mass index did not show statistically significant correlation with the scores of dependency, either. However, dependentmen showed high prevalence of use of ergogenic resources (63.63%, p = 0.01, while for dependent women there were no statistically significant results. The body mass index does not relate to the scores of exercise dependence. However, even with a normal BMI, the use of ergogenic resources presents high prevalence among dependent men. As a result, there is evidence that

  15. Attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia among care-dependent older adults (50+) in Austria: the role of socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress, and social isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Gasser-Steiner, Peter; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-12-07

    Care-dependency constitutes an important issue with regard to the approval of end-of-life decisions, yet attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia are understudied among care-dependent older adults. We assessed attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia and tested empirical correlates, including socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress and social isolation. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among older care allowance recipients (50+) in private households in Austria was conducted in 2016. In computer-assisted personal interviews, 493 respondents were asked whether or not they approved of the availability of assisted suicide and euthanasia in case of long-term care dependency and whether or not they would consider using assisted suicide or euthanasia for themselves. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of potential determinants of attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia. About a quarter (24.8-26.0%) of the sampled care-dependent older adults approved of the availability of assisted suicide and euthanasia respectively indicated the will to (hypothetically) make use of assisted suicide or euthanasia. Attitudes towards assisted suicide were most favourable among care-dependent older adults living in urban areas, those who did not trust physicians, those who reported active suicide ideation, and individuals with a strong fear of dying. With regard to euthanasia, living alone, religiosity and fear of dying were the central determinants of acceptance. Positive attitudes towards and will to (hypothetically) use assisted suicide and euthanasia were expressed by a substantial minority of care-dependent older adults in Austria and are driven by current psychological suffering and fear of the process of dying in the (near) future. Community-based psychosocial care should be expanded to address psychological distress and fears about end-of-life issues among care-dependent older adults.

  16. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  17. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  18. [Physical fitness in dependence on cardiovascular risk factors - an assessment of 20- to 30-year-old adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammito, S; Niebel, I

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors are already common in the young adult population. The prevalence of obesity increases. More and more employees are not able to stand the physical demands at the workplace. In the course of increasing the statutory retirement age ("retirement with 67") more knowledge about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their influence on the physical fitness is necessary for a wise and goal-oriented primary prevention. A retrospective analysis of survey examinations from young German soldiers in terms of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their physical fitness was undertaken. The causes for rejection were analysed. In the group of 646 test persons (in average 23.4 years old) there were large rates of people with overweight (37.9%) and obesity (10.8%). Smoking (55.6%), hypercholesteremia (18.6%) and hypertriglyceridemia (13.3%) were also common. Apparent diseases were rare. With an increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors, the physical fitness was significantly lower. High liver enzymes, obesity and lacking physical fitness were reasons for rejection. Already in this young adult collective cardiovascular risk factors are widely spread. This reduces the physical fitness directly or indirectly. A goal-oriented primary prevention is already necessary in this collective of young employees to avoid later limitations in ability to work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  20. α-Terpineol attenuates morphine-induced physical dependence and tolerance in mice: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvardeh, Siavash; Moghimi, Mahsa; Eslami, Pegah; Masoudi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Dependence and tolerance to opioid analgesics are major problems limiting their clinical application. α-Terpineol is a monoterpenoid alcohol with neuroprotective effects which is found in several medicinal plants such as Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis, and Stachys byzantina. It has been shown that some of these medicinal plants such as S. byzantina attenuate dependence and tolerance to morphine. Since α-terpineol is one of the bioactive phytochemical constituent of these medicinal plants, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance in mice. The mice were rendered dependent or tolerant to morphine by a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test and naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome were used to evaluate tolerance and dependence on morphine, respectively. To investigate a possible role for nitric oxide (NO) in the protective effect of α-terpineol, the NO synthase inhibitor, L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and NO precursor, L-arginine, were used. Administration of α-terpineol (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Moreover, α-terpineol (20 and 40 mg/kg, IP) attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. The inhibitory effects of α-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance were enhanced by pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg, IP). However, L-arginine (300 mg/kg, IP) antagonized the protective effects of α-terpineol on dependence and tolerance to morphine. These findings indicate that α-terpineol prevents the development of dependence and tolerance to morphine probably through the influence on NO production.

  1. Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Zahedi-Khorasani, Mahdi; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-05-30

    This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  3. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  4. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  5. Predictors of mortality and short-term physical and cognitive dependence in critically ill persons 75 years and older: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubin, Cédric; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Séguin, Amélie; Gaillard, Cathy; Valette, Xavier; Prévost, Fabrice; Terzi, Nicolas; Ramakers, Michel; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien; Charbonneau, Pierre

    2011-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of 3-month mortality in critically ill older persons under medical care and to assess the clinical impact of an ICU stay on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status in survivors. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all older persons 75 years and older consecutively admitted into ICU during a one-year period, except those admitted after cardiac arrest, All patients were followed for 3 months or until death. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson index and physical dependence was evaluated using the Katz index of Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Cognitive dependence was determined by a score based on the individual components of the Lawton index of Daily Living and subjective health status was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) score. One hundred patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 79.3 ± 3.4 years. The median Charlson index was 6 [IQR, 4 to 7] and the mean ADL and cognitive scores were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.4, respectively, corresponding to a population with a high level of comorbidities but low physical and cognitive dependence. Mortality was 61/100 (61%) at 3 months. In multivariate analysis only comorbidities assessed by the Charlson index [Adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; p physical (p = 0.04), and cognitive (p = 0.62) dependence in survivors had changed very little at 3 months. In addition, the mean NHP score was 213.1 ± 132.8 at 3 months, suggesting an acceptable perception of their quality of life. In a selected population of non surgical patients 75 years and older, admission into the ICU is associated with a 3-month survival rate of 38% with little impact on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status. Nevertheless, a high comorbidity level (ie, Charlson index), multi-organ failure, and the need for extra-renal support at the early phase of intensive care could be considered as

  6. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  7. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  8. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PREDICTORS OF DISADAPTATION AND INDICATORS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FORMER ATHLETES DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Victorovna Fedotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative aspects of post-professional adaptation and indicators of quality of life among former athletes with various level of physical activity are analysed in the work. We conducted a survey of 456 former athletes of high qualification categories of cyclic and acyclic sports. A special author’s questionnaire to study the basic medical and social factors of disadaptive disorders among former athletes was used. According to the results of the survey we formed two groups depending on the level of physical activity. Quality of life was studied using a questionnaire MOS SF-36. There were significant correlations between predictors of medical and social disadaptation and the level of quality of life, depending on the mode of the physical activity among former athletes. Timely evaluation of the social dimension of disadaptation and level of quality of life allows you to create a system of medico-social monitoring and to provide a successful adaptation to the completion of the sports career. The necessity of maintaining a high level of athletes’ physical activity at an early post-sport period with a gradual decrease in stress after the cessation of intensive training and competitive activity is established.

  10. Temperature and pressure dependent structural and thermo-physical properties of quaternary CoVTiAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Saleem; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-09-01

    Investigation of band structure and thermo-physical response of new quaternary CoVTiAl Heusler alloy within the frame work of density functional theory has been analyzed. 100% spin polarization with ferromagnetic stable ground state at the optimized lattice parameter of 6.01 Å is predicted for the compound. Slater-Pauling rule for the total magnetic moment of 3 μB and an indirect semiconducting behavior is also seen for the compound. In order to perfectly analyze the thermo-physical response, the lattice thermal conductivity and thermodynamic properties have been calculated. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of CoVTiAl are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account. The variations of the lattice constant, volume expansion coefficient, heat capacities, and Debye temperature with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0 GPa to 15 GPa and 0 K to 800 K have been obtained.

