WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong nonlinear response

  1. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  2. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  3. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  4. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu, E-mail: wqzhu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  5. Influence of earthquake strong motion duration on nonlinear structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskouris, K.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of motion duration on nonlinear structural response of high-rise, moment resisting frames are studied by subjecting shear beam models of a 10- and a 5-story frame to a series of synthetic accelerograms, all matching the same NEWMARK/HALL design spectrum. Two different hysteretic laws are used for the story springs, and calculations are carried out for target ductility values of 2 and 4. Maximum ductilities reached and energy-based damage indicators (maximum seismically input energy, hysteretically dissipated energy) are evaluated and correlated with the motion characteristics. A reasonable extrapolative determination of structural response characteristics based on these indicators seems possible. (orig.)

  6. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear Site Response Validation Studies Using KIK-net Strong Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, D.; Shi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake simulations are nowadays producing realistic ground motion time-series in the range of engineering design applications. Of particular significance to engineers are simulations of near-field motions and large magnitude events, for which observations are scarce. With the engineering community slowly adopting the use of simulated ground motions, site response models need to be re-evaluated in terms of their capabilities and limitations to 'translate' the simulated time-series from rock surface output to structural analyses input. In this talk, we evaluate three one-dimensional site response models: linear viscoelastic, equivalent linear and nonlinear. We evaluate the performance of the models by comparing predictions to observations at 30 downhole stations of the Japanese network KIK-Net that have recorded several strong events, including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Velocity profiles are used as the only input to all models, while additional parameters such as quality factor, density and nonlinear dynamic soil properties are estimated from empirical correlations. We quantify the differences of ground surface predictions and observations in terms of both seismological and engineering intensity measures, including bias ratios of peak ground response and visual comparisons of elastic spectra, and inelastic to elastic deformation ratio for multiple ductility ratios. We observe that PGV/Vs,30 — as measure of strain— is a better predictor of site nonlinearity than PGA, and that incremental nonlinear analyses are necessary to produce reliable estimates of high-frequency ground motion components at soft sites. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on the parameterization of nonlinear amplification factors in GMPEs, and on the extensive use of equivalent linear analyses in probabilistic seismic hazard procedures.

  8. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.

  9. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  10. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  12. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  13. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  14. Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulansky, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.

  15. Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method

  16. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  17. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  18. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman

    2016-01-20

    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  19. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  20. Nonlinear Excitations in Strongly-Coupled Fermi-Dirac Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the conventional quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model in combination with the Sagdeev pseudopotential method to explore the effects of Thomas-Fermi nonuniform electron distribution, Coulomb interactions, electron exchange and ion correlation on the large-amplitude nonlinear soliton dynamics in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. It is found that in the presence of strong interactions significant differences in nonlinear wave dynamics of Fermi-Dirac plasmas in the two distinct regimes of no...

  1. Nonlinear charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, D; Tessarotto, M; Salimullah, M

    2006-01-01

    The charge reduction effect, produced by the nonlinear Debye screening of high-Z charges occurring in strongly coupled plasmas, is investigated. An analytic asymptotic expression is obtained for the charge reduction factor (f c ) which determines the Debye-Hueckel potential generated by a charged test particle. Its relevant parametric dependencies are analysed and shown to predict a strong charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  4. Propagation of hypergeometric Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Bian, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have attracted lots of interest due to its potential application in image processing, optical trapping and optical communications, etc. In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigated the propagation properties of hypergeometric Gaussian (HyGG) beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. Based on the Snyder-Mitchell model, analytical expressions for propagation of the HyGG beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media were obtained. The influence of input power and optical parameters on the evolutions of the beam width and radius of curvature is illustrated, respectively. The results show that the beam width and radius of curvature of the HyGG beams remain invariant, like a soliton when the input power is equal to the critical power. Otherwise, it varies periodically like a breather, which is the result of competition between the beam diffraction and nonlinearity of the medium.

  5. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional...

  6. Strong phase correlations of solitons of nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvak, A.G.; Mironov, V.A.; Protogenov, A.P.

    1994-06-01

    We discuss the possibility to suppress the collapse in the nonlinear 2+1 D Schroedinger equation by using the gauge theory of strong phase correlations. It is shown that invariance relative to q-deformed Hopf algebra with deformation parameter q being the fourth root of unity makes the values of the Chern-Simons term coefficient, k=2, and of the coupling constant, g=1/2, fixed; no collapsing solutions are present at those values. (author). 21 refs

  7. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  8. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  9. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the

  10. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Strong Tracking Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of blind source separation (BSS) based on the nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) criterion. An adaptive strong tracking filter (STF) based algorithm was developed, which is immune to system model mismatches. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges quickly and has satisfactory steady-state accuracy. The Kalman filtering algorithm and the recursive leastsquares type algorithm are shown to be special cases of the STF algorithm. Since the forgetting factor is adaptively updated by adjustment of the Kalman gain, the STF scheme provides more powerful tracking capability than the Kalman filtering algorithm and recursive least-squares algorithm.

  11. Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqui; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions. Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz model as well as more realistic models of the means and atmosphere. A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter situations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members. The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to be quite puzzling in that results state estimates are worse than for their filter analogue. In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use the Lorenz model to test and compare the behavior of a variety of implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  12. Strongly nonlinear electronic transport in Cr-Si composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.T.; Vinzelberg, H.; Schumann, J.; Nakama, T.; Yagasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    The phase formation, the resistivity and the thermopower of amorphous Cr 0.15 Si 0.85 , and nanocrystalline CrSi 2 -Si thin film composites have been studied. The films were produced by a magnetron sputtering of a composite target onto unheated substrates with subsequent crystallization of the film at high temperatures. As the film composite develops under the heat treatment from the initial amorphous state into the final polycrystalline material, two percolation thresholds were found. At first, the percolating cluster of nanocrystalline CrSi 2 is formed. However, this cluster is destroyed with further annealing due to crystallization and redistribution of Si. The composite films which are close to this insulating threshold reveal a strongly nonlinear conductivity. The conductivity increases with the current by two orders of magnitude

  13. Ensemble-based Kalman Filters in Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PU; Joshua HACKER

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of ensemble Kalman filters in data assimilation with the strongly nonlinear dynamics of the Lorenz-63 model, and in particular their use in predicting the regime transition that occurs when the model jumps from one basin of attraction to the other. Four configurations of the ensemble-based Kalman filtering data assimilation techniques, including the ensemble Kalman filter, ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, ensemble square root filter and ensemble transform Kalman filter, are evaluated with their ability in predicting the regime transition (also called phase transition) and also are compared in terms of their sensitivity to both observational and sampling errors. The sensitivity of each ensemble-based filter to the size of the ensemble is also examined.

  14. A nonlinear efficient layerwise finite element model for smart piezolaminated composites under strong applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuria, S; Yaqoob Yasin, M

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present an electromechanically coupled efficient layerwise finite element model for the static response of piezoelectric laminated composite and sandwich plates, considering the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric materials under strong electric field. The nonlinear model is developed consistently using a variational principle, considering a rotationally invariant second order nonlinear constitutive relationship, and full electromechanical coupling. In the piezoelectric layer, the electric potential is approximated to have a quadratic variation across the thickness, as observed from exact three dimensional solutions, and the equipotential condition of electroded piezoelectric surfaces is modeled using the novel concept of an electric node. The results predicted by the nonlinear model compare very well with the experimental data available in the literature. The effect of the piezoelectric nonlinearity on the static response and deflection/stress control is studied for piezoelectric bimorph as well as hybrid laminated plates with isotropic, angle-ply composite and sandwich substrates. For high electric fields, the difference between the nonlinear and linear predictions is large, and cannot be neglected. The error in the prediction of the smeared counterpart of the present theory with the same number of primary displacement unknowns is also examined. (paper)

  15. The Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqiu; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known Gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions (e.g., Miller 1994). Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz (1963) model as well as more realistic models of the oceans (Evensen and van Leeuwen 1996) and atmosphere (Houtekamer and Mitchell 1998). A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter equations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members (Burgers 1998). The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to quite puzzling in that results of state estimate are worse than for their filter analogue (Evensen 1997). In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use Lorenz (1963) model to test and compare the behavior of a variety implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  16. A Modified Lindstedt–Poincaré Method for a Strongly Nonlinear System with Quadratic and Cubic Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Chen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified Lindstedt–Poincaré method is presented for extending the range of the validity of perturbation expansion to strongly nonlinear oscillations of a system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Different parameter transformations are introduced to deal with equations with different nonlinear characteristics. All examples show that the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are very good.

  17. Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency

  18. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  19. A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear stochastic vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Gen; Li, ZePeng

    2016-01-01

    A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators under white noise excitations with strongly nonlinearity was proposed. Considering the existing approach dealing with strongly nonlinear SDOFs derived by Zhu and Huang [14, 15] is quite time consuming in calculating the drift coefficient and diffusion coefficients and the expressions of them are considerable long, the so-called He's energy balance method was applied to overcome the minor defect of the Zhu and Huang's method. The modified method can offer more concise approximate expressions of the drift and diffusion coefficients without weakening the accuracy of predicting the responses of the systems too much by giving an averaged frequency beforehand. Three examples, a cubic and quadratic nonlinearity coexisting oscillator, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator under external white noise excitations and an externally excited Duffing–Rayleigh oscillator, were given to illustrate the approach we proposed. The three examples were excited by the Gaussian white noise and the Gaussian colored noise separately. The stationary responses of probability density of amplitudes and energy, together with joint probability density of displacement and velocity are studied to verify the presented approach. The reliability of the systems were also investigated to offer further support. Digital simulations were carried out and the output of that are coincide with the theoretical approximations well.

  20. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors in strong THz electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun

    In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear interactions of an intense terahertz (THz) field with semiconductors, in particular the technologically relevant materials silicon and silicon carbide. We reveal the time-resolved dynamics of the nonlinear processes by pump-probe experiments that involve...

  2. Advanced data assimilation in strongly nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.; Ghil, Michael; Gauthiez, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Advanced data assimilation methods are applied to simple but highly nonlinear problems. The dynamical systems studied here are the stochastically forced double well and the Lorenz model. In both systems, linear approximation of the dynamics about the critical points near which regime transitions occur is not always sufficient to track their occurrence or nonoccurrence. Straightforward application of the extended Kalman filter yields mixed results. The ability of the extended Kalman filter to track transitions of the double-well system from one stable critical point to the other depends on the frequency and accuracy of the observations relative to the mean-square amplitude of the stochastic forcing. The ability of the filter to track the chaotic trajectories of the Lorenz model is limited to short times, as is the ability of strong-constraint variational methods. Examples are given to illustrate the difficulties involved, and qualitative explanations for these difficulties are provided. Three generalizations of the extended Kalman filter are described. The first is based on inspection of the innovation sequence, that is, the successive differences between observations and forecasts; it works very well for the double-well problem. The second, an extension to fourth-order moments, yields excellent results for the Lorenz model but will be unwieldy when applied to models with high-dimensional state spaces. A third, more practical method--based on an empirical statistical model derived from a Monte Carlo simulation--is formulated, and shown to work very well. Weak-constraint methods can be made to perform satisfactorily in the context of these simple models, but such methods do not seem to generalize easily to practical models of the atmosphere and ocean. In particular, it is shown that the equations derived in the weak variational formulation are difficult to solve conveniently for large systems.

  3. Strong convergence of modified Ishikawa iterations for nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interval [0, 1]. The second iteration process is referred to as Ishikawa's iteration process [11] which is .... Let E be a smooth Banach space with dual E∗ ..... and applications, in: Theory and Applications of Nonlinear Operators of Accretive and.

  4. Strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of trions under strong optical excitation in monolayer MoSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jialiang; Yan, Tengfei; Niu, Binghui; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xinhui

    2018-02-05

    By employing ultrafast transient reflection measurements based on two-color pump-probe spectroscopy, the population and valley polarization dynamics of trions in monolayer MoSe 2 were investigated at relatively high excitation densities under near-resonant excitation. Both the nonlinear dynamic photobleaching of the trion resonance and the redshift of the exciton resonance were found to be responsible for the excitation-energy- and density-dependent transient reflection change as a result of many-body interactions. Furthermore, from the polarization-resolved measurements, it was revealed that the initial fast population and polarization decay process upon strong photoexcitation observed for trions was determined by trion formation, transient phase-space filling and the short valley lifetime of excitons. The results provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of population and valley depolarization of trions, as well as exciton-trion correlation in atomically thin MoSe 2 and other transition metal dichalcogenide materials.

  6. Hidden regularity for a strongly nonlinear wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.M.

    1988-08-01

    The nonlinear wave equation u''-Δu+f(u)=v in Q=Ωx]0,T[;u(0)=u 0 ,u'(0)=u 1 in Ω; u(x,t)=0 on Σ= Γx]0,T[ where f is a continuous function satisfying, lim |s| sup →+∞ f(s)/s>-∞, and Ω is a bounded domain of R n with smooth boundary Γ, is analysed. It is shown that there exist a solution for the presented nonlinear wave equation that satisfies the regularity condition: |∂u/∂ η|ε L 2 (Σ). Moreover, it is shown that there exist a constant C>0 such that, |∂u/∂ η|≤c{ E(0)+|v| 2 Q }. (author) [pt

  7. Inducing in situ, nonlinear soil response applying an active source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Pearce, F.; Lawrence, Z.; Menq, F.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    [1] It is well known that soil sites have a profound effect on ground motion during large earthquakes. The complex structure of soil deposits and the highly nonlinear constitutive behavior of soils largely control nonlinear site response at soil sites. Measurements of nonlinear soil response under natural conditions are critical to advancing our understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes. Many factors limit the use of earthquake observations to estimate nonlinear site response such that quantitative characterization of nonlinear behavior relies almost exclusively on laboratory experiments and modeling of wave propagation. Here we introduce a new method for in situ characterization of the nonlinear behavior of a natural soil formation using measurements obtained immediately adjacent to a large vibrator source. To our knowledge, we are the first group to propose and test such an approach. Employing a large, surface vibrator as a source, we measure the nonlinear behavior of the soil by incrementally increasing the source amplitude over a range of frequencies and monitoring changes in the output spectra. We apply a homodyne algorithm for measuring spectral amplitudes, which provides robust signal-to-noise ratios at the frequencies of interest. Spectral ratios are computed between the receivers and the source as well as receiver pairs located in an array adjacent to the source, providing the means to separate source and near-source nonlinearity from pervasive nonlinearity in the soil column. We find clear evidence of nonlinearity in significant decreases in the frequency of peak spectral ratios, corresponding to material softening with amplitude, observed across the array as the source amplitude is increased. The observed peak shifts are consistent with laboratory measurements of soil nonlinearity. Our results provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies of strong ground motion during earthquakes.

  8. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  9. Current structure of strongly nonlinear interfacial solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Sergey; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim; Churaev, Egor

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) in two-layer flow are computed within the fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with use of numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITgcm). The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments [Carr & Davies, 2006]. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the computations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model [Thiem et al, 2011]. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the interface and near the bottom are computed. The results demonstrated completely different trajectories at different depths of the model area. Thus, in the surface layer is observed the largest displacement of Lagrangian particles, which can be more than two and a half times larger than the characteristic width of the soliton. Located at the initial moment along the middle pycnocline fluid particles move along the elongated vertical loop at a distance of not more than one third of the width of the solitary wave. In the bottom layer of the fluid moves in the opposite direction of propagation of the internal wave, but under the influence of the reverse flow, when the bulk of the velocity field of the soliton ceases to influence the trajectory, it moves in the opposite direction. The magnitude of displacement of fluid particles in the bottom layer is not more than the half-width of the solitary wave. 1. Carr, M., and Davies, P.A. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids, 2006, vol. 18, No. 1, 1 - 10. 2. Thiem, O., Carr

  10. Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.

  11. A non-linear theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear theory of mesons, nucleons and hyperons is proposed. The three independent fields of the usual symmetrical pseudo-scalar pion field are replaced by the three directions of a four-component field vector of constant length, conceived in an Euclidean four-dimensional isotopic spin space. This length provides the universal scaling factor, all other constants being dimensionless; the mass of the meson field is generated by a φ 4 term; this destroys the continuous rotation group in the iso-space, leaving a 'cubic' symmetry group. Classification of states by this group introduces quantum numbers corresponding to isotopic spin and to 'strangeness'; one consequences is that, at least in elementary interactions, charge is only conserved module 4. Furthermore, particle states have not a well-defined parity, but parity is effectively conserved for meson-nucleon interactions. A simplified model, using only two dimensions of space and iso-space, is considered further; the non-linear meson field has solutions with particle character, and an indication is given of the way in which the particle field variables might be introduced as collective co-ordinates describing the dynamics of these particular solutions of the meson field equations, suggesting a unified theory based on the meson field alone. (author). 7 refs

  12. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K

    2016-01-01

    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  13. Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B. Scott; Shaw, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance......Much is known about the nonlinear resonant response of mechanical systems, but methods for the systematic design of structures that optimize aspects of these responses have received little attention. Progress in this area is particularly important in the area of micro-systems, where nonlinear...... resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described...

  14. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-01-01

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general

  15. Computational mechanics of nonlinear response of shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraetzig, W.B. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik); Onate, E. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Shell structures and their components are utilized in a wide spectrum of engineering fields reaching from space and aircraft structures, pipes and pressure vessels over liquid storage tanks, off-shore installations, cooling towers and domes, to bodyworks of motor vehicles. Of continuously increasing importance is their nonlinear behavior, in which large deformations and large rotations are involved as well as nonlinear material properties. The book starts with a survey about nonlinear shell theories from the rigorous point of view of continuum mechanics, this starting point being unavoidable for modern computational concepts. There follows a series of papers on nonlinear, especially unstable shell responses, which draw computational connections to well established tools in the field of static and dynamic stability of systems. Several papers are then concerned with new finite element derivations for nonlinear shell problems, and finally a series of authors contribute to specific applications opening a small window of the above mentioned wide spectrum. (orig./HP) With 159 figs.

  16. Computational mechanics of nonlinear response of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraetzig, W.B.; Onate, E.

    1990-01-01

    Shell structures and their components are utilized in a wide spectrum of engineering fields reaching from space and aircraft structures, pipes and pressure vessels over liquid storage tanks, off-shore installations, cooling towers and domes, to bodyworks of motor vehicles. Of continuously increasing importance is their nonlinear behavior, in which large deformations and large rotations are involved as well as nonlinear material properties. The book starts with a survey about nonlinear shell theories from the rigorous point of view of continuum mechanics, this starting point being unavoidable for modern computational concepts. There follows a series of papers on nonlinear, especially unstable shell responses, which draw computational connections to well established tools in the field of static and dynamic stability of systems. Several papers are then concerned with new finite element derivations for nonlinear shell problems, and finally a series of authors contribute to specific applications opening a small window of the above mentioned wide spectrum. (orig./HP) With 159 figs

  17. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1994-05-01

    Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

  18. Nonlinear response and bistability of driven ion acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The hydrodynamic model is used to obtain a generalized pseudoforce equation through which the nonlinear response of periodically driven ion acoustic waves is studied in an electron-ion plasma with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids. The pseudotime series, corresponding to different driving frequencies, indicates that nonlinearity effects appear more strongly for smaller frequency values. The existence of extra harmonic resonances in the nonlinear amplitude spectrum is a clear indication of the interaction of an external force with harmonic components of the nonlinear ion acoustic waves. It is shown that many plasma parameters significantly and differently affect the nonlinear resonance spectrum of ion acoustic excitations. A heuristic but accurate model for the foldover effect is used which quite satisfactorily predicts the bistability of driven plasma oscillations. It is remarked that the characteristic resonance peak of isothermal ion plasma oscillations appears at lower frequencies but is stronger compared to that of adiabatic ions. Comparison of the exact numerical results for fully nonlinear and approximate (weakly nonlinear) models indicates that a weakly nonlinear model exaggerates the hysteresis and jump phenomenon for higher values of the external force amplitude.

  19. Nonlinear hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for strong viscous fluids in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    El-Dib, Y O

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a weakly nonlinear stability for magnetic fluid is discussed. The research of an interface between two strong viscous homogeneous incompressible fluids through porous medium is investigated theoretically and graphically. The effect of the vertical magnetic field has been demonstrated in this study. The linear form of equation of motion is solved in the light of the nonlinear boundary conditions. The boundary value problem leads to construct nonlinear characteristic equation having complex coefficients in elevation function. The nonlinearity is kept to third-order expansion. The nonlinear characteristic equation leads to derive the well-known nonlinear Schroedinger equation. This equation having complex coefficients of the disturbance amplitude varies in both space and time. Stability criteria have been performed for nonlinear Chanderasekhar dispersion relation including the porous effects. Stability conditions are discussed through the assumption of equal kinematic viscosity. The calculati...

  20. Weak and Strong Order of Convergence of a Semidiscrete Scheme for the Stochastic Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, Anne de; Debussche, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    In this article we analyze the error of a semidiscrete scheme for the stochastic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with power nonlinearity. We consider supercritical or subcritical nonlinearity and the equation can be either focusing or defocusing. Allowing sufficient spatial regularity we prove that the numerical scheme has strong order 1/2 in general and order 1 if the noise is additive. Furthermore, we also prove that the weak order is always 1

  1. Iterative solution of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1991-10-01

    Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Suppose T:K→K is a strongly accretive map such that for each f is an element of K the equation Tx=f has a solution in K. It is proved that each of the two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to a solution of the equation Tx=f. Furthermore, our method shows that such a solution is necessarily unique. Explicit error estimates are given. Our results resolve in the affirmative two open problems (J. Math. Anal. Appl. Vol 151(2) (1990), p. 460) and generalize important known results. (author). 32 refs

  2. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  3. Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)

    2017-03-15

    We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.

  4. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  5. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.; Obayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment called MINIX was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objectives of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere such as the Ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no Ohmic heating effects were detected. 4 figures.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    A rocket-borne experiment called 'MINIX' was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction eXperiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objective of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere, such as the ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no ohmic heating effects were detected.

  7. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.; Obayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment called MINIX was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objectives of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere such as the Ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no Ohmic heating effects were detected. 4 figures

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Compliant Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavatskih S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of the compliant tilting pad journal bearings subjected to synchronous excitation. Bearing compliance is affected by the properties of pad liner and pad support geometry. Different unbalance eccentricities are considered. It is shown that bearing dynamic response is non-linear. Journal orbit complexity increases with pad compliance though the orbit amplitudes are marginally affected at low loads. At high loads, the journal is forced to operate outside the bearing clearance. The polymer liner reduces the maximum oil film pressure by a factor of 2 when compared to the white metal liner. The nonlinear dynamic response of compliant tilting pad journal bearings is thoroughly discussed.

  9. Nonlinear energy transfer and current sheet development in localized Alfvén wavepacket collisions in the strong turbulence limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.

  10. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  11. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  13. Nonlinear response matrix methods for radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.F. Jr.; Lewis, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear response matrix formalism is presented for the solution of time-dependent radiative transfer problems. The essential feature of the method is that within each computational cell the temperature is calculated in response to the incoming photons from all frequency groups. Thus the updating of the temperature distribution is placed within the iterative solution of the spaceangle transport problem, instead of being placed outside of it. The method is formulated for both grey and multifrequency problems and applied in slab geometry. The method is compared to the more conventional source iteration technique. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...

  15. The focal boundary value problem for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Půža, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, January (2015), s. 17 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order nonlinear functional-differential equations * two-point right-focal boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.642, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13661-014-0277-1

  16. Nonlinear propagation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on nonlinear propagation of single-cycle THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 300 kV/cm in n-type semiconductors at room temperature. Dramatic THz saturable absorption effects are observed in GaAs, GaP, and Ge, which are caused by the nonlinear electron transport in THz fields....... The semiconductor conductivity, and hence the THz absorption, is modulated due to the acceleration of carriers in strong THz fields, leading to an increase of the effective mass of the electron population, as the electrons are redistributed from the low-momentum, low-effective-mass states to the high-momentum, high...

  17. Nonlinear Dielectric Response of Water Treed XLPE Cable Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidsten, Sverre

    1999-07-01

    frequency domain dielectric response was larger, and found to be more nonlinear than values measured in time domain. This thesis describes a new mechanism for the nonlinear dielectric response. It is assumed that at low or no applied electric stress the water treed region is characterised by spherical micro voids filled with liquid water separated by channels of crazed insulation. The effect of increasing the test voltage is to cause Maxwell mechanical tensile stresses strong enough to open up the crazing zones and elongate the water droplets into the mechanically weak crazing zones. Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations show that the effect of the re-opening of crazing zones by an increased test voltage, strongly increases the dielectric loss of the water treed insulation. This is qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results obtained on water treed insulation, where increasing the test voltage above a certain value caused the losses to increase. The typical frequency independent dielectric response of water treed insulation can, however, not be explained by this model. Numerical calculations of losses, indicated that the mechanism of voltage assisted ingress of water is more likely in treed regions with rather low contents of water. The micro-FTIR measurements of single vented water trees indicated that such regions were likely to be present 3-400 (my)m within the tree tip, and close to the insulation screen. The process of refilling water into water tree structures is likely to be associated with a hysteresis effect. When removing (or reducing) the electric field, mechanical relaxation causes the channel to collapse and to slowly recover its former structure. Dielectric response measurements showed that a hysteresis was typically present when the response was nonlinear.

  18. Supercritical Nonlinear Vibration of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Subjected to a Strong External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vibration of a fluid-conveying pipe subjected to a transverse external harmonic excitation is investigated in the case with two-to-one internal resonance. The excitation amplitude is in the same magnitude of the transverse displacement. The fluid in the pipes flows in the speed larger than the critical speed so that the straight configuration becomes an unstable equilibrium and two curved configurations bifurcate as stable equilibriums. The motion measured from each of curved equilibrium configurations is governed by a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation with variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed to discretize the governing equation into a gyroscopic system consisting of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is applied to analyze approximately the gyroscopic system. A set of first-order ordinary differential equations governing the modulations of the amplitude and the phase are derived via the method. In the supercritical regime, the subharmonic, superharmonic, and combination resonances are examined in the presence of the 2 : 1 internal resonance. The steady-state responses and their stabilities are determined. The various jump phenomena in the amplitude-frequency response curves are demonstrated. The effects of the viscosity, the excitation amplitude, the nonlinearity, and the flow speed are observed. The analytical results are supported by the numerical integration.

  19. Utilizing strongly absorbing materials for low-loss surface-wave nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Nicolai B.; Franz, Philipp; Heckmann, Jan; Pufahl, Karsten; Woggon, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Optical media endowed with large nonlinear susceptibilities are highly prized for their employment in frequency conversion and the generation of nonclassical states of light. Although the presence of an optical resonance can greatly increase the nonlinear response (e.g., in epsilon-near-zero materials), the non-negligible increase in linear absorption often precludes the application of such materials in nonlinear optics. Absorbing materials prepared as thin films, however, can support a low-loss surface wave: the long-range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP). Its propagation lifetime increases with greater intrinsic absorption and reduced film thickness, provided that the film is embedded in a transparent medium (symmetric cladding). We explore LRSEP propagation in a molybdenum film by way of a prism-coupling configuration. Our observations show that excitation of the LRSEP mode leads to a dramatic increase in the yield of second-harmonic generation. This implies that the LRSEP mode is an effective vehicle for utilizing the nonlinear response of absorbing materials.

  20. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  1. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a gaseous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged particles nonlinear dynamics in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave pulse of finite duration and certain form of the envelope, in the refractive medium with a constant and variable refraction indexes, is investigated by means of numerical integration of the classical relativistic equations of motion. The particle energy dependence on the pulse intensity manifests the nonlinear threshold phenomenon of a particle reflection and capture by actual laser pulses in dielectric-gaseous media that takes place for a plane electromagnetic wave in the induced Cherenkov process. Laser acceleration of the particles in the result of the reflection from the pulse envelope and in the capture regime with the variable refraction index along the pulse propagation direction is investigated.

  2. Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Bo, Fan; Zhen-Bo, Liu; Zhe, Zhang; Dong, Zhang; Xiu-Fen, Gong

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  3. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus

    2000-01-01

    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  4. Induced dynamic nonlinear ground response at Gamer Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Z.; Bodin, P.; Langston, C.A.; Pearce, F.; Gomberg, J.; Johnson, P.A.; Menq, F.-Y.; Brackman, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a prototype experiment in which we actively induce, observe, and quantify in situ nonlinear sediment response in the near surface. This experiment was part of a suite of experiments conducted during August 2004 in Garner Valley, California, using a large mobile shaker truck from the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. We deployed a dense accelerometer array within meters of the mobile shaker truck to replicate a controlled, laboratory-style soil dynamics experiment in order to observe wave-amplitude-dependent sediment properties. Ground motion exceeding 1g acceleration was produced near the shaker truck. The wave field was dominated by Rayleigh surface waves and ground motions were strong enough to produce observable nonlinear changes in wave velocity. We found that as the force load of the shaker increased, the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity decreased by as much as ???30% at the highest frequencies used (up to 30 Hz). Phase velocity dispersion curves were inverted for S-wave velocity as a function of depth using a simple isotropic elastic model to estimate the depth dependence of changes to the velocity structure. The greatest change in velocity occurred nearest the surface, within the upper 4 m. These estimated S-wave velocity values were used with estimates of surface strain to compare with laboratory-based shear modulus reduction measurements from the same site. Our results suggest that it may be possible to characterize nonlinear soil properties in situ using a noninvasive field technique.

  5. Blow-Up Analysis for a Quasilinear Degenerate Parabolic Equation with Strongly Nonlinear Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the blow-up properties of the positive solution of the Cauchy problem for a quasilinear degenerate parabolic equation with strongly nonlinear source ut=div(|∇um|p−2∇ul+uq,  (x,t∈RN×(0,T, where N≥1, p>2 , and m, l,  q>1, and give a secondary critical exponent on the decay asymptotic behavior of an initial value at infinity for the existence and nonexistence of global solutions of the Cauchy problem. Moreover, under some suitable conditions we prove single-point blow-up for a large class of radial decreasing solutions.

  6. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments.......High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...

  7. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  8. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  9. Time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis considering materials and geometrical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Takaoka, E.; Nakazawa, M.; Shikama, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method was proposed and applied to earthquake response prediction analysis for a Large Scale Seismic Test (LSST) Program in Hualien, Taiwan, in which a 1/4 scale model of a nuclear reactor containment structure was constructed on sandy gravel layer. In the analysis both of strain-dependent material nonlinearity, and geometrical nonlinearity by base mat uplift, were considered. The 'Lattice Model' for the soil-structure interaction model was employed. An earthquake record on soil surface at the site was used as control motion, and deconvoluted to the input motion of the analysis model at GL-52 m with 300 Gal of maximum acceleration. The following two analyses were considered: (A) time history nonlinear, (B) equivalent linear, and the advantage of time history nonlinear earthquake response analysis method is discussed

  10. A Photonic Basis for Deriving Nonlinear Optical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is generally first presented as an extension of conventional optics. Typically the subject is introduced with reference to a classical oscillatory electric polarization, accommodating correction terms that become significant at high intensities. The material parameters that quantify the extent of the nonlinear response are cast as…

  11. Nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vais, O. E.; Bochkarev, S. G., E-mail: bochkar@sci.lebedev.ru; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The problem of nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong linearly polarized ultrashort laser pulse tightly focused into a spot with a diameter of D{sub F} ≳ λ (where λ is the laser wavelength) is solved. The energy, spectral, and angular distributions of radiation generated due to Thomson scattering from test electrons located in the focal region are found. The characteristics of scattered radiation are studied as functions of the tightness of laser focusing and the initial position of test particles relative to the center of the focal region for a given laser pulse energy. It is demonstrated that the ultratight focusing is not optimal for obtaining the brightest and hardest source of secondary electromagnetic radiation. The hardest and shortest radiation pulse is generated when the beam waist diameter is ≃10λ.