  11. Stone crayfish in the Czech Republic: how does its population density depend on basic chemical and physical properties of water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlach P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium Schrank is one of the two native crayfish species in the Czech Republic. The populations as well as physical and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, undissolved particles, NH3, NH4+, NO2−, NO3−, phosphorus, Ca2+ and SO42 −  of 33 streams were examined to find the ecological plasticity of this crayfish and some relations between these parameters and population densities. The mentioned parameters often significantly varied at the sites. Two approaches were applied to find relations between these parameters and observed abundance. At first, the observed streams were compared using RDA (streams  ×  physical-chemical parameters. No significance was found while testing relationship between the streams grouped along the 1st axis of model and the observed abundances of stone crayfish. However, some correlations between abundance and conductivity, calcium, nitrates and sulphates were found using polynomial regression. These relationships are explicable in terms of mutual correlations, underlying geology and other factors which affect abundances. In conclusion, A. torrentium is able to inhabit waters with a large range of physical and chemical parameters of the water without any fundamental influence on population densities. Water properties play an indisputable role as limiting ecological factors at uncommon concentrations, but population densities are probably influenced much more by the types of habitats, habitat features, predation and other ecological factors.

  12. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  13. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  14. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  15. The validity of dependence as a health outcome measure in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, D Eldon; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Neumann, Peter J; Veenstra, David L; Sullivan, Sean D

    2013-05-01

    Relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD), dependence has been defined as the increased need for assistance due to deterioration in cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dependence and measures of functional impairment. Data were compiled by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the association between dependence and cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. The independent association with dependence was positive. Dependence was most strongly associated with physical functioning. A secondary analysis suggested a strong association of dependence with multiple impairments, as measured by the interaction terms, in more severe patients. We find that dependence is simultaneously associated with physical functioning, cognition, and behavior, which support the construct validity of dependence. Dependence might be a more simple measure to explain the multifaceted disease progression of AD and convey the increasing need for care.

  16. The Validity of Dependence as a Health Outcome Measure in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, D. Eldon; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Neumann, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Sullivan, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relating to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dependence has been defined as the increased need for assistance due to deterioration in cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dependence and measures of functional impairment. Methods Data were compiled by the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the association between dependence and cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Results The independent association with dependence was positive. Dependence was most strongly associated with physical functioning. A secondary analysis suggested a strong association of dependence with multiple impairments, as measured by the interaction terms, in more severe patients. Conclusions We find that dependence is simultaneously associated with physical functioning, cognition, and behavior, which support the construct validity of dependence. Dependence might be a more simple measure to explain the multifaceted disease progression of AD and convey the increasing need for care. PMID:23512996

  17. The opiate addiction test: a clinical evaluation of a quick test for physical dependence on opiate drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodse, H; Taylor, D R; Greaves, J L; Britten, A J; Lynch, D

    1995-01-01

    1. Mydriasis (pupil dilation) in response to conjunctivally applied naloxone hydrochloride has been demonstrated using an innovative electronic binocular pupillometer in 40 opiate dependent patients, on maintenance methadone treatment. 2. No pupillary response to naloxone was seen when an identical procedure was carried out in a control population of 12 healthy volunteers. 3. After a baseline measurement of pupil size, two drops of naloxone hydrochloride were instilled into the conjunctival s...

  18. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  19. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  20. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  1. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  2. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  3. Enhanced neoplastic transformation by mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays: indication for a strong dependence on photon energy of the RBE(M) for various end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, D; Kelnhofer, K; Bär, K; Frankenberg-Schwager, M

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental assumption implicit in the use of the atomic bomb survivor data to derive risk estimates is that the gamma rays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are considered to have biological efficiencies equal to those of other low-LET radiations up to 10 keV/microm, including mammography X rays. Microdosimetric and radiobiological data contradict this assumption. It is therefore of scientific and public interest to evaluate the efficiency of mammography X rays (25-30 kVp) to induce cancer. In this study, the efficiency of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays to induce neoplastic cell transformation was evaluated using cells of a human hybrid cell line (CGL1). For both radiations, a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship was observed for neoplastic transformation of CGL1 cells; there was a strong linear component for the 29 kVp X rays. The RBE(M) of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays was determined to be about 4 for doses energies of transformation of CGL1 cells. Both the data available in the literature and the results of the present study strongly suggest an increase of RBE(M) for carcinogenesis in animals, neoplastic cell transformation, and clastogenic effects with decreasing photon energy or increasing LET to an RBE(M) approximately 8 for mammography X rays relative to 60Co gamma rays.

  4. An important role of temperature dependent scattering time in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated system: La0.75Ba0.25CoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kumar, Devendra; Pandey, Sudhir K

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, we report the temperature dependent thermopower (α) behavior of La 0.75 Ba 0.25 CoO 3 compound in the temperature range 300-600 K. Using the Heikes formula, the estimated value of α corresponding to high-spin configuration of Co 3+ and Co 4+ ions is found to be  ∼16 [Formula: see text], which is close to the experimental value, ∼13 [Formula: see text], observed at  ∼600 K. The temperature dependent TE behavior of the compound is studied by combining the WIEN2K and BoltzTrap code. The self consistency field calculations show that the compound have ferromagnetic ground state structure. The electronic structure calculations give half metallic characteristic with a small gap of  ∼50 meV for down spin channel. The large and positive value for down spin channel is obtained due to the unique band structure shown by this spin channel. The temperature dependent relaxation time for both the spin-channel charge carriers is considered to study the thermopower data in temperature range 300-600 K. For evaluation of α, almost linear values of [Formula: see text] and a non-linear values of [Formula: see text] are taken into account. By taking the temperature dependent values of relaxation time for both the spin channels, the calculated values of α using two current model are found to be in good agreement with experimental values in the temperature range 300-600 K. At 300 K, the calculated value of electrical conductivity by using the same value of relaxation time, i.e. 0.1 [Formula: see text] 10 -14 seconds for spin-up and [Formula: see text] seconds for spin-dn channel, is found to be equal to the experimentally reported value.

  5. Strongly coupled models at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Maikel de

    2014-10-01

    physics and direct searches at the LHC. These tests provide stringent limits on f and the parameter space is slowly driven into the TeV range. Furthermore, a strategy on how to optimise present supersymmetry searches for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity is presented, with the goal to improve the constraints and yield more stringent limits on f. Finally, the robustness of translating effective operator constraints to beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories is treated and turns out to crucially depend on the mass and coupling of BSM particles. This is especially relevant for hadron colliders where the partonic centre of mass energy is around the typical energy scales of natural BSM theories. The caveats in applying limits from effective operators are discussed using Z' and G' models, illustrating the effects for a large class of models. This analysis shows that the applicability of effective operators mainly depends on the ratio of the transfer energy in the events and the mass scale of the full theory. Moreover, based on these results a method is developed to recast existing experimental limits on effective operators to the full theory parameter space. It is concluded that strongly coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking are still natural and compatible with LHC results. Moreover, these types of models provide new and interesting final state topologies for experimental searches at the LHC. For the high energy runs of the LHC these new searches will prove useful in determining the faith of composite models and maybe thereby the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  6. Indices of physical and sexual development among boys adolescents depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim is examine and compare the relationship of high and normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with indicators of physical and sexual development of puberty boys. Materials and methods. The study included adolescents 2 age groups: in the 1st group consisted of boys 11–13 years (n = 76; the 2nd group consisted of adolescents 14–17 years (n = 221. Conducted anthropometric survey of young men and adolescents: height, weight, Quetelet index. Sexual development included an assessment of pubertal development of scale Tanner: In the testes, pubic body hair H, the length of the penis, as well as the index of masculinization (IM. The concentration of TSH was measured using standard test kits “Immunotech” company (Czech Republic. According to the results of TSH determination of the boys were divided into 3 groups: 1st subgroup – TTG 0.5–2.6 μIU/l; 2nd subgroup – 4.2–10.0 μIU/l, 3rd subgroup – 10.0 μIU/l. For statistical processing of the material used Excel spreadsheets TC 2000. For quantitative characteristics the average value (M and standard deviations of the mean (m, and these are not the characteristics of parametric (Me – the median. Credibility in groups determined by the criteria of article.Results. Boys 11–13 years parameters of physical development in the 1st and 2nd subgroups in TSH were not statistically different. Indicators of sexual development have tended to be the best in one subgroup compared to 2 (especially in the testicles and MI. The young men years 14–17 physical development statistically significantly different in subgroups 1 and 3 levels of TSH. It was the best in class. Sexual development is also statistically significantly different especially between 1st and 3rd subgroups of V and testicular infarction, as well as in terms of G. In a certain part of 14–17 year old boys in the background marked clinical and laboratory manifestations of hypothyroidism (primary tended to the phenomenon of

  7. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  8. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the changing role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters. (author)

  9. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the hanging role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters

  10. Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1α activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein–protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1208–1246. PMID:22978553

  11. Orientation dependence of phase diagrams and physical properties in epitaxial Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J. H.; Zhao, T. X.; Chen, Z. H.; Yuan, N. Y.; Ding, J. N.