  12. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  13. Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime

  14. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  15. A nonlinear equation for ionic diffusion in a strong binary electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the one-dimensional electro-diffusion of ions in a strong binary electrolyte is considered. The mathematical description, known as the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) system, consists of a diffusion equation for each species augmented by transport owing to a self-consistent electrostatic field determined by the Poisson equation. This description is also relevant to other important problems in physics, such as electron and hole diffusion across semiconductor junctions and the diffusion of ions in plasmas. If concentrations do not vary appreciably over distances of the order of the Debye length, the Poisson equation can be replaced by the condition of local charge neutrality first introduced by Planck. It can then be shown that both species diffuse at the same rate with a common diffusivity that is intermediate between that of the slow and fast species (ambipolar diffusion). Here, we derive a more general theory by exploiting the ratio of the Debye length to a characteristic length scale as a small asymptotic parameter. It is shown that the concentration of either species may be described by a nonlinear partial differential equation that provides a better approximation than the classical linear equation for ambipolar diffusion, but reduces to it in the appropriate limit. PMID:21818176

  16. Strong Tracking Filter for Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Delayed Measurements and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.

  17. Strong coupling between coherent gratings due to nonlinear spatial frequency mixing in Bi12SiO20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Buchhave, P.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between multiple coherent photorefractive gratings in Bi12SiO20 are investigated. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear mixing, or cross talk, is strongly influenced by the intensity ration kappa between the two object beams. The diffraction efficiency of a specific grating...... may be increased or strongly decreased depending on kappa. In the limit of a weak reference beam intensity compared to the sum of the object beam intencities, we derive an analytical expression for the cross talk valid for all kappa. Furthermore, we find the value of kappa yielding zero cross talk. We...

  18. Transition from weak to strong measurements by nonlinear quantum feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Wu Rebing; Li Chunwen; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2010-01-01

    We find that feedback control may induce 'pseudo'-nonlinear dynamics in a damped harmonic oscillator, whose centroid trajectory in the phase space behaves like a classical nonlinear system. Thus, similar to nonlinear amplifiers (e.g., rf-driven Josephson junctions), feedback control on the harmonic oscillator can induce nonlinear bifurcation, which can be used to amplify small signals and further to measure quantum states of qubits. Using the cavity QED and the circuit QED systems as examples, we show how to apply our method to measuring the states of two-level atoms and superconducting charge qubits.

  19. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  20. Numerical Investigation on the Directionality of Nonlinear Indicial Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Kwan Jung; Hong, Sang Won; Lee, Dong Ho

    2007-01-01

    An unsteady Euler solver is modified to investigate the directionality of nonlinear indicial response to a step change in the angle of attack. An impulsive change in the angle of attack is incorporated by using the field velocity approach, which is known to decouple the step change in the angle of attack from a pitch rate. Numerical results are thoroughly compared against analytical results for two-dimensional indicial responses. The same method is applied to investigate the directionality of nonlinear indicial responses. It is found that directionality is mainly due to the asymmetry of initial shock locations. Since the directionality of the pitching moment responses is significant in the critical Mach number region, it is also shown that consideration of the directionality is crucial for accurate modeling of the nonlinear indicial functions

  1. Ultrafast nonlinear response of silicon carbide to intense THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast nonlinear absorption induced by strong, single-cycle THz fields in bulk, lightly doped 4H silicon carbide. A combination of Zener tunneling and intraband transitions makes the effect as at least as fast as the excitation pulse. The sub-picosecond recovery time makes...

  2. Nonlinear piping damping and response predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Weiner, E.O.; Lindquist, M.R.; Anderson, M.J.; Wagner, S.E.

    1986-10-01

    The high level dynamic testing of four prototypic piping systems, used to provide benchmarks for analytical prediction comparisons, is overviewed. The size of pipe tested ranged from one-inch to six-inches in diameter and consisted of carbon steel or stainless steel material. Failure of the tested systems included progressive gross deformation or some combination of ratchetting-fatigue. Pretest failure predictions and post test comparisons using simplified elastic and elasto-plastic methods are presented. Detailed non-linear inelastic analyses are also shown, along with a typical ratchet-fatigue failure calculation. A simplified method for calculating modal equivalent viscous damping for snubbers and plastic hinges is also described. Conclusions are made regarding the applicability of the various analytical failure predictive methods and recommendations are made for future analytic and test efforts

  3. Modeling TAE Response To Nonlinear Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Berk, Herbert; Breizman, Boris; Zheng, Linjin

    2012-10-01

    Experiment has detected the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) with signals at twice the eigenfrequency.These harmonic modes arise from the second order perturbation in amplitude of the MHD equation for the linear modes that are driven the energetic particle free energy. The structure of TAE in realistic geometry can be calculated by generalizing the linear numerical solver (AEGIS package). We have have inserted all the nonlinear MHD source terms, where are quadratic in the linear amplitudes, into AEGIS code. We then invert the linear MHD equation at the second harmonic frequency. The ratio of amplitudes of the first and second harmonic terms are used to determine the internal field amplitude. The spatial structure of energy and density distribution are investigated. The results can be directly employed to compare with experiments and determine the Alfven wave amplitude in the plasma region.

  4. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  5. Explicit and exact solutions for a generalized long-short wave resonance equations with strong nonlinear term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions

  6. Integration of the BBGKY equations for the development of strongly nonlinear clustering in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.; Peebles, P.J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of density correlations in an expanding universe can be described by the BBGKY equations. This approach has been the subject of several previous studies, but always under the assumption of small-amplitude fluctuations, where the hierarchy of equations has a natural truncation. Reslts of these studies cannot be compared to the present universe because the galaxy two-point correlation function xi (r) is much greater than unity at r9 or approx. =1h -1 Mpc, and the three-point function zeta is on the order of xi (r) 2 . In this strongly nonlinear situation the hierarchy is dominated by terms ignored in the linear analysis. Our method of truncating the hierarchy is based on the empirical result that zeta can be represented to good accuracy as a simple function of xi. We solve the equations via the velocity-moment method, and we truncate the resulting velocity-moment hierarchy for the two-point function by assuming that the distribution in the relative velocity of particle pairs has zero skewness about the mean. The second equation in this velocity-moment hierarchy is our main equation for xi. It involves the three-point spatial correlation function zeta, which we write as a function of xi following the empirical result. The third equation involves the first velocity moment of the three-point position and velocity correlation function. We model this term in a way consistent with our model for zeta and with a constraint equation that expresses conservation of triplets.The equations admit a similarity transformation if (1) the effects of the discreteness of particles can be ignored, (2) the initial spectrum of density perturbations assumes a power law shape, and (3) the universe is described by an Einstein-de Sitter model (Ωapprox. =1). The numerical results presented here are based on this similarity solution

  7. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  8. On the dimension of complex responses in nonlinear structural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, R.; Spottswood, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to accurately model engineering systems under extreme dynamic loads would prove a major breakthrough in many aspects of aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Extreme loads frequently induce both nonlinearities and coupling which increase the complexity of the response and the computational cost of finite element models. Dimension reduction has recently gained traction and promises the ability to distill dynamic responses down to a minimal dimension without sacrificing accuracy. In this context, the dimensionality of a response is related to the number of modes needed in a reduced order model to accurately simulate the response. Thus, an important step is characterizing the dimensionality of complex nonlinear responses of structures. In this work, the dimensionality of the nonlinear response of a post-buckled beam is investigated. Significant detail is dedicated to carefully introducing the experiment, the verification of a finite element model, and the dimensionality estimation algorithm as it is hoped that this system may help serve as a benchmark test case. It is shown that with minor modifications, the method of false nearest neighbors can quantitatively distinguish between the response dimension of various snap-through, non-snap-through, random, and deterministic loads. The state-space dimension of the nonlinear system in question increased from 2-to-10 as the system response moved from simple, low-level harmonic to chaotic snap-through. Beyond the problem studied herein, the techniques developed will serve as a prescriptive guide in developing fast and accurate dimensionally reduced models of nonlinear systems, and eventually as a tool for adaptive dimension-reduction in numerical modeling. The results are especially relevant in the aerospace industry for the design of thin structures such as beams, panels, and shells, which are all capable of spatio-temporally complex dynamic responses that are difficult and computationally expensive to

  9. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  10. Nonlinear drift tearing mode. Strong mode of excitation and stabilization mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of magnetic disturbance development in collisionless configurations with magnetic field shear is considered. The instability evolution is investigated with account for the dynamics of ions and potential electric fields which determine the mode stabilization. It has been found that the drift tearing mode possesses metastable properties: in a nonlinear mode even the growth of linearly stable disturbances of the finite amplitude is possible

  11. Strongly nonlinear nonhomogeneous elliptic unilateral problems with L^1 data and no sign conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhoussine Azroul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions to unilateral problems involving nonlinear operators of the form: $$ Au+H(x,u,abla u=f $$ where $A$ is a Leray Lions operator from $W_0^{1,p(x}(Omega$ into its dual $W^{-1,p'(x}(Omega$ and $H(x,s,xi$ is the nonlinear term satisfying some growth condition but no sign condition. The right hand side $f$ belong to $L^1(Omega$.

  12. Probing the interatomic potential of solids with strong-field nonlinear phononics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hoegen, A.; Mankowsky, R.; Fechner, M.; Först, M.; Cavalleri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear optical techniques at visible frequencies have long been applied to condensed matter spectroscopy. However, because many important excitations of solids are found at low energies, much can be gained from the extension of nonlinear optics to mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies. For example, the nonlinear excitation of lattice vibrations has enabled the dynamic control of material functions. So far it has only been possible to exploit second-order phonon nonlinearities at terahertz field strengths near one million volts per centimetre. Here we achieve an order-of-magnitude increase in field strength and explore higher-order phonon nonlinearities. We excite up to five harmonics of the A1 (transverse optical) phonon mode in the ferroelectric material lithium niobate. By using ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses to drive the atoms far from their equilibrium positions, and measuring the large-amplitude atomic trajectories, we can sample the interatomic potential of lithium niobate, providing a benchmark for ab initio calculations for the material. Tomography of the energy surface by high-order nonlinear phononics could benefit many aspects of materials research, including the study of classical and quantum phase transitions.

  13. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW's as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H → ∞. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed

  14. Seismic response of the 'Cut-and Cover' type reactor containment considering nonlinear soil behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahan, H.; Reddy, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some parametric studies of dynamic soil-structure interaction for the 'cut-and-cover' reactor concept. The dynamic loading considered is a horizontal earthquake motion. The high frequency ranges, which must be considered in the study of soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plants, and the nonlinearity of soil behavior during strong earthquakes are adequately taken into account. Soil nonlinearity is accounted for in an approximate manner using a combination of the 'equivalent linear method' and the method of complex response with complex moduli. The structure considered is a reinforced concrete containment for a 1100 - MWe power plant, buried in a dense sand medium. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear Response of Cantilever Beams to Combination and Subcombination Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Nayfeh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear planar response of cantilever metallic beams to combination parametric and external subcombination resonances is investigated, taking into account the effects of cubic geometric and inertia nonlinearities. The beams considered here are assumed to have large length-to-width aspect ratios and thin rectangular cross sections. Hence, the effects of shear deformations and rotatory inertia are neglected. For the case of combination parametric resonance, a two-mode Galerkin discretization along with Hamilton’s extended principle is used to obtain two second-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. For the case of subcombination resonance, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the Lagrangian and virtual-work term. Then using Hamilton’s extended principle, we obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. In both cases, the modulation equations are used to generate frequency- and force-response curves. We found that the trivial solution exhibits a jump as it undergoes a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. Similarly, the nontrivial solutions also exhibit jumps as they undergo saddle-node bifurcations.

  16. Modeling and non-linear responses of MEMS capacitive accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Harsha C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated beam has been illustrated when the electrostatic-ally actuated micro-cantilever beam is separated from the electrode by a moderately large gap for two distinct types of geometric configurations of MEMS accelerometer. Higher order nonlinear terms have been taken into account for studying the pull in voltage analysis. A nonlinear model of gas film squeezing damping, another source of nonlinearity in MEMS devices is included in obtaining the dynamic responses. Moreover, in the present work, the possible source of nonlinearities while formulating the mathematical model of a MEMS accelerometer and their influences on the dynamic responses have been investigated. The theoretical results obtained by using MATLAB has been verified with the results obtained in FE software and has been found in good agreement. Criterion towards stable micro size accelerometer for each configuration has been investigated. This investigation clearly provides an understanding of nonlinear static and dynamics characteristics of electrostatically micro cantilever based device in MEMS.

  17. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal

    2015-04-10

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search for high order strong stability time-stepping methods with large allowable strong stability coefficient has been an active area of research over the last two decades. This research has shown that explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods exist only up to fourth order. However, if we restrict ourselves to solving only linear autonomous problems, the order conditions simplify and this order barrier is lifted: explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods of any linear order exist. These methods reduce to second order when applied to nonlinear problems. In the current work we aim to find explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods with large allowable time-step, that feature high linear order and simultaneously have the optimal fourth order nonlinear order. These methods have strong stability coefficients that approach those of the linear methods as the number of stages and the linear order is increased. This work shows that when a high linear order method is desired, it may still be worthwhile to use methods with higher nonlinear order.

  18. Application of a modified rational harmonic balance method for a class of strongly nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Gimeno, E.; Alvarez, M.L.; Mendez, D.I.; Hernandez, A.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical approximate technique for conservative nonlinear oscillators is proposed. This method is a modification of the rational harmonic balance method in which analytical approximate solutions have rational form. This approach gives us the frequency of the motion as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. We find that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been demonstrated and discussed. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and its excellent accuracy for the whole range of oscillation amplitude values and the results reveal that this technique is very effective and convenient for solving conservative truly nonlinear oscillatory systems with complex nonlinearities

  19. Strong nonlinearity-induced correlations for counterpropagating photons scattering on a two-level emitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could be quanti......We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could...

  20. Numerical Analysis of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems using He's Max-Min Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babazadeh, H; Domairry, G; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear functions are crucial points and terms in engineering problems. Actual and physical problems can be solved by solving and processing such functions. Thus, most scientists and engineers focus on solving these equations. This paper presents a novel method called the max-min method...

  1. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-03-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W.

  2. Synthesis and strong optical limiting response of graphite oxide covalently functionalized with gallium phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xi; Zhu, Jinhui; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Jinjuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; He, Ying; Blau, Werner J.

    2011-05-01

    A soluble graphite oxide (GO) axially substituted gallium phthalocyanine (PcGa) hybrid material (GO-PcGa) was for the first time synthesized by the reaction of tBu4PcGaCl with GO in anhydrous DMSO at 110 °C in the presence of K2CO3. The formation of a Ga-O bond between PcGa and GO has been confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In contrast to GO, the D and G bands of GO-PcGa in the Raman spectrum are shifted to the lower wavenumbers by Δν = 11 and 18 cm - 1, respectively. At the same level of concentration of 0.1 g l - 1, GO-PcGa exhibit much larger nonlinear optical extinction coefficients and strong optical limiting performance than GO, tBu4PcGaCl and C60 at both 532 and 1064 nm, implying a remarkable accumulation effect as a result of the covalent link between GO and PcGa. GO-PcGa possesses three main mechanisms for the nonlinear optical response—nonlinear light scattering, two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for the 532 nm pulses and nonlinear light scattering for the 1064 nm pulses. tBu4PcGaCl does not make any significant contribution to the optical limiting at 1064 nm, while GO-PcGa has a much greater optical limiting response than GO at this wavelength, this suggesting that the PcGa moiety could certainly play an unknown but important role in the GO-PcGa material system.

  3. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  4. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  5. Nonlinear ultrafast optical response in organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze possible nonlinear excitonic effects in the organic molecule crystals by using a combined time-dependent DFT and many-body approach. In particular, we analyze possible effects of the time-dependent (retarded)interaction between different types of excitations, Frenkel excitons, charge transfer excitons and excimers, on the electric and the optical response of the system. We pay special attention to the case of constant electric field and ultrafast pulses, including that of four-wave mixing experiments. As a specific application we examine the optical excitations of pentacene nanocrystals and compare the results with available experimental data.[1] Our results demostrate that the nonlinear effects can play an important role in the optical response of these systems. [1] A. Kabakchiev, ``Scanning Tunneling Luminescence of Pentacene Nanocrystals'', PhD Thesis (EPFL, Lausanne, 2010).

  6. Picard iterations for nonlinear Lipschitz strong pseudo-contractions in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Suppose E is a real uniformly smooth Banach space and K is a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E, T:K → K is a Lipschitz pseudo-contraction. It is proved that the Picard iterates of a suitably defined operator converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Furthermore, this result also holds for the slightly larger class of Lipschitz strong hemi-contractions. Related results deal with strong convergence of the Picard iterates to the unique solution of operator equations involving Lipschitz strongly accretive maps. Apart from establishing strong convergence, our theorems give existence, uniqueness and convergence-rate which is at least as fast as a geometric progression. (author). 51 refs

  7. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  8. Application of modified homotopy perturbation method and amplitude frequency formulation to strongly nonlinear oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd ghasem enayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two powerful analytical methods known as modified homotopy perturbation method and Amplitude Frequency Formulation called respectively MHPM and AFF, are introduced to derive approximate solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations appear in mechanical applications. These methods convert a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The obtained solutions are compared with numerical fourth order runge-kutta method to show the applicability and accuracy of both MHPM and AFF in solving this sample problem. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that MHPM and AFF are powerful mathematical tools and they can be applied to linear and nonlinear problems.

  9. Nonlinear 2D arm dynamics in response to continuous and pulse-shaped force perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happee, Riender; de Vlugt, Erwin; van Vliet, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence exists regarding the nonlinearity of the neuromuscular system but linear models are widely applied to capture postural dynamics. This study quantifies the nonlinearity of human arm postural dynamics applying 2D continuous force perturbations (0.2-40 Hz) inducing three levels of hand displacement (5, 15, 45 mm RMS) followed by force-pulse perturbations inducing large hand displacements (up to 250 mm) in a position task (PT) and a relax task (RT) recording activity of eight shoulder and elbow muscles. The continuous perturbation data were used to analyze the 2D endpoint dynamics in the frequency domain and to identify reflexive and intrinsic parameters of a linear neuromuscular shoulder-elbow model. Subsequently, it was assessed to what extent the large displacements in response to force pulses could be predicted from the 'small amplitude' linear neuromuscular model. Continuous and pulse perturbation responses with varying amplitudes disclosed highly nonlinear effects. In PT, a larger continuous perturbation induced stiffening with a factor of 1.5 attributed to task adaptation evidenced by increased co-contraction and reflexive activity. This task adaptation was even more profound in the pulse responses where reflexes and displacements were strongly affected by the presence and amplitude of preceding continuous perturbations. In RT, a larger continuous perturbation resulted in yielding with a factor of 3.8 attributed to nonlinear mechanical properties as no significant reflexive activity was found. Pulse perturbations always resulted in yielding where a model fitted to the preceding 5-mm continuous perturbations predicted only 37% of the recorded peak displacements in RT and 79% in PT. This demonstrates that linear neuromuscular models, identified using continuous perturbations with small amplitudes, strongly underestimate displacements in pulse-shaped (e.g., impact) loading conditions. The data will be used to validate neuromuscular models including

  10. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and

  11. Jump phenomena. [large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers jump phenomena composed of large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems caused by small amplitude disturbances. Physical problems where large jumps in the solution amplitude are important features of the response are described, including snap buckling of elastic shells, chemical reactions leading to combustion and explosion, and long-term climatic changes of the earth's atmosphere. A new method of rational functions was then developed which consists of representing the solutions of the jump problems as rational functions of the small disturbance parameter; this method can solve jump problems explicitly.

  12. Confidence bounds for nonlinear dose-response relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baayen, C; Hougaard, P

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of drug trials is to characterize the dose-response relationship of a new compound. Such a relationship can often be described by a parametric (nonlinear) function that is monotone in dose. If such a model is fitted, it is useful to know the uncertainty of the fitted curve...... intervals for the dose-response curve. These confidence bounds have better coverage than Wald intervals and are more precise and generally faster than bootstrap methods. Moreover, if monotonicity is assumed, the profile likelihood approach takes this automatically into account. The approach is illustrated...

  13. Nonlinear responses of chiral fluids from kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pu, Shi; Yang, Di-Lun

    2018-01-01

    The second-order nonlinear responses of inviscid chiral fluids near local equilibrium are investigated by applying the chiral kinetic theory (CKT) incorporating side-jump effects. It is shown that the local equilibrium distribution function can be nontrivially introduced in a comoving frame with respect to the fluid velocity when the quantum corrections in collisions are involved. For the study of anomalous transport, contributions from both quantum corrections in anomalous hydrodynamic equations of motion and those from the CKT and Wigner functions are considered under the relaxation-time (RT) approximation, which result in anomalous charge Hall currents propagating along the cross product of the background electric field and the temperature (or chemical-potential) gradient and of the temperature and chemical-potential gradients. On the other hand, the nonlinear quantum correction on the charge density vanishes in the classical RT approximation, which in fact satisfies the matching condition given by the anomalous equation obtained from the CKT.

  14. Nonlinear Stochastic Analysis of Subharmonic Response of a Shallow Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    and stochastic subharmonic response is demonstrated upon comparison with a more involved model based on a spatial finite difference discretization of the full nonlinear partial differential equations of the cable. Since the stochastic response quantities are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, which is extremely...... time-consuming for the finite difference model, most of the results are next based on the reduced model. Under harmonical varying support point motions the stable subharmonic motion consists of a harmonically varying component in the equilibrium plane and a large subharmonic out-of-plane component...... subharmonic response component is also present in the static equilibrium plane. Further, the time variation of the envelope process of the narrow-banded chordwise elongation process tends to enhance chaotic behaviour of the subharmonic response, which is detectable via extreme sensitivity on the initial...

  15. The nonlocal boundary value problems for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    -, č. 35 (2015), s. 23-50 ISSN 1126-8042 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order functional differential equations * Dirichlet boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ijpam.uniud.it/online_issue/201535/03-Mukhigulashvili.pdf

  16. Elastic Nonlinear Response in Granular Media Under Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Johnson, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    We are studying the elastic linear and nonlinear behavior of granular media using dynamic wave methods. In the work presented here, our goal is to quantify the elastic nonlinear response by applying wave resonance. Resonance studies are desirable because they provide the means to easily study amplitude dependencies of elastic nonlinear behavior and thus to characterize the physical nature of the elastic nonlinearity. This work has implications for a variety of topics, in particular, the in situ nonlinear response of surface sediments. For this work we constructed an experimental cell in which high sensitivity dynamic resonance studies were conducted using granular media under controlled effective pressure. We limit our studies here to bulk modes but have the capability to employ shear waves as well. The granular media are composed of glass beads held under pressure by a piston, while applying resonance waves from transducers as both the excitation and the material probe. The container is closed with two fitted pistons and a normal load is applied to the granular sample across the top piston. Force and displacement are measured directly. Resonant frequency sweeps with frequencies corresponding to the fundamental bulk mode are applied to the longitudinal source transducer. The pore pressure in the system is 1 atm. The glass beads used in our experiments are of diameter 0.5 mm, randomly deposited in a duralumin cylinder of diameter 30 mm and height of 15 mm. This corresponds to a granular skeleton acoustic wave velocity of v ª 750m/s under 50 N of force [0.07 Mpa]. The loaded system gives fundamental mode resonances in the audio frequency band at half a wavelength where resonance frequency is effective-pressure dependent. The volume fraction of glass beads thus obtained is found to be 0.63 ± 0.01. Plane-wave generating and detecting transducers of diameter 30 mm are placed on axis at the top and bottom of the cylindrical container in direct contact with the glass

  17. Models of the delayed nonlinear Raman response in diatomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Pearson, A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the delayed response of a diatomic gas to a polarizing laser field with the goal of obtaining computationally efficient methods for use with laser pulse propagation simulations. We demonstrate that for broadband pulses, heavy molecules such as O 2 and N 2 , and typical atmospheric temperatures, the initial delayed response requires only classical physics. The linear kinetic Green's function is derived from the Boltzmann equation and shown to be in excellent agreement with full density-matrix calculations. A straightforward perturbation approach for the fully nonlinear, kinetic impulse response is also presented. With the kinetic theory a reduced fluid model of the diatomic gas' orientation is derived. Transport coefficients are introduced to model the kinetic phase mixing of the delayed response. In addition to computational rapidity, the fluid model provides intuition through the use of familiar macroscopic quantities. Both the kinetic and the fluid descriptions predict a nonlinear steady-state alignment after passage of the laser pulse, which in the fluid model is interpreted as an anisotropic temperature of the diatomic fluid with respect to motion about the polarization axis.

  18. Nonlinear optical response of the collagen triple helix and second harmonic microscopy of collagen liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniset-Besseau, A.; De Sa Peixoto, P.; Duboisset, J.; Loison, C.; Hache, F.; Benichou, E.; Brevet, P.-F.; Mosser, G.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

    2010-02-01

    Collagen is characterized by triple helical domains and plays a central role in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks, basement membranes, as well as other structures of the connective tissue. Remarkably, fibrillar collagen exhibits efficient Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and SHG microscopy proved to be a sensitive tool to score fibrotic pathologies. However, the nonlinear optical response of fibrillar collagen is not fully characterized yet and quantitative data are required to further process SHG images. We therefore performed Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) experiments and measured a second order hyperpolarisability of 1.25 10-27 esu for rat-tail type I collagen. This value is surprisingly large considering that collagen presents no strong harmonophore in its amino-acid sequence. In order to get insight into the physical origin of this nonlinear process, we performed HRS measurements after denaturation of the collagen triple helix and for a collagen-like short model peptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3. It showed that the collagen large nonlinear response originates in the tight alignment of a large number of weakly efficient harmonophores, presumably the peptide bonds, resulting in a coherent amplification of the nonlinear signal along the triple helix. To illustrate this mechanism, we successfully recorded SHG images in collagen liquid solutions by achieving liquid crystalline ordering of the collagen triple helices.

  19. Designing Hybrids of Graphene Oxide and Gold Nanoparticles for Nonlinear Optical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Aneesh, J.; Sharma, Rituraj; Abhiramnath, P.; Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Omar, Ganesh Ji; Mishra, A. K.; Karmakar, Debjani; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear optical absorption of light by materials is weak due to its perturbative nature, although a strong nonlinear response is of crucial importance to applications in optical limiting and switching. Here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically an extremely efficient scheme of excited-state absorption by charge transfer between donor and acceptor materials as a method to enhance the nonlinear absorption by orders of magnitude. With this idea, we demonstrate a strong excited-state absorption (ESA) in reduced graphene oxide that otherwise shows an increased transparency at high fluence and enhancement of ESA by one order of magnitude in graphene oxide by attaching gold nanoparticles (Au NP) in the tandem configuration that acts as an efficient charge-transfer pair when excited at the plasmonic wavelength. To explain the unprecedented enhancement, we develop a five-level rate-equation model based on the charge transfer between the two materials and numerically simulate the results. To understand the correlation of interfacial charge transfer with the concentration and type of the functional ligands attached to the graphene oxide sheet, we investigate the Au-NP—graphene oxide interface with various possible ligand configurations from first-principles calculations. By using the strong ESA of our hybrid materials, we fabricate liquid cell-based high-performance optical limiters with important device parameters better than that of the benchmark optical limiters.

  20. Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented

  1. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  2. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  3. Strongly increasing solutions of cyclic systems of second order differential equations with power-type nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jaroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider \\(n\\-dimensional cyclic systems of second order differential equations \\[(p_i(t|x_{i}'|^{\\alpha_i -1}x_{i}'' = q_{i}(t|x_{i+1}|^{\\beta_i-1}x_{i+1},\\] \\[\\quad i = 1,\\ldots,n, \\quad (x_{n+1} = x_1 \\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] under the assumption that the positive constants \\(\\alpha_i\\ and \\(\\beta_i\\ satisfy \\(\\alpha_1{\\ldots}\\alpha_n \\gt \\beta_1{\\ldots}\\beta_n\\ and \\(p_i(t\\ and \\(q_i(t\\ are regularly varying functions, and analyze positive strongly increasing solutions of system (\\(\\ast\\ in the framework of regular variation. We show that the situation for the existence of regularly varying solutions of positive indices for (\\(\\ast\\ can be characterized completely, and moreover that the asymptotic behavior of such solutions is governed by the unique formula describing their order of growth precisely. We give examples demonstrating that the main results for (\\(\\ast\\ can be applied to some classes of partial differential equations with radial symmetry to acquire accurate information about the existence and the asymptotic behavior of their radial positive strongly increasing solutions.

  4. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  5. Nonlinear physics of plasmas. Spatiotemporal structures in strong turbulence. Lecture notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, Milos M.

    2008-05-01

    This material has been prepared and partly delivered in a series of lectures given at NIFS to Doctor course students of the SOKENDAI (Graduate University of Advanced Studies, Japan) in academic 2007/08 year. Special gratitude is due to colleagues for fruitful collaboration: Profs. K. Mima, Lj. Hadzievski, S. Ishiguro, A. Maluckov, M. Rajkovic and Dr Li Baiwen and Dr Lj. Nikolic, in particular, and to Prof. Mitsuo Kono for motivating the work on this text. I wish to pay unique tribute to close friends and longtime collaborators, Prof. Dik ter Haar and Prof. Moma Jovanovic who are no longer with us. This report contains Chapter 1 (Strong Langmur Turbulence), Chapter 2 (Wave Collapse in Plasmas), Chapter 3 (Spatiotemporal Complexity in Plasmas), Chapter 4 (Relativistic Plasma Interactions) and Chapter 5 (Ponderomotive Potential and Magnetization). (J.P.N.)

  6. The method of varying amplitudes for solving (non)linear problems involving strong parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...

  7. On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Hernández, Roberto Carlos; Gleason-Villagran, Roberto; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Crespo-Sosa, Alejandro; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; López-Suárez, Alejandra; Oliver, Alicia; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge Alejandro; Torres-Torres, Carlos; Rangel-Rojo, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Au and Ag isotropic and anisotropic nanocomposites were prepared using the ion implantation technique. Their optical properties were studied at several wavelengths in the optical range 300–800 nm, across their plasmon resonances. The linear regime was characterized by measuring the absorption spectrum and the third-order nonlinear regime by means of the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond pulsed laser system (26 ps). Open-aperture Z-scan traces show a superposition of different optical nonlinear absorption (NLA) processes in the whole range studied. We associate these phenomena with the excitation of inter- and intra-band electronic transitions, which contribute with a positive sign to NLA, and to the formation of hot-electrons, which contribute with opposite sign to NLA. Closed-aperture traces for measuring nonlinear refraction (NLR) show different signs for Au and Ag samples, and a change of sign in Au is found when purely inter-band transitions are excited. In this work, for the appropriate wavelength, it is worth remarking on the free-electron response to the exciting light and its strong contribution to the nonlinear optical properties for low (intra-band) and high (hot-electrons) irradiances. (paper)

  8. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  9. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  10. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  11. Nonlinear Optical Response of Polar Semiconductors in the Terahertz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Eric; Yates, Jonathan; Veithen, Marek; Vanderbilt, David; Souza, Ivo

    2006-03-01

    Using the Berry-phase finite-field method, we compute from first-principles the recently measured infrared (IR) dispersion of the nonlinear susceptibility (2)circ in III-V zincblende semiconductors. At far-IR (terahertz) frequencies, in addition to the purely electronic response (2)circ∞, the total (2)circ depends on three other parameters, C1, C2, and C3, describing the contributions from ionic motion. They relate to the TO Raman polarizability and the second-order displacement-induced dielectric polarization and forces, respectively. Contrary to a widely-accepted model, but in agreement with the recent experiments on GaAs, ^1 we find that the contribution from mechanical anharmonicity dominates over electrical anharmonicity. By using Richardson extrapolation to evaluate the Berry's phase in k-space by finite differences, we are able to improve the convergence of the nonlinear susceptibility from the usual O[(δk)^2] to O[(δk)^4], dramatically reducing the computational cost. T. Dekorsy, V. A. Yakovlev, W. Seidel, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055508 (2003). C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1264 (1972). R. Umari and A. Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. B 68, 085114 (2003).

  12. Solving eigenvalue response matrix equations with nonlinear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jeremy A.; Forget, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High performance solvers were applied within ERMM for the first time. • Accelerated fixed-point methods were developed that reduce computational times by 2–3. • A nonlinear, Newton-based ERMM led to similar improvement and more robustness. • A 3-D, SN-based ERMM shows how ERMM can apply fine-mesh methods to full-core analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents new algorithms for use in the eigenvalue response matrix method (ERMM) for reactor eigenvalue problems. ERMM spatially decomposes a domain into independent nodes linked via boundary conditions approximated as truncated orthogonal expansions, the coefficients of which are response functions. In its simplest form, ERMM consists of a two-level eigenproblem: an outer Picard iteration updates the k-eigenvalue via balance, while the inner λ-eigenproblem imposes neutron balance between nodes. Efficient methods are developed for solving the inner λ-eigenvalue problem within the outer Picard iteration. Based on results from several diffusion and transport benchmark models, it was found that the Krylov–Schur method applied to the λ-eigenvalue problem reduces Picard solver times (excluding response generation) by a factor of 2–5. Furthermore, alternative methods, including Picard acceleration schemes, Steffensen’s method, and Newton’s method, are developed in this paper. These approaches often yield faster k-convergence and a need for fewer k-dependent response function evaluations, which is important because response generation is often the primary cost for problems using responses computed online (i.e., not from a precomputed database). Accelerated Picard iteration was found to reduce total computational times by 2–3 compared to the unaccelerated case for problems dominated by response generation. In addition, Newton’s method was found to provide nearly the same performance with improved robustness

  13. Modeling Nonlinear Site Response Uncertainty in Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimaki, D.; Li, W.; Steidl, J. M.; Schmedes, J.

    2007-12-01

    The assessment of strong motion site response is of great significance, both for mitigating seismic hazard and for performing detailed analyses of earthquake source characteristics. There currently exists, however, large degree of uncertainty concerning the mathematical model to be employed for the computationally efficient evaluation of local site effects, and the site investigation program necessary to evaluate the nonlinear input model parameters and ensure cost-effective predictions; and while site response observations may provide critical constraints on interpretation methods, the lack of a statistically significant number of in-situ strong motion records prohibits statistical analyses to be conducted and uncertainties to be quantified based entirely on field data. In this paper, we combine downhole observations and broadband ground motion synthetics for characteristic site conditions the Los Angeles Basin, and investigate the variability in ground motion estimation introduced by the site response assessment methodology. In particular, site-specific regional velocity and attenuation structures are initially compiled using near-surface geotechnical data collected at downhole geotechnical arrays, inverse low-strain velocity and attenuation profiles at these sites obtained by inversion of weak motion records and the crustal velocity structure at the corresponding locations obtained from the Southern California Earthquake Centre Community Velocity Model. Successively, broadband ground motions are simulated by means of a hybrid low/high-frequency finite source model with correlated random parameters for rupture scenaria of weak, medium and large magnitude events (M =3.5-7.5). Observed estimates of site response at the stations of interest are first compared to the ensemble of approximate and incremental nonlinear site response models. Parametric studies are next conducted for each fixed magnitude (fault geometry) scenario by varying the source-to-site distance and

  14. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  15. Nonlinear response of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature and water vapor to ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Garfinkel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry–Climate Model are analyzed in order to aid in the interpretation of observed interannual and sub-decadal variability in the tropical lower stratosphere over the past 35 years. The impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on temperature and water vapor in this region is nonlinear in boreal spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events lead to warming, even as the response of the large-scale Brewer–Dobson circulation appears to scale nearly linearly with El Niño. This nonlinearity is shown to arise from the response in the Indo-West Pacific to El Niño: strong El Niño events lead to tropospheric warming extending into the tropical tropopause layer and up to the cold point in this region, where it allows for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. The net effect is that both strong La Niña and strong El Niño events lead to enhanced entry water vapor and stratospheric moistening in boreal spring and early summer. These results lead to the following interpretation of the contribution of sea surface temperatures to the decline in water vapor in the early 2000s: the very strong El Niño event in 1997/1998, followed by more than 2 consecutive years of La Niña, led to enhanced lower-stratospheric water vapor. As this period ended in early 2001, entry water vapor concentrations declined. This effect accounts for approximately one-quarter of the observed drop.

  16. Nonlinear response of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature and water vapor to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Gordon, Amit; Oman, Luke D.; Li, Feng; Davis, Sean; Pawson, Steven

    2018-04-01

    A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model are analyzed in order to aid in the interpretation of observed interannual and sub-decadal variability in the tropical lower stratosphere over the past 35 years. The impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on temperature and water vapor in this region is nonlinear in boreal spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events lead to warming, even as the response of the large-scale Brewer-Dobson circulation appears to scale nearly linearly with El Niño. This nonlinearity is shown to arise from the response in the Indo-West Pacific to El Niño: strong El Niño events lead to tropospheric warming extending into the tropical tropopause layer and up to the cold point in this region, where it allows for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. The net effect is that both strong La Niña and strong El Niño events lead to enhanced entry water vapor and stratospheric moistening in boreal spring and early summer. These results lead to the following interpretation of the contribution of sea surface temperatures to the decline in water vapor in the early 2000s: the very strong El Niño event in 1997/1998, followed by more than 2 consecutive years of La Niña, led to enhanced lower-stratospheric water vapor. As this period ended in early 2001, entry water vapor concentrations declined. This effect accounts for approximately one-quarter of the observed drop.

  17. Effect of initial strain and material nonlinearity on the nonlinear static and dynamic response of graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Patel, B. P.

    2018-06-01

    Computationally efficient multiscale modelling based on Cauchy-Born rule in conjunction with finite element method is employed to study static and dynamic characteristics of graphene sheets, with/without considering initial strain, involving Green-Lagrange geometric and material nonlinearities. The strain energy density function at continuum level is established by coupling the deformation at continuum level to that at atomic level through Cauchy-Born rule. The atomic interactions between carbon atoms are modelled through Tersoff-Brenner potential. The governing equation of motion obtained using Hamilton's principle is solved through standard Newton-Raphson method for nonlinear static response and Newmark's time integration technique to obtain nonlinear transient response characteristics. Effect of initial strain on the linear free vibration frequencies, nonlinear static and dynamic response characteristics is investigated in detail. The present multiscale modelling based results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained through molecular mechanics simulation. Two different types of boundary constraints generally used in MM simulation are explored in detail and few interesting findings are brought out. The effect of initial strain is found to be greater in linear response when compared to that in nonlinear response.

  18. Nonlinear optical response of some Graphene oxide and Graphene fluoride derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liaros Nikolaos; Orfanos Ioannis; Papadakis Ioannis; Couris Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of two graphene derivatives, graphene oxide and graphene fluoride, are investigated by means of the Z-scan technique employing 35 ps and 4 ns, visible (532 nm) laser excitation. Both derivatives were found to exhibit significant third-order nonlinear optical response at both excitation regimes, with the nonlinear absorption being relatively stronger and concealing the presence of nonlinear refraction under ns excitation, while ps excita...

  19. Superradiance Effects in the Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the linear optical response from a single quantum dot molecule and the nonlinear, four-wave-mixing response from an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of such molecules. We show that both optical signals are affected by the coupling-dependent superradiance effect and by optical interference between the two polarizations. As a result, the linear and nonlinear responses are not identical.

  20. Nonlinear response time-dependent density functional theory combined with the effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahariev, Federico; Gordon, Mark S., E-mail: mark@si.msg.chem.iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    This work presents an extension of the linear response TDDFT/EFP method to the nonlinear-response regime together with the implementation of nonlinear-response TDDFT/EFP in the quantum-chemistry computer package GAMESS. Included in the new method is the ability to calculate the two-photon absorption cross section and to incorporate solvent effects via the EFP method. The nonlinear-response TDDFT/EFP method is able to make correct qualitative predictions for both gas phase values and aqueous solvent shifts of several important nonlinear properties.

  1. Nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions under oscillatory shear: mode-coupling theory and Fourier transform rheology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, J M; Siebenbürger, M; Ballauff, M; Reinheimer, K; Wilhelm, M; Frey, S J; Weysser, F; Fuchs, M

    2010-12-01

    Using a combination of theory, experiment, and simulation we investigate the nonlinear response of dense colloidal suspensions to large amplitude oscillatory shear flow. The time-dependent stress response is calculated using a recently developed schematic mode-coupling-type theory describing colloidal suspensions under externally applied flow. For finite strain amplitudes the theory generates a nonlinear response, characterized by significant higher harmonic contributions. An important feature of the theory is the prediction of an ideal glass transition at sufficiently strong coupling, which is accompanied by the discontinuous appearance of a dynamic yield stress. For the oscillatory shear flow under consideration we find that the yield stress plays an important role in determining the nonlinearity of the time-dependent stress response. Our theoretical findings are strongly supported by both large amplitude oscillatory experiments (with Fourier transform rheology analysis) on suspensions of thermosensitive core-shell particles dispersed in water and Brownian dynamics simulations performed on a two-dimensional binary hard-disk mixture. In particular, theory predicts nontrivial values of the exponents governing the final decay of the storage and loss moduli as a function of strain amplitude which are in good agreement with both simulation and experiment. A consistent set of parameters in the presented schematic model achieves to jointly describe linear moduli, nonlinear flow curves, and large amplitude oscillatory spectroscopy.

  2. Transient response of nonlinear polymer networks: A kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic networks are found in a majority of natural materials, but also in engineering materials, such as entangled polymers and physically cross-linked gels. Owing to their transient bond dynamics, these networks display a rich class of behaviors, from elasticity, rheology, self-healing, or growth. Although classical theories in rheology and mechanics have enabled us to characterize these materials, there is still a gap in our understanding on how individuals (i.e., the mechanics of each building blocks and its connection with others) affect the emerging response of the network. In this work, we introduce an alternative way to think about these networks from a statistical point of view. More specifically, a network is seen as a collection of individual polymer chains connected by weak bonds that can associate and dissociate over time. From the knowledge of these individual chains (elasticity, transient attachment, and detachment events), we construct a statistical description of the population and derive an evolution equation of their distribution based on applied deformation and their local interactions. We specifically concentrate on nonlinear elastic response that follows from the strain stiffening response of individual chains of finite size. Upon appropriate averaging operations and using a mean field approximation, we show that the distribution can be replaced by a so-called chain distribution tensor that is used to determine important macroscopic measures such as stress, energy storage and dissipation in the network. Prediction of the kinetic theory are then explored against known experimental measurement of polymer responses under uniaxial loading. It is found that even under the simplest assumptions of force-independent chain kinetics, the model is able to reproduce complex time-dependent behaviors of rubber and self-healing supramolecular polymers.

  3. A simple non-linear model of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnikov, Sergei; Melnikov, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    It is still unknown why the adaptive immune response in the natural immune system based on clonal proliferation of lymphocytes requires interaction of at least two different cell types with the same antigen. We present a simple mathematical model illustrating that the system with separate types of cells for antigen recognition and patogen destruction provides more robust adaptive immunity than the system where just one cell type is responsible for both recognition and destruction. The model is over-simplified as we did not have an intention of describing the natural immune system. However, our model provides a tool for testing the proposed approach through qualitative analysis of the immune system dynamics in order to construct more sophisticated models of the immune systems that exist in the living nature. It also opens a possibility to explore specific features of highly non-linear dynamics in nature-inspired computational paradigms like artificial immune systems and immunocomputing . We expect this paper to be of interest not only for mathematicians but also for biologists; therefore we made effort to explain mathematics in sufficient detail for readers without professional mathematical background

  4. Simulations of the Ocean Response to a Hurricane: Nonlinear Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2009-10-01

    Superinertial internal waves generated by a tropical cyclone can propagate vertically and laterally away from their local generation site and break, contributing to turbulent vertical mixing in the deep ocean and maintenance of the stratification of the main thermocline. In this paper, the results of a modeling study are reported to investigate the mechanism by which superinertial fluctuations are generated in the deep ocean. The general properties of the superinertial wave wake were also characterized as a function of storm speed and central latitude. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) was used to simulate the open ocean response to realistic westward-tracking hurricane-type surface wind stress and heat and net freshwater buoyancy forcing for regions representative of midlatitudes in the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and low latitudes in the eastern Pacific. The model had high horizontal [Δ(x, y) = 1/6°] and vertical (Δz = 5 m in top 100 m) resolution and employed a parameterization for vertical mixing induced by shear instability. In the horizontal momentum equation, the relative size of the nonlinear advection terms, which had a dominant frequency near twice the inertial, was large only in the upper 200 m of water. Below 200 m, the linear momentum equations obeyed a linear balance to 2%. Fluctuations at nearly twice the inertial frequency (2f) were prevalent throughout the depth of the water column, indicating that these nonlinear advection terms in the upper 200 m forced a linear mode below at nearly twice the inertial frequency via vorticity conservation. Maximum variance at 2f in horizontal velocity occurred on the south side of the track. This was in response to vertical advection of northward momentum, which in the north momentum equation is an oscillatory positive definite term that constituted a net force to the south at a frequency near 2f. The ratio of this term to the Coriolis force was larger on the

  5. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1987-01-01

    In the earthquake response analysis for a rigid and massive structure as a nuclear reactor building, it is important to estimate the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) appropriately. In case of strong earthquakes, the nonlinearity, such as the wall-ground separation, the base mat uplift of sliding, makes the behavior of the soil-structure system complex. But, if the nuclear reactor building is embedded in a relatively soft ground with surface layer, the wall-ground separation plays the most important role in the response of soil-structure system. Because, it is expected that the base uplift and slide would be less significant due to the effect of the embedment, and the wall-ground friction is usually neglected in design. But, the nonlinearity of ground may have some effect on the wall-ground separation and the response of the structure. These problems have been studied by use of FEM. Others used joint elements between the ground and the structure which does not resist tensile force. Others studied the effect of wall-ground separation with non-tension springs. But the relationship between the ground condition and the effect of the separation has not been clarified yet. To clarify the effect the analyses by FE model and lumped mass model (sway-rocking model) are performed and compared. The key parameter is the ground profile, namely the stiffness of the side soil

  6. Investigation of Nonlinear Site Response and Seismic Compression from Case History Analysis and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eric

    ). Aside from the expected strong influence of RC, increasing fines content is found to generally decrease volume change for fines fractions consisting of silts and clayey silts with moderate to low plasticity. With truly non-plastic fines (rock flour), cyclic volume change increases with FC. Some materials also exhibit an effect of as-compacted saturation in which moderate saturation levels associated with high matric suction cause volume change to decrease. A preliminary empirical model to capture these effects is presented. The balance of the dissertation is related to a case history of strongly nonlinear site response and seismic compression associated with a free-field downhole array installed near the Service Hall at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, which recorded strong ground motions from the Mw 6.6 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake. Site conditions at the array consist of about 70 m of medium-dense sands overlying clayey bedrock, with ground water located at 45 m. Ground shaking at the bedrock level had geometric mean peak accelerations of 0.55 g which is reduced to 0.4 g at the ground surface, indicating nonlinear site response. Ground settlements of approximately 15+/-5 cm occurred at the site. A site investigation was performed to develop relevant soil properties for ground response and seismic compression analysis, including shear wave velocities, shear strength, relative density, and modulus reduction and damping curves. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. A strongly coupled open system with a non-linear bath: fluctuation-dissipation and Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chitrak

    2018-03-01

    The study of Langevin dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) for a generic probe system (represented by a mass M ), bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, has been a standard paradigm for the microscopic theory of stochastic processes for several decades. The question that we probe in this paper is, how robust the structure of the classical FDR is, when one replaces the harmonic bath by an anharmonic one in the limit of strong system-bath coupling? Such a picture carries the signature of the probe system in the zeroth order through a nonlocal time kernel. We observe that the two-time noise correlations hold a rich structure from which the usual FDR emerges only in the leading order of perturbation. Beyond this order, multiple time scales and nontrivial dependence on the temperature starts to manifest. These new aspects conspire to break the time-translational invariance of the noise-correlations. Several other interesting features show up and we discuss them methodically through rigorous calculations order-by-order in perturbation. This formalistic derivation along with a specific example of non-linearity can be easily applied to a huge range of processes and statistical observables that fall under the purview of a system-reservoir theory.

  8. A fast linearized conservative finite element method for the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gu, Xian-Ming; Huang, Chengming; Fei, Mingfa; Zhang, Guoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a fast linearized conservative finite element method is studied for solving the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations. We prove that the scheme preserves both the mass and energy, which are defined by virtue of some recursion relationships. Using the Sobolev inequalities and then employing the mathematical induction, the discrete scheme is proved to be unconditionally convergent in the sense of L2-norm and H α / 2-norm, which means that there are no any constraints on the grid ratios. Then, the prior bound of the discrete solution in L2-norm and L∞-norm are also obtained. Moreover, we propose an iterative algorithm, by which the coefficient matrix is independent of the time level, and thus it leads to Toeplitz-like linear systems that can be efficiently solved by Krylov subspace solvers with circulant preconditioners. This method can reduce the memory requirement of the proposed linearized finite element scheme from O (M2) to O (M) and the computational complexity from O (M3) to O (Mlog ⁡ M) in each iterative step, where M is the number of grid nodes. Finally, numerical results are carried out to verify the correction of the theoretical analysis, simulate the collision of two solitary waves, and show the utility of the fast numerical solution techniques.

  9. Extension of a nonlinear systems theory to general-frequency unsteady transonic aerodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for modeling nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses, for subsequent use in aeroservoelastic analysis and design, using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems is presented. The methodology is extended to predict nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses of arbitrary frequency. The Volterra-Wiener theory uses multidimensional convolution integrals to predict the response of nonlinear systems to arbitrary inputs. The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code is used to generate linear and nonlinear unit impulse responses that correspond to each of the integrals for a rectangular wing with a NACA 0012 section with pitch and plunge degrees of freedom. The computed kernels then are used to predict linear and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses via convolution and compared to responses obtained using the CAP-TSD code directly. The results indicate that the approach can be used to predict linear unsteady aerodynamic responses exactly for any input amplitude or frequency at a significant cost savings. Convolution of the nonlinear terms results in nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic responses that compare reasonably well with those computed using the CAP-TSD code directly but at significant computational cost savings.

  10. Imitative and best response behaviors in a nonlinear Cournotian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo; Naimzada, Ahmad K.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the competition among quantity setting players in a deterministic nonlinear oligopoly framework characterized by an isoelastic demand curve. Players are characterized by having heterogeneous decisional mechanisms to set their outputs: some players are imitators, while the remaining others adopt a rational-like rule according to which their past decisions are adjusted towards their static expectation best response. The Cournot-Nash production level is a stationary state of our model together with a further production level that can be interpreted as the competitive outcome in case only imitators are present. We found that both the number of players and the relative fraction of imitators influence stability of the Cournot-Nash equilibrium with an ambiguous role, and double instability thresholds may be observed. Global analysis shows that a wide variety of complex dynamic scenarios emerge. Chaotic trajectories as well as multi-stabilities, where different attractors coexist, are robust phenomena that can be observed for a wide spectrum of parameter sets.

  11. Mean-state SST Response to global warming caused by the ENSO Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, T.; Hartmann, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of the models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) exhibit El Niño-like trends under global warming. GFDL-ESM2M, however, is an exception that exhibits a La Niña-like response with strengthened trade winds. Our previous studies have shown that this La Niña-like trend could be a physically consistent warming response, and we proposed the Nonlinear ENSO Warming Suppression (NEWS) mechanism to explain this La Niña-like response to global warming. The most important necessary condition of NEWS is the ENSO skewness (El Niños are stronger than La Niñas). Most CMIP5 models do not reproduce the observed ENSO skewness, while GFDL-ESM2M exhibits the realistic ENSO skewness, which suggests that, despite being in the minority, the La Niña-like trend of GFDL-ESM2M could be a plausible equatorial Pacific response to warming. In this study, we introduce another interesting outlier, MIROC5, which reproduces the observed skewness, yet exhibits an El Niño-like response. By decomposing the source of the ENSO nonlinearity into the following three components: "SST anomalies modulate winds", "winds excite oceanic waves", and "oceanic waves modulate the subsurface temperature", we show that the large inter-model spread of the third component appears to explain the most important cause of the poor reproducibility of the ENSO nonlinearity in CMIP5 models. It is concluded that the change in the response of subsurface temperature to oceanic waves is the primary explanation for the different warming response of GFDL-ESM2M and MIROC5. Our analyses suggest that the difference of the warming response are caused by difference in the climatological thermal stratification. This study may shed new light on the fundamental question of why observed ENSO has a strong skewness and on the implications of this skewed ENSO for the mean-state sea surface temperature response to global warming.

  12. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Nonlinear optical response and its theoretical modelling of Sb2S3 nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Barik, A. R.; Das, Amlan; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-05-01

    Light-matter interaction in nanoscale regime have unprecedented and accelerating demand in optoelectronics, valley electronics and device applications. Such interaction in 1-dimention (1D) metal chalcogenides has emerged as an important research topic because of its possibility to custom design optical properties, implying enormous application including optical computers, communications, bioimaging, and so on. However, understanding of nonlinear optical response of these nanostructures is still lacking, although it constitutes an interesting problem on the light-matter interaction. Here, we have presented the nonlinear optical response in Sb2S3 nanorod using Z-scan technique. Our experimental findings show a strong saturable absorption (SA). In this context, we have numerically simulated the experimental result using two level rate equation. The solutions of these two-level rate equation for a Gaussian shaped pulse exactly replicated the experimental data. From the best numerical fit, we found excited state decay time (τ ≈ 0.15ns) and saturation intensity (IS ≈ 0.01 GW/cm2). Additionally, we have calculated number of career density (N ≈ 5.31 × 10-17 cm-3), ground state absorption cross section (σ1 ≈ 1.63 × 10-17 cm2). Our experimental finding indicates that they can be employed as saturable absorbers.

  14. Unbalance Response Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Speed and Load Dependent Nonlinear Bearing Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2003-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic analysis requires that bearing forces corresponding to the actual bearing deflection be utilized. For this work bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS, a recently developed rolling-element bearing analysis code. Bearing stiffness was found to be a strong function of bearing deflection, with higher deflection producing markedly higher stiffness. Curves fitted to the bearing data for a range of speeds and loads were supplied to a flexible rotor unbalance response analysis. The rotordynamic analysis showed that vibration response varied nonlinearly with the amount of rotor imbalance. Moreover, the increase in stiffness as critical speeds were approached caused a large increase in rotor and bearing vibration amplitude over part of the speed range compared to the case of constant bearing stiffness. Regions of bistable operation were possible, in which the amplitude at a given speed was much larger during rotor acceleration than during deceleration. A moderate amount of damping will eliminate the bistable region, but this damping is not inherent in ball bearings.

  15. Interpreting the nonlinear dielectric response of glass-formers in terms of the coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements at high electric fields of glass-forming glycerol and propylene carbonate initially were carried out to elucidate the dynamic heterogeneous nature of the structural α-relaxation. Recently, the measurements were extended to sufficiently high frequencies to investigate the nonlinear dielectric response of faster processes including the so-called excess wing (EW), appearing as a second power law at high frequencies in the loss spectra of many glass formers without a resolved secondary relaxation. While a strong increase of dielectric constant and loss is found in the nonlinear dielectric response of the α-relaxation, there is a lack of significant change in the EW. A surprise to the experimentalists finding it, this difference in the nonlinear dielectric properties between the EW and the α-relaxation is explained in the framework of the coupling model by identifying the EW investigated with the nearly constant loss (NCL) of caged molecules, originating from the anharmonicity of the intermolecular potential. The NCL is terminated at longer times (lower frequencies) by the onset of the primitive relaxation, which is followed sequentially by relaxation processes involving increasing number of molecules until the terminal Kohlrausch α-relaxation is reached. These intermediate faster relaxations, combined to form the so-called Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, are spatially and dynamically heterogeneous, and hence exhibit nonlinear dielectric effects, as found in glycerol and propylene carbonate, where the JG β-relaxation is not resolved and in D-sorbitol where it is resolved. Like the linear susceptibility, χ 1 (f), the frequency dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility, χ 3 (f), was found to depend primarily on the α-relaxation time, and independent of temperature T and pressure P. I show this property of the frequency dispersions of χ 1 (f) and χ 3 (f) is the characteristic of the many-body relaxation

  16. Predominant nonlinear atmospheric response to meridional shift of the Gulf Stream path from the WRF atmospheric model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Kwon, Y. O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    A remarkably strong nonlinear behavior of the atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST anomalies (SSTA) is revealed from a set of large-ensemble, high-resolution, and hemispheric-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. The model is forced with the SSTA associated with meridional shift of the Gulf Stream (GS) path, constructed from a lag regression of the winter SST on a GS Index from observation. Analysis of the systematic set of experiments with SSTAs of varied amplitudes and switched signs representing various GS-shift scenarios provides unique insights into mechanism for emergence and evolution of transient and equilibrium response of atmospheric circulation to extratropical SSTA. Results show that, independent of sign of the SSTA, the equilibrium response is characterized by an anomalous trough over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Western Europe concurrent with enhanced storm track, increased rainfall, and reduced blocking days. To the north of the anomalous low, an anomalous ridge emerges over the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas accompanied by weakened storm track, reduced rainfall and increased blocking days. This nonlinear component of the total response dominates the weak and oppositely signed linear response that is directly forced by the SSTA, yielding an anomalous ridge (trough) downstream of the warm (cold) SSTA. The amplitude of the linear response is proportional to that of the SSTA, but this is masked by the overwhelmingly strong nonlinear behavior showing no clear correspondence to the SSTA amplitude. The nonlinear pattern emerges 3-4 weeks after the model initialization in November and reaches its first peak amplitude in December/January. It appears that altered baroclinic wave activity due to the GS SSTA in November lead to low-frequency height responses in December/January through transient eddy vorticity flux convergence.

  17. Nonlinear Response of the Stratosphere and the North Atlantic-European Climate to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, E.; Karpechko, A. Yu.; Kornblueh, L.

    2018-05-01

    The response of the northern winter atmospheric circulation for two consecutive global warming periods of 2 K is examined in a grand ensemble (68 members) of idealized CO2 increase experiments performed with the same climate model. The comparison of the atmospheric responses for the two periods shows remarkable differences, indicating the nonlinearity of the response. The nonlinear signature of the atmospheric and surface responses is reminiscent of the positive phase of the annular mode of variability. The stratospheric vortex response shifts from an easterly wind change for the first 2 K to a westerly wind change for the second 2 K. The North Atlantic storm track shifts poleward only in the second period. A weaker November Arctic amplification during the second period suggests that differences in Arctic sea ice changes can act to trigger the atmospheric nonlinear response. Stratosphere-troposphere coupling thereafter can provide for the persistence of this nonlinearity throughout the winter.

  18. The reliability of nonlinear least-squares algorithm for data analysis of neural response activity during sinusoidal rotational stimulation in semicircular canal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pengyu; Li, Bowen; Dong, Shiyao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-01-01

    Although many mathematical methods were used to analyze the neural activity under sinusoidal stimulation within linear response range in vestibular system, the reliabilities of these methods are still not reported, especially in nonlinear response range. Here we chose nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA) with sinusoidal model to analyze the neural response of semicircular canal neurons (SCNs) during sinusoidal rotational stimulation (SRS) over a nonlinear response range. Our aim was to acquire a reliable mathematical method for data analysis under SRS in vestibular system. Our data indicated that the reliability of this method in an entire SCNs population was quite satisfactory. However, the reliability was strongly negatively depended on the neural discharge regularity. In addition, stimulation parameters were the vital impact factors influencing the reliability. The frequency had a significant negative effect but the amplitude had a conspicuous positive effect on the reliability. Thus, NLSA with sinusoidal model resulted a reliable mathematical tool for data analysis of neural response activity under SRS in vestibular system and more suitable for those under the stimulation with low frequency but high amplitude, suggesting that this method can be used in nonlinear response range. This method broke out of the restriction of neural activity analysis under nonlinear response range and provided a solid foundation for future study in nonlinear response range in vestibular system.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic response of electro-thermo-mechanically loaded piezoelectric cylindrical shell reinforced with BNNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J H; Yang, J; Kitipornchai, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric cylindrical shells reinforced with boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) under a combined axisymmetric electro-thermo-mechanical loading. By employing the classical Donnell shell theory, the von Kármán–Donnell kinematic relationship, and a piezo-elastic constitutive law including thermal effects, the nonlinear governing equations of motion of the shell are derived through the Reissner variational principle. The finite difference method and a time-integration scheme are used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic response of the BNNT-reinforced piezoelectric shell. A parametric study is conducted, showing the effects of geometrically nonlinear deformation, applied voltage, temperature change, mechanical load, BNNT volume fraction and boundary conditions on the nonlinear dynamic response. (paper)

  20. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures.

  1. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures

  2. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from diff...

  3. Modeling of nonlinear responses for reciprocal transducers involving polarization switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Linxiang

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinearities and hysteresis effects in a reciprocal PZT transducer are examined by use of a dynamical mathematical model on the basis of phase-transition theory. In particular, we consider the perovskite piezoelectric ceramic in which the polarization process in the material can be modeled...... by Landau theory for the first-order phase transformation, in which each polarization state is associated with a minimum of the Landau free-energy function. Nonlinear constitutive laws are obtained by using thermodynamical equilibrium conditions, and hysteretic behavior of the material can be modeled...... intrinsically. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory is used in the parameter identification involving hysteresis effects. We use the Chebyshev collocation method in the numerical simulations. The elastic field is assumed to be coupled linearly with other fields, and the nonlinearity is in the E-D coupling...

  4. Mode coupling in the nonlinear response of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlochower, Yosef; Gomez, Roberto; Husa, Sascha; Lehner, Luis; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We study the properties of the outgoing gravitational wave produced when a nonspinning black hole is excited by an ingoing gravitational wave. Simulations using a numerical code for solving Einstein's equations allow the study to be extended from the linearized approximation, where the system is treated as a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole, to the fully nonlinear regime. Several nonlinear features are found which bear importance to the data analysis of gravitational waves. When compared to the results obtained in the linearized approximation, we observe large phase shifts, a stronger than linear generation of gravitational wave output and considerable generation of radiation in polarization states which are not found in the linearized approximation. In terms of a spherical harmonic decomposition, the nonlinear properties of the harmonic amplitudes have simple scaling properties which offer an economical way to catalog the details of the waves produced in such black hole processes

  5. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  6. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified media with nonlinearity in both dielectric and magnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H

    2008-01-21

    We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.

  7. Ultra-fast dynamics in the nonlinear optical response of silver nanoprism ordered arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Esquivel, Héctor; Raygoza-Sanchez, Karen Y; Rangel-Rojo, Raúl; Kalinic, Boris; Michieli, Niccolò; Cesca, Tiziana; Mattei, Giovanni

    2018-03-15

    In this work we present the study of the ultra-fast dynamics of the nonlinear optical response of a honeycomb array of silver triangular nanoprisms, performed using a femtosecond pulsed laser tuned with the dipolar surface plasmon resonance of the nanoarray. Nonlinear absorption and refraction, and their time-dependence, were explored using the z-scan and time-resolved excite-probe techniques. Nonlinear absorption is shown to change sign with the input irradiance and the behavior was explained on the basis of a three-level model. The response time was determined to be in the picosecond regime. A technique based on a variable frequency chopper was also used in order to discriminate the thermal and electronic contributions to the nonlinearity, which were found to have opposite signs. All these findings propel the investigated nanoprism arrays as good candidates for applications in advanced ultra-fast nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  8. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  9. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer

  10. Effective response of nonlinear cylindrical coated composites under external AC and DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Yan, Shen; Xiao-Gang, Chen; Wei, Cui; Yan-Hua, Hao; Qian-Qian, Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses the perturbation method to study effective response of nonlinear cylindrical coated composites. Under the external AC and DC electric field E a (1 + sin ωt), the local potentials of composites at all harmonic frequencies are induced. An effective nonlinear response to composite is given for the cylindrical coated inclusions in the dilute limit. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Experiments in nonlinear dynamics using control-based continuation: Tracking stable and unstable response curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator.......We show how to implement control-based continuation in a nonlinear experiment using existing and freely available software. We demonstrate that it is possible to track the complete frequency response, including the unstable branches, for a harmonically forced impact oscillator....