    2018-04-01

    Orientation dependence of phase diagrams and physical properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films are investigated by using a phenomenological Landau-Devonshire theory. New ferroelectric phases, such as the tetragonal a1 phase and the orthorhombic a2 c phase in (110) oriented film and the monoclinic MA phase in (111) oriented film, appear in the "misfit strain-temperature" phase diagrams as compared with (001) oriented film. Moreover, the phase diagrams of (110) and (111) oriented films are more complex than that of (001) oriented film due to the nonlinear coupling terms appeared in the thermodynamic potential. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties largely depend on the misfit strain and orientation. (111) oriented film has the better piezoelectric property than (110) oriented film. Furthermore, the compressive misfit strain is prone to induce the larger piezoelectric property than tensile misfit strain.

  12. The relation between tilt table and acceleration-tolerance and their dependence on stature and physical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K. E.; Backhausen, F.; Bruner, H.; Eichhorn, J.; Jovy, D.; Schotte, J.; Vogt, L.; Wegman, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 12 highly trained athletes and a group of 12untrained students were subjected to passive changes of position on a tilt table and positive accelerations in a centrifuge. During a 20 min tilt, including two additional respiratory maneuvers, the number of faints and average cardiovascular responses did not differ significantly between the groups. During linear increase of acceleration, the average blackout level was almost identical in both groups. Statistically significant coefficients of product-moment correlation for various relations were obtained. The coefficient of multiple determination computed for the dependence of acceleration tolerance on heart-eye distance and systolic blood pressure at rest allows the explanation of almost 50% of the variation of acceleration tolerance. The maximum oxygen uptake showed the expected significant correlation to the heart rate at rest, but not the acceleration tolerance, or to the cardiovascular responses to tilting.

  13. A Lagrangian-dependent metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahir, A.

    1989-08-01

    A generalized Lagrangian-dependent metric of the static isotropic spacetime is derived. Its behaviour should be governed by imposing physical constraints allowing to avert the pathological features of gravity at the strong field domain. This would restrict the choice of the Lagrangian form. (author). 10 refs

  14. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  15. Physical activity and exercise dependence during inpatient treatment of longstanding eating disorders: an exploratory study of excessive and non-excessive exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Rø, Øyvind; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Hoffart, Asle; Martinsen, Egil W

    2010-04-01

    To describe changes in physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence score during treatment of eating disorders (ED), and to explore correlations among changes in PA, exercise motivation, exercise dependence score and ED psychopathology in excessive and non-excessive exercisers. Thirty-eight adult females receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or ED not otherwise specified participated in this prospective study. Assessments included accelerometer assessed PA, Exercise Dependence Scale, Reasons for Exercise Inventory, ED Examination, and ED Inventory. Amount of PA was significantly reduced in non-excessive exercisers during treatment, in excessive exercisers there was a trend towards reduced amount of PA from admission to discharge. In excessive exercisers, reduced ED psychopathology was correlated with reduction in exercise dependence score and perceived importance of exercise to regulate negative affects, but not with importance of exercise for weight/appearance. These associations were not found in non-excessive exercisers. Excessive exercise is an important issue in longstanding ED, and the excessive exercising patients need help to develop alternative strategies to regulate negative affects.

  16. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  17. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  18. Concentration dependence of physical properties of liquid NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulavin, L. [Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Faculty of Physics, 2 Glushkova Ave., 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plevachuk, Yu., E-mail: plevachuk@mail.lviv.ua [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Sklyarchuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Omelchuk, A.; Faidiuk, N.; Savchuk, R. [V.I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 prosp. Akad. Palladina, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Shtablavyy, I.; Vus, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Yakymovych, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry (Materials Chemistry), University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Molten NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} eutectic and peritectic alloys can be used in liquid salt reactors. • A stepped dissociation exists well above melting in the both alloys. • Anomalous properties behaviour proves that a short-range order persists after melting. • Transformation of structure spread to a wide temperature range in the liquid phase. - Abstract: Experimental studies of viscosity, thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of the ionic liquid alloys NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} were carried out in the wide temperature intervals above the melting points. Similar temperature dependences of these properties for different melt compositions have been revealed. The alloy composition has a significant influence on the interval of melt homogeneity and behaviour of the thermoelectric power temperature coefficient. It was found that a small shift from the peritectic to eutectic composition increases considerable the viscosity. A correlation between the structure and thermophysical properties has been analyzed. The results can be used in modelling a blanket for the liquid salt reactor.

  19. Effect of porous zeolite on temperature-dependent physical properties of polypropylene/octadecane (PP/OD composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kim

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials with temperature-dependent gas permeabilities using a phase change material are designed and their applicability as a packaging system investigated. Polypropylene/octadecane/zeolite (PP/OD/ZL composite films were prepared via extrusion process. ZL was used as a filler to enhance the dispersion and interfacial interaction between the OD and the PP originating from different flowabilities during the extrusion process. (FTIR and (WAXD analyses showed that the incorporation of ZL increased the interfacial interaction between PP and OD, resultantly enhancing the thermal stability, mechanical properties, and the oxygen transmittance rate and mechanical properties after contact with food simulants and thermal treatment. When the temperature was elevated from 10 to 30 °C, oxygen and water vapor transmittance rate of the composite films increased sharply because of the influence of the OD content. It was surmised that temperaturedependent permeation jump caused by increasing of segmental mobility of OD phase and converting the crystalline structure to an amorphous one of OD phase in the composite films. However, the permeation jump in the composite films was weakened as the ZL content increased. These results are related to changes in the interfacial interaction and crystallinity in the composite films due to the addition of ZL.

  20. Natural convection in square enclosures differentially heated at sides using alumina-water nanofluids with temperature-dependent physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfrini Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar natural convection of Al2O3 + H2O nanofluids inside square cavities differentially heated at sides is studied numerically. A computational code based on the SIMPLE-C algorithm is used for the solution of the system of the mass, momentum and energy transfer governing equations. Assuming that the nanofluid behaves like a single-phase fluid, these equations are the same as those valid for a pure fluid, provided that the thermophysical properties appearing in them are the nanofluid effective properties. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are calculated by means of a couple of empirical equations based on a wide variety of experimental data reported in the literature. The other effective properties are evaluated by the conventional mixing theory. Simulations are performed for different values of the nanoparticle volume fraction in the range 0-0.06, the diameter of the suspended nanoparticles in the range 25-100 nm, the temperature of the cooled sidewall in the range 293-313 K, the temperature of the heated sidewall in the range 298-343 K, and the Rayleigh number of the base fluid in the range 103-107. All computations are executed in the hypothesis of temperature-dependent effective properties. The main result obtained is the existence of an optimal particle loading for maximum heat transfer, that is found to increase as the size of the suspended nanoparticles is decreased, and the nanofluid average temperature is increased.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Physical and Memory Characteristics of Atomic-Layer-Deposited RuOx Metal Nanocrystal Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maikap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and memory characteristics of the atomic-layer-deposited RuOx metal nanocrystal capacitors in an n-Si/SiO2/HfO2/RuOx/Al2O3/Pt structure with different postdeposition annealing temperatures from 850–1000°C have been investigated. The RuOx metal nanocrystals with an average diameter of 7 nm and a highdensity of 0.7 × 1012/cm2 are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy after a postdeposition annealing temperature at 1000°C. The density of RuOx nanocrystal is decreased (slightly by increasing the annealing temperatures, due to agglomeration of multiple nanocrystals. The RuO3 nanocrystals and Hf-silicate layer at the SiO2/HfO2 interface are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For post-deposition annealing temperature of 1000°C, the memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of ~9 nm possess a large hysteresis memory window of >5 V at a small sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V. A promising memory window under a small sweeping gate voltage of ~3 V is also observed due to charge trapping in the RuOx metal nanocrystals. The program/erase mechanism is modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling of the electrons and holes from Si substrate. The electrons and holes are trapped in the RuOx nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of 106 cycles and a large memory window of 4.3 V with a small charge loss of ~23% at 85°C are observed after 10 years of data retention time, due to the deep-level traps in the RuOx nanocrystals. The memory structure is very promising for future nanoscale nonvolatile memory applications.