  12. Tracing the transition of a macro electron shuttle into nonlinear response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chulki [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136791 (Korea, Republic of); Prada, Marta [I. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 9, Hamburg 20355 (Germany); Qin, Hua [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Industrial Park, Suzhou City, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Kim, Hyun-Seok [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Blick, Robert H., E-mail: rblick@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin-53706 (United States); Center for Hybrid Nanostructures, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11c, Hamburg 20355 (Germany); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Dr. Madison, Wisconsin-53706 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We present a study on a macroscopic electron shuttle in the transition from linear to nonlinear response. The shuttle consists of a classical mechanical pendulum situated between two capacitor plates. The metallic pendulum enables mechanical transfer of electrons between the plates, hence allowing to directly trace electron shuttling in the time domain. By applying a high voltage to the plates, we drive the system into a controlled nonlinear response, where we observe period doubling.

  13. Artificial Neural Networks for Nonlinear Dynamic Response Simulation in Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how artificial neural networks can be trained to predict dynamic response of a simple nonlinear structure. Data generated using a nonlinear finite element model of a simplified wind turbine is used to train a one layer artificial neural network. When trained properly the network is ab...... to perform accurate response prediction much faster than the corresponding finite element model. Initial result indicate a reduction in cpu time by two orders of magnitude....

  14. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Karakassides, Michael A.; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Papagiannouli, Irene; Aloukos, Panagiotis; Couris, Stelios; Hola, Katerina; Zboril, Radek; Krysmann, Marta; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2013-09-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis and Implementation of Nonlinear Transducer Response over a Wider Response Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheroz Khan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s automation systems transducers are making core elements in the instruments and the circuits used for measurement, control and industrial applications. The task of a transducer is to reproduce a physical quantity as an electrical signal which with the help of conditioning circuits, is transformed into a form that suits a corresponding ADC requirement before a digital equivalent output of the required physical quantity is produced. In the most ideal cases a digital quantity is a true replica of the physical quantity when the transducer has got a linear response. However, in most of the cases the transducers characteristics are nonlinear, and hence at very points along the whole range of the transducer characteristics, the corresponding digital output is an exact replica of the concerned physical parameter. This work is about how a physical read more accurately in the case of nonlinear sensor characteristics, and then a microcontroller is programmed with the same technique while reading from an input over the entire range. The data of the microcontroller reading shows very closely matched with the actual sensors response. Further, the reading error is considerably reduced to within 10 % of the actual physical which shows the utility of the technique in very sensitive applications.

  17. The nonlinear response of the complex structural system in nuclear reactors using dynamic substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.C.; Xie, G.; Du, Q.H.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the existence of nonlinear characteristics in practical engineering structures, such as large steam turbine-foundation system and offshore platform, it is necessary to predict nonlinear dynamic responses for these very large and complex structural systems subjected extreme load. Due to the limited storage and high executing cost of computers, there are still some difficulties in the analysis for such systems although the traditional finite element methods provide basic available methods to the problems. The dynamic substructure methods, which were developed as a branch of general structural dynamics in the past more than 20 years and have been widely used from aircraft, space vehicles to other mechanical and civil engineering structures, present a powerful method to the analysis of very large structural systems. The key to success is due to the considerable reduction in the number of degrees of freedom while not changing the physical essence of the problems investigated. The dynamic substructure method has been extended to nonlinear system and applicated to the analysis of nonlinear dynamic response of an offshore platform by Z.C. Zheng, et al. (1983, 1985a, b, c). In this paper, the method is presented to analyze dynamic responses of the systems contained intrinsic nonlinearities and with nonlinear attachments and nonlinear supports of nuclear structural systems. The efficiency of the method becomes more clear for nonlinear dynamic problems due to the adoption of iterating processes. For simplicity, the analysis procedure is demonstrated briefly. The generalized substructure method of nonlinear systems is similar to linear systems, only the nonlinear terms are treated as pseudo-forces. Interface coordinates are classified into two categories, the connecting interface coordinates which connect with each other directly in the global system and the linking interface coordinates which link to each other through attachments. (orig./GL)

  18. Decentralized identification of nonlinear structure under strong ground motion using the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dongwang; Li, Hui; Ma, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Complete structure identification of complicate nonlinear system using extend Kalman filter (EKF) or unscented Kalman filter (UKF) may have the problems of divergence, huge computation and low estimation precision due to the large dimension of the extended state space for the system. In this article, a decentralized identification method of hysteretic system based on the joint EKF and UKF is proposed. The complete structure is divided into linear substructures and nonlinear substructures. The substructures are identified from the top to the bottom. For the linear substructure, EKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness and damping coefficients of the substructures, using the limited absolute accelerations and the identified interface force above the substructure. Similarly, for the nonlinear substructure, UKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness, damping coefficients and control parameters for the hysteretic Bouc-Wen model and the force at the interface of substructures. Finally a 10-story shear-type structure with multiple inter-story hysteresis is used for numerical simulation and is identified using the decentralized approach, and the identified results are compared with those using only EKF or UKF for the complete structure identification. The results show that the decentralized approach has the advantage of more stability, relative less computation and higher estimation precision.

  19. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  20. Interpreting the nonlinear dielectric response of glass-formers in terms of the coupling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngai, K. L. [CNR-IPCF, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-21

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements at high electric fields of glass-forming glycerol and propylene carbonate initially were carried out to elucidate the dynamic heterogeneous nature of the structural α-relaxation. Recently, the measurements were extended to sufficiently high frequencies to investigate the nonlinear dielectric response of faster processes including the so-called excess wing (EW), appearing as a second power law at high frequencies in the loss spectra of many glass formers without a resolved secondary relaxation. While a strong increase of dielectric constant and loss is found in the nonlinear dielectric response of the α-relaxation, there is a lack of significant change in the EW. A surprise to the experimentalists finding it, this difference in the nonlinear dielectric properties between the EW and the α-relaxation is explained in the framework of the coupling model by identifying the EW investigated with the nearly constant loss (NCL) of caged molecules, originating from the anharmonicity of the intermolecular potential. The NCL is terminated at longer times (lower frequencies) by the onset of the primitive relaxation, which is followed sequentially by relaxation processes involving increasing number of molecules until the terminal Kohlrausch α-relaxation is reached. These intermediate faster relaxations, combined to form the so-called Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, are spatially and dynamically heterogeneous, and hence exhibit nonlinear dielectric effects, as found in glycerol and propylene carbonate, where the JG β-relaxation is not resolved and in D-sorbitol where it is resolved. Like the linear susceptibility, χ{sub 1}(f), the frequency dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility, χ{sub 3}(f), was found to depend primarily on the α-relaxation time, and independent of temperature T and pressure P. I show this property of the frequency dispersions of χ{sub 1}(f) and χ{sub 3}(f) is the characteristic of the many

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in ecosystem response to climatic change: Case studies and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Stottlemyer, Robert; Barrow, Wylie; Fagre, Dan; Baron, Jill S.; Price, Jeff; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Allen, Craig D.; Peterson, David L.; Ruggerone, Greg; Doyle, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many biological, hydrological, and geological processes are interactively linked in ecosystems. These ecological phenomena normally vary within bounded ranges, but rapid, nonlinear changes to markedly different conditions can be triggered by even small differences if threshold values are exceeded. Intrinsic and extrinsic ecological thresholds can lead to effects that cascade among systems, precluding accurate modeling and prediction of system response to climate change. Ten case studies from North America illustrate how changes in climate can lead to rapid, threshold-type responses within ecological communities; the case studies also highlight the role of human activities that alter the rate or direction of system response to climate change. Understanding and anticipating nonlinear dynamics are important aspects of adaptation planning since responses of biological resources to changes in the physical climate system are not necessarily proportional and sometimes, as in the case of complex ecological systems, inherently nonlinear.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime

  4. Nonlinear laser pulse response in a crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R P; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Kishor; Strickland, D

    2016-04-01

    The propagation characteristics of a spatial Gaussian laser pulse have been studied inside a gradient-index structured crystalline lens with constant-density plasma generated by the laser-tissue interaction. The propagation of the laser pulse is affected by the nonlinearities introduced by the generated plasma inside the crystalline lens. Owing to the movement of plasma species from a higher- to a lower-temperature region, an increase in the refractive index occurs that causes the focusing of the laser pulse. In this study, extended paraxial approximation has been applied to take into account the evolution of the radial profile of the Gaussian laser pulse. To examine the propagation characteristics, variation of the beam width parameter has been observed as a function of the laser power and initial beam radius. The cavitation bubble formation, which plays an important role in the restoration of the elasticity of the crystalline lens, has been investigated.

  5. Nonlinear ecosystem services response to groundwater availability under climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater has been accelerating at regional to global scales. Besides serving domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, in situ groundwater is also a key control on biological, physical and chemical processes across the critical zone, all of which underpin supply of ecosystem services essential for humanity. While there is a rich history of research on groundwater effects on subsurface and surface processes, understanding interactions, nonlinearity and feedbacks between groundwater and ecosystem services remain limited, and almost absent in the ecosystem service literature. Moreover, how climate extremes may alter groundwater effects on services is underexplored. In this research, we used a process-based ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) to quantify groundwater effects on eight ecosystem services related to food, water and biogeochemical processes in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. We asked: (1) Which ecosystem services are more susceptible to shallow groundwater influences? (2) Do effects of groundwater on ecosystem services vary under contrasting climate conditions (i.e., dry, wet and average)? (3) Where on the landscape are groundwater effects on ecosystem services most pronounced? (4) How do groundwater effects depend on water table depth? Overall, groundwater significantly impacted all services studied, with the largest effects on food production, water quality and quantity, and flood regulation services. Climate also mediated groundwater effects with the strongest effects occurring under dry climatic conditions. There was substantial spatial heterogeneity in groundwater effects across the landscape that is driven in part by spatial variations in water table depth. Most ecosystem services responded nonlinearly to groundwater availability, with most apparent groundwater effects occurring when the water table is shallower than a critical depth of 2.5-m. Our findings provide compelling evidence that groundwater plays a vital

  6. The non-linear response of the magnetosphere: 30 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.P.; Prichard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address the question of whether the response of the earth magnetosphere to the solar wind can be viewed as a nonlinear phenomena, rather than a linear response. The difficulty in answering this question is that the driving function, namely the solar wind, is very aperiodic, and it is difficult to argue that the system has time to go to any sort of a steady state in response to the driving force, prior to its making another random change. The application of nonlinear analysis methods in the face of this type of system is very limited. The authors pick a particular day, namely October 30, 1978, when the solar wind was very uniform for an extended period of time, and there is the possibility the system could converge to some type of strange attractor state within this period. They look at the auroral electrojet as a measure of the potential nonlinear response of the magnetosphere, and apply both nonlinear and linear analysis procedures to the data to try to determine if the data would support a nonlinear response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind driver, taken as the product of the solar wind speed v, and the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field B s

  7. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Honko, Anna N; Gire, Stephen K; Winnicki, Sarah M; Melé, Marta; Gerhardinger, Chiara; Lin, Aaron E; Rinn, John L; Sabeti, Pardis C; Hensley, Lisa E; Connor, John H

    2016-09-05

    Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58. Other highly upregulated genes included cytokines CXCL11, CCL7, IL2RA, IL2R1, IL15RA, and CSF2RB, which have not been previously reported to change during Ebola virus infection. Comparing this response in two different models of exposure (intramuscular and aerosol) revealed a similar signature of infection. The strong innate response in the aerosol model was seen not only in circulating cells, but also in primary and secondary target tissues. Conversely, the innate immune response of vaccinated macaques was almost non-existent. This suggests that the innate response is a major aspect of the cellular response to Ebola virus infection in multiple tissues. Ebola virus causes a severe infection in humans that is associated with high mortality. The host immune response to virus infection is thought to be an important aspect leading to severe pathology, but the components of this overactive response are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed how circulating immune cells respond to the virus and found that there is a strong innate response dependent on active virus replication. This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis.

  8. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Strong reflection of a series of pulses from a four-wave mirror with thermal nonlinearity under parametric feedback conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Kruzhilin, Yu I.; Krymskiĭ, M. I.; Oshkin, S. P.; Starkov, G. S.; Umnov, A. F.; Kharchenko, M. A.

    1989-04-01

    A four-wave mirror exhibiting a thermal nonlinearity was used in a study of the interaction of concurrent waves under parametric feedback conditions in the presence of a nonreciprocal element. Strong reflection of a series of pulses of ~ 300 ns duration from a neodymium glass laser was demonstrated: the maximum reflection coefficient was in excess of 30. An analysis was made of the quality of the radiation reflected from this four-mirror parametric feedback system. A considerable reduction was observed in the steady-state threshold for the operation of this mirror with a thermal nonlinearity when the angles of convergence of the interacting beams were small compared with the case of head-on collision of the waves.

  9. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal; Grant, Zachary; Higgs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search

  10. Insight into the effect of screw dislocations and oxygen vacancy defects on the optical nonlinear refraction response in chemically grown ZnO/Al2O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Saroj, Rajendra K.; Dar, Tanveer A.; Baraskar, Priyanka; Sen, Pratima; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2017-11-01

    We report the effect of screw dislocations and oxygen vacancy defects on the optical nonlinear refraction response of ZnO films grown on a sapphire substrate at various oxygen flow rates using the chemical vapor deposition technique. The nonlinear refraction response was investigated in the off-resonant regime using a CW He-Ne laser source to examine the role of the intermediate bandgap states. It has been observed that the structural defects strongly influence the optical nonlinearity in the off-resonant regime. Nonlinearity has been found to improve as the oxygen flow rate is lowered from 2 sccm to 0.3 sccm. From photoluminescence studies, we observe that the enhanced defect density of the electronic defect levels due to the increased concentration of structural defects (with the decrease in the oxygen flow rate) is responsible for this improved optical nonlinearity along with the thermal effect. This suggests that defect engineering is an effective way to tailor the nonlinearity of ZnO films and their utility for optoelectronic device applications.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of cortical responses to color in the human cVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Shapley, Robert M; Gordon, James

    2017-09-01

    The main finding of this paper is that the human visual cortex responds in a very nonlinear manner to the color contrast of pure color patterns. We examined human cortical responses to color checkerboard patterns at many color contrasts, measuring the chromatic visual evoked potential (cVEP) with a dense electrode array. Cortical topography of the cVEPs showed that they were localized near the posterior electrode at position Oz, indicating that the primary cortex (V1) was the major source of responses. The choice of fine spatial patterns as stimuli caused the cVEP response to be driven by double-opponent neurons in V1. The cVEP waveform revealed nonlinear color signal processing in the V1 cortex. The cVEP time-to-peak decreased and the waveform's shape was markedly narrower with increasing cone contrast. Comparison of the linear dynamics of retinal and lateral geniculate nucleus responses with the nonlinear dynamics of the cortical cVEP indicated that the nonlinear dynamics originated in the V1 cortex. The nature of the nonlinearity is a kind of automatic gain control that adjusts cortical dynamics to be faster when color contrast is greater.

  12. Effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on probabilistic response of a nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Alidad; Elkhoraibi, Tarek; Ostadan, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Probabilistic SSI analysis including structural nonlinearity and sliding are shown. • Analysis is done for a soil and a rock site and probabilistic demands are obtained. • Structural drift ratios and In-structure response spectra are evaluated. • Structural nonlinearity significantly impacts local demands in the structure. • Sliding generally reduces seismic demands and can be accommodated in design. - Abstract: This paper examines the effects of structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding on the results of probabilistic structural analysis of a typical nuclear structure where structural nonlinearity, foundation sliding and soil-structure interaction (SSI) are explicitly included. The evaluation is carried out for a soil and a rock site at 10"4, 10"5, and 10"6 year return periods (1E − 4, 1E − 5, and 1E − 6 hazard levels, respectively). The input motions at each considered hazard level are deaggregated into low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) motions and a sample size of 30 is used for uncertainty propagation. The statistical distribution of structural responses including story drifts, and in-structure response spectra (ISRS) as well as foundation sliding displacements are examined. The probabilistic implementation of explicit structural nonlinearity and foundation sliding in combination with the SSI effects are demonstrated using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of the structure with the foundation motions obtained from elastic SSI analyses, which are applied as input to fixed-base inelastic analyses. This approach quantifies the expected structural nonlinearity and sliding for the particular structural configuration and provides a robust analytical basis for the estimation of the probabilistic distribution of selected demands parameters both at the design level and beyond design level seismic input. For the subject structure, the inclusion of foundation sliding in the analysis is found to have reduced both

  13. Unusual nonlinear absorption response of graphene oxide in the presence of a reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimzadeh, Rouhollah; Arandian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear absorption responses of graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are investigated using the Z-scan technique and laser beams at 405, 532 and 635 nm in a continuous wave regime. Results show that graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide do not show any open Z-scan signals at wavelengths of 532 and 635 nm. At the same time, fresh graphene oxide suspension is found to exhibit a nonlinear absorption process in the case of a laser light at 405 nm. Moreover, it can be observed that the reduction of graphene oxide by 405 nm laser irradiation decreases its nonlinear absorption value significantly. These findings highlight the important role of the reduction process on the nonlinear absorption performance of graphene oxide. (letter)

  14. Order and chaos in the nonlinear response of driven nuclear spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, E; Derighetti, B; Holzner, R; Ravani, M [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on observations of ordered and chaotic behavior of a nonlinear system of strongly polarized nuclear spins inside the tuning coil of an NMR detector. The combined system: spins plus LC-circuit, may act as a nonlinear bistable absorber or a spin-flip laser, depending on the sign of the nuclear spin polarization. For the NMR laser experimental evidence is presented for limit-cycle behavior, sequences of bifurcations which lead to chaos, intermittency, multistability, and pronounced hysteresis effects. The experimental facts are compared with computer solutions of appropriate Bloch equations for the macroscopic order parameters.

  15. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County

  16. Response of base isolated structure during strong ground motions beyond design earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, some base isolated structures for fast breeder reactors (FBR) are tried to design. When a base isolated structure are designed, the relative displacement of isolators are generally limited so sa to be remain in linear state of those during design earthquakes. But to estimate safety margin of a base isolated structure, the response of that until the failure must be obtained experimentally to analytically during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquake. The aim of this paper is to investigate the response of a base isolated structure when the stiffness of the isolators hardens and to simulate the response during strong ground motions of beyond design earthquakes. The optimum characteristics of isolators, with which the margin of the structure are increased, are discussed. (author)

  17. Alkali-Responsive Absorption Spectra and Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Imino Squaramides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong-Yu; Xu Song; Zhou Xin-Yu; Zhang Fu-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities and dynamic responses of two imino squaramides under neutral and base conditions were studied using the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique at 800 nm. Ultrafast optical responses have been observed and the magnitude of the second-order hyperpolarizabilities of the squaramides has been measured to be as large as 10 −31 esu. The absorption spectra, color of solution, and third-order optical nonlinearities of two imino squaramides change with the addition of sodium hydroxide. The γ value under the base condition for each dye is approximately 1.25 times larger than that under neutral conditions. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. A novel method to produce nonlinear empirical physical formulas for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals: Feedforward neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Nihat, E-mail: nyildiz@cumhuriyet.edu.t [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Hueseyin [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.

  19. A novel method to produce nonlinear empirical physical formulas for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals: Feedforward neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa; Kaya, Hueseyin

    2010-01-01

    Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.

  20. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  1. On the Boundary between Nonlinear Jump Phenomenon and Linear Response of Hypoid Gear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model of a hypoid gear pair system with time-dependent mesh point, line-of-action vector, mesh stiffness, mesh damping, and backlash nonlinearity is formulated to analyze the transitional phase between nonlinear jump phenomenon and linear response. It is found that the classical jump discontinuity will occur if the dynamic mesh force exceeds the mean value of tooth mesh force. On the other hand, the propensity for the gear response to jump disappears when the dynamic mesh force is lower than the mean mesh force. Furthermore, the dynamic analysis is able to distinguish the specific tooth impact types from analyzing the behaviors of the dynamic mesh force. The proposed theory is general and also applicable to high-speed spur, helical and spiral bevel gears even though those types of gears are not the primary focus of this paper.

  2. ON-LINE NONLINEAR CHROMATICITY CORRECTION USING OFF-MOMENTUM TUNE RESPONSE MATRIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; FISCHER, W.; MALISKY, N.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TROBJEVIC, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we propose a method for the online nonlinear chromaticity correction at store in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be minimized online by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted tunes given by the linear chromaticities. The Newton method is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the online accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. In this article, the correction algorithm for the RHIC is presented. Simulations are also carried out to verify the method. The preliminary results from the beam experiments taken place in the RHIC 2007 Au run are reviewed

  3. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  4. Nonlinear response in runoff magnitude to fluctuating rain patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtu, R; Fonley, M

    2015-03-01

    The runoff coefficient of a hillslope is a reliable measure for changes in the streamflow response at the river link outlet. A high runoff coefficient is a good indicator of the possibility of flash floods. Although the relationship between runoff coefficient and streamflow has been the subject of much study, the physical mechanisms affecting runoff coefficient including the dependence on precipitation pattern remain open topics for investigation. In this paper, we analyze a rainfall-runoff model at the hillslope scale as that hillslope is forced with different rain patterns: constant rain and fluctuating rain with different frequencies and amplitudes. When an oscillatory precipitation pattern is applied, although the same amount of water may enter the system, its response (measured by the runoff coefficient) will be maximum for a certain frequency of precipitation. The significant increase in runoff coefficient after a certain pattern of rainfall can be a potential explanation for the conditions preceding flash-floods.

  5. Response of Non-Linear Shock Absorbers-Boundary Value Problem Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. A.; Ahmed, U.; Uddin, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear boundary value problem of two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) untuned vibration damper systems using nonlinear springs and dampers has been numerically studied. As far as untuned damper is concerned, sixteen different combinations of linear and nonlinear springs and dampers have been comprehensively analyzed taking into account transient terms. For different cases, a comparative study is made for response versus time for different spring and damper types at three important frequency ratios: one at r = 1, one at r > 1 and one at r <1. The response of the system is changed because of the spring and damper nonlinearities; the change is different for different cases. Accordingly, an initially stable absorber may become unstable with time and vice versa. The analysis also shows that higher nonlinearity terms make the system more unstable. Numerical simulation includes transient vibrations. Although problems are much more complicated compared to those for a tuned absorber, a comparison of the results generated by the present numerical scheme with the exact one shows quite a reasonable agreement

  6. Dielectric response of a relativistic degenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of a relativistic ultradegenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field is obtained via a relativistic generalization of the Hartree self-consistent field method. Dispersion relations and damping conditions for plasma oscillations both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained. Detailed results for the zero-field case, and applications to white dwarf stars and pulsars are given

  7. Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    of an equivalent linearization techni que and substituting the non-analytical non-linearity in the original system by the cubic form in the pertinent state variables. The response moments are evaluated for the equivalent systems with the help of a generalized Ito's differential rule. The analytical results...

  8. Stability of abstract nonlinear nonautonomous differential-delay equations with unbounded history-responsive operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil', M. I.

    2005-08-01

    We consider a class of nonautonomous functional-differential equations in a Banach space with unbounded nonlinear history-responsive operators, which have the local Lipshitz property. Conditions for the boundedness of solutions, Lyapunov stability, absolute stability and input-output one are established. Our approach is based on a combined usage of properties of sectorial operators and spectral properties of commuting operators.

  9. Nonlinear optical response in condensed phases : A microscopic theory using the multipolar Hamiltonian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1990-01-01

    A general scheme is presented for calculating the nonlinear optical response in condensed phases that provides a unified picture of excitons, polaritons, retardation, and local-field effects in crystals and in disordered systems. A fully microscopic starting point is taken by considering the

  10. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  11. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  12. Strong Antibody Responses Induced by Protein Antigens Conjugated onto the Surface of Lecithin-Based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Hau, Andrew M.; He, Yongqun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    An accumulation of research over the years has demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles as antigen carriers with adjuvant activity. Herein we defined the adjuvanticity of a novel lecithin-based nanoparticle engineered from emulsions. The nanoparticles were spheres of around 200 nm. Model protein antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. Mice immunized with the BSA-conjugated nanoparticles developed strong anti-BSA antibody responses comparable to that induced by BSA adjuvanted with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 6.5-fold stronger than that induced by BSA adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Immunization of mice with the PA-conjugated nanoparticles elicited a quick, strong, and durable anti-PA antibody response that afforded protection of the mice against a lethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin challenge. The potent adjuvanticity of the nanoparticles was likely due to their ability to move the antigens into local draining lymph nodes, to enhance the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to activate APCs. This novel nanoparticle system has the potential to serve as a universal protein-based vaccine carrier capable of inducing strong immune responses. PMID:19729045

  13. Nonlinear electrostrictive lattice response of EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P.; Calamiotou, M.; Köhler, J.; Bussmann-Holder, A.; Liarokapis, E.

    2017-07-01

    An epitaxial EuTiO3 (ETO) film grown on the SrTiO3 substrate was studied at room temperature with synchrotron XRD and in situ application of an electric field (nominally up to 7.8 kV/cm) in near grazing incidence geometry, in order to monitor the response of the lattice to the field. 2D diffraction images show that apparently misoriented coherently diffracting domains are present close to the surface whereas the film diffracts more as a single crystal towards the interface. Diffraction intensity profiles recorded from the near surface region of the EuTiO3 film showed systematic modifications upon the application of the electric field, indicating that at a critical electric field (nominally above 3.1 kV/cm), there is a clear change in the lattice response to the field, which was much stronger when the field was almost parallel to the diffraction vector. The data suggest that the ETO film, nominally paraelectric at room temperature, transforms under the application of a critical electric field to piezoelectric in agreement with a theoretical analysis based on a double-well potential. In order to exclude effects arising from the substrate, this has been investigated separately and shown not to be affected by the field.

  14. Nonlinearities in the response of beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.; Dehning, B.; Matheson, J.; Prochnow, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the LEP e + /e - collider at CERN, Geneva, a Spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10 -4 .The Spectrometer measures the change in bending angle in a dipole magnet, the beam trajectory being obtained using beam position monitors (BPMs), which must have an accuracy close to 1 μm in order to achieve the desired precision. The BPMs used feature an aluminum block with an elliptical aperture and capacitive pickup electrodes. The response depends on the electrode geometry and also on the shape of the monitor aperture. In addition, the size of the beam itself contributes if the beam is off-center. The beam size varies according to the beta and dispersion functions at the Spectrometer, so that each BPM may exhibit a systematic shift of the measured beam position. We have investigated the implications of such shifts on the performance of the Spectrometer. We present analytical results, a computer model of the BPM response, and comparison with measurements. The model suggests strategies such as beam-based alignment to minimize the systematic effects arising from the BPMs

  15. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  16. Site classification of Indian strong motion network using response spectra ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Vikas; Choudhury, Pallabee; Yadav, R. B. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, we tried to classify the Indian strong motion sites spread all over Himalaya and adjoining region, located on varied geological formations, based on response spectral ratio. A total of 90 sites were classified based on 395 strong motion records from 94 earthquakes recorded at these sites. The magnitude of these earthquakes are between 2.3 and 7.7 and the hypocentral distance for most of the cases is less than 50 km. The predominant period obtained from response spectral ratios is used to classify these sites. It was found that the shape and predominant peaks of the spectra at these sites match with those in Japan, Italy, Iran, and at some of the sites in Europe and the same classification scheme can be applied to Indian strong motion network. We found that the earlier schemes based on description of near-surface geology, geomorphology, and topography were not able to capture the effect of sediment thickness. The sites are classified into seven classes (CL-I to CL-VII) with varying predominant periods and ranges as proposed by Alessandro et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:680-695 2012). The effect of magnitudes and hypocentral distances on the shape and predominant peaks were also studied and found to be very small. The classification scheme is robust and cost-effective and can be used in region-specific attenuation relationships for accounting local site effect.

  17. Nonlinear disruption of ecological interactions in response to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Global environmental change (GEC) is affecting species interactions and causing a rapid decline in biodiversity. In this study, I present a new Ecosystem Disruption Index to quantify the impacts of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 10, 20, and 50 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1  + 6-7 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 background) on abiotic and biotic ecological interactions. This comparative index is based on pairwise linear and quadratic regression matrices. These matrices, calculated at the N treatment level, were constructed using a range of abiotic and biotic ecosystem constituents: soil pH, shrub cover, and the first component of several separate principal component analyses using soil fertility data (total carbon and N) and community data (annual plants, microorganisms, biocrusts, edaphic fauna) for a total of seven ecosystem constituents. Four years of N fertilization in a semiarid shrubland completely disrupted the network of ecological interactions, with a greater proportional increase in ecosystem disruption at low N addition levels. Biotic interactions, particularly those involving microbes, shrubs, and edaphic fauna, were more prone to be lost in response to N, whereas interactions involving soil properties were more resilient. In contrast, edaphic fauna was the only group directly affected by N addition, with mites and collembolans increasing their abundance with up to 20 kg N·ha -1 ·yr -1 and then decreasing, which supports the idea of higher-trophic-level organisms being more sensitive to disturbance due to more complex links with other ecosystem constituents. Future experimental studies evaluating the impacts of N deposition, and possibly other GEC drivers, on biodiversity and biotic and abiotic interactions may be able to explain results more effectively in the context of ecological networks as a key feature of ecosystem sensitivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Seismic response analysis of a nuclear reactor structure considering nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaumik, Lopamudra; Raychowdhury, Prishati

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a reactor is done. • Incremental dynamic analysis is performed with 30 recorded ground motions. • Equivalent viscous damping increases up to twice when nonlinear SSI is considered. • Roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity. • Base shear, base moment and ductility reduce up to 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively. - Abstract: This study focuses on the seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a typical Indian reactor resting on a medium dense sandy silty soil, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-foundation interface. The modeling is done in an open-source finite element framework, OpenSees, where the soil-structure interaction (SSI) is modeled using a Beam-on-Nonlinear-Winkler-Foundation (BNWF) approach. Static pushover analysis and cyclic analysis are performed followed by an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) with 30 recorded ground motions. For performing IDA, the spectral acceleration of each motion corresponding to the fundamental period, S a (T 1 )is incremented from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment step of 0.1 g. It is observed from the cyclic analysis that the equivalent viscous damping of the system increases upto twice upon incorporation of inelastic SSI. The IDA results demonstrate that the average peak base shear, base moment and displacement ductility demand reduces as much as 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity for the highest intensity motion. These observations indicate the need of critical consideration of nonlinear soil-structure interaction as any deficient modeling of the same may lead to an inaccurate estimation of the seismic demands of the structure

  19. Seismic response analysis of a nuclear reactor structure considering nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaumik, Lopamudra, E-mail: lbhaumi2@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Raychowdhury, Prishati, E-mail: prishati@iitk.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a reactor is done. • Incremental dynamic analysis is performed with 30 recorded ground motions. • Equivalent viscous damping increases up to twice when nonlinear SSI is considered. • Roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity. • Base shear, base moment and ductility reduce up to 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively. - Abstract: This study focuses on the seismic response analysis of an internal shearwall of a typical Indian reactor resting on a medium dense sandy silty soil, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-foundation interface. The modeling is done in an open-source finite element framework, OpenSees, where the soil-structure interaction (SSI) is modeled using a Beam-on-Nonlinear-Winkler-Foundation (BNWF) approach. Static pushover analysis and cyclic analysis are performed followed by an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) with 30 recorded ground motions. For performing IDA, the spectral acceleration of each motion corresponding to the fundamental period, S{sub a}(T{sub 1})is incremented from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment step of 0.1 g. It is observed from the cyclic analysis that the equivalent viscous damping of the system increases upto twice upon incorporation of inelastic SSI. The IDA results demonstrate that the average peak base shear, base moment and displacement ductility demand reduces as much as 62%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the roof drift demand increases up to 25% upon consideration of foundation nonlinearity for the highest intensity motion. These observations indicate the need of critical consideration of nonlinear soil-structure interaction as any deficient modeling of the same may lead to an inaccurate estimation of the seismic demands of the structure.

  20. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of an embedded reactor building based on the substructure approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1987-01-01

    A practical method to calculate the elasto-plastic seismic response of structures considering the dynamic soil-structure interaction is presented. The substructure technique in the time domain is utilized in the proposed method. A simple soil spring system with the coupling effects which are usually evaluated by the impedance matrix is introduced to consider the soil-structure interaction for embedded structures. As a numerical example, the response of a BWR-MARK II type reactor building embedded in the layered soil is calculated. The accuracy of the present method is verified by comparing its numerical results with exact solutions. The nonlinear behaivor and the soil-structure interaction effects on the response of the reactor building are also discussed in detail. It is concluded that the present method is effective for the aseismic design considering both the material nonlinearity of the nuclear reactor building and the dynamic soil-structure interaction. (orig.)

  1. A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maruccio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid computational framework is described here in order to assess the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. The proposed strategy basically consists of two steps. First, fully coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analyses are performed to evaluate the nonlinear static response of the device. An enhanced reduced-order model is then derived, where the global dynamic response is formulated in the state-space using lumped coefficients enriched with the information derived from the FE simulations. The electromechanical response of piezoelectric beams under forced vibrations is studied by means of the proposed approach, which is also validated by comparing numerical predictions with some experimental results. Such numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the main aim of studying the influence of material and geometrical parameters on the global nonlinear response. The advantage of the presented approach is that the overall computational and experimental efforts are significantly reduced while preserving a satisfactory accuracy in the assessment of the global behavior.

  2. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  3. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  4. Coccidioides Endospores and Spherules Draw Strong Chemotactic, Adhesive, and Phagocytic Responses by Individual Human Neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuk Lee

    Full Text Available Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C. posadasii, both from a distance (by complement-mediated chemotaxis as well as upon contact (by serum-dependent adhesion and phagocytosis. This response closely resembles neutrophil interactions with Candida albicans and zymosan particles, and is significantly stronger than the neutrophil responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Rhizopus oryzae under identical conditions. The vigorous in vitro neutrophil response suggests that C. posadasii evades in vivo recognition by neutrophils through suppression of long-range mobilization and recruitment of the immune cells. This observation elucidates an important paradigm of the recognition of microbes, i.e., that intact immunotaxis comprises an intricate spatiotemporal hierarchy of distinct chemotactic processes. Moreover, in contrast to earlier reports, human neutrophils exhibit vigorous chemotaxis toward, and frustrated phagocytosis of, the large spherules of C. posadasii under physiological-like conditions. Finally, neutrophils from healthy donors and patients with chronic coccidioidomycosis display subtle differences in their responses to antibody-coated beads, even though the patient cells appear to interact normally with C. posadasii endospores.

  5. Divergent responses of tropical cyclone genesis factors to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    To understand the behaviors of tropical cyclones (TCs), it is very important to explore how TCs respond to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and natural forcings. Volcanic eruptions are a major natural forcing mechanism because they inject sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, which modulate the global climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. The number of Atlantic hurricanes is thought to be reduced following strong tropical eruptions, but whether the response of TCs varies with the locations of the volcanoes and the different ocean basins remains unknown. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model-Last Millennium Ensemble to investigate the response of the large-scale environmental factors that spawn TCs to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. A composite analysis indicates that tropical and northern hemisphere volcanic eruptions lead to significantly unfavorable conditions for TC genesis over the whole Pacific basin and the North Atlantic during the 3 years post-eruption, relative to the preceding 3 years. Southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions result in obviously unfavorable conditions for TC formation over the southwestern Pacific, but more favorable conditions over the North Atlantic. The mean response over the Indian Ocean is generally muted and insignificant. It should be noted that volcanic eruptions impact on environmental conditions through both the direct effect (i.e. on radiative forcing) and the indirect effect (i.e. on El Niño-Southern Oscillation), which is not differentiated in this study. In addition, the spread of the TC genesis response is considerably large for each category of eruptions over each ocean basin, which is also seen in the observational/proxy-based records. This large spread is attributed to the differences in stratospheric aerosol distributions, initial states and eruption intensities, and makes the short-term forecast of TC activity following the next large eruption challenging.

  6. Nonlinear flowering responses to climate: are species approaching their limits of phenological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amy M.; Høye, Toke T.; Inouye, David W.; Schmidt, Niels M.

    2013-01-01

    Many alpine and subalpine plant species exhibit phenological advancements in association with earlier snowmelt. While the phenology of some plant species does not advance beyond a threshold snowmelt date, the prevalence of such threshold phenological responses within plant communities is largely unknown. We therefore examined the shape of flowering phenology responses (linear versus nonlinear) to climate using two long-term datasets from plant communities in snow-dominated environments: Gothic, CO, USA (1974–2011) and Zackenberg, Greenland (1996–2011). For a total of 64 species, we determined whether a linear or nonlinear regression model best explained interannual variation in flowering phenology in response to increasing temperatures and advancing snowmelt dates. The most common nonlinear trend was for species to flower earlier as snowmelt advanced, with either no change or a slower rate of change when snowmelt was early (average 20% of cases). By contrast, some species advanced their flowering at a faster rate over the warmest temperatures relative to cooler temperatures (average 5% of cases). Thus, some species seem to be approaching their limits of phenological change in response to snowmelt but not temperature. Such phenological thresholds could either be a result of minimum springtime photoperiod cues for flowering or a slower rate of adaptive change in flowering time relative to changing climatic conditions. PMID:23836793

  7. Attention Strongly Modulates Reliability of Neural Responses to Naturalistic Narrative Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jason J; Kelly, Simon P; Parra, Lucas C

    2016-03-09

    Attentional engagement is a major determinant of how effectively we gather information through our senses. Alongside the sheer growth in the amount and variety of information content that we are presented with through modern media, there is increased variability in the degree to which we "absorb" that information. Traditional research on attention has illuminated the basic principles of sensory selection to isolated features or locations, but it provides little insight into the neural underpinnings of our attentional engagement with modern naturalistic content. Here, we show in human subjects that the reliability of an individual's neural responses with respect to a larger group provides a highly robust index of the level of attentional engagement with a naturalistic narrative stimulus. Specifically, fast electroencephalographic evoked responses were more strongly correlated across subjects when naturally attending to auditory or audiovisual narratives than when attention was directed inward to a mental arithmetic task during stimulus presentation. This effect was strongest for audiovisual stimuli with a cohesive narrative and greatly reduced for speech stimuli lacking meaning. For compelling audiovisual narratives, the effect is remarkably strong, allowing perfect discrimination between attentional state across individuals. Control experiments rule out possible confounds related to altered eye movement trajectories or order of presentation. We conclude that reliability of evoked activity reproduced across subjects viewing the same movie is highly sensitive to the attentional state of the viewer and listener, which is aided by a cohesive narrative. Copyright © 2016 Ki et al.

  8. Nonlinear mechanical response of the extracellular matrix: learning from articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    We study the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on nonlinear shear and compression response. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage tissue which has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen that acts as a stiff, reinforcing matrix, and a flexible aggrecan network that facilitates deformability. We model this system as a double network hydrogel made of interpenetrating networks of stiff and flexible biopolymers respectively. We study the linear and nonlinear mechanical response of the model ECM to shear and compression forces using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings.

  9. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of embedded reactor buildings based on the substructure approach in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Nakai, S.; Watanabe, T.

    1985-01-01

    A practical method for elasto-plastic seismic response analysis is described under considerations of nonlinear material law of a structure and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The method is essentially based on the substructure approach of time domain analysis. Verification of the present method is carried out for typical BWR-MARK II type reactor building which is embedded in a soil, and the results are compared with those of the frequency response analysis which gives good accuracy for linear system. As a result, the present method exhibits sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, elasto-plastic analyses considering the soil-structure interaction are made as an application of the present method, and nonlinear behaviors of the structure and embedment effects are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Linear and nonlinear response matrix and its application to the SIS18 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis is dedicated to the numerical as well as the experimental study of beam dynamics in circular accelerators. The experimental part was undertaken in the SIS18 synchrotron. The detailed description of the experiments contained in this work can be considered as a starting point for future experiments and machine development. The work has the following structure. In Chapter 2 an overview of the GSI and FAIR accelerator facilities, and a general description of the SIS18 instrumentation related to the study of this work are given. The expected SIS18 performance in view of the upgrade program for FAIR project are outlined. The main beam dynamics issues connected with the purpose of this work are discussed. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of linear beam dynamics in the SIS18. The resonance beam loss measurements were carried out with residual gas profile monitor in the SIS18 (Chapter 4). In the frame of this work a novel technique 'nonlinear tune response matrix method' to identify strengths, polarities and locations of nonlinear errors in circular accelerators is developed (Chapter 5). In the method the feed down effect of the nonlinear components at level of linear tune response to the closed-orbit change is explored. The closed-orbit change is introduced by varying correction steerers. The tune values are retrieved from the spectrum of coherent betatron oscillations excited by a fast kick. The theoretical background, the robustness of the method and numerical examples for the SIS18 using numerical library MICROMAP are presented. The technique to measure lattice nonlinearities was experimentally validated in the SIS18 where two normal as well as two skew sextupolar errors of the order of natural errors were reconstructed with a tolerant precision. It was shown how this technique can be applied to reconstruct sextupolar nonlinear errors in the complete machine. In Chapter 6 the main results and the conclusions of this work are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Examination of the foreign body response to biomaterials by nonlinear intravital microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Alexander, Stephanie; Filippini, Stefano; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Friedl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Implanted biomaterials often fail because they elicit a foreign body response (FBR) and concomitant fibrotic encapsulation. To design clinically relevant interference approaches, it is crucial to first examine the FBR mechanisms. Here, we report the development and validation of infrared-excited nonlinear microscopy to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) organization and fate of 3D-electrospun scaffolds implanted deep into the skin of mice, and the following step-wise FBR process. We observed ...

  12. Dynamic response analysis of block foundations with nonlinear dry friction mounting system to impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Enlai; Zhu, Sihong; Zhou, Xinlong

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to establish a dynamic model to predict and evaluate the dynamic performance of a nonlinear dry friction mounting system during design procedure, when it is impossible to carry out the test of prototype. Unlike the conventional ideal dry friction model where the direction of dry friction force is always considered to be opposite to that of relative velocity, a new equivalent resistance model of dry friction force is proposed based on the bilinear hysteretic model by introducing a parameter g in this work. The equivalent resistance contains spring force and damping force, whose direction is not opposite to that of relative velocity. Then, a dynamic model of the block foundation with nonlinear dry friction mounting system is established. When the equivalent resistance is applied to the dynamic model, its dynamic responses are obtained under common practical forms of press loads: rectangular pulse, half-sine pulse, and triangular pulse. Compared to experimental results, the dynamic responses based on the equivalent resistance model are more consistent with the simulation results based on the ideal dry friction model and the validity of the equivalent resistance model for the bilinear hysteretic model in this work is verified. Furthermore, the effect of the pulse shape and pulse duration on the dynamic responses of the block foundation with nonlinear dry friction mounting system is investigated.

  13. Nonlinear Absorption-Gain Response and Population Dynamics in a Laser-Driven Four-Level Dense Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Luo Jinming; Xie Xiaotao

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the response of nonlinear absorption and population dynamics in optically dense media of four-level atoms driven by a single-mode probe laser, via taking the density-dependent near dipole-dipole (NDD) interactions into consideration. The influence of the NDD effects on the absorption of the probe field and population dynamics is predicted via numerical calculations. It is shown that the NDD effects can reduce gradually to transient absorption with the increase of the strengths of the NDD interactions, and transient amplification can be achieved. In the steady-state limit, the probe field exhibits transparency for strong NDD interactions. Alternatively, the population entirely remains at the ground state due to the NDD effects.

  14. General strongly nonlinear variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Ansari, Q.H.

    1990-07-01

    In this paper we develop iterative algorithms for finding approximate solutions for new classes of variational and quasi-variational inequalities which include, as special case, some known results in this field. It is shown that the solutions of the iterative schemes converge to the exact solutions. (author). 15 refs

  15. Strongly nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, F E; Brézis, H

    1980-02-01

    An existence and uniqueness result is established for a general class of variational inequalities for parabolic partial differential equations of the form partial differentialu/ partial differentialt + A(u) + g(u) = f with g nondecreasing but satisfying no growth condition. The proof is based upon a type of compactness result for solutions of variational inequalities that should find a variety of other applications.

  16. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  17. Subharmonic response of a single-degree-of-freedom nonlinear vibro-impact system to a narrow-band random excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiwu, Rong; Wang, Xiangdong; Xu, Wei; Fang, Tong

    2009-08-01

    The subharmonic response of single-degree-of-freedom nonlinear vibro-impact oscillator with a one-sided barrier to narrow-band random excitation is investigated. The narrow-band random excitation used here is a filtered Gaussian white noise. The analysis is based on a special Zhuravlev transformation, which reduces the system to one without impacts, or velocity jumps, thereby permitting the applications of asymptotic averaging over the "fast" variables. The averaged stochastic equations are solved exactly by the method of moments for the mean-square response amplitude for the case of linear system with zero offset. A perturbation-based moment closure scheme is proposed and the formula of the mean-square amplitude is obtained approximately for the case of linear system with nonzero offset. The perturbation-based moment closure scheme is used once again to obtain the algebra equation of the mean-square amplitude of the response for the case of nonlinear system. The effects of damping, detuning, nonlinear intensity, bandwidth, and magnitudes of random excitations are analyzed. The theoretical analyses are verified by numerical results. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that the peak amplitudes may be strongly reduced at large detunings or large nonlinear intensity.

  18. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  19. Quantum correlations responsible for remote state creation: strong and weak control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, S. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    We study the quantum correlations between the two remote qubits (sender and receiver) connected by the transmission line (homogeneous spin-1/2 chain) depending on the parameters of the sender's and receiver's initial states (control parameters). We consider two different measures of quantum correlations: the entanglement (a traditional measure) and the informational correlation (based on the parameter exchange between the sender and receiver). We find the domain in the control parameter space yielding (i) zero entanglement between the sender and receiver during the whole evolution period and (ii) non-vanishing informational correlation between the sender and receiver, thus showing that the informational correlation is responsible for the remote state creation. Among the control parameters, there are the strong parameters (which strongly effect the values of studied measures) and the weak ones (whose effect is negligible), therewith the eigenvalues of the initial state are given a privileged role. We also show that the problem of small entanglement (concurrence) in quantum information processing is similar (in certain sense) to the problem of small determinants in linear algebra. A particular model of 40-node spin-1/2 communication line is presented.

  20. Time domain simulation of the response of geometrically nonlinear panels subjected to random loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The response of composite panels subjected to random pressure loads large enough to cause geometrically nonlinear responses is studied. A time domain simulation is employed to solve the equations of motion. An adaptive time stepping algorithm is employed to minimize intermittent transients. A modified algorithm for the prediction of response spectral density is presented which predicts smooth spectral peaks for discrete time histories. Results are presented for a number of input pressure levels and damping coefficients. Response distributions are calculated and compared with the analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equations. RMS response is reported as a function of input pressure level and damping coefficient. Spectral densities are calculated for a number of examples.

  1. The response of the North Pacific Decadal Variability to strong tropical volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Otteraa, Odd Helge [Uni Bjerknes Centre, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Gao, Yongqi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Wang, Huijun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of volcanic forcing on North Pacific climate variability, on interannual to decadal time scales, are examined using climate model simulations covering the last 600 years. The model used is the Bergen Climate Model, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. It is found that natural external forcings, such as tropical strong volcanic eruptions (SVEs) and variations in total solar irradiance, play an important role in regulating North Pacific Decadal Variability (NPDV). In response to tropical SVEs the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator temperature gradient is enhanced. The North polar vortex is strengthened, which forces a significant positive Arctic Oscillation. At the same time, dipole zonal wind anomalies associated with strong polar vortex propagate downward from the lower stratosphere. Through positive feedbacks in the troposphere, the surface westerly winds across the central North Pacific are significantly weakened, and positive sea level pressure anomalies are formed in the North Pacific. This anomalous surface circulation results in changes in the net heat fluxes and the oceanic advection across the North Pacific. As a result of this, warm water converges in the subtropical western North Pacific, where the surface waters in addition are heated by significantly reduced latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean. In the eastern and high-latitude North Pacific the ocean loses more heat, and large-scale decreases in sea surface temperatures are found. The overall response of this chain of events is that the North Pacific enters a negative phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and this negative phase of the PDO is maintained for several years. It is thus concluded that the volcanic forcing plays a key role in the phasing of the PDO. The model results furthermore highlight the important role of troposphere-stratosphere coupling, tropical-extratropical teleconnections and extratropical ocean

  2. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of THUNDER actuators—pre-stress-induced nonlinearity in the actuation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghoon; Jiang, Qing; Cai, Ling; Usher, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an experimental and theoretical investigation into characterizing the mechanical configurations and performances of THUNDER actuators, a type of piezoelectric actuator known for their large actuation displacements, through fabrication, measurements and finite element analysis. Five groups of such actuators with different dimensions were fabricated using identical fabrication parameters. The as-fabricated arched configurations, resulting from the thermo-mechanical mismatch among the constituent layers, and their actuation performances were characterized using an experimental set-up based on a laser displacement sensor and through numerical simulations with ANSYS, a widely used commercial software program for finite element analysis. This investigation shows that the presence of large residual stresses within the piezoelectric ceramic layer, built up during the fabrication process, leads to significant nonlinear electromechanical coupling in the actuator response to the driving electric voltage, and it is this nonlinear coupling that is responsible for the large actuation displacements. Furthermore, the severity of the residual stresses, and thus the nonlinearity, increases with increasing substrate/piezoelectric thickness ratio and, to a lesser extent, with decreasing in-plane dimensions of the piezoelectric layer

  4. Forced phase-locked response of a nonlinear system with time delay after Hopf bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J.C.; Hansen, Colin H.

    2005-01-01

    The trivial equilibrium of a nonlinear autonomous system with time delay may become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation of multiplicity two, as the time delay reaches a critical value. This loss of stability of the equilibrium is associated with two coincident pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis. The resultant dynamic behaviour of the corresponding nonlinear non-autonomous system in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation is investigated based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional problem to a four-dimensional centre manifold. As a result of the interaction between the Hopf bifurcating periodic solutions and the external periodic excitation, a primary resonance can occur in the forced response of the system when the forcing frequency is close to the Hopf bifurcating periodic frequency. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain four first-order ordinary differential equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the phase-locked periodic solutions. The first-order approximations of the periodic solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the delay-differential equation. It is also found that the steady state solutions of the nonlinear non-autonomous system may lose their stability via either a pitchfork or Hopf bifurcation. It is shown that the primary resonance response may exhibit symmetric and asymmetric phase-locked periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions, chaotic motions, and coexistence of two stable motions

  5. Study of cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts with nonlinear output frequency response functions based on NARMAX modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honglan; Mao, Hanying; Mao, Hanling; Zheng, Weixue; Huang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Xianghong

    2017-12-01

    Cumulative fatigue damage detection for used parts plays a key role in the process of remanufacturing engineering and is related to the service safety of the remanufactured parts. In light of the nonlinear properties of used parts caused by cumulative fatigue damage, the based nonlinear output frequency response functions detection approach offers a breakthrough to solve this key problem. First, a modified PSO-adaptive lasso algorithm is introduced to improve the accuracy of the NARMAX model under impulse hammer excitation, and then, an effective new algorithm is derived to estimate the nonlinear output frequency response functions under rectangular pulse excitation, and a based nonlinear output frequency response functions index is introduced to detect the cumulative fatigue damage in used parts. Then, a novel damage detection approach that integrates the NARMAX model and the rectangular pulse is proposed for nonlinear output frequency response functions identification and cumulative fatigue damage detection of used parts. Finally, experimental studies of fatigued plate specimens and used connecting rod parts are conducted to verify the validity of the novel approach. The obtained results reveal that the new approach can detect cumulative fatigue damages of used parts effectively and efficiently and that the various values of the based nonlinear output frequency response functions index can be used to detect the different fatigue damages or working time. Since the proposed new approach can extract nonlinear properties of systems by only a single excitation of the inspected system, it shows great promise for use in remanufacturing engineering applications.

  6. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis.

  7. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Izzo, V. A. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Lazarus, E. A.; Hirshman, S. P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Park, J.-K.; Lazerson, S.; Reiman, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Cooper, W. A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 116th St and Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10{sup −3} relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic response of cantilever beam tip during atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanolithography of copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y-L; Jang, M-J; Wang, C-C; Lin, Y-P; Chen, K-S

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever beam tip during the nanolithography of a copper (Cu) surface using a high-depth feed. The dynamic motion of the tip is modeled using a combined approach based on Newton's law and empirical observations. The cutting force is determined from experimental observations of the piling height on the Cu surface and the rotation angle of the cantilever beam tip. It is found that the piling height increases linearly with the cantilever beam carrier velocity. Furthermore, the cantilever beam tip is found to execute a saw tooth motion. Both this motion and the shear cutting force are nonlinear. The elastic modulus in the y direction is variable. Finally, the velocity of the cantilever beam tip as it traverses the specimen surface has a discrete characteristic rather than a smooth, continuous profile

  9. Combined effects of traveling seismic waves and soil nonlinearity on nuclear power plant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Charman, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ground motion nonuniformity on the seismic input have been actively studied in recent years by considering the passage of traveling seismic waves. These studies gave rise to a new class of soil-structure interaction problems in which the seismic input is modified as a result of the spatial variations of ground motion. The phenomena were usually studied by using the elastic half-space simulation or discrete spring-models for modeling the soil medium. Finite element methods were also used recently on a limited scope. Results obtained from these investigations are often manifested by an attenuation of translational excitation along with an addition of rotational ground motion input. The decrease in structural response resulting from the input loss in the translational component was often insignificant since the response reduction tends to be offset by the effects from rotational input. The traveling wave effects have, so far, been investigated within the framework of linear theory with soil nonlinearity ignored. Conversely, the incorporation of soil nonlinearity in soil-structure interaction analyses has been done without including wave effect. Seismic analyses considering the hysteretic behavior of soil have been performed using highly idealized models for steady-state solution. More elaborate nonlinear seismic models deal with only the strain-dependent soil modulus rather than the transient unloading-reloading type of hysteretic characteristics of soil under a time-function input of earthquake trace. Apparently, the traveling wave effect and soil nonlinearity have been separately treated in the past. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these two major effects can be combined in one model such that the influence of wave passage is reflected through the hysteretic behavior of soil particles, and thereby achieving significant reduction in seismic loads. (orig./RW)

  10. Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.

  11. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  12. Tuning smart microgel swelling and responsive behavior through strong and weak polyelectrolyte pair assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eunice; Lloyd, Margaret M; Chopko, Caroline; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Hammond, Paula T

    2012-07-03

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolyte pairs on temperature and pH-sensitive cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(methacrylic acid), poly(NIPAAm-co-MAA), microgels enabled a fine-tuning of the gel swelling and responsive behavior according to the mobility of the assembled polyelectrolyte (PE) pair and the composition of the outermost layer. Microbeads with well-defined morphology were initially prepared by synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide. Upon LbL assembly of polyelectrolytes, interactions between the multilayers and the soft porous microgel led to differences in swelling and thermoresponsive behavior. For the weak PE pairs, namely poly(L-lysine)/poly(L-glutamic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid), polycation-terminated microgels were less swollen and more thermoresponsive than native microgel, whereas polyanion-terminated microgels were more swollen and not significantly responsive to temperature, in a quasi-reversible process with consecutive PE assembly. For the strong PE pair, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(sodium styrene sulfonate), the differences among polycation and polyanion-terminated microgels are not sustained after the first PE bilayer due to extensive ionic cross-linking between the polyelectrolytes. The tendencies across the explored systems became less noteworthy in solutions with larger ionic strength due to overall charge shielding of the polyelectrolytes and microgel. ATR FT-IR studies correlated the swelling and responsive behavior after LbL assembly on the microgels with the extent of H-bonding and alternating charge distribution within the gel. Thus, the proposed LbL strategy may be a simple and flexible way to engineer smart microgels in terms of size, surface chemistry, overall charge and permeability.

  13. Dynamic buckling and nonlinear response of FBR main vessels under earthquake loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Kawamoto, Yoji; Nakagawa, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Pseudo-dynamic tests of cylindrical shells under high temperature were performed in order to study elasto-plastic shear-bending buckling and the nonlinear response of FBR main vessels under earthquake loading. The test results showed a response reduction effect due to pre-buckling plasticity, and a large seismic margin due to post-buckling energy absorption of the cylinders. A simple expression of the response reduction effect was proposed, as a contribution to the safe and effective seismic design of FBRs. Two methods for seismic margin evaluation were also proposed, and it was shown that appropriate seismic margins can be ensured, when the response reduction effect is incorporated into the seismic design. (author)

  14. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  15. A three-dimensional computer code for the nonlinear dynamic response of an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Lasker, L.; Koplik, B.; Curreri, J.; Goradia, H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic code has been developed to determine the nonlinear response of an HTGR core. The HTGR core consists of several thousands of hexagonal core blocks. These are arranged in layers stacked together. Each layer contains many core blocks surrounded on their outer periphery by reflector blocks. The entire assembly is contained within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Gaps exist between adjacent blocks in any horizontal plane. Each core block in a given layer is connected to the blocks directly above and below it via three dowell pins. The present analytical study is directed towards an investigation of the nonlinear response of the reactor core blocks in the event of a seismic occurrence. The computer code is developed for a specific mathematical model which represents a vertical arrangement of layers of blocks. This comprises a 'block module' of core elements which would be obtained by cutting a cylindrical portion consisting of seven fuel blocks per layer. It is anticipated that a number of such modules properly arranged could represent the entire core. Hence, the predicted response of this module would exhibit the response characteristics of the core. (orig.)

  16. Three-dimensional computer code for the nonlinear dynamic response of an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Lasker, L.; Koplik, B.; Curreri, J.; Goradia, H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic code has been developed to determine the nonlinear response of an HTGR core. The HTGR core consists of several thousands of hexagonal core blocks. These are arranged inlayers stacked together. Each layer contains many core blocks surrounded on their outer periphery by reflector blocks. The entire assembly is contained within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Gaps exist between adjacent blocks in any horizontal plane. Each core block in a given layer is connected to the blocks directly above and below it via three dowell pins. The present analystical study is directed towards an invesstigation of the nonlinear response of the reactor core blocks in the event of a seismic occurrence. The computer code is developed for a specific mathemtical model which represents a vertical arrangement of layers of blocks. This comprises a block module of core elements which would be obtained by cutting a cylindrical portion consisting of seven fuel blocks per layer. It is anticipated that a number of such modules properly arranged could represent the entire core. Hence, the predicted response of this module would exhibit the response characteristics of the core

  17. On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  18. Stochastic Parameter Estimation of Non-Linear Systems Using Only Higher Order Spectra of the Measured Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, M.; Roberts, J. B.

    1998-06-01

    Methods for using fourth order spectral quantities to estimate the unknown parameters in non-linear, randomly excited dynamic systems are developed. Attention is focused on the case where only the response is measurable and the excitation is unmeasurable and known only in terms of a stochastic process model. The approach is illustrated through application to a non-linear oscillator with both non-linear damping and stiffness and with excitation modelled as a stationary Gaussian white noise process. The methods have applications in studies of the response of structures to random environmental loads, such as wind and ocean wave forces.

  19. Response to a pure tone in a nonlinear mechanical-electrical-acoustical model of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaud, Julien; Grosh, Karl

    2012-03-21

    In this article, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed based on the physiology of the cochlea of the guinea pig. The three-dimensional intracochlear fluid dynamics are coupled to a micromechanical model of the organ of Corti and to electrical potentials in the cochlear ducts and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic electromotility is modeled by linearized piezoelectric relations whereas the OHC hair-bundle mechanoelectrical transduction current is modeled as a nonlinear function of the hair-bundle deflection. The steady-state response of the cochlea to a single tone is simulated in the frequency domain using an alternating frequency time scheme. Compressive nonlinearity, harmonic distortion, and DC shift on the basilar membrane (BM), tectorial membrane (TM), and OHC potentials are predicted using a single set of parameters. The predictions of the model are verified by comparing simulations to available in vivo experimental data for basal cochlear mechanics. In particular, the model predicts more amplification on the reticular lamina (RL) side of the cochlear partition than on the BM, which replicates recent measurements. Moreover, small harmonic distortion and DC shifts are predicted on the BM, whereas more significant harmonic distortion and DC shifts are predicted in the RL and TM displacements and in the OHC potentials. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflections on the nature of non-linear responses of the climate to forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2017-04-01

    On centennial to multi-millennial time scales the paleoclimatic record shows that climate responds in a very non-linear way to the external forcing. Perhaps most puzzling is the change in glacial period duration at the Middle Pleistocene Transition. From a dynamical systems perspective, this could be a change in frequency locking between the orbital forcing and the climatic response or it could be a non-linear resonance phenomenon. In both cases the climate system shows a non-trivial oscillatory behaviour. From the records it seems that this behaviour can be described by an effective dynamics on a low-dimensional slow manifold. These different possible dynamical behaviours will be discussed. References: Arianna Marchionne, Peter Ditlevsen, and Sebastian Wieczorek, "Three types of nonlinear resonances", arXiv:1605.00858 Peter Ashwin and Peter Ditlevsen, "The middle Pleistocene transition as a generic bifurcation on a slow manifold", Climate Dynamics, 45, 2683, 2015. Peter D. Ditlevsen, "The bifurcation structure and noise assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles", Paleoceanography, 24, PA3204, 2009

  1. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  2. Distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems: A nonlinear fixed-time protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xi; He, Bing; Dong, Yunfeng

    2017-11-01

    The distributed synchronization of networked drive-response systems is investigated in this paper. A novel nonlinear protocol is proposed to ensure that the tracking errors converge to zeros in a fixed-time. By comparison with previous synchronization methods, the present method considers more practical conditions and the synchronization time is not dependent of arbitrary initial conditions but can be offline pre-assign according to the task assignment. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the presented protocol have been illustrated by a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. High Tc superconducting nonlinear inductance and quick response magnetic sensor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, T.; Mohri, K.; Ozeki, A.; Shibata, T.

    1990-01-01

    A flux penetration model considering the demagnetizing effect is presented in order to analyze the nonlinear inductance characteristics for HTcSC. Various quick response magnetic devices such as modulators, magnetic switches and magnetic sensors were constructed. The magnetizing frequency can be set up more than 10 MHz which is difficult to achieve with the conventional ferromagnetic bulk cores. The cut-off frequency of 1.6 MHz was obtained for the sensors using the HTcSC cores at a magnetizing frequency of 11.5 MHz

  4. Stochastic response and bifurcation of periodically driven nonlinear oscillators by the generalized cell mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    The stochastic response of nonlinear oscillators under periodic and Gaussian white noise excitations is studied with the generalized cell mapping based on short-time Gaussian approximation (GCM/STGA) method. The solutions of the transition probability density functions over a small fraction of the period are constructed by the STGA scheme in order to construct the GCM over one complete period. Both the transient and steady-state probability density functions (PDFs) of a smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator are computed to illustrate the application of the method. The accuracy of the results is verified by direct Monte Carlo simulations. The transient responses show the evolution of the PDFs from being Gaussian to non-Gaussian. The effect of a chaotic saddle on the stochastic response is also studied. The stochastic P-bifurcation in terms of the steady-state PDFs occurs with the decrease of the smoothness parameter, which corresponds to the deterministic pitchfork bifurcation.