  2. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.

  3. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

  4. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  5. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  6. Decision making for position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the basis of patient information and physical examinations of the upper airway, acquired on an outpatient basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Minoru; Kondo, Takahito; Shimada, Rie; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2018-06-01

    Patients with body mass index (BMI) position-dependent OSAS. Diagnosis of position-dependent/position-independent OSAS can be difficult in patients satisfying both 'BMI >25 kg/m 2 ' and 'any of tongue enlargement (TE), palatine tonsil hypertrophy (PTH) and obstruction by Muller's maneuver (OMM)'. Polysomnography is warranted in such patients. The objective was to retrospectively elucidate criteria for differentiating position-dependent OSAS on the basis of patient information and physical examinations of the upper airway obtainable in clinics. The 643 patients were categorized as positional patients (PPs) or non-positional patients (NPPs). The patient background factors examined were sex, age, BMI, and hypertension. TE, PTH, pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy, and OMM were evaluated. Cross-validation was performed using even-numbered registrations as the training set group (Group A) and odd-numbered registrations as the test case group (Group B). In Group A, patients with BMI <25 kg/m 2 were clearly more frequent among PP than among NPP. In Group A with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , significant differences were found for TE, PTH and OMM. Significant differences were found between 0 and 1/2/3 for number of factors. Results generated from Group A were validated in Group B.

  7. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  9. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  10. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  11. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  12. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  13. The effect of various morphine weaning regimens on the sequelae of opioid tolerance involving physical dependency, anxiety and hippocampus cell neurodegeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Motaghinejad, Ozra; Shabab, Behnaz; Asadighaleni, Majid; Fatima, Sulail

    2015-06-01

    Chronic consumption of morphine induces physical dependency, anxiety, and neurodegeneration. In this study, morphine on its own has been used for the management of morphine-induced dependency, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Forty-eight male rats were randomly divided into six groups. Rats in groups 1-5 were made morphine dependent by an increasing manner of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). For the next 14 days, morphine was administered using the following regimen: (i) once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls), (ii) the same dose at additional intervals (6 h longer than the previous intervals each time), (iii) 45 mg/kg of morphine at irregular intervals like of 12, 24, 36 h, (iv) decreasing dose once daily (every time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Group 5 received 45 mg/kg of morphine and 10 mg/kg of SOD mimetic agent (M40401) injection per day. Group 6 (negative control) received saline solution only. On day 22, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg) and their Total Withdrawal Index (TWI) and blood cortisol levels were measured. After drug treatment, hippocampus cells were isolated, and oxidative, antioxidative, and apoptotic factors were evaluated. Various regimens of morphine reduced TWI, cortisol levels, Bax activity, caspase-3, caspase-9, TNF-α, and IL-1β and lipid peroxidation. In all treatment groups, GSH level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and Bcl-2 activity were significantly increased. Furthermore, SOD mimetic agent c diminished morphine effect on SOD activity. Thus, varying the dosage regimen of morphine can reduce the severity of morphine-induced dependency and neurodegeneration. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  15. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  16. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  17. Dependence of sports results on data of physical development, morphofunctional and special power preparedness of weight-lifters at the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bugaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.

  18. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  19. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  20. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  1. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  2. Scale dependence of deuteron electrodisintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. N.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    Background: Isolating nuclear structure properties from knock-out reactions in a process-independent manner requires a controlled factorization, which is always to some degree scale and scheme dependent. Understanding this dependence is important for robust extractions from experiment, to correctly use the structure information in other processes, and to understand the impact of approximations for both. Purpose: We seek insight into scale dependence by exploring a model calculation of deuteron electrodisintegration, which provides a simple and clean theoretical laboratory. Methods: By considering various kinematic regions of the longitudinal structure function, we can examine how the components—the initial deuteron wave function, the current operator, and the final-state interactions (FSIs)—combine at different scales. We use the similarity renormalization group to evolve each component. Results: When evolved to different resolutions, the ingredients are all modified, but how they combine depends strongly on the kinematic region. In some regions, for example, the FSIs are largely unaffected by evolution, while elsewhere FSIs are greatly reduced. For certain kinematics, the impulse approximation at a high renormalization group resolution gives an intuitive picture in terms of a one-body current breaking up a short-range correlated neutron-proton pair, although FSIs distort this simple picture. With evolution to low resolution, however, the cross section is unchanged but a very different and arguably simpler intuitive picture emerges, with the evolved current efficiently represented at low momentum through derivative expansions or low-rank singular value decompositions. Conclusions: The underlying physics of deuteron electrodisintegration is scale dependent and not just kinematics dependent. As a result, intuition about physics such as the role of short-range correlations or D -state mixing in particular kinematic regimes can be strongly scale dependent

  3. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  4. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Nezza, P. Di; Fodor, Z.; Tormo, X. Garcia i; Höllwieser, R.; Kalwait, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Hippel, G. M. von; Zakharov, V. I .

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex

  5. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain.

  6. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  7. Environmental enrichment and brain repair: harnessing the therapeutic effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity to enhance experience-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, A J

    2014-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity, inducing enhanced sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation. In wild-type rodents, EE has been found to have a range of effects, such as enhancing experience-dependent cellular plasticity and cognitive performance, relative to standard-housed controls. Whilst environmental enrichment is of course a relative term, dependent on the nature of control environmental conditions, epidemiological studies suggest that EE has direct clinical relevance to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. EE has been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects in animal models of a wide variety of brain disorders. The first evidence of beneficial effects of EE in a genetically targeted animal model was generated using Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Subsequent studies found that EE was also therapeutic in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, consistent with epidemiological studies of relevant environmental modifiers. EE has also been found to ameliorate behavioural, cellular and molecular deficits in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the effects of EE observed in animal models of neurodegenerative brain diseases, at molecular, cellular and behavioural levels. The proposal that EE may act synergistically with other approaches, such as drug and cell therapies, to facilitate brain repair will be discussed. I will also discuss the therapeutic potential of 'enviromimetics', drugs which mimic or enhance the therapeutic effects of cognitive activity and physical exercise, for both neuroprotection and brain repair. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. The association between physical dependency and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with the admission of people with dementia to a long-term care institution: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, Ester; Cabrera, Esther; Jolley, David; Stephan, Astrid; Karlsson, Staffan; Verbeek, Hilde; Saks, Kai; Hupli, Maija; Sourdet, Sandrine; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2015-05-01

    Dementia is a progressive neurological disorder that causes a high degree of dependency. This dependency has been defined as an increased need for assistance due to deterioration in cognition and physical functioning, and changes in behavior. Highly dependent people with dementia are more likely to be institutionalized. To investigate the association between specific categories of physical dependency and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with dementia admitted to a long-term care institution. A prospective observational cohort study. Home care and long-term care institutions in eight European countries. People with dementia living at home but at risk of institutionalization and recently institutionalized people with dementia. Baseline and 3-month follow-up interviews were performed between November, 2010 and April, 2012. The sample consisted of 116 recently institutionalized dementia sufferers and 949 people with dementia still living at home. Physical dependency was measured using the Katz Activity of Daily Living index, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed through The Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Specific categories of dependency were analyzed by performing a logistic regression analysis. This followed examination of baseline characteristics to define the degree of physical dependency, as factors associated with institutionalization, and evaluation of the same characteristics at 3-month follow-up to detect changes in the degree of physical dependency and neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with recent admission to a long-term care institution. Toileting, dressing and continence dependency was higher in institutionalized people than in those receiving home-care. Delusion, hallucination, agitation, anxiety, apathy, motor-disturbances, night-time behavior and eating disorders were also worse in the institutionalized. Logistic regression analysis showed that independent factors significantly associated with being recently institutionalized

  9. Rat Liver Enzyme Release Depends on Blood Flow-Bearing Physical Forces Acting in Endothelium Glycocalyx rather than on Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta A. Díaz-Juárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found selective elevation of serum enzyme activities in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy (PH, apparently controlled by hemodynamic flow-bearing physical forces. Here, we assess the involvement of stretch-sensitive calcium channels and calcium mobilization in isolated livers, after chemical modifications of the endothelial glycocalyx and changing perfusion directionality. Inhibiting in vivo protein synthesis, we found that liver enzyme release is influenced by de novo synthesis of endothelial glycocalyx components, and released enzymes are confined into a liver “pool.” Moreover, liver enzyme release depended on extracellular calcium entry possibly mediated by stretch-sensitive calcium channels, and this endothelial-mediated mechanotransduction in liver enzyme release was also evidenced by modifying the glycocalyx carbohydrate components, directionality of perfusing flow rate, and the participation of nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA, leading to modifications in the intracellular distribution of these enzymes mainly as nuclear enrichment of “mitochondrial” enzymes. In conclusion, the flow-induced shear stress may provide fine-tuned control of released hepatic enzymes through mediation by the endothelium glycocalyx, which provides evidence of a biological role of the enzyme release rather to be merely a biomarker for evaluating hepatotoxicity and liver damage, actually positively influencing progression of liver regeneration in mammals.

  10. Isthmin exerts pro-survival and death-promoting effect on endothelial cells through alphavbeta5 integrin depending on its physical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, M; Venugopal, S; Zhou, Y; Xiang, W; Li, Y-H; Lin, Q; Kini, R M; Chong, Y-S; Ge, R

    2011-05-05

    Isthmin (ISM) is a 60 kDa secreted-angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses tumor growth in mouse and disrupts vessel patterning in zebrafish embryos. It selectively binds to alphavbeta5 (αvβ5) integrin on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs), but the mechanism of its antiangiogenic action remains unknown. In this work, we establish that soluble ISM suppresses in vitro angiogenesis and induces EC apoptosis by interacting with its cell surface receptor αvβ5 integrin through a novel 'RKD' motif localized within its adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins domain. ISM induces EC apoptosis through integrin-mediated death (IMD) by direct recruitment and activation of caspase-8 without causing anoikis. On the other hand, immobilized ISM loses its antiangiogenic function and instead promotes EC adhesion, survival and migration through αvβ5 integrin by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). ISM unexpectedly has both a pro-survival and death-promoting effect on ECs depending on its physical state. This dual function of a single antiangiogenic protein may impact its antiangiogenic efficacy in vivo.

  11. Stabilizing strongly correlated photon fluids with non-Markovian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreuilly, José; Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Ciuti, Cristiano; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of transition frequencies. Our proposal is predicted to stabilize a nonequilibrium steady state sharing important features with a zero-temperature equilibrium state with a tunable chemical potential. We confirm the efficiency of our proposal for the Bose-Hubbard model by computing numerically the steady state for finite system sizes: first, we predict the occurrence of a sequence of incompressible Mott-insulator-like states with arbitrary integer densities presenting strong robustness against tunneling and losses. Secondly, for stronger tunneling amplitudes or noninteger densities, the system enters a coherent regime analogous to the superfluid state. In addition to an overall agreement with the zero-temperature equilibrium state, exotic nonequilibrium processes leading to a finite entropy generation are pointed out in specific regions of parameter space. The equilibrium ground state is shown to be recovered by adding frequency-dependent losses. The promise of this improved scheme in view of quantum simulation of the zero-temperature many-body physics is highlighted.

  12. An optimized absorbing potential for ultrafast, strong-field problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Youliang; Esry, B. D.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical treatments of strong-field physics have long relied on the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The most effective such treatments utilize a discrete spatial representation—a grid. Since most strong-field observables relate to the continuum portion of the wave function, the boundaries of the grid—which act as hard walls and thus cause reflection—can substantially impact the observables. Special care thus needs to be taken. While there exist a number of attempts to solve this problem—e.g., complex absorbing potentials and masking functions, exterior complex scaling, and coordinate scaling—none of them are completely satisfactory. The first of these is arguably the most popular, but it consumes a substantial fraction of the computing resources in any given calculation. Worse, this fraction grows with the dimensionality of the problem. In addition, no systematic way to design such a potential has been used in the strong-field community. In this work, we address these issues and find a much better solution. By comparing with previous widely used absorbing potentials, we find a factor of 3–4 reduction in the absorption range, given the same level of absorption over a specified energy interval.

  13. Physical activity and nicotine dependence among a national sample of young U.S. adults who smoke daily: evaluation of cross-sectional and longitudinal associations to determine which behavior drives this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kane, Christy J; Mahoney, Sara; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-02-01

    The association between nicotine dependence and physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. No study has concurrently examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA and nicotine dependence, which was the primary purpose of this study. A secondary purpose was to examine how well nicotine dependence and PA behavior track over a two-year period. Data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey (NYSCS) were used, with young adults (18-24 yrs; n=1168) being followed over a two-year period. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire and nicotine dependence was assessed using the modified Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. This study identified three notable findings: 1) baseline PA and nicotine dependence demonstrated a bidirectional, cross-sectional association (e.g., β=-0.23; 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.02; p=0.02); 2) when examined longitudinally, nicotine dependence influenced PA (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99; p=0.04), but there was no evidence of the reverse pathway (i.e., PA influencing 2-year follow-up smoking status [OR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.66-1.39; p=0.82) or nicotine dependence (β=0.05; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.24, p=0.61]); and 3) both PA (OR=3.52, 95% CI: 2.68-4.69; pdependence (β=0.52; 95% CI: 0.46-0.58, pphysical activity and nicotine dependence) track over time, but nicotine dependence appears to be driving the cross-sectional relationship between nicotine dependence and physical activity, as opposed to the reverse pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The combined status of physical performance and depressive symptoms is strongly associated with a history of falling in community-dwelling elderly: cross-sectional findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly (OSHPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Anan, Yuya; Park, Hyuntae; Lee, Sangyoon; Ito, Tadashi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the combined factors of physical performance, depressive symptoms and cognitive status are significantly associated with a history of falling in community-dwelling elderly. We performed a cross-sectional community-based survey, the OSHPE, from August 2011 to February 2012. In total, 5104 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older (mean age 72.0) participated in the OSHPE. Participants underwent a grip strength (GS) test, chair stand test (CST), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Of the 4481 participants who met our requirements, 645 (14.4%) participants reported falling at least once in the past year. In a signal detection analysis (SDA), we found that the combination of GDS (≥6 points) and TUG (≥10.6 s) had the highest fall rate (36.4%), and the combination of GDS (fall rate (11.7%). The highest fall rate group had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) compared with the lowest fall rate group after adjusting for other potentially confounding variables [OR 3.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-4.68) phistory of falling in community-dwelling elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  16. Strong field QED in lepton colliders and electron/laser interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    The studies of strong field particle physics processes in electron/laser interactions and lepton collider interaction points (IPs) are reviewed. These processes are defined by the high intensity of the electromagnetic fields involved and the need to take them into account as fully as possible. Thus, the main theoretical framework considered is the Furry interaction picture within intense field quantum field theory. In this framework, the influence of a background electromagnetic field in the Lagrangian is calculated nonperturbatively, involving exact solutions for quantized charged particles in the background field. These “dressed” particles go on to interact perturbatively with other particles, enabling the background field to play both macroscopic and microscopic roles. Macroscopically, the background field starts to polarize the vacuum, in effect rendering it a dispersive medium. Particles encountering this dispersive vacuum obtain a lifetime, either radiating or decaying into pair particles at a rate dependent on the intensity of the background field. In fact, the intensity of the background field enters into the coupling constant of the strong field quantum electrodynamic Lagrangian, influencing all particle processes. A number of new phenomena occur. Particles gain an intensity-dependent rest mass shift that accounts for their presence in the dispersive vacuum. Multi-photon events involving more than one external field photon occur at each vertex. Higher order processes which exchange a virtual strong field particle resonate via the lifetimes of the unstable strong field states. Two main arenas of strong field physics are reviewed; those occurring in relativistic electron interactions with intense laser beams, and those occurring in the beam-beam physics at the interaction point of colliders. This review outlines the theory, describes its significant novel phenomenology and details the experimental schema required to detect strong field effects and the