  5. Seismic response of nuclear reactors in layered liquefiable soil deposits including nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.; Mamoon, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of seismic response of structures located at a site with potential for soil liquefaction has drawn attention of many researchers. The topic is particularly important in the design of critical facilities like nuclear reactors and defense installations. This paper presents the results of a study involving evaluation of coupled seismic response of structures (model nuclear reactors) and characteristics of soil liquefaction at a site. The analysis procedure employed is based on the nonlinear finite element (FE) technique and accounts for the interaction effects due to a neighboring structure. Emphasis is given to the following features: prediction of spatial and temporal variation of pore water pressure; identification of the on-set of liquefaction based on the effective stress approach, and tracing the propagation of the liquefied zones with time and resulting response of the structures

  6. Non-Linear Dose Response Relationships in Biology, Toxicology, and Medicine (June 8-10, 2004). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships

  7. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth

  8. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  9. Semi-metallic, strong conductive polymer microfiber, method and fast response rate actuators and heating textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Er Qiang; Lubineau, Gilles; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Mulle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    A method comprising: providing at least one first composition comprising at least one conjugated polymer and at least one solvent, wet spinning the at least one first composition to form at least one first fiber material, hot-drawing the at least one fiber to form at least one second fiber material. In lead embodiments, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) conjugated polymer microfibers were fabricated via wet- spinning followed by hot-drawing. In these lead embodiments, due to the combined effects of the vertical hot-drawing process and doping/de-doping the microfibers with ethylene glycol (EG), a record electrical conductivity of 2804 S · cm-1 was achieved. This is believed to be a six-fold improvement over the best previously reported value for PEDOT/PSS fibers (467 S · cm-1) and a twofold improvement over the best values for conductive polymer films treated by EG de-doping (1418 S · cm-1). Moreover, these lead, highly conductive fibers experience a semiconductor-metal transition at 313 K. They also have superior mechanical properties with a Young's modulus up to 8.3 GPa, a tensile strength reaching 409.8 MPa and a large elongation before failure (21%). The most conductive fiber also demonstrates an extraordinary electrical performance during stretching/unstretching: the conductivity increased by 25% before the fiber rupture point with a maximum strain up to 21%. Simple fabrication of the semi-metallic, strong and stretchable wet-spun PEDOT/PSS microfibers can make them available for conductive smart electronics. A dramatic improvement in electrical conductivity is needed to make conductive polymer fibers viable candidates in applications such as flexible electrodes, conductive textiles, and fast-response sensors and actuators.

  10. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  11. Semi-metallic, strong conductive polymer microfiber, method and fast response rate actuators and heating textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-06-09

    A method comprising: providing at least one first composition comprising at least one conjugated polymer and at least one solvent, wet spinning the at least one first composition to form at least one first fiber material, hot-drawing the at least one fiber to form at least one second fiber material. In lead embodiments, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy- thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) conjugated polymer microfibers were fabricated via wet- spinning followed by hot-drawing. In these lead embodiments, due to the combined effects of the vertical hot-drawing process and doping/de-doping the microfibers with ethylene glycol (EG), a record electrical conductivity of 2804 S · cm-1 was achieved. This is believed to be a six-fold improvement over the best previously reported value for PEDOT/PSS fibers (467 S · cm-1) and a twofold improvement over the best values for conductive polymer films treated by EG de-doping (1418 S · cm-1). Moreover, these lead, highly conductive fibers experience a semiconductor-metal transition at 313 K. They also have superior mechanical properties with a Young\\'s modulus up to 8.3 GPa, a tensile strength reaching 409.8 MPa and a large elongation before failure (21%). The most conductive fiber also demonstrates an extraordinary electrical performance during stretching/unstretching: the conductivity increased by 25% before the fiber rupture point with a maximum strain up to 21%. Simple fabrication of the semi-metallic, strong and stretchable wet-spun PEDOT/PSS microfibers can make them available for conductive smart electronics. A dramatic improvement in electrical conductivity is needed to make conductive polymer fibers viable candidates in applications such as flexible electrodes, conductive textiles, and fast-response sensors and actuators.

  12. Modeling exposure–lag–response associations with distributed lag non-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In biomedical research, a health effect is frequently associated with protracted exposures of varying intensity sustained in the past. The main complexity of modeling and interpreting such phenomena lies in the additional temporal dimension needed to express the association, as the risk depends on both intensity and timing of past exposures. This type of dependency is defined here as exposure–lag–response association. In this contribution, I illustrate a general statistical framework for such associations, established through the extension of distributed lag non-linear models, originally developed in time series analysis. This modeling class is based on the definition of a cross-basis, obtained by the combination of two functions to flexibly model linear or nonlinear exposure-responses and the lag structure of the relationship, respectively. The methodology is illustrated with an example application to cohort data and validated through a simulation study. This modeling framework generalizes to various study designs and regression models, and can be applied to study the health effects of protracted exposures to environmental factors, drugs or carcinogenic agents, among others. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24027094

  13. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  14. Multiscale numerical study on ferroelectric nonlinear response of PZT thin films (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    PZT thin films have excellent performance in deformation precision and response speed, so it is used widely for actuators and sensors of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). Although PZT thin films outputs large piezoelectricity at morphotropic phase bounfary (MPB), it shows a complicated hysteresis behavior caused by domain switching and structural phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral. In general, PZT thin films have some characteristic crystal morphologies. Additionally mechanical strains occur by lattice mismatch with substrate. Therefore it is important for fabrication and performance improvement of PZT thin films to understand the relation between macroscopic hysteresis response and microstructural changes. In this study, a multiscale nonlinear finite element simulation was proposed for PZT thin films at morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) on the substrate. The homogenization theory was employed for scale-bridging between macrostructure and microstructure. Figure 1 shows the proposed multiscale nonlinear simulation [1-3] based on the homogenization theory. Macrostructure is a homogeneous structure to catch the whole behaviors of actuators and sensors. And microstructure is a periodic inhomogeneous structure consisting of domains and grains. Macrostructure and microstructure are connected perfectly by homogenization theory and are analyzed by finite element method. We utilized an incremental form of fundamental constitutive law in consideration with physical property change caused by domain switching and structural phase transition. The developed multiscale finite element method was applied to PZT thin films with lattice mismatch strain on the substrate, and the relation between the macroscopic hysteresis response and microscopic domain switching and structural phase transition were investigated. Especially, we discuss about the effect of crystal morphologies and lattice mismatch strain on hysteresis response.

  15. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  16. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-10

    We formulate a variational constitutive framework that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior of electrically sensitive polymers, specifically Dielectric Elastomers (DEs), under large deformation. DEs are highly viscoelastic and their actuation response is greatly affected in dynamic applications. We used the generalized Maxwell model to represent the viscoelastic response of DE allowing the material to relax with multiple mechanisms. The constitutive updates at each load increment are obtained by minimizing an objective function formulated using the free energy and electrostatic energy of the elastomer, in addition to the viscous dissipation potential of the dashpots in each Maxwell branch. The model is then used to predict the electromechanical instability (EMI) of DE. The electro-elastic response of the DE is verified with available analytical solutions in the literature and then the material parameters are calibrated using experimental data. The model is integrated with finite element software to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected by the viscoelasticity. Our model predicts that under a dead load EMI can be avoided if the DE operates at a high voltage rate. Subjected to constant, ramp and cyclic voltage, our model qualitatively predicts responses similar to the ones obtained from the analytical solutions and experimental data available in the literature. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Application of nonlinear EPR and NMR responses on spin systems in structure and relaxation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Bitenbaev, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this work results of investigation of paramagnetic systems (irradiated polymers and crystals, plastic-deformed metals, systems with strong exchange interaction, etc.) by methods of nonlinear relaxation spectroscopy (NRS) are presented. The NRS theoretical grounds were developed in the earlier works. Later the technique was applied successfully to relaxation studies and when analyzing magnetic resonance complicated overlapping spectra. As in course of polymer system irradiation, basically, several type of paramagnetic defects are formed with close values of the g factors, these materials can be used to exemplify NRS capabilities. In this work we use samples of irradiated PMMA copolymers. Analysis of the PMMA spectra shows that several types of paramagnetic defects strongly differing in the spin-lattice relaxation times are formed in irradiated PMMA-based polymer composites. It is found that degradation of the composite physical and engineering characteristics is caused, mainly, by radiation-induced disintegration of macromolecules, following the chain reaction, which can be revealed by occurring lattice radical states. Another portion of work is devoted to NRS application to deterring influence of structural defects (impurity, dislocation, etc.) on variation in times of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in metal systems. At this stage we managed, for the first time, to separate the distribution functions for spin-lattice relaxation (T l ) and relaxation of nuclear spin dipole-dipole interaction (T d ). It is shown that one can assess an extent of crystal defect by the dependence of T d =f(c). Also in this work the NRS methods are applied to analyze EPR spectra of polycrystalline solid systems where exchange interaction is strong. It is shown that these systems, as a rule, contain a complete set of spin assemblies having different relaxation times, and the spin assembly distribution over the relaxation time depends on the defect number and type in solid

  18. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hongyao [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xiao, Haibo, E-mail: xiaohb@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Ding, Lei [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Li, Bo [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2015-02-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ{sub cut-off} ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM) and high thermal stability (T{sub d} = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties.

  19. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hongyao; Xiao, Haibo; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ cut-off  ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10 3 GM) and high thermal stability (T d  = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10 3 GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties

  20. Modeling of Nonlinear Mechanical Response in CFRP Angle-Ply Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    It is known that the failure process in angle-ply laminate involves matrix cracking and delamination and that they exhibit nonlinear stress-strain relation. There may be a significant effect of the constituent blocked ply thickness on the mechanical behavior of angle-ply laminates. These days, thin prepregs whose thickness is, for example 50 micron, are developed and commercially available. Therefore, we can design wide variety of laminates with various constituent ply thicknesses. In this study, effects of constituent ply thickness on the nonlinear mechanical behavior and the damage behavior of CFRP angle-ply laminates are investigated experimentally. Based on the experimental results, the mechanical response in CFRP angle-ply laminates is modeled by using the finite strain viscoplasticity model. We evaluated the mechanical behavior and damage behavior in CFRP angle-ply laminates with different constituent ply thickness under tensile loading experimentally. It was found that as the constituent ply thickness decreases, the strength and failure strain increases. We also observed difference in damage behavior. The preliminary results of finite strain viscoplasticity model considering the damage effect for laminated composites are shown. A qualitative agreement is obtained.

  1. Practical guidelines to select and scale earthquake records for nonlinear response history analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake engineering practice is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. Presented herein is a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for use in nonlinear RHA of buildings and bridges. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match (to a specified tolerance) a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-'mode' inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by first-'mode' pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-?mode? dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-'mode' SDF system in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for two bridges, covering single- and multi-span 'ordinary standard' bridge types, and six buildings, covering low-, mid-, and tall building types in California, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  2. Microstructural Origins of Nonlinear Response in Associating Polymers under Oscillatory Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of associating polymers with oscillatory shear is studied through large-scale simulations. A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD, Monte Carlo (MC algorithm is employed. Polymer chains are modeled as a coarse-grained bead-spring system. Functionalized end groups, at both ends of the polymer chains, can form reversible bonds according to MC rules. Stress-strain curves show nonlinearities indicated by a non-ellipsoidal shape. We consider two types of nonlinearities. Type I occurs at a strain amplitude much larger than one, type II at a frequency at which the elastic storage modulus dominates the viscous loss modulus. In this last case, the network topology resembles that of the system at rest. The reversible bonds are broken and chains stretch when the system moves away from the zero-strain position. For type I, the chains relax and the number of reversible bonds peaks when the system is near an extreme of the motion. During the movement to the other extreme of the cycle, first a stress overshoot occurs, then a yield accompanied by shear-banding. Finally, the network restructures. Interestingly, the system periodically restores bonds between the same associating groups. Even though major restructuring occurs, the system remembers previous network topologies.

  3. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-09

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  4. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  5. Application of HPEM to investigate the response and stability of nonlinear problems in vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, M.H.; Mohammadi, A.; Kimiaeifar, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a powerful analytical method, called He's Parameter Expanding Methods (HPEM) is used to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in nonlinear vibration. In this work, the governing equation is obtained by using Lagrange method, then the nonlinear governing equation is solved...

  6. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...

  7. Earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building considering soil-structure separation and nonlinearity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakai, S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the wall-ground separation depends on the relation between the fundamental frequency of the SSI system and that of the surface layer. The maximum accelerations of the upper floors are increased if the side soil is soft. The building shear force is decreased below the ground level if the fundamental frequency of the SSI system is nearly equal to that of the surface layer. The floor response spectra are slightly increased in the high frequency range. Yielding of the soil occurred only in case that the side soil is soft, and the yield zone was restricted in the upper part of the surface layer. Therefore, the material nonlinearity did not affect the results so much. The results of the sway-rocking model (lumped mass model) analysis showed good agreements with those of the FEM models. (orig./HP)

  8. Nonlinear response of a neoclassical four-field magnetic reconnection model to localized current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, E.; Comisso, L.; Valdettaro, L.

    2010-01-01

    In tokamaks magnetic islands arise from an unstable process of tearing and reconnecting of helical field lines across rational surfaces. After a linear stage the magnetic instability develops through three characteristic nonlinear stages where increasingly complex topological alterations occur in the form of the magnetic islands. The problem of response of reconnection process to the injection of an external current suitably localized is addressed using a four-field model in a plane slab plasma, with a novel extension to account consistently of the relevant neoclassical effects, such as bootstrap current and pressure anisotropy. The results found have implications on the interpretation of the possible mechanism of present day experimental results on neoclassical tearing modes as well as on the concepts for their control or avoidance.

  9. Fluctuations of two-time quantities and non-linear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corberi, F; Lippiello, E; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M

    2010-01-01

    We study the fluctuations of the autocorrelation and autoresponse functions and, in particular, their variances and covariance. In a first general part of the paper, we show the equivalence of the variance of the response function to the second-order susceptibility of a composite operator, and we derive an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem beyond linear order, relating it to the other variances. In a second part of the paper we apply the formalism in the study of non-disordered ferromagnets, in equilibrium or in the coarsening kinetics following a critical or sub-critical quench. We show numerically that the variances and the non-linear susceptibility obey scaling with respect to the coherence length ξ in equilibrium, and with respect to the growing length L(t) after a quench, similar to what is known for the autocorrelation and the autoresponse functions

  10. Quantum mechanical analysis of nonlinear optical response of interacting graphene nanoflakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanying Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distant-neighbor quantum-mechanical (DNQM approach to study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs. In contrast to the widely used tight-binding description of the electronic states that considers only the nearest-neighbor coupling between the atoms, our approach is more accurate and general, as it captures the electron-core interactions between all atoms in the structure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, the DNQM approach enables the investigation of the optical coupling between two closely separated but chemically unbound GNFs. We also find that the optical response of GNFs depends crucially on their shape, size, and symmetry properties. Specifically, increasing the size of nanoflakes is found to shift their accommodated quantum plasmon oscillations to lower frequency. Importantly, we show that by embedding a cavity into GNFs, one can change their symmetry properties, tune their optical properties, or enable otherwise forbidden second-harmonic generation processes.

  11. Nonlinear internal waves and plumes generated in response to sea-loch outflow, AUV, and time-lapse photography observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberman, Matthew; Inall, Mark; Boyd, Tim; Dumount, Estelle; Griffiths, Colin

    2017-07-01

    The tidally modulated outflow of brackish water from a sea loch forms a thin surface layer that propagates into the coastal ocean as a buoyant gravity current, transporting nutrients and sediments, as well as fresh water, heat and momentum. The fresh intrusion both propagates into and generates a strongly stratified environment which supports trains of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs). NLIWs are shown to propagate ahead of this buoyancy input in response to propagation of the outflow water into the stratified environment generated by the previous release as well as in the opposing direction after the reflection from steep bathymetry. Oblique aerial photographs were taken and photogrammetric rectification led to the identification of the buoyant intrusion and the subsequent generation of NLIWs. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was deployed on repeated reciprocal transects in order to make simultaneous CTD, ADCP, and microstructure shear measurements of the evolution of these phenomena in conjunction with conventional mooring measurements. AUV-based temperature and salinity signals of NLIWs of depression were observed together with increased turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of over 2 orders of magnitude within and in the wake of the NLIWs. Repeated measurements allow a unique opportunity to investigate the horizontal structure of these phenomena. Simple metric scaling demonstrates that these processes are likely to be feature of many fjordic systems located on the west coast of Scotland but may also play a key role in the assimilation of the outflow from many tidally dominated fjordic systems throughout the world.

  12. Non-linear dose response of a few plant taxa to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.T.; Patel, B.B.; Pius, J.; Narula, B.; Shankhadarwar, S.; Rane, V.A.; Venu-Babu, P.; Eapen, S.; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Micronuclei induction serves as an essential biomarker of radiation stress in a living system, and the simplicity of its detection technique has made it a widely used indicator of radiation damage. The present study was conducted to reveal the cytological dose-response of a few plant taxa, viz., Allium cepa var. aggregatum Linn., Allium sativum Linn., Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, to low LET gamma radiation with special emphasis on the pattern of micronuclei induced across low and high dose regimes. A tri-phasic non-linear dose-response pattern was observed in the four taxa studied, characterized by a low dose linear segment, a plateau and a high dose linear segment. Despite a similar response trend, the critical doses where the phase transitions occurred varied amongst the plant taxa, giving an indication to their relative radiosensitivities. E. crassipes and A. sativum, with their lower critical doses for slope modifications of phase transitions, were concluded as being more radiosensitive as compared to C. comosum and A. cepa, which had relatively higher critical doses. (author)

  13. Nonlinear feedback drives homeostatic plasticity in H2O2 stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulev, Youlian; Morlot, Sandrine; Matifas, Audrey; Huang, Bo; Molin, Mikael; Toledano, Michel B; Charvin, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Homeostatic systems that rely on genetic regulatory networks are intrinsically limited by the transcriptional response time, which may restrict a cell’s ability to adapt to unanticipated environmental challenges. To bypass this limitation, cells have evolved mechanisms whereby exposure to mild stress increases their resistance to subsequent threats. However, the mechanisms responsible for such adaptive homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging and microfluidics to investigate the adaptive response of budding yeast to temporally controlled H2O2 stress patterns. We demonstrate that acquisition of tolerance is a systems-level property resulting from nonlinearity of H2O2 scavenging by peroxiredoxins and our study reveals that this regulatory scheme induces a striking hormetic effect of extracellular H2O2 stress on replicative longevity. Our study thus provides a novel quantitative framework bridging the molecular architecture of a cellular homeostatic system to the emergence of nonintuitive adaptive properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23971.001 PMID:28418333

  14. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO 2 substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T 2 temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures

  15. Rb2Na(NO33: A Congruently Melting UV-NLO Crystal with a Very Strong Second-Harmonic Generation Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Zou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of congruently melting noncentrosymmetric (NCS mixed alkali metal nitrate, Rb2Na(NO33, have been grown through solid state reactions. The material possesses layers with NaO8 hexagonal bipyramids and NO3 triangular units. Rb+ cations are residing in the interlayer space. Each NaO8 hexagonal bipyramid shares its corners and edges with two and three NO3 units, respectively, in order to fulfill a highly dense stacking in the unit cell. The NaO8 groups share their six oxygen atoms in equatorial positions with three different NO3 groups to generate a NaO6-NO3 layer with a parallel alignment. The optimized arrangement of the NO3 groups and their high density in the structure together produce a strong second-harmonic generation (SHG response. Powder SHG measurements indicate that Rb2Na(NO33 has a strong SHG efficiency of five times that of KH2PO4 (KDP and is type I phase-matchable. The calculated average nonlinear optical (NLO susceptibility of Rb2Na(NO33 turns out to be the largest value among the NLO materials composed of only [NO3]− anion. In addition, Rb2Na(NO33 exhibits a wide transparency region ranging from UV to near IR, which suggests that the compound is a promising NLO material.

  16. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... cell, or the largest change in the convection pattern, is limited roughly to the region between the previous cell focus and the new cell focus. Outside this region, the ionospheric flows could be greatly enhanced or weakened, while the convection pattern shape changes very little. When B-y is strong...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...

  17. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS. This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1 Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant bandwidths across a 50-60 dB range of sound levels; (2 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3 contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise (e. g., virtual space stimuli. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115.

  18. Recent advances on glass-forming systems driven far from equilibrium. Special issue marking the completion of the Research Unit FOR 1394 `Nonlinear response to probe vitrification'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    The nature of the glass transition is one of the frontier questions in Statistical Physics and Materials Science. Highly cooperative structural processes develop in glass-forming melts exhibiting relaxational dynamics which is spread out over many decades in time. While considerable progress has been made in recent decades towards understanding dynamical slowing-down in quiescent systems, the interplay of glassy dynamics with external fields reveals a wealth of novel phenomena yet to be explored. This special issue focuses on recent results obtained by the Research Unit FOR 1394 `Nonlinear response to probe vitrification' which was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). In the projects of the research unit, strong external fields were used in order to gain insights into the complex structural and transport phenomena at the glass transition under far-from-equilibrium conditions. This aimed inter alia to test theories of the glass transition developed for quiescent systems by pushing them beyond their original regime. Combining experimental, simulational, and theoretical efforts, the eight projects within the FOR 1394 measured and determined aspects of the nonlinear response of supercooled metallic, polymeric, and silica melts, of colloidal dispersions, and of ionic liquids. Applied fields included electric and mechanic fields, and forced active probing (`micro-rheology'), where a single probe is forced through the glass-forming host. Nonlinear stress-strain and force-velocity relations as well as nonlinear dielectric susceptibilities and conductivities were observed. While the physical manipulation of melts and glasses is interesting in its own right, especially technologically, the investigations performed by the FOR 1394 suggest to use the response to strong homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields as technique to explore on the microscopic level the cooperative mechanisms in dense melts of strongly interacting constituents. Questions considered concern the

  19. Application of nonlinear EPR and NMR responses on spin systems in structure and relaxation structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, A I; Ryabikin, Yu A; Bitenbaev, M M [Inst. of Physics and Technology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: In this work results of investigation of paramagnetic systems (irradiated polymers and crystals, plastic-deformed metals, systems with strong exchange interaction, etc.) by methods of nonlinear relaxation spectroscopy (NRS) are presented. The NRS theoretical grounds were developed in the earlier works. Later the technique was applied successfully to relaxation studies and when analyzing magnetic resonance complicated overlapping spectra. As in course of polymer system irradiation, basically, several type of paramagnetic defects are formed with close values of the g factors, these materials can be used to exemplify NRS capabilities. In this work we use samples of irradiated PMMA copolymers. Analysis of the PMMA spectra shows that several types of paramagnetic defects strongly differing in the spin-lattice relaxation times are formed in irradiated PMMA-based polymer composites. It is found that degradation of the composite physical and engineering characteristics is caused, mainly, by radiation-induced disintegration of macromolecules, following the chain reaction, which can be revealed by occurring lattice radical states. Another portion of work is devoted to NRS application to deterring influence of structural defects (impurity, dislocation, etc.) on variation in times of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in metal systems. At this stage we managed, for the first time, to separate the distribution functions for spin-lattice relaxation (T{sub l}) and relaxation of nuclear spin dipole-dipole interaction (T{sub d}). It is shown that one can assess an extent of crystal defect by the dependence of T{sub d}=f(c). Also in this work the NRS methods are applied to analyze EPR spectra of polycrystalline solid systems where exchange interaction is strong. It is shown that these systems, as a rule, contain a complete set of spin assemblies having different relaxation times, and the spin assembly distribution over the relaxation time depends on the defect number and

  20. ONIOM Investigation of the Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Responses of Fluorescent Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wergifosse, Marc; Botek, Edith; De Meulenaere, Evelien; Clays, Koen; Champagne, Benoît

    2018-05-17

    The first hyperpolarizability (β) of six fluorescent proteins (FPs), namely, enhanced green fluorescent protein, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, SHardonnay, ZsYellow, DsRed, and mCherry, has been calculated to unravel the structure-property relationships on their second-order nonlinear optical properties, owing to their potential for multidimensional biomedical imaging. The ONIOM scheme has been employed and several of its refinements have been addressed to incorporate efficiently the effects of the microenvironment on the nonlinear optical responses of the FP chromophore that is embedded in a protective β-barrel protein cage. In the ONIOM scheme, the system is decomposed into several layers (here two) treated at different levels of approximation (method1/method2), from the most elaborated method (method1) for its core (called the high layer) to the most approximate one (method2) for the outer surrounding (called the low layer). We observe that a small high layer can already account for the variations of β as a function of the nature of the FP, provided the low layer is treated at an ab initio level to describe properly the effects of key H-bonds. Then, for semiquantitative reproduction of the experimental values obtained from hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments, it is necessary to incorporate electron correlation as described at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level as well as implicit solvent effects accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). This led us to define the MP2/6-31+G(d):HF/6-31+G(d)/IEFPCM scheme as an efficient ONIOM approach and the MP2/6-31+G(d):HF/6-31G(d)/IEFPCM as a better compromise between accuracy and computational needs. Using these methods, we demonstrate that many parameters play a role on the β response of FPs, including the length of the π-conjugated segment, the variation of the bond length alternation, and the presence of π-stacking interactions. Then, noticing the small diversity

  1. Ki-67 expression reveals strong, transient influenza specific CD4 T cell responses after adult vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xi; Miao, Hongyu; Henn, Alicia; Topham, David J.; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4–6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vacc...

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Lahmar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.

  3. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  4. Dynamics of electron wave packet in a disordered chain with delayed nonlinear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongjun; Xiong Shijie

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of one electron wave packet in a linear chain with random on-site energies and a nonadiabatic electron-phonon interaction which is described by a delayed cubic nonlinear term in the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that in the regime where the wave packet is delocalized in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, the wave packet becomes localized when the disorder is added and the localization is enhanced by increasing the disorder. In the regime where the self-trapping phenomenon occurs in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, by adding the disorder the general dynamical features of the wave packet do not change if the nonlinearity parameter is small, but the dynamics shows the subdiffusive behavior if the nonlinearity parameter is large. The numerical results demonstrate complicated wave packet dynamics of systems with both the disorder and nonlinearity.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  7. Pile foundation response in liquefiable soil deposit during strong earthquakes. ; Centrifugal test for pile foundation model and correlation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Miura, K. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Scott, R.; Hushmand, B. (California Inst. of Technology, California, CA (United States))

    1992-09-30

    For the purpose of studying the pile foundation response in liquefiable soil deposit during earthquakes, a centrifugal loading system is employed which can reproduce the stress conditions of the soil in the actual ground, and earthquake wave vibration tests are performed in dry and saturated sand layers using a pile foundation model equipped with 4 piles. In addition, the result of the tests is analyzed by simulation using an analytic method for which effective stress is taken into consideration to investigate the effectiveness of this analytical model. It is clarified from the result of the experiments that the bending moment of the pile and the response characteristics of the foundation in the pile foundation response in saturated sand are greatly affected by the longer period of acceleration wave form of the ground and the increase in the ground displacement due to excess pore water pressure buildup. It is shown that the analytical model of the pile foundation/ground system is appropriate, and that this analytical method is effective in evaluating the seismic response of the pile foundation in nonlinear liquefiable soil. 23 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Ki-67 expression reveals strong, transient influenza specific CD4 T cell responses after adult vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Miao, Hongyu; Henn, Alicia; Topham, David J; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S; Mosmann, Tim R

    2012-06-29

    Although previous studies have found minimal changes in CD4 T cell responses after vaccination of adults with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, daily sampling and monitoring of the proliferation marker Ki-67 have now been used to reveal that a substantial fraction of influenza-specific CD4 T cells respond to vaccination. At 4-6 days after vaccination, there is a sharp rise in the numbers of Ki-67-expressing PBMC that produce IFNγ, IL-2 and/or TNFα in vitro in response to influenza vaccine or peptide. Ki-67(+) cell numbers then decline rapidly, and 10 days after vaccination, both Ki-67(+) and overall influenza-specific cell numbers are similar to pre-vaccination levels. These results provide a tool for assessing the quality and quantity of CD4 T cell responses to different influenza vaccines, and raise the possibility that the anti-influenza T cell memory response may be qualitatively altered by vaccination, even if the overall memory cell numbers do not change significantly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The type of adjuvant strongly influences the T-cell response during nanoparticle-based immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuschke, Torben; Epple, Matthias; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2014-01-01

    Potent vaccines require the ability to effectively induce immune responses. Especially for the control of infectious diseases with intracellular pathogens, like viruses or bacteria, potent T-cell responses are indispensable. Several delivery systems such as nanoparticles have been considered to boost the immunogenicity of pathogen derived peptides or subunits for the induction of potent T-cell responses. Since they can be further functionalized with immunostimulants, like Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, they improve the response by enhanced activation of the innate immune system. Currently, TLR agonists like unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides and the synthetic dsRNA derivate polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) are widely used as vaccine adjuvants. CpG and poly(I:C) trigger different TLRs and therefore show differential signal transduction. Recently, we established biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles as potent T cell inducing vaccination vehicles. In this commentary we discuss the role of CpG and poly(I:C) for the effective induction of virus-specific T cells during immunization with CaP nanoparticles. The presented results underline the importance of the right formulation of vaccines for specific immunization purpose. PMID:23982325

  10. Nonlinear optical response of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in the IR and THz ranges studied with the femtosecond resolution in time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanova, E.; Guizard, S.; Wang, Tianwu

    2017-01-01

    Two time-resolved experimental methods have been used for characterization of the non-linear optical response of chalcogenide glasses of the system As-S-Se-Te in IR and THz ranges upon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Photoinduced conductivity and refractivity were stu...

  11. International Benchmark on Numerical Simulations for 1D, Nonlinear Site Response (PRENOLIN) : Verification Phase Based on Canonical Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régnier, Julie; Bonilla, Luis-Fabian; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Bertrand, Etienne; Hollender, Fabrice; Kawase, Hiroshi; Sicilia, Deborah; Arduino, Pedro; Amorosi, Angelo; Asimaki, Dominiki; Pisano, F.

    2016-01-01

    PREdiction of NOn‐LINear soil behavior (PRENOLIN) is an international benchmark aiming to test multiple numerical simulation codes that are capable of predicting nonlinear seismic site response with various constitutive models. One of the objectives of this project is the assessment of the

  12. Carnauba wax nanoparticles enhance strong systemic and mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-gp140 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio A; Loxley, Andrew; Eatmon, Christy; Van Roey, Griet; Fairhurst, David; Mitchnick, Mark; Dash, Philip; Cole, Tom; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin; Shattock, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Induction of humoral responses to HIV at mucosal compartments without inflammation is important for vaccine design. We developed charged wax nanoparticles that efficiently adsorb protein antigens and are internalized by DC in the absence of inflammation. HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles induced stronger in vitro T-cell proliferation responses than antigen alone. Such responses were greatly enhanced when antigen was co-adsorbed with TLR ligands. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that intradermal vaccination with HIV-gp140 antigen-adsorbed nanoparticles induced high levels of specific IgG. Importantly, intranasal immunization with HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles greatly enhanced serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Our results show that HIV-gp140-carrying wax nanoparticles can induce strong cellular/humoral immune responses without inflammation and may be of potential use as effective mucosal adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties adopt strongly contrasting strategies in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2014-10-01

    Sorghum is one of the most drought tolerant crops but surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms achieving this. We have compared physiological and biochemical responses to drought in two sorghum cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These closely related cultivars have starkly contrasting responses to water deficit. In the less tolerant Samsorg 40, drought induced progressive loss of photosynthesis. The more drought tolerant Samsorg 17 maintained photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content until the most extreme conditions. In Samsorg 40, there was a highly specific down-regulation of selected proteins, with loss of PSII and Rubisco but maintenance of PSI and cytochrome b6 f, allowing plants to maintain ATP synthesis. The nitrogen released allows for accumulation of glycine betaine and proline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of specific reengineering of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to drought. In contrast, in Samsorg 17 we detected no substantial change in the photosynthetic apparatus. Rather, plants showed constitutively high soluble sugar concentration, enabling them to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis, even in extremely dry conditions. The implications for these strikingly contrasted strategies are discussed in relation to agricultural and natural systems. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Fortune favours the brave: Movement responses shape demographic dynamics in strongly competing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jonathan R; Petrovskii, Sergei V

    2017-05-07

    Animal movement is a key mechanism for shaping population dynamics. The effect of interactions between competing animals on a population's survival has been studied for many decades. However, interactions also affect an animal's subsequent movement decisions. Despite this, the indirect effect of these decisions on animal survival is much less well-understood. Here, we incorporate movement responses to foreign animals into a model of two competing populations, where inter-specific competition is greater than intra-specific competition. When movement is diffusive, the travelling wave moves from the stronger population to the weaker. However, by incorporating behaviourally induced directed movement towards the stronger population, the weaker one can slow the travelling wave down, even reversing its direction. Hence movement responses can switch the predictions of traditional mechanistic models. Furthermore, when environmental heterogeneity is combined with aggressive movement strategies, it is possible for spatially segregated co-existence to emerge. In this situation, the spatial patterns of the competing populations have the unusual feature that they are slightly out-of-phase with the environmental patterns. Finally, incorporating dynamic movement responses can also enable stable co-existence in a homogeneous environment, giving a new mechanism for spatially segregated co-existence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-cracks identification based on the nonlinear vibration response of beams subjected to moving harmonic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouiyakh H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nonlinear forced vibration of beams containing an arbitrary number of cracks and to perform a multi-crack identification procedure based on the obtained signals. Cracks are assumed to be open and modelled trough rotational springs linking two adjacent sub-beams. Forced vibration analysis is performed by a developed time differential quadrature method. The obtained nonlinear vibration responses are analyzed by Huang Hilbert Transform. The instantaneous frequency is used as damage index tool for cracks detection.