  17. One size doesn't fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita B; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald P; DeSantis, Amy S; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-01-19

    Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8):e71417, 2013). While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry), neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system), and walkability (street audit) in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years) living in two United States (U.S.) low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime) with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years) and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0.007) as compared to their counterparts living in less

  18. Laser thermal effect on silicon nitride ceramic based on thermo-chemical reaction with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.F.; Wang, W.J.; Mei, X.S.; Wang, K.D.; Zhao, W.Q.; Li, T.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model is creatively built. • Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 are computed accurately. • The appropriate thermo-chemical reaction rate is fitted and reaction element length is set to assure the constringency. • The deepest ablated position was not the center of the ablated area due to plasma absorption. • The simulation results demonstrate the thermo-chemical process cant be simplified to be physical phase transition. - Abstract: In this study, a two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters on Si_3N_4 with 10 ns laser was developed to investigate the ablated size, volume and surface morphology after single pulse. For model parameters, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 were obtained from first-principles calculations. Thermal-chemical reaction rate was fitted by collision theory, and then, reaction element length was deduced using the relationship between reaction rate and temperature distribution. Furthermore, plasma absorption related to energy loss was approximated as a function of electron concentration in Si_3N_4. It turned out that theoretical ablated volume and radius increased and then remained constant with increasing laser energy, and the maximum ablated depth was not in the center of the ablated zone. Moreover, the surface maximum temperature of Si_3N_4 was verified to be above 3000 K within pulse duration, and it was much higher than its thermal decomposition temperature of 1800 K, which indicated that Si_3N_4 was not ablated directly above the thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, the single pulse ablation of Si_3N_4 was performed at different powers using a TEM_0_0 10 ns pulse Nd:YAG laser to validate the model. The model showed a satisfactory consistence between the experimental data and numerical predictions, presenting a new modeling technology that may significantly increase the

  19. One size doesn’t fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Richardson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3:235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4:454-61, 2011. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532:299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12:915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8:e71417, 2013. While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. Methods In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry, neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system, and walkability (street audit in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years living in two United States (U.S. low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. Exposure: To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Results Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0

  20. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  1. Association between the degree of physical impairment from leprosy and dependence in activities of daily living among the elderly in a health unit in the State of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alisson da Costa; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida Alves; Ribeiro, Marco Túlio de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the common alterations and diseases inherent in the aging process, elderly persons with a history of leprosy are particularly vulnerable to dependence because of disease-related impairments. determine whether physical impairment from leprosy is associated with dependence among the elderly. An analytical cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with a history of leprosy and no signs of cognitive impairment was conducted using a database from a former leprosy colony-hospital. The patients were evaluated for dependence in the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), respectively) and subjected to standard leprosy physical disability grading. Subsequently, descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted, the latter using Pearson's chi-squared test. A total of 186 elderly persons were included in the study. Of these individuals, 53.8% were women, 49.5% were older than 75 years of age, 93% had four or less years of formal education, 24.2% lived in an institution for the long-term care of the elderly (ILTC), and 18.3% had lower limb amputations. Among those evaluated, 79.8% had visible physical impairments from leprosy (grade 2), 83.3% were independent in BADL, and 10.2% were independent in IADL. There was a higher impairment grade among those patients who were IADL dependent (p=0.038). The leprosy physical impairment grade is associated with dependence for IADL, creating the need for greater social support and systematic monitoring by a multidisciplinary team. The results highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy to prevent physical impairment and dependence in later years.

  2. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  3. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  4. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Alford, M.G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T.D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J.L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H.W.; Llanes-Estrada, F.J.; Meyer, H.B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W.M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Hollwieser, R.; Janik, M.A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J.W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C.A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N.G.; von Hippel, G.M.; Zakharov, V.I.

    2014-10-21

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.

  5. Kaonic atoms – studies of the strong interaction with strangeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of charged antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime is a fascinating topic. The antikaon plays a peculiar role in hadron physics due to the strong attraction antikaon-nucleon which is a key question for possible kaonic nuclear bound states. A rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions to low-lying states in light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium. After the successful completion of precision measurements on kaonic hydrogen and helium isotopes by SIDDHARTA at DAΦNE/LNF, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. In the future with kaonic deuterium data the antikaon-nucleon isospin-dependent scattering lengths can be extracted for the first time. An overview of the experimental results of SIDDHARTA and an outlook to future perspectives in the SIDDHARTA2 experiments in this frontier research field will be given.

  6. Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.

  7. Subatomic Physics - 100 Not Out and Still Going Strong! -8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    out to be just a particle, as thought by many people. With the advent of quantum mechanics, it is wrong to think that the electron must be either a .... The standard model, though so successful in explaining all the available experimental data in ...

  8. Dynamics of Strong Interactions and the S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omnes, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris, Orsay (France)

    1969-08-15

    The physical principles underlying the S-matrix theory of strong interactions are reviewed. In particular, the problem of whether these principles are sufficient to completely determine the S-matrix, i.e. to yield a dynamical theory of strong interactions, is discussed. (author)

  9. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  10. New strong interactions above the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed

  11. A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1976-12-01

    We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics

  12. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  13. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  14. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  15. International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems 2017 (SCES2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The 2017 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems, SCES 2017, took place at the Clarion Congress Hotel in Prague, Czech Republic from July 17 to 21, 2017. The meeting was held under the auspices of the Department of Condensed Matter Physics of the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University.

  16. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  17. Theoretical Studies of Strongly Interacting Fine Particle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a system of fine magnetic particles as a function of applied field and temperature was carried out. The model used was based on a theory assuming Neel relaxation with a distribution of particle sizes. This theory predicted a linear variation of S_{max} with temperature and a finite intercept, which is not reflected by experimental observations. The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems were also investigated theoretically. It was shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot was found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is investigated. These results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally the results of the noise power spectral density for erased and saturated recording media are presented, so that characterisation of interparticle interactions may be carried out with greater accuracy.

  18. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  19. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  20. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2017-04-10

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  1. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  2. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  3. The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on Body Mass Index: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuterwall Christina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High body mass index (BMI and lack of physical activity have been recognized as important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leisure-time physical activity compensates for the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with overweight and obesity. Methods Data from the SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program study were used. The SHEEP study is a large Swedish population-based case-control study, comprising 1204 male and 550 female cases, and 1538 male and 777 female controls, conducted in Stockholm County, Sweden, during the period 1992–1994. Odds ratios (OR, together with 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI, were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, as estimates of the relative risks. Results Regular leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, but not among obese subjects. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 and physically active persons had an almost twofold risk of myocardial infarction, compared with normal-weight and sedentary persons (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.18. The results were similar for men and women. Conclusion While regular leisure-time physical activity seems to provide protection against myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, this does not appear to be the case in obese subjects.