  16. Investigation of the dynamics of a nonlinear optical response in glassy chalcogenide semiconductors by the pump–probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, E. A.; Kuzyutkina, Yu S.; Shiryaev, V. S.; Guizard, S.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of the results of measurements by using the pump–probe method with a femtosecond resolution in time and computer simulation of the charge carrier kinetics have revealed two types of a nonlinear optical response in samples of chalcogenide glasses belonging to the As – S – Se system, irradiated by 50-fs laser pulses with a wavelength of 0.79 μm. The difference in the nonlinear dynamics is due to the difference in the photoexcitation character, because laser radiation can be absorbed either through bound states in the band gap or without their participation, depending on the ratio of the pump photon energy to the bandgap energy.

  17. The nonlinear flexural response of a whole teleost fish: Contribution of scales and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Zhu, Deju; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-12-01

    The scaled skin of fish is an intricate system that provides mechanical protection against hard and sharp puncture, while maintaining the high flexural compliance required for unhindered locomotion. This unusual combination of local hardness and global compliance makes fish skin an interesting model for bioinspired protective systems. In this work we investigate the flexural response of whole teleost fish, and how scales may affect global flexural stiffness. A bending moment is imposed on the entire body of a striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Imaging is used to measure local curvature, to generate moment-curvature curves as function of position along the entire axis of the fish. We find that the flexural stiffness is the highest in the thick middle portion of the fish, and lowest in the caudal and rostral ends. The flexural response is nonlinear, with an initial soft response followed by significant stiffening at larger flexural deformations. Low flexural stiffness at low curvatures promotes efficient swimming, while higher stiffness at high curvatures enables a possible tendon effect, where the mechanical energy at the end of a stroke is stored in the form of strain energy in the fish skin. To assess the contribution of the scales to stiffening we performed flexural tests with and without scales, following a careful protocol to take in account tissue degradation and the effects of temperature. Our findings suggest that scales do not substantially increase the whole body flexural stiffness of teleost fish over ranges of deformations which are typical of swimming and maneuvering. Teleost scales are thin and relatively flexible, so they can accommodate large flexural deformations. This finding is in contrast to the bulkier ganoid scales which were shown in previous reports to have a profound impact of global flexural deformations and swimming in fish like gar or Polypterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estradiol and Progesterone Strongly Inhibit the Innate Immune Response of Mononuclear Cells in Newborns ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Eric; Guignard, Laurence; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Perreau, Matthieu; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Newborns are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections due to qualitative and quantitative deficiencies of the neonatal innate immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are poorly understood. Given that fetuses are exposed to high concentrations of estradiol and progesterone during gestation and at time of delivery, we analyzed the effects of these hormones on the response of neonatal innate immune cells to endotoxin, bacterial lipopeptide, and Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the two most common causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Here we show that at concentrations present in umbilical cord blood, estradiol and progesterone are as powerful as hydrocortisone for inhibition of cytokine production by cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and newborn monocytes. Interestingly, CBMCs and newborn monocytes are more sensitive to the effects of estradiol and progesterone than adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. This increased sensitivity is associated with higher expression levels of estrogen and membrane progesterone receptors but is independent of a downregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in newborn cells. Estradiol and progesterone mediate their anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in CBMCs. Altogether, these results suggest that elevated umbilical cord blood concentrations of estradiol and progesterone acting on mononuclear cells expressing high levels of steroid receptors contribute to impair innate immune responses in newborns. Therefore, intrauterine exposure to estradiol and progesterone may participate in increasing susceptibility to infection during the neonatal period. PMID:21518785

  19. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  20. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  1. Estimation of nonlinearities from pseudodynamic and dynamic responses of bridge structures using the Delay Vector Variance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksic, Vesna; Mandic, Danilo P.; Karoumi, Raid; Basu, Bidroha; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the variability in the responses of large structural systems and quantification of their linearity or nonlinearity as a potential non-invasive means of structural system assessment from output-only condition remains a challenging problem. In this study, the Delay Vector Variance (DVV) method is used for full scale testing of both pseudo-dynamic and dynamic responses of two bridges, in order to study the degree of nonlinearity of their measured response signals. The DVV detects the presence of determinism and nonlinearity in a time series and is based upon the examination of local predictability of a signal. The pseudo-dynamic data is obtained from a concrete bridge during repair while the dynamic data is obtained from a steel railway bridge traversed by a train. We show that DVV is promising as a marker in establishing the degree to which a change in the signal nonlinearity reflects the change in the real behaviour of a structure. It is also useful in establishing the sensitivity of instruments or sensors deployed to monitor such changes.

  2. A Semi-Analytical Approach for the Response of Nonlinear Conservative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Barari, Amin; Fooladi, M

    2011-01-01

    This work applies Parameter expanding method (PEM) as a powerful analytical technique in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in the classical dynamics. Lagrange method is employed to derive the governing equations. The nonlinear governing equations are solved analytically by ...

  3. Measuring RF circuits exhibiting nonlinear responses combined with short and long term memory effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.J.G.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    All RF circuits that incorporate active devices exhibit nonlinear behavior. Nonlinearities result in signal distortion, and therefore state the upper limit of the dynamic range of the circuits. A measure for linearity used quite commonly in RF is the P1dB and/or IP3 point. These quantities are

  4. Dynamics of a photorefractive response and competition of nonlinear processes in self-pumping double phase-conjugate mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogaddam, Mehran Wahdani; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of formation of a nonlinear response of a double phase-conjugate (PC) BaTiO 3 mirror is calculated. It is shown that because of competition between processes of different types (related to the presence of several PC channels, the local and nonlocal components of the photorefractive nonlinearity), the transient and dynamic lasing regimes for this mirror can be substantially different. It is found that the development of lasing begins with the successive formation and phasing of dynamic holograms of two different types (two PC channels). It is shown that even under optimal conditions, the lasing regime is not stationary due to competition between processes of different types, and the parameters of output fields fluctuate in time in a nontrivial way (due to the presence of the in-phase and out-of-phase components). Several scenarios of transition to the dynamic chaos are described. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Rail vehicle dynamic response to a nonlinear physical 'in-service' model of its secondary suspension hydraulic dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Zhou, Z. R.; Yu, D. S.; Qin, Q. H.; Iwnicki, S.

    2017-10-01

    A full nonlinear physical 'in-service' model was built for a rail vehicle secondary suspension hydraulic damper with shim-pack-type valves. In the modelling process, a shim pack deflection theory with an equivalent-pressure correction factor was proposed, and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach was applied. Bench test results validated the damper model over its full velocity range and thus also proved that the proposed shim pack deflection theory and the FEA-based parameter identification approach are effective. The validated full damper model was subsequently incorporated into a detailed vehicle dynamics simulation to study how its key in-service parameter variations influence the secondary-suspension-related vehicle system dynamics. The obtained nonlinear physical in-service damper model and the vehicle dynamic response characteristics in this study could be used in the product design optimization and nonlinear optimal specifications of high-speed rail hydraulic dampers.

  6. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction due to base slab uplift on the seismic response of an HTGR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Wesley, D.A.; Lee, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effects resulting from substantial base slab uplift occurring during a seismic excitation are evaluated. The structure considered consisted of the containment building and prestressed concrete reactor vessel for a typical HTGR plant. A simplified dynamic mathematical model was utilized consisting of a conventional lumped mass structure with soil-structure interaction accounted for by translational and rotational springs whose properties are determined by elastic half space theory. Three different site soil conditions (a rock site, a moderately stiff soil and a soft soil site) and two levels of horizontal ground motion (0.3g and 0.5g earthquakes) were considered. It may be concluded that linear analysis can be used to conservatively estimate the important behavior of the base slab, even under conditions of substantial base slab uplift. For all cases investigated, linear analysis resulted in higher base overturning moments, greater toe pressures, and greater heel uplift distances than nonlinear analyses. It may also be concluded that the nonlinear effect of uplift does not result in any significant lengthening of the fundamental period of the structure. Also, except in the short period region only negligible differences exist between instructure response spectra based on linear analysis and those based on nonlinear analysis. Finally, for sites in which soil-structure interaction is not significant, as for the rock site, the peak structural response at all locations above the base mat are not significantly influenced by the nonlinear effects of base slab uplift. However, for the two soil sites, the peak shears and moments are, in a few instances, significantly different between linear and nonlinear analyses

  7. Review of Response and Damage of Linear and Nonlinear Systems under Multiaxial Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Habtour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of past and recent developments in multiaxial excitation of linear and nonlinear structures is presented. The objective is to review some of the basic approaches used in the analytical and experimental methods for kinematic and dynamic analysis of flexible mechanical systems, and to identify future directions in this research area. In addition, comparison between uniaxial and multiaxial excitations and their impact on a structure’s life-cycles is provided. The importance of understanding failure mechanisms in complex structures has led to the development of a vast range of theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to address complex dynamical effects. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the failure mechanisms of structures through experimental and virtual failure assessment based on correctly identified dynamic loads. For that reason, techniques for mapping the dynamic loads to fatigue were provided. Future research areas in structural dynamics due to multiaxial excitation are identified as (i effect of dynamic couplings, (ii modal interaction, (iii modal identification and experimental methods for flexible structures, and (iv computational models for large deformation in response to multiaxial excitation.

  8. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the Camus data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  9. Non-linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes. A CD is attached that contains the List of participants; Summary of the Research Coordination Meetings; Description of the CAMUS data; Description of the Japanese input motions: near-field earthquakes observed recently in Japan; Description of the output requested of the IAEA CRP participants; Summary of the participants' modelling; Results of Benchmark Step 1, 2 and 3; Scientific background on classification of seismic loads as primary or secondary; and Japanese practice on nonlinear seismic response analysis of safety related important structures.

  10. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  11. Examination of the foreign body response to biomaterials by nonlinear intravital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Holzapfel, Boris M; Alexander, Stephanie; Filippini, Stefano; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Friedl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Implanted biomaterials often fail because they elicit a foreign body response (FBR) and concomitant fibrotic encapsulation. To design clinically relevant interference approaches, it is crucial to first examine the FBR mechanisms. Here, we report the development and validation of infrared-excited nonlinear microscopy to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) organization and fate of 3D-electrospun scaffolds implanted deep into the skin of mice, and the following step-wise FBR process. We observed that immigrating myeloid cells (predominantly macrophages of the M1 type) engaged and became immobilized along the scaffold/tissue interface, before forming multinucleated giant cells. Both macrophages and giant cells locally produced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which initiated and maintained an immature neovessel network, followed by formation of a dense collagen capsule 2-4 weeks post-implantation. Elimination of the macrophage/giant-cell compartment by clodronate and/or neutralization of VEGF by VEGF Trap significantly diminished giant-cell accumulation, neovascularization and fibrosis. Our findings identify macrophages and giant cells as incendiaries of the fibrotic encapsulation of engrafted biomaterials via VEGF release and neovascularization, and therefore as targets for therapy.

  12. Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-10-01

    An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  13. Nonperturbative non-Markovian quantum master equation: Validity and limitation to calculate nonlinear response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2008-05-01

    Based on the influence functional formalism, we have derived a nonperturbative equation of motion for a reduced system coupled to a harmonic bath with colored noise in which the system-bath coupling operator does not necessarily commute with the system Hamiltonian. The resultant expression coincides with the time-convolutionless quantum master equation derived from the second-order perturbative approximation, which is also equivalent to a generalized Redfield equation. This agreement occurs because, in the nonperturbative case, the relaxation operators arise from the higher-order system-bath interaction that can be incorporated into the reduced density matrix as the influence operator; while the second-order interaction remains as a relaxation operator in the equation of motion. While the equation describes the exact dynamics of the density matrix beyond weak system-bath interactions, it does not have the capability to calculate nonlinear response functions appropriately. This is because the equation cannot describe memory effects which straddle the external system interactions due to the reduced description of the bath. To illustrate this point, we have calculated the third-order two-dimensional (2D) spectra for a two-level system from the present approach and the hierarchically coupled equations approach that can handle quantal system-bath coherence thanks to its hierarchical formalism. The numerical demonstration clearly indicates the lack of the system-bath correlation in the present formalism as fast dephasing profiles of the 2D spectra.

  14. Orientation phenomena in chromophore DR1-containing polymer films and their non-linear optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moencke, Doris; Mountrichas, Grigoris; Pispas, Stergios; Kamitsos, Efstratios I.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of chromophore alignment in polymer films following corona poling can be assessed by the generated second harmonic signal. Optimization of the stability and strength of this nonlinear optical response may improve with a better understanding of the underlying principal order phenomena. Structural analysis by vibrational, optical, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy reveals side chain tacticity, aggregation effects, and changes in orientation as a function of temperature. Co-polymers with the functionalized chromophore Disperse Red 1 methacrylate (MDR1) were prepared for three different methacrylate types. High side chain polarity and short side chain length increase generally chromophore aggregation in films, whereas the very long poly-ether side chains in PMEO based co-polymers are wrapped separately around the DR1 entities. Side chain tacticity depends on space requirements, but also on the capacity of side groups to form OH-bridges. Side chain tacticity might present an additional parameter for the assessment of chromophore aggregation and poling induced alignments. Stepwise heating of co-polymer films causes an increase in the number of random over ordered side chain arrangements. Cross-linking by anhydride formation is observed after heating the methacrylic acid based co-polymer.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic response of whole pool multiple spent fuel racks subject to three-dimensional excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wilson, P.R.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The seismic evaluation of submerged free standing spent fuel storage racks is more complicated than most other nuclear structural systems. When subjected to three dimensional (3-D) floor seismic excitations the dynamic responses of racks in a pool are hydro dynamically coupled with each other, with the fuel assemblies water in gaps. The motion behavior of the racks is significantly different from that observed using a 3D single rack mode. Few seismic analyses using 3-D whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature. I this paper an analysis was performed for twelve racks using potential theory for the fluid-structure interaction, and using a 3-D whole pool multi-rack finite element model developed herein. The analysis includes the potential nonlinear dynamic behavior of the impact of fuel-rack, rack-rack and rack-pool wall, the tilting or uplift and the frictional sliding of rack supports, and the impact of the rack supports to the pool floor. (author). 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  17. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  18. How Does HTLV-1 Undergo Oncogene-Dependent Replication Despite a Strong Immune Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Gazon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Mitsuaki Yoshida proposed the following model (Yoshida and Seiki, 1987: “... T-cells activated through the endogenous p40x would express viral antigens including the envelope glycoproteins which are exposed on the cell surface. These glycoproteins are targets of host immune surveillance, as is evidenced by the cytotoxic effects of anti-envelope antibodies or patient sera. Eventually all cells expressing the viral antigens, that is, all cells driven by the p40x would be rejected by the host. Only those cells that did not express the viral antigens would survive. Later, these antigen-negative infected cells would begin again to express viral antigens, including p40x, thus entering into the second cycle of cell propagation. These cycles would be repeated in so-called healthy virus carriers for 20 or 30 years or longer....” Three decades later, accumulated experimental facts particularly on intermittent viral transcription and regulation by the host immune response appear to prove that Yoshida was right. This Hypothesis and Theory summarizes the evidences that support this paradigm.

  19. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  20. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Rodrigo L L; Peres, Carlos A; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  1. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L L Orihuela

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  2. When Winners Become Losers: Predicted Nonlinear Responses of Arctic Birds to Increasing Woody Vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Thompson

    Full Text Available Climate change is facilitating rapid changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation at northern latitudes, raising questions about the responses of wildlife that rely on arctic ecosystems. One widely observed change occurring in arctic tundra ecosystems is an increasing dominance of deciduous shrub vegetation. Our goals were to examine the tolerance of arctic-nesting bird species to existing gradients of vegetation along the boreal forest-tundra ecotone, to predict the abundance of species across different heights and densities of shrubs, and to identify species that will be most or least responsive to ongoing expansion of shrubs in tundra ecosystems. We conducted 1,208 point counts on 12 study blocks from 2012-2014 in northwestern Alaska, using repeated surveys to account for imperfect detection of birds. We considered the importance of shrub height, density of low and tall shrubs (i.e. shrubs >0.5 m tall, percent of ground cover attributed to shrubs (including dwarf shrubs <0.5 m tall, and percent of herbaceous plant cover in predicting bird abundance. Among 17 species considered, only gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus abundance was associated with the highest values of all shrub metrics in its top predictive model. All other species either declined in abundance in response to one or more shrub metrics or reached a threshold where further increases in shrubs did not contribute to greater abundance. In many instances the relationship between avian abundance and shrubs was nonlinear, with predicted abundance peaking at moderate values of the covariate, then declining at high values. In particular, a large number of species were responsive to increasing values of average shrub height with six species having highest abundance at near-zero values of shrub height and abundance of four other species decreasing once heights reached moderate values (≤ 33 cm. Our findings suggest that increases in shrub cover and density will negatively

  3. Impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical response in quantum-well wires with triangular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The 1s-like and 2p-like donor impurity energy states are studied in a semiconductor quantum wire of equilateral triangular cross section as functions of the impurity position and the geometrical size of the structure. Linear and nonlinear coefficients for the optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with 1s→2p transitions are calculated for both the x-polarization and y-polarization of the incident light. The results show a mixed effect of redshift and blueshift depending on the location of the donor atom. Also, strong nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient are obtained for both polarizations in the on-center impurity case. -- Highlights: • The 1s- and 2p-like impurity states in triangular quantum-well wires. • Optical absorption and relative refractive index changes are calculated. • Redshift and blueshift in the optical structures depend on the donor position. • Strong nonlinear contributions to the absorption coefficient have been obtained.

  4. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  5. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  6. Enhancing the nonlinear thermoelectric response of a correlated quantum dot in the Kondo regime by asymmetrical coupling to the leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, Diego; Roura-Bas, Pablo; Aligia, Armando A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the low-temperature properties of the differential response of the current to a temperature gradient at finite voltage in a single-level quantum dot including electron-electron interaction, nonsymmetric couplings to the leads, and nonlinear effects. The calculated response is significantly enhanced in setups with large asymmetries between the tunnel couplings. In the investigated range of voltages and temperatures with corresponding energies up to several times the Kondo energy scale, the maximum response is enhanced nearly an order of magnitude with respect to symmetric coupling to the leads.

  7. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10 -5 cm 2 /W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  9. Response analysis and energy transmissibility of a vibration isolation system with real-power nonlinearities under a NMPPF controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. • The primary resonance, dynamical stability and energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. • The sensitivity of the controller parameters on the responses has been analyzed. • In order to suppress the amplitude peak, the feedback parameters have been determined by the frequency response. • The energy transmissibility is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, the nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. Based on the method of multiple scales, the frequency response, the stability and the energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. It is found that the controlled isolation system exhibits a softening behavior for sub-linear restoring force, while it exhibits the two peak response characteristic rather than a hardening behavior for over-linear restoring force. Further, the sensitivity of the feedback parameters on the responses is discussed. The results, compared to the conventional PPF and IRC methods, show that the proposed method is significantly more effective in controlling the steady-state response, and slightly advantageous for the steady-state dynamics control. The effectiveness of this method is also verified by time domain analysis. Then, the suitable feedback and controller parameters are derived by simulation results in which the amplitude peak is suppressed and the resonance stability is maintained. Finally, the energy transmissibility of the vibration isolation system is investigated. The results show that the feedback gain can reduce the whole transmissibility level and greatly suppress vibration

  10. Broken space-time symmetries and mechanisms of rectification of ac fields by nonlinear (non)adiabatic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denisov, S.; Flach, S.; Ovchinnikov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response is em...... is employed to explain the effect. We consider a case of a particle in a periodic potential as an example and discuss the relevant symmetry breakings and the mechanisms of rectification of the current in such a system.......We consider low-dimensional dynamical systems exposed to a heat bath and to additional ac fields. The presence of these ac fields may lead to a breaking of certain spatial or temporal symmetries, which in turn cause nonzero averages of relevant observables. Nonlinear (non)adiabatic response...

  11. Comparison of Damage Models for Predicting the Non-Linear Response of Laminates Under Matrix Dominated Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Five models for matrix damage in fiber reinforced laminates are evaluated for matrix-dominated loading conditions under plane stress and are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The emphasis of this study is on a comparison of the response of embedded plies subjected to a homogeneous stress state. Three of the models are specifically designed for modeling the non-linear response due to distributed matrix cracking under homogeneous loading, and also account for non-linear (shear) behavior prior to the onset of cracking. The remaining two models are localized damage models intended for predicting local failure at stress concentrations. The modeling approaches of distributed vs. localized cracking as well as the different formulations of damage initiation and damage progression are compared and discussed.

  12. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  13. Identification of defect distribution at ferroelectric domain walls from evolution of nonlinear dielectric response during the aging process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), č. článku 064114. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nonlinear dielectric response * ferroelectric domain walls * aging process * phase field simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064114

  14. Analysis of the quasiperiodic response of a generalized van der Pol nonlinear system in the resonance zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    -, - (2018), , , --- ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * generalized van der Pol system * quasiperiodic response * synchronization effects * stability of auto-oscillation Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004579491730278X

  15. Evaluation and summary of seismic response of above ground nuclear power plant piping to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the observations and experience which has been developed relative to the seismic behavior of above-ground, building-supported, industrial type piping (similar to piping used in nuclear power plants) in strong motion earthquakes. The paper also contains observations regarding the response of piping in experimental tests which attempted to excite the piping to failure. Appropriate conclusions regarding the behavior of such piping in large earthquakes and recommendations as to future design of such piping to resist earthquake motion damage are presented based on observed behavior in large earthquakes and simulated shake table testing

  16. Control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying modelling of dielectric elastomer actuators with frequency response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, William R; Dodd, Tony J; Anderson, Sean R; Wilson, Emma D; Porrill, John; Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Current models of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are mostly constrained to first principal descriptions that are not well suited to the application of control design due to their computational complexity. In this work we describe an integrated framework for the identification of control focused, data driven and time-varying DEA models that allow advanced analysis of nonlinear system dynamics in the frequency-domain. Experimentally generated input–output data (voltage-displacement) was used to identify control-focused, nonlinear and time-varying dynamic models of a set of film-type DEAs. The model description used was the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input structure. Frequency response analysis of the DEA dynamics was performed using generalized frequency response functions, providing insight and a comparison into the time-varying dynamics across a set of DEA actuators. The results demonstrated that models identified within the presented framework provide a compact and accurate description of the system dynamics. The frequency response analysis revealed variation in the time-varying dynamic behaviour of DEAs fabricated to the same specifications. These results suggest that the modelling and analysis framework presented here is a potentially useful tool for future work in guiding DEA actuator design and fabrication for application domains such as soft robotics. (paper)

  17. Enhancement of nonlinear optical response of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films by spectrally rectangle-shape-pulse-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O; Isu, T; Ishi-Hayase, J; Sasaki, M; Tsuchiya, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the nonlinear optical response of the weakly confined excitons with use of spectrally rectangular pulse. The nonlinear optical response was investigated as a function of excitation energy by a degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM) technique. In the case that the laser pulse with the controlled spectral shape excites the plural exciton states simultaneously, the DFWM signal intensity is enhanced by a factor of two in comparison with the intensity under the excitation of a single exciton state. This enhancement is caused by the superposition of the nonlinear optical responses from the plural exciton states

  18. Noise Response Data Reveal Novel Controllability Gramian for Nonlinear Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Control of nonlinear large-scale dynamical networks, e.g., collective behavior of agents interacting via a scale-free connection topology, is a central problem in many scientific and engineering fields. For the linear version of this problem, the so-called controllability Gramian has played an important role to quantify how effectively the dynamical states are reachable by a suitable driving input. In this paper, we first extend the notion of the controllability Gramian to nonlinear dynamics in terms of the Gibbs distribution. Next, we show that, when the networks are open to environmental noise, the newly defined Gramian is equal to the covariance matrix associated with randomly excited, but uncontrolled, dynamical state trajectories. This fact theoretically justifies a simple Monte Carlo simulation that can extract effectively controllable subdynamics in nonlinear complex networks. In addition, the result provides a novel insight into the relationship between controllability and statistical mechanics. PMID:27264780

  19. Local-field enhancement effect on the nonlinear optical response of gold-silver nanoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesca, T; Calvelli, P; Battaglin, G; Mazzoldi, P; Mattei, G

    2012-02-13

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of Au-Ag nanoplanets produced by ion implantation and irradiation in silica, experimentally investigated by means of the single beam z-scan technique. The measurements provided experimental evidence of the intense local-field enhancement effect theoretically demonstrated for these plasmonic nanosystems. In particular, this has a dramatic impact on their nonlinear absorption behavior and results in a tunable changeover from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption by slightly varying the pump intensity and in the possibility to activate and observe nonlinear phenomena of the electron dynamics otherwise unaccessible in the intensity range that can be employed to study these materials. Finally, for the nanoplanet configuration we found a dramatic decrease of the intensity-dependent absorption coefficient, which could be very promising for obtaining optical gain materials.

  20. Rapid upslope shifts in New Guinean birds illustrate strong distributional responses of tropical montane species to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G.; Class Freeman, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperate-zone species have responded to warming temperatures by shifting their distributions poleward and upslope. Thermal tolerance data suggests that tropical species may respond to warming temperatures even more strongly than temperate-zone species, but this prediction has yet to be tested. We addressed this data gap by conducting resurveys to measure distributional responses to temperature increases in the elevational limits of the avifaunas of two geographically and faunally independent New Guinean mountains, Mt. Karimui and Karkar Island, 47 and 44 y after they were originally surveyed. Although species richness is roughly five times greater on mainland Mt. Karimui than oceanic Karkar Island, distributional shifts at both sites were similar: upslope shifts averaged 113 m (Mt. Karimui) and 152 m (Karkar Island) for upper limits and 95 m (Mt. Karimui) and 123 m (Karkar Island) for lower limits. We incorporated these results into a metaanalysis to compare distributional responses of tropical species with those of temperate-zone species, finding that average upslope shifts in tropical montane species match local temperature increases significantly more closely than in temperate-zone montane species. That tropical species appear to be strong responders has global conservation implications and provides empirical support to hitherto untested models that predict widespread extinctions in upper-elevation tropical endemics with small ranges. PMID:24550460

  1. Strong, sudden cooling alleviates the inflammatory responses in heat-stressed dairy cows based on iTRAQ proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Fan, Caiyun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of sudden cooling on the physiological responses of 12 heat-stressed Holstein dairy cows using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling approach. Plasma samples were collected from these cows during heat stress (HS), and after strong, sudden cooling in the summer (16 days later). We compared plasma proteomic data before and after sudden cooling to identify the differentially abundant proteins. The results showed that sudden cooling in summer effectively alleviated the negative consequences of HS on body temperature and production variables. Expressions of plasma hemoglobin alpha and hemoglobin beta were upregulated, whereas lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and haptoglobin were downregulated in this process. The increase of hemoglobin after cooling may improve oxygen transport and alleviate the rise in respiration rates in heat-stressed dairy cows. The decrease of LBP and haptoglobin suggests that the inflammatory responses caused by HS are relieved after cooling. Our findings provide new insight into the physiological changes that occur when heat-stressed dairy cows experience strong, sudden cooling.

  2. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H; Engelward, Bevin P; Heinen, Christopher D; Johnson, George E; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance of a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contributions of DNA repair and damage response pathways to the non-linear genotoxic responses of alkylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapacz, Joanna; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Engelward, Bevin P.; Heinen, Christopher D.; Johnson, George E.; Clewell, Rebecca A.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2016-01-01

    From a risk assessment perspective, DNA-reactive agents are conventionally assumed to have genotoxic risks at all exposure levels, thus applying a linear extrapolation for low-dose responses. New approaches discussed here, including more diverse and sensitive methods for assessing DNA damage and DNA repair, strongly support the existence of measurable regions where genotoxic responses with increasing doses are insignificant relative to control. Model monofunctional alkylating agents have in vitro and in vivo datasets amenable to determination of points of departure (PoDs) for genotoxic effects. A session at the 2013 Society of Toxicology meeting provided an opportunity to survey the progress in understanding the biological basis of empirically-observed PoDs for DNA alkylating agents. Together with the literature published since, this review discusses cellular pathways activated by endogenous and exogenous alkylation DNA damage. Cells have evolved conserved processes that monitor and counteract a spontaneous steady-state level of DNA damage. The ubiquitous network of DNA repair pathways serves as the first line of defense for clearing of the DNA damage and preventing mutation. Other biological pathways discussed here that are activated by genotoxic stress include post-translational activation of cell cycle networks and transcriptional networks for apoptosis/cell death. The interactions of various DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways provide biological bases for the observed PoD behaviors seen with genotoxic compounds. Thus, after formation of DNA adducts, the activation of cellular pathways can lead to the avoidance a mutagenic outcome. The understanding of the cellular mechanisms acting within the low-dose region will serve to better characterize risks from exposures to DNA-reactive agents at environmentally-relevant concentrations. PMID:27036068

  4. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  5. Comparison of simulated and measured response of load rejection on A hydro power plant model with mixed mode nonlinear controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babunski, Darko; Tuneski, Atanasko; Zaev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Revised Hydro Power Plant model of the IEEE working group recommended converted to state space model is used for simulation of transient response of hydro turbine, and verification was made using measurements of transients from real Hydro Power Plant (HPP). Nonlinear mixed model controller was designed and implemented into complete HPP simulation model and compared with PID with real parameters used in HPP, and with adjusted PID parameters with consideration of smallest frequency error. Verification of performance of the model was made comparing model response with measured load rejection, which is worst case of HPP operation. (Author)

  6. Computation of the frequency response of a nonlinearly loaded antenna within a cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gronwald

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a nonlinearly loaded dipole antenna which is located within a rectangular cavity and excited by an electromagnetic signal. The signal is composed from two different frequencies. In order to calculate the spectrum of the resulting electromagnetic field within the resonator we transform the antenna problem into a network problem. This requires to precisely determine the antenna impedance within the cavity. The resulting nonlinear equivalent network is solved by means of the harmonic balance technique. As a result the occurrence of low intermodulation frequencies within the spectrum is verified.

  7. Infection of goose with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus of goose origin elicits strong immune responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND, caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06. The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR1–3, 5, 7 and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD 5–7, 10, 12 and 16, cytokines interleukin (IL-8, IL-18, IL-1β and interferon-γ, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10 and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  8. Estimation of Joule heating and its role in nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-12-01

    Highly non-linear I-V characteristics and apparent colossal electro-resistance were observed in non-charge ordered manganite Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal in low temperature transport measurements. Significant changes were noticed in top surface temperature of the sample as compared to its base while passing current at low temperature. By analyzing these variations, we realize that the change in surface temperature (ΔTsur) is too small to have caused by the strong negative differential resistance. A more accurate estimation of change in the sample temperature was made by back-calculating the sample temperature from the temperature variation of resistance (R-T) data (ΔTcal), which was found to be higher than ΔTsur. This result indicates that there are large thermal gradients across the sample. The experimentally derived ΔTcal is validated with the help of a simple theoretical model and estimation of Joule heating. Pulse measurements realize substantial reduction in Joule heating. With decrease in sample thickness, Joule heating effect is found to be reduced. Our studies reveal that Joule heating plays a major role in the nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3. By careful management of the duty cycle and pulse current I-V measurements, Joule heating can be mitigated to a large extent.