  4. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  5. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  6. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  7. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  8. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  9. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  10. Nonlinear charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, D; Tessarotto, M; Salimullah, M

    2006-01-01

    The charge reduction effect, produced by the nonlinear Debye screening of high-Z charges occurring in strongly coupled plasmas, is investigated. An analytic asymptotic expression is obtained for the charge reduction factor (f c ) which determines the Debye-Hueckel potential generated by a charged test particle. Its relevant parametric dependencies are analysed and shown to predict a strong charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

  11. Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  12. A dependência pela prática de exercícios físicos e o uso de recursos ergogênicos = Physical exercise dependence and the use of ergogenic resources

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Lopes Vieira; Priscila Garcia Marques da Rocha; Ricardo Aparecido Ferrarezzi

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se Investigar a ocorrência de dependência por exercícios físicos quanto às características de praticantes de musculação e ginástica em academias, como uso de recursos ergogênicos, sexo e índice de massa corporal. Participaram do estudo 80 sujeitos (27,12 ± 6,60 anos), praticantes de ginástica e/ou musculação em academias, de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se a Escala de Dependência por Exercícios Físicos, a listagem do tipo de suplemento alimentar utilizado como recurso ergogênico e o Índ...

  13. Strongly-correlated ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Tung-Lam

    2008-01-01

    liquids, but also in unusual phases such as the normal state of high-temperature superconductivity with a pseudo gap (leading to a differentiation between nodes and anti-nodes) observed in condensed mater physics. In the second part of this thesis, we have performed theoretical studies of several phases of strongly correlated fermions in optical lattices in the framework of theoretical models such as the Hubbard model. We have implemented and developed analytical methods (Hartree-Fock mean field theory at weak coupling, mapping on a effective spin model at strong coupling) and numerical methods (the dynamic mean field theory approach). This work has led to two particular types of studies. The first one studies the competition between a superfluid phase and a density wave (or phase separation) for fermions with mass imbalance and attractive interaction. We have shown that the superfluid phase is unstable beyond a certain value of the mass ratio, which depends on the interaction. The second study treats a gas with imbalanced populations (polarized gas) with an attractive interaction in a three dimensional optical lattice. The main result is a phase diagram showing the stability of a uniform superfluid phase with polarization (Sarma phase or breached pair phase) in a certain parameter regime. Via an energetic argument, we concluded that the stability of the polarized superfluid phase is due to the reduction of the polarizability and the critical field of the non-polarized superfluid phase. In the strong coupling regime of the Hubbard model, within the DMFT method, we have shown that the formation of the preformed pair in the normal state reduces the polarizability and favors the stability of the breached pair phase. Although some aspects have been addressed in this thesis, many interesting questions still remain open for future work. In the first part, the framework of the novel spectroscopy method established in chapter 2 can allow for different concrete studies of the

  14. A dependência pela prática de exercícios físicos e o uso de recursos ergogênicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.4475 Physical exercise dependence and the use of ergogenic resources - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.4475

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aparecido Ferrarezi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se Investigar a ocorrência de dependência por exercícios físicos quanto às características de praticantes de musculação e ginástica em academias, como uso de recursos ergogênicos, sexo e índice de massa corporal. Participaram do estudo 80 sujeitos (27,12 ± 6,60 anos, praticantes de ginástica e/ou musculação em academias, de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se a Escala de Dependência por Exercícios Físicos, a listagem do tipo de suplemento alimentar utilizado como recurso ergogênico e o Índice de Massa Corporal – IMC (Kg/cm². A análise estatística foi realizada por meio da correlação de Spearman e o teste de Wilcoxon (p The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of physical exercise dependence in regards to the characteristics of participants in weight training and exercises at gyms, such as the use of ergogenic resources, gender and body mass index. Eighty subjects (27.12 ± 6.60 years from both genders took part in the study, all of whom practiced gymnastics and/or weight training in gyms. The study utilized the Exercise Dependence Scale, a check list of the kinds of nutritional supplementation used as ergogenic resources, and the Body Mass Index – BMI (Kg cm-². Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation and the Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between physical exercise dependence in men (5.14 ± 1.28 and women (5.60 ± 1.45. The body mass index did not show statistically significant correlation with the scores of dependency, either. However, dependent men showed high prevalence of use of ergogenic resources (63.63%, p = 0.01, while for dependent women there were no statistically significant results. The body mass index does not relate to the scores of exercise dependence. However, even with a normal BMI, the use of ergogenic resources presents high prevalence among dependent men. As a result, there is evidence that

  15. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...

  16. Strong-coupling study of the Gribov ambiguity in lattice Landau gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, Axel; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Spielmann, Daniel; Sternbeck, Andre; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2010-01-01

    We study the strong-coupling limit β=0 of lattice SU(2) Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory. In this limit the lattice spacing is infinite, and thus all momenta in physical units are infinitesimally small. Hence, the infrared behavior can be assessed at sufficiently large lattice momenta. Our results show that at the lattice volumes used here, the Gribov ambiguity has an enormous effect on the ghost propagator in all dimensions. This underlines the severity of the Gribov problem and calls for refined studies also at finite β. In turn, the gluon propagator only mildly depends on the Gribov ambiguity. (orig.)

  17. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  18. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  19. Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan

    2016-04-22

    We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.

  20. Analyzing the experiences of adolescent control rats: Effects of the absence of physical or social stimulation on anxiety-like behaviour are dependent on the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Namrata; Leslie, Ronald A; Perrot, Tara S

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to systematically assess the control experience routinely used in our laboratory as part of studies on predator odour stress. Specifically, we examined effects of the physical and social components of this control experience on measures of anxiety-like behaviour in adolescent rats. Adolescent animals are at increased susceptibility to environmental perturbations and have been used for such studies much less often. Long-Evans rats of both sexes were subjected to physical stimulation (Exposed or Unexposed) and social stimulation (Single-Housed or Pair-Housed), resulting in four groups. Exposed rats received six 30-min exposures to an enclosed arena containing an unscented piece of cat collar occurring between adolescence and early adulthood, while Unexposed remained in the home cage. Groups of Exposed and Unexposed animals were housed singly (Single-Housed) from early adolescence to early adulthood or Pair-Housed during this time. Experimental procedures began in adolescence and involved repeated assessment of startle amplitude (measure of anxiety-like behaviour) and prepulse inhibition (PPI; a measure of sensorimotor gating) to gauge the short-term impact of social and/or physical stimulation. All animals were re-paired in adulthood prior to a final startle/PPI session to assess if isolation limited to adolescence could impose long-term effects that were not reversible. We also measured anxiety-like behaviour in adulthood using an extended open field test (EOFT; addition of novel objects to the open field on later days), and the elevated plus maze task (EPM), as well as a sucrose preference test (SPT) to measure anhedonia. An absence of social or physical stimulation resulted in increased startle amplitude and some measures of anxiety-like behaviour in the EOFT, but a reduction in such anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM task. These results suggest common neural substrates for the physical and social experiences. Performance in the SPT

  1. First-guess dependence of a physically based set of temperature-humidity retrievals from HIRS2/MSU data. [High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 2/Microwave Sounding Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, D.; Susskind, Joel; Pursch, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The first-guess dependence of temperature and humidity fields retrieved from HIRS2/MSU data using the GLA (Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres) physically based retrieval scheme is examined. Retrievals were performed over the ALPEX region for two successive synoptic periods, 1200 UTC March 4 and 00000 UTC March 5, 1982, using three different initial guesses for each period. Results show rather low first-guess dependence for the thickness fields and larger first-guess dependence for the precipitable water fields, especially close to the surface. The humidity retrieval algorithm used is described. The processing system has the property of maintaining the accuracy of a good guess and improving a poor one for both thickness and precipitable water at all levels.

  2. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  3. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  4. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  5. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  6. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  7. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  8. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  9. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  10. Dependência de exercício físico: humor, qualidade de vida em atletas amadores e profissionais Physical exercise dependence: mood, quality of life in amateur and professional athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bonilha Modolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se existem diferenças nos escores de Dependência de Exercício (DE, escores de humor e qualidade de vida em atletas profissionais e amadores de modalidade esportivas coletivas e individuais. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 116 atletas praticantes de modalidades esportivas coletivas (n = 60, sendo 20 profissionais e 40 amadores e individuais (n = 56, sendo 16 profissionais e 40 amadores do gênero masculino. As médias (± desvio-padrão da idade, estatura, massa corporal e índice de massa corpórea (IMC foram: 22,13 ± 6,16 anos; 1,77 ± 0,10cm; 72,76 ± 10,04kg; e 23,10 ± 2,04kg/m², respectivamente. Os atletas responderam aos seguintes questionários: Escala de Dependência de Exercício (EDE, Inventário Beck de Depressão, Idate Traço e Estado de Ansiedade, Questionário POMS de perfil de humor, Questionário SF-36 de Qualidade de Vida, em um dia de folga dentro da periodização normal de treinamento, caracterizando o estudo como transversal. O trabalho foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Unifesp (# 0616/06. RESULTADOS: Atletas amadores e profissionais apresentaram escores similares de DE, mas quando considerados os tipos de modalidade, os amadores praticantes de modalidades coletivas apresentam maiores escores, o que se inverte quando considerados atletas profissionais. Em relação aos resultados de humor, atletas profissionais apresentaram mais qualidade de vida e menores escores de humor. CONCLUSÃO: Atletas amadores e profissionais praticantes de modalidades esportivas coletivas e individuais respondem diferentemente à DE; o tipo de modalidade e seu envolvimento social e competitivo parecem ser o grande determinante. Além disso, pode-se concluir que atletas profissionais de modalidades coletivas apresentam melhor perfil de humor e qualidade de vida, tanto quando comparados com profissionais de modalidades individuais, quando com atletas amadores praticantes de

  11. Microstructural dependence on relevant physical-mechanical properties on SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 biological glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, V; Begum, A Nishara; Azooz, M A; el Batal, F H

    2002-11-01

    Bioactive glasses of the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 have been prepared by the normal melting and annealing technique. The elastic moduli, attenuation, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy have been obtained using the known method at room temperature. The temperature dependence of elastic moduli and attenuation measurements have been extended over a wide range of temperature from 150 to 500 K. The SiO2 content dependence of velocities, attenuation, elastic moduli, and other parameters show an interesting observation at 45 wt% of SiO2 by exhibiting an anomalous behaviour. A linear relation is developed for Tg, which explores the influence of Na2O on SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses. The measured hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy show a linear relation with Young's modulus. It is also interesting to note that the observed results are functions of polymerisation and the number of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) prevailing in the network with change in SiO2 content. The temperature dependence of velocities, attenuation and elastic moduli show the existence of softening in the glass network structure as temperature increases.

  12. Influence of employments physical exercises on age-dependent changes and rates of senescence of organism for women 30-50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina S.A.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The special program of positive influence is developed on the general state of organism of women. The analysis of the special literature is conducted. In an experiment 26 women took part in age 30-50 years. Practical recommendations are developed in relation to employments by physical exercises. The use at health run and walking, respiratory exercises, exercises under musical accompaniment, engaged in yoga, is offered. Positive changes are fixed in the indexes of the functional state of the cardiovascular system and nervous system.

  13. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersion of the relaxation time due to the emission of confined LO-phonons depends strongly on the total energy. Author Affiliations. D Abouelaoualim1. L.P.S.C.M., Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences-Semlalia, BP:2390, 40000, Marrakech, Morocco. Dates. Manuscript received: 6 July 2004; Manuscript revised ...

  14. Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials

  15. Many-body Tunneling and Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Doublons in Strongly Correlated Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, WenJie; Wang, YuanDong; Wei, JianHua; Zhu, ZhenGang; Yan, YiJing

    2017-05-30

    Quantum tunneling dominates coherent transport at low temperatures in many systems of great interest. In this work we report a many-body tunneling (MBT), by nonperturbatively solving the Anderson multi-impurity model, and identify it a fundamental tunneling process on top of the well-acknowledged sequential tunneling and cotunneling. We show that the MBT involves the dynamics of doublons in strongly correlated systems. Proportional to the numbers of dynamical doublons, the MBT can dominate the off-resonant transport in the strongly correlated regime. A T 3/2 -dependence of the MBT current on temperature is uncovered and can be identified as a fingerprint of the MBT in experiments. We also prove that the MBT can support the coherent long-range tunneling of doublons, which is well consistent with recent experiments on ultracold atoms. As a fundamental physical process, the MBT is expected to play important roles in general quantum systems.

  16. Nuclear and atomic physics at one gigaflop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A three-day workshop on problems in atomic and nuclear physics which depend on and are, at present, severely limited by access to supercomputing at effective rates of one gigaflop or more, was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, April 14-16, 1988. The participants comprised researchers from universities, industries and laboratories in the United States and Europe. In this volume are presented talks from that meeting on atomic and nuclear physics topics and on modern parallel processing concepts and hardware. The physics topics included strong fields in atomic and nuclear physics, the role of quarks in nuclear physics, the nuclear few-body problem, relativistic descriptions of heavy-ion collisions, nuclear hydrodynamics, Monte Carlo techniques for many-body problems, precision calculation of atomic QED effects, classical simulation of atomic processes, atomic structure, atomic many-body perturbation theory, quantal studies of small and large molecular systems, and multi-photon atomic and molecular problems

  17. Effect of compositional dependence on physical and optical parameters of Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} glassy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pks_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP 173234 (India); El-Bana, M.S.; Fouad, S.S. [Nano-Science and Semiconductor Laboratories, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Sharma, Vineet [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, HP 173234 (India)

    2016-05-15

    In the present paper we have studied the effect of Bi addition on the physical and optical properties of thermally evaporated Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} thin films. With Bi addition the density, mean coordination number, mechanical constraints, glass transition temperature increases. The other parameters theoretical energy gap, lone pair electron, deviation from stoichiometry decreases. Transmission spectra have been taken in the spectral range 400 nm–2500 nm using ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometer. The fundamental absorption edge shifts towards longer wavelength with Bi incorporation. Optical energy gap and linear refractive index have been determined using transmission spectra. A good correlation has been drawn between the optical and theoretical parameters. Using linear optical parameters, the nonlinear optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index have been estimated. - Highlights: • Physical and optical parameters have been analyzed for Te{sub 17}Se{sub 83−x}Bi{sub x} glassy alloys. • The addition of Bi leads to decrease of average heat of atomization and cohesive energy. • The optical band gap decreases with increasing Bi content. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index show an increase with increase in the Bi content.

  18. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  19. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  20. Prevention of strong earthquakes: Goal or utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamediev, Sh. A.

    2010-11-01

    In the present paper, we consider ideas suggesting various kinds of industrial impact on the close-to-failure block of the Earth’s crust in order to break a pending strong earthquake (PSE) into a number of smaller quakes or aseismic slips. Among the published proposals on the prevention of a forthcoming strong earthquake, methods based on water injection and vibro influence merit greater attention as they are based on field observations and the results of laboratory tests. In spite of this, the cited proofs are, for various reasons, insufficient to acknowledge the proposed techniques as highly substantiated; in addition, the physical essence of these methods has still not been fully understood. First, the key concept of the methods, namely, the release of the accumulated stresses (or excessive elastic energy) in the source region of a forthcoming strong earthquake, is open to objection. If we treat an earthquake as a phenomenon of a loss in stability, then, the heterogeneities of the physicomechanical properties and stresses along the existing fault or its future trajectory, rather than the absolute values of stresses, play the most important role. In the present paper, this statement is illustrated by the classical examples of stable and unstable fractures and by the examples of the calculated stress fields, which were realized in the source regions of the tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 near the Sumatra Island and of September 29, 2009 near the Samoa Island. Here, just before the earthquakes, there were no excessive stresses in the source regions. Quite the opposite, the maximum shear stresses τmax were close to their minimum value, compared to τmax in the adjacent territory. In the present paper, we provide quantitative examples that falsify the theory of the prevention of PSE in its current form. It is shown that the measures for the prevention of PSE, even when successful for an already existing fault, can trigger or accelerate a catastrophic