  9. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  10. Forests, fire, floods and fish: nonlinear biophysical responses to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. L.; Baxter, C.; Yager, E. M.; Fremier, A. K.; Crosby, B. T.; Smith, A. M.; Kennedy, B.; Hicke, J. A.; Feris, K.

    2009-12-01

    One goal of interdisciplinarity is to develop a more holistic understanding of a set of interlinked, complex system processes. Studies rarely couple both a mechanistic understanding of individual processes with their coupled influence on the entire system structure, yet the prospects for climate driven changes in western river systems provide justification for such an effort. We apply such a mechanistic and systems approach to understanding the effects of climate on fire frequency, plant-soil infiltration, sediment transport and stream community and ecosystem dynamics in a large wilderness setting that is likely to experience shifts in the timing or intensity of physical forces if projected climate change scenarios are realized. The Middle Fork Salmon River in central Idaho runs through the Frank Church Wilderness area and is the largest roadless area in the conterminous United States. The relatively southern continental position, complex mountain terrain and wealth of long-term landscape and ecological data in this region make it a tractable system to study the multifaceted and potentially non-linear processes of system change. This presents a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change in the absence of substantial management effects in a system on the cusp of change. This collection of studies investigates the effects of climate-driven changes in hillslope processes on stream geomorphic and ecologic processes. We investigate 1) how wildfire alters the magnitude, timing and size of sediment delivered to stream channels, 2) how climate-driven changes in the proportion of rain vs. snow dominated basins alter stream hydrology, 3) how wildfire and insect disturbances modify aquatic ecosystems through inputs of nutrients and changes to habitat, 4) how paleo-records of drought, fire, and fire-related debris flows compare with recent data, 5) how fire-related inputs of sediment and wood influence the structure and dynamics of aquatic habitats, and their

  11. Gyrotropic Zener tunneling and nonlinear IV curves in the zero-energy Landau level of graphene in a strong magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti; Sonin, Edouard

    2018-01-12

    We have investigated tunneling current through a suspended graphene Corbino disk in high magnetic fields at the Dirac point, i.e. at filling factor ν = 0. At the onset of the dielectric breakdown the current through the disk grows exponentially before ohmic behaviour, but in a manner distinct from thermal activation. We find that Zener tunneling between Landau sublevels dominates, facilitated by tilting of the source-drain bias potential. According to our analytic modelling, the Zener tunneling is strongly affected by the gyrotropic force (Lorentz force) due to the high magnetic field.

  12. Documentation for assessment of modal pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of "ordinary standard" bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground-motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case for the central United States), or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case for San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure recently was developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records, such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of 'true' median structural responses. The adjective 'accurate' refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective 'efficient' refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. Herein, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing 'ordinary standard' bridges typical of reinforced-concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi span bridge, curved-bridge, and skew-bridge. As compared to benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. Thus, the MPS procedure is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of 'ordinary standard' bridges.

  13. Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.

  14. Non-linear frequency response of non-isothermal adsorption controlled by micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENKA PETKOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of higher order frequency response functions (FRFs is used for the analysis of non-linear adsorption kinetics on a particle scale, for the case of non-isothermal micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity. Six series of FRFs are defined for the general non-isothermal case. A non-linerar mathematical model is postulated and the first and second order FRFs derived and simulated. A variable diffusivity influences the shapes of the second order FRFs relating the sorbate concentration in the solid phase and t he gas pressure significantly, but they still keep their characteristics which can be used for discrimination of this from other kinetic mechanisms. It is also shown that first and second order particle FRFs offter sufficient information for an easy and fast estimation of all model parameters, including those defining the system non-linearity.

  15. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  16. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  17. Sine sweep and steady-state response of simplified solar array models with nonlinear elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; van Liempt, F.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of two simplified solar array systems is investigated experimentally and numerically. A simplified beam model supported by one snubber (a bilinear spring which can only take compressive forces) is used to investigate the dynamics of the extension arm on

  18. Mycobacterium vaccae induces a strong Th1 response that subsequently declines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Yanlong; Cui, Ziyin; Yang, Wentao; Yue, Limin; Ma, Yingcong; Shi, Shaohua; Wang, Chunfang; Wang, Chunfeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) vaccae is a fast-growing species of saprophytic bacteria that is widely distributed. To understand the host immune responses induced by M. vaccae isolated from bovine submaxillary lymph nodes, C57BL/6 mice were infected with reference strain M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and isolated M. vaccae using intraperitoneal injections. Comparison of the bacterial replication and organ pathology between M. vaccae and M. bovis BCG revealed that M. vaccae was more malignant than M. bovis in mice. We also demonstrated that serum from the M. vaccae -infected mice contained a higher expression level of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta than did the other groups, especially after week 4. Furthermore, when the numbers of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ and CD3⁺CD4⁺IL4⁺cells in the infected mice were observed by flow cytometry, we found that a powerful T helper 1 (Th1) response was induced by M. vaccae infection, which was associated with the emergence of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺cells. However, the Th1 response declined over time, which was associated with appearance of the CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ and CD4⁺CD25⁺CD152⁺Treg cell reaction. In addition, a strong Th2 response was found. Finally, we found that M. vaccae infection increased the production of type I IFNs, which was associated with a reduced Th1 response.

  19. Assessment of modal-pushover-based scaling procedure for nonlinear response history analysis of ordinary standard bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Kwong, N.

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake engineering profession is increasingly utilizing nonlinear response history analyses (RHA) to evaluate seismic performance of existing structures and proposed designs of new structures. One of the main ingredients of nonlinear RHA is a set of ground motion records representing the expected hazard environment for the structure. When recorded motions do not exist (as is the case in the central United States) or when high-intensity records are needed (as is the case in San Francisco and Los Angeles), ground motions from other tectonically similar regions need to be selected and scaled. The modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) procedure was recently developed to determine scale factors for a small number of records such that the scaled records provide accurate and efficient estimates of “true” median structural responses. The adjective “accurate” refers to the discrepancy between the benchmark responses and those computed from the MPS procedure. The adjective “efficient” refers to the record-to-record variability of responses. In this paper, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are evaluated by applying it to four types of existing Ordinary Standard bridges typical of reinforced concrete bridge construction in California. These bridges are the single-bent overpass, multi-span bridge, curved bridge, and skew bridge. As compared with benchmark analyses of unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground motions, it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided an accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs) accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the EDPs. Thus, it is a useful tool for scaling ground motions as input to nonlinear RHAs of Ordinary Standard bridges.

  20. Toward a unified description of nonlinearity and frequency dispersion of piezoelectric and dielectric responses in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanovic, D.; Bharadwaja, S.S.N.; Setter, N.

    2005-01-01

    A phenomenological approach is proposed describing both nonlinearity and frequency dispersion in dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT), thin films and ceramics. The approach couples the frequency dependent response in form of the power law, 1/ω β , with the rate-independent nonlinear response described by the Rayleigh law. The main experimental trends are well described by the model

  1. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  2. Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Marshall, Hollie; Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Thomas, Kelley W; Pfrender, Michael E; Spanier, Katina I; De Meester, Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in the presence of strong environmental selection. We address this key question using the water flea Daphnia magna, which produces dormant stages that accumulate in biological archives over time. We assess temporal genetic stability in three biological archives, previously used in resurrection ecology studies showing adaptive evolutionary responses to rapid environmental change. We show that neutral genetic diversity does not decline with the age of the population and it is maintained in the presence of strong selection. In addition, by comparing temporal genetic stability in hatched and unhatched populations from the same biological archive, we show that dormant egg banks can be consulted to obtain a reliable measure of genetic diversity over time, at least in the multidecadal time frame studied here. The stability of neutral genetic diversity through time is likely mediated by the buffering effect of the resting egg bank. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Poggianella

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.

  4. Growth of silver-coated gold nanoshells with enhanced linear and nonlinear optical responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ya-Fang; Wang, Jia-Hong; Ma, Liang; Nan, Fan; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Zhou, Li, E-mail: zhouli@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Qu-Quan, E-mail: qqwang@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Artificial Miro- and Nano-structures of the Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2015-03-15

    Silver-coated gold nanoshells with 1,4-BDT molecules as the spacer (Ag/BDT/Au) were synthesized on the surface of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. The surface plasmon resonance of Au/SiO{sub 2} and Ag/BDT/Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with single and double shells were tuned by adjusting the thickness of Au and Ag nanoshells. The enhanced local field in the gap of Au and Ag shells is demonstrated by measuring Raman scattering and nonlinear refraction. The results show that the Raman intensity is enhanced by 17 times and the nonlinear refractive index is enhanced by 30 % due to the growth of Ag shells.

  5. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  6. Temporal, Spectral, and Polarization Dependence of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Carbon Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    liquid. Since the diffusive nature of the relaxation follows the Debye –Stokes–Einstein relation [39], this mechanism is referred to as diffusive...Sigma-Aldrich, 270660, ≥99.9%) are conducted using 1 mm path length , fused silica cuvettes. Using the refractive index measurements of [46], we find...studies of molecular liquids,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 523–558 (1980). 38. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic/Elsevier, 2008). 39. P. Debye

  7. Non-linear response of electrode-electrolyte interface at high current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, G.A.; Felice, C.J.; Valentinuzzi, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    A distributed parameter non-linear circuit is presented as fractal model of an electrode-electrolyte interface. It includes the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance at each fractal level. The circuit explains the linear behavior of its series equivalent resistance R eq with signals of amplitudes eq Fourier spectrum. As a consequence, both the equivalent resistance and reactance drop with voltage, facts reported experimentally by other authors

  8. The response of the Red Sea to a strong wind jet near the Tokar Gap in summer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping

    2013-01-01

    [1] Remote sensing and in situ observations are used to investigate the ocean response to the Tokar Wind Jet in the Red Sea. The wind jet blows down the atmospheric pressure gradient through the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese coast, at about 19°N, during the summer monsoon season. It disturbs the prevailing along-sea (southeastward) winds with strong cross-sea (northeastward) winds that can last from days to weeks and reach amplitudes of 20-25 m/s. By comparing scatterometer winds with along-track and gridded sea level anomaly observations, it is observed that an intense dipolar eddy spins up in response to the wind jet. The eddy pair has a horizontal scale of 140 km. Maximum ocean surface velocities can reach 1 m/s and eddy currents extend more than 100 m into the water column. The eddy currents appear to cover the width of the sea, providing a pathway for rapid transport of marine organisms and other drifting material from one coast to the other. Interannual variability in the strength of the dipole is closely matched with variability in the strength of the wind jet. The dipole is observed to be quasi-stationary, although there is some evidence for slow eastward propagation in an idealized numerical model. Simulation of the dipole in an idealized high-resolution numerical model suggests that this is the result of self-advection. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Identification of the Response of a Controlled Building Structure Subjected to Seismic Load by Using Nonlinear System Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, are used to model the behavior of an experimentally scaled three-story building incorporated with a tuned mass damper (TMD subjected to seismic loads. The experimental study is performed to generate the input and output data sets for training and testing the designed models. The parameters of root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient statistics are used to compare the performance of the aforementioned models. A TMD controller system works efficiently to mitigate the structural vibration. The results revealed that the NARX and ANFIS models could be used to identify the response of a controlled structure. The parameters of both two time-delays of the structure response and the seismic load were proven to be effective tools in identifying the performance of the models. A comparison based on the parametric evaluation of the two methods showed that the NARX model outperforms the ANFIS model in identifying structures response.

  10. Orbital-scale nonlinear response of East Asian summer monsoon to its potential driving forces in the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Shi, Zhengguo; Tan, Liangcheng; Deng, Chenglong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a statistical study to characterize the nonlinear response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to its potential forcing factors over the last 260 ka on orbital timescales. We find that both variation in solar insolation and global ice volume were responsible for the nonlinear forcing of orbital-scale monsoonal variations, accounting for 80% of the total variance. Specifically, EASM records with dominated precession variance exhibit a more sensitive response to changes in solar insolation during intervals of enhanced monsoon strength, but are less sensitive during intervals of reduced monsoon strength. In the case of global ice volume with 100-ka variance, this difference is not one of sensitivity but rather a difference in baseline conditions, such as the relative areas of land and sea which affected the land-sea thermal gradient. We therefore suggest that EASM records with dominated precession variance recorded the signal of a shift in the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, and the associated changes in the incidence of torrential rainfall; while for proxies with dominated 100-ka variance, it recorded changes in the land-sea thermal gradient via its effects on non-torrential precipitation.

  11. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic response analysis in piping system for a loss of coolant accident in primary loop of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiwen; He Feng; Hao Pengfei; Wang Xuefang

    2000-01-01

    Based on the elaborate force and moment analysis with characteristics method and control-volume integrating method for the piping system of primary loop under pressurized water reactor' loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, the nonlinear dynamic response of this system is calculated by the updated Lagrangian formulation (ADINA code). The piping system and virtual underpinning are specially processed, the move displacement of the broken pipe with time is accurately acquired, which is very important and useful for the design of piping system and virtual underpinning

  13. A novel method for non-parametric identification of nonlinear restoring forces in nonlinear vibrations from noisy response data: A conservative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, T. S.; Kwon, S. H.; Han, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel procedure is proposed to identify the functional form of nonlinear restoring forces in the nonlinear oscillatory motion of a conservative system. Although the problem of identification has a unique solution, formulation results in a Volterra-type of integral equation of the 'first' kind: the solution lacks stability because the integral equation is the 'first' kind. Thus, the new problem at hand is ill-posed. Inevitable small errors during the identification procedure can make the prediction of nonlinear restoring forces useless. We overcome the difficulty by using a stabilization technique of Landweber's regularization in this study. The capability of the proposed procedure is investigated through numerical examples

  14. Nonlinear CO2 flux response to 7 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Marguerite; Bracho, Rosvel; Celis, Gerardo; Hutchings, Jack; Natali, Susan M; Pegoraro, Elaine; Salmon, Verity G; Schädel, Christina; Webb, Elizabeth E; Schuur, Edward A G

    2017-09-01

    Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from 7 years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO 2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (R eco ), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO 2 storage (NEE). Over 7 years R eco , GPP, and NEE also increased in Control (i.e., ambient plots), but this change could be explained by slow thaw in Control areas. In the initial stages of thaw, R eco , GPP, and NEE increased linearly with thaw across all treatments, despite different rates of thaw. As thaw in Soil warming continued to increase linearly, ground surface subsidence created saturated microsites and suppressed R eco , GPP, and NEE. However R eco and GPP remained high in areas with large Eriophorum vaginatum biomass. In general NEE increased with thaw, but was more strongly correlated with plant biomass than thaw, indicating that higher R eco in deeply thawed areas during summer months was balanced by GPP. Summer CO 2 flux across treatments fit a single quadratic relationship that captured the functional response of CO 2 flux to thaw, water table depth, and plant biomass. These results demonstrate the importance of indirect thaw effects on CO 2 flux: plant growth and water table dynamics. Nonsummer R eco models estimated that the area was an annual CO 2 source during all years of observation. Nonsummer CO 2 loss in warmer, more deeply thawed soils exceeded the increases in summer GPP, and thawed tundra was a net annual CO 2 source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  16. Ultrafast nonlinear dynamics of thin gold films due to an intrinsic delayed nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Using long-range surface plasmon polaritons light can propagate in metal nano-scale waveguides for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. Gold is an important material for plasmonic waveguides, but although its linear optical properties are fairly well understood, the nonlinear response is still under investigation. We consider the propagation of pulses in ultrathin gold strip waveguides, modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The nonlinear response of gold is accounted for by the two-temperature model, revealing it as a delayed nonlinearity intrinsic in gold. The consequence is that the measured nonlinearities are strongly dependent on pulse duration. This issue has so far only been addressed phenomenologically, but we provide an accurate estimate of the quantitative connection as well as a phenomenological theory to understand the enhanced nonlinear response as the gold thickness is reduced. In comparison with previous works, the analytical model for the power-loss equation has been improved, and can be applied now to cases with a high laser peak power. We show new fits to experimental data from the literature and provide updated values for the real and imaginary parts of the nonlinear susceptibility of gold for various pulse durations and gold layer thicknesses. Our simulations show that the nonlinear loss is inhibiting efficient nonlinear interaction with low-power laser pulses. We therefore propose to design waveguides suitable for the mid-IR, where the ponderomotive instantaneous nonlinearity can dominate over the delayed hot-electron nonlinearity and provide a suitable plasmonics platform for efficient ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  17. Modeling human auditory evoked brainstem responses based on nonlinear cochlear processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, James; Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    . To generate AEPs recorded at remote locations, a convolution was made on an empirically obtained elementary unit waveform with the instantaneous discharge rate function for the corresponding AN unit. AEPs to click-trains, as well as to tone pulses at various frequencies, were both modelled and recorded...... at different stimulation levels and repetition rates. The observed nonlinearities in the recorded potential patterns, with respect to ABR wave V latencies and amplitudes, could be largely accounted for by level-dependent BM processing as well as effects of short-term neural adaptation. The present study...

  18. Non-parametric system identification from non-linear stochastic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdinger, Finn; Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    An estimation method is proposed for identification of non-linear stiffness and damping of single-degree-of-freedom systems under stationary white noise excitation. Non-parametric estimates of the stiffness and damping along with an estimate of the white noise intensity are obtained by suitable...... of the energy at mean-level crossings, which yields the damping relative to white noise intensity. Finally, an estimate of the noise intensity is extracted by estimating the absolute damping from the autocovariance functions of a set of modified phase plane variables at different energy levels. The method...

  19. Response of Non-Linear Systems to Renewal Impulses by Path Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    The cell-to-cell mapping (path integration) technique has been devised for MDOF non-linear and non-hysteretic systems subjected to random trains of impulses driven by an ordinary renewal point process with gamma-distributed integer parameter interarrival times (an Erlang process). Since the renewal...... point process has not independent increments the state vector of the system, consisting of the generalized displacements and velocities, is not a Markov process. Initially it is shown how the indicated systems can be converted to an equivalent Poisson driven system at the expense of introducing...... additional discrete-valued state variables for which the stochastic equations are also formulated....

  20. Exposure-lag-response in Longitudinal Studies: Application of Distributed Lag Non-linear Models in an Occupational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neophytou, Andreas M; Picciotto, Sally; Brown, Daniel M; Gallagher, Lisa E; Checkoway, Harvey; Eisen, Ellen A; Costello, Sadie

    2018-02-13

    Prolonged exposures can have complex relationships with health outcomes, as timing, duration, and intensity of exposure are all potentially relevant. Summary measures such as cumulative exposure or average intensity of exposure may not fully capture these relationships. We applied penalized and unpenalized distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) with flexible exposure-response and lag-response functions in order to examine the association between crystalline silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in a cohort study of 2,342 California diatomaceous earth workers, followed 1942-2011. We also assessed associations using simple measures of cumulative exposure assuming linear exposure-response and constant lag-response. Measures of association from DLNMs were generally higher than from simpler models. Rate ratios from penalized DLNMs corresponding to average daily exposures of 0.4 mg/m3 during lag years 31-50 prior to the age of observed cases were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 2.35) for lung cancer and 1.80 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.85) for non-malignant respiratory disease. Rate ratios from the simpler models for the same exposure scenario were 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.48) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.03-1.46) respectively. Longitudinal cohort studies of prolonged exposures and chronic health outcomes should explore methods allowing for flexibility and non-linearities in the exposure-lag-response. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  1. Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: Identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater decline is widespread, yet its implications for natural systems are poorly understood. Previous research has revealed links between groundwater depth and tree condition; however, critical thresholds which might indicate ecological ‘tipping points’ associated with rapid and potentially irreversible change have been difficult to quantify. This study collated data for two dominant floodplain species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum and E. populnea (poplar box from 118 sites in eastern Australia where significant groundwater decline has occurred. Boosted regression trees, quantile regression and Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis were used to investigate the relationship between tree condition and groundwater depth. Distinct non-linear responses were found, with groundwater depth thresholds identified in the range from 12.1 m to 22.6 m for E. camaldulensis and 12.6 m to 26.6 m for E. populnea beyond which canopy condition declined abruptly. Non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition in these species may be linked to rooting depth, with chronic groundwater decline decoupling trees from deep soil moisture resources. The quantification of groundwater depth thresholds is likely to be critical for management aimed at conserving groundwater dependent biodiversity. Identifying thresholds will be important in regions where water extraction and drying climates may contribute to further groundwater decline. Keywords: Canopy condition, Dieback, Drought, Tipping point, Ecological threshold, Groundwater dependent ecosystems

  2. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Pranaitis, M.; Sahraoui, B.; Khammar, F.; Garab, G.; Sparrow, R.; Maaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H 4 TPPS 4 ] 2- and [SnTPyP] 2+ mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: ► We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. ► TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. ► UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. ► The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  3. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, Jaime H. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Correa, J.D., E-mail: jcorrea@udem.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  4. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Jaime H.; Correa, J.D.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  5. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  6. A generalized nonlinear tempeature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a major factor that affects metabolic processes in living organisms. Thermal time has been widely used to account for the effects of temperature on crop growth and development. However, the thermal time approach has been criticized because it assumes a linear relationship between the rate of crop growth or development and temperature. The response of the rate of crop growth and development to temperature is nonlinear. The objective of this study was to develop a generalized nonlinear temperature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson. The nonlinear function has three coefficients (the cardinal temperatures, which were 0ºC, 25ºC, and 40ºC. Data of temperature response of relative growth rate, relative leaf area growth, net photosynthesis rate, and leaf appearance rate in kiwifruit (female cv. Hayward at two light levels, which are from published research, were used as independent data for evaluating the performance of the nonlinear and the thermal time functions. The results showed that the generalized nonlinear response function is better than the thermal time approach, and the temperature response of several growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit can be described with the same response function.

  7. Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel

    2018-04-01

    Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.

  8. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, M.K.; Jangid, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  9. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  10. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  11. Electron dynamics in metals and semiconductors in strong THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors and metals respond to strong electric fields in a highly nonlinear fashion. Using single-cycle THz field transients it is possible to investigate this response in regimes not accessible by transport-based measurements. Extremely high fields can be applied without material damage...

  12. Implicit three-dimensional finite-element formulation for the nonlinear structural response of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1975-09-01

    The formulation of a finite-element procedure for the implicit transient and static analysis of plate/shell type structures in three-dimensional space is described. The triangular plate/shell element can sustain both membrane and bending stresses. Both geometric and material nonlinearities can be treated, and an elastic-plastic material law has been incorporated. The formulation permits the element to undergo arbitrarily large rotations and translations; but, in its present form it is restricted to small strains. The discretized equations of motion are obtained by a stiffness method. An implicit integration algorithm based on trapezoidal integration formulas is used to integrate the discretized equations of motion in time. To ensure numerical stability, an iterative solution procedure with equilibrium checks is used

  13. Nonlinear response of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles: From fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Xu-Dong; Guo Xia-Sheng; Tu Juan; Zhang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Modelling and biomedical applications of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles have attracted a great deal of attention. In this review, we summarize a series of researches done in our group, including (i) the development of an all-in-one solution of characterizing coated bubble parameters based on the light scattering technique and flow cytometry; (ii) a novel bubble dynamic model that takes into consideration both nonlinear shell elasticity and viscosity to eliminate the dependences of bubble shell parameters on bubble size; (iii) the evaluation of UCA inertial cavitation threshold and its relationship with shell parameters; and (iv) the investigations of transfection efficiency and the reduction of cytotoxicity in gene delivery facilitated by UCAs excited by ultrasound exposures. (special topic)

  14. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  15. INTRANS. A computer code for the non-linear structural response analysis of reactor internals under transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The 'INTRANS' system is a general purpose computer code, designed to perform linear and non-linear structural stress and deflection analysis of impacting or non-impacting nuclear reactor internals components coupled with reactor vessel, shield building and external as well as internal gapped spring support system. This paper describes in general a unique computational procedure for evaluating the dynamic response of reactor internals, descretised as beam and lumped mass structural system and subjected to external transient loads such as seismic and LOCA time-history forces. The computational procedure is outlined in the INTRANS code, which computes component flexibilities of a discrete lumped mass planar model of reactor internals by idealising an assemblage of finite elements consisting of linear elastic beams with bending, torsional and shear stiffnesses interacted with external or internal linear as well as non-linear multi-gapped spring support system. The method of analysis is based on the displacement method and the code uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration technique as a basis for solution of dynamic equilibrium equations of motion for the system. During the computing process, the dynamic response of each lumped mass is calculated at specific instant of time using well-known step-by-step procedure. At any instant of time then, the transient dynamic motions of the system are held stationary and based on the predicted motions and internal forces of the previous instant. From which complete response at any time-step of interest may then be computed. Using this iterative process, the relationship between motions and internal forces is satisfied step by step throughout the time interval

  16. Nonlinearity effect of electro-optical modulator response in double spread CDMA radio-over-fiber transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yen, Chih-Ta; Li, Tzung-Yen

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a double-spread code-division multiple-access (CDMA) scheme for radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmissions. The network coder/decoders (codecs) are implemented using arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers coded with maximal-length sequence ( M-sequence) codes. The effects of phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) on the system performance are evaluated numerically for different values of the optical modulation index (OMI) during the nonlinear electro-optical modulator (EOM) response. At low OMI optical device noise is dominant, but at high OMI nonlinear effect becomes significant. Numerical result shows that the system performance is highly sensitive to the OMI. Therefore, specifying an appropriate value of the OMI is essential in optimizing the system performance. The influence of the degree of polarization (DOP) in the system is also discussed. By employing the scrambler in front of the balanced photo-detector, the system performance can be enhanced. The high-performance, low-cost characteristics of the double-spread CDMA render the scheme an ideal solution for radio-CDMA wireless system cascaded with optical CDMA network.

  17. Groundwater response under an electronuclear plant to a river flood wave analyzed by a nonlinear finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambolati, G.; Toffolo, F.; Uliana, F.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element model based on the Dupuit-Boussinesq equation of flow in an unconfined aquifer has been developed and applied to simulate the water table fluctuation under the electronuclear plant of the test site of Trino Vercellese (northwestern Italy) in response to the flood event that occurred in the Po River from March 30 to April 4, 1981. The nonlinearity has been overcome by the aid of an efficient iterative linearization technique wherein the model equations are solved by symbolic factorization, numerical factorization, and backward-forward substitution after an optimal preliminary reordering. The model was run for uniform values of aquifer permeability and specific yield within the typical range evidenced for the Trino sands by the early data in our possession. The results show that the maximum water level elevation below the reactor is almost 3 m lower than the corresponding river flood peak even in the most unfavorable conditions, i.e., with the hydraulic conductivity in the upper range, and is rather insensitive to the specific yield values within the plausible interval. The model allowed for an easy evaluation of the effectiveness of the impermeable protection walls and of a possible secondary aquifer recharge from a minor channel. The modeling approach for the analysis of the water table behavior appears to be a very promising tool to help in the structural design of future electronuclear plants

  18. Nonlinear transient dynamic response of pressure relief valves for a negative containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.; Duff, C.G.; Tang, J.H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The response of the piston for the postulated simultaneous effect of pressure and an earthquake is obtained for different parameters and accident conditions. Response quantities such as accelerations, displacements, rotations, diaphragm forces as well as opening time during a design basis earthquake are obtained. The results of the different analyses, as related to the functional operability of the valves, are evaluated and discussed. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of the Multiple-Solution Response of a Flexible Rotor Supported on Non-Linear Squeeze Film Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, C. S.; ROBB, D. A.; EWINS, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The multiple-solution response of rotors supported on squeeze film dampers is a typical non-linear phenomenon. The behaviour of the multiple-solution response in a flexible rotor supported on two identical squeeze film dampers with centralizing springs is studied by three methods: synchronous circular centred-orbit motion solution, numerical integration method and slow acceleration method using the assumption of a short bearing and cavitated oil film; the differences of computational results obtained by the three different methods are compared in this paper. It is shown that there are three basic forms for the multiple-solution response in the flexible rotor system supported on the squeeze film dampers, which are the resonant, isolated bifurcation and swallowtail bifurcation multiple solutions. In the multiple-solution speed regions, the rotor motion may be subsynchronous, super-subsynchronous, almost-periodic and even chaotic, besides synchronous circular centred, even if the gravity effect is not considered. The assumption of synchronous circular centred-orbit motion for the journal and rotor around the static deflection line can be used only in some special cases; the steady state numerical integration method is very useful, but time consuming. Using the slow acceleration method, not only can the multiple-solution speed regions be detected, but also the non-synchronous response regions.

  20. Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Schwindt, Wolfram; Kugel, Harald; Plassmann, Hilke; Kenning, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individual economic decisions are influenced by implicit memory contributions. Twenty-two participants were asked to make binary decisions between different brands of sensorily nearly undistinguishable consumer goods. Changes of brain activity comparing decisions in the presence or absence of a specific target brand were detected by fMRI. Only when the tar get brand was the participant's favorite one did the authors find reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices and the left premotor area (Brodmann areas [BA] 9, 46, 7/19, and 6). Simultaneously, activity was increased in the inferior precuneus and posterior cingulate (BA 7), right superior frontal gyrus (BA 10), right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40), and, most pronounced, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10). For products mainly distinguishable by brand information, the authors revealed a nonlinear winner-take-all effect for a participant's favorite brand characterized, on one hand, by reduced activation in brain areas associated with working memory and reasoning and, on the other hand, increased activation in areas involved in processing of emotions and self-reflections during decision making.

  1. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  2. Epistasis between dopamine regulating genes identifies a nonlinear response of the human hippocampus during memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sambataro, Fabio; Caforio, Grazia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Latorre, Valeria; Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Romano, Raffaella; Douzgou, Sofia; Popolizio, Teresa; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Nardini, Marcello; Weinberger, Daniel R; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2008-08-01

    Dopamine modulation of neuronal activity in prefrontal cortex maps to an inverted U-curve. Dopamine is also an important factor in regulation of hippocampal mediated memory processing. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic variation of dopamine inactivation via catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the dopamine transporter (DAT) on hippocampal activity in healthy humans during different memory conditions. Using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 82 subjects matched for a series of demographic and genetic variables, we studied the effect of the COMT valine (Val)(158)methionine (Met) and the DAT 3' variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms on function of the hippocampus during encoding of recognition memory and during working memory. Our results consistently demonstrated a double dissociation so that DAT 9-repeat carrier alleles modulated activity in the hippocampus in the exact opposite direction of DAT 10/10-repeat alleles based on COMT Val(158)Met genotype during different memory conditions. Similar results were evident in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that genetically determined dopamine signaling during memory processing maps to a nonlinear relationship also in the hippocampus. Our data also demonstrate in human brain epistasis of two genes implicated in dopamine signaling on brain activity during different memory conditions.

  3. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  4. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n 2 , of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response ( 2 was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb 2 O 3 -SbPO 4 composition. Large values of n 2 ≅10 -14 cm 2 /W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications

  5. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  6. The viscoelastic standard nonlinear solid model: predicting the response of the lumbar intervertebral disk to low-frequency vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kevin M; Granata, Kevin P

    2008-06-01

    Due to the mathematical complexity of current musculoskeletal spine models, there is a need for computationally efficient models of the intervertebral disk (IVD). The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model that will adequately describe the motion of the IVD under axial cyclic loading as well as maintain computational efficiency for use in future musculoskeletal spine models. Several studies have successfully modeled the creep characteristics of the IVD using the three-parameter viscoelastic standard linear solid (SLS) model. However, when the SLS model is subjected to cyclic loading, it underestimates the load relaxation, the cyclic modulus, and the hysteresis of the human lumbar IVD. A viscoelastic standard nonlinear solid (SNS) model was used to predict the response of the human lumbar IVD subjected to low-frequency vibration. Nonlinear behavior of the SNS model was simulated by a strain-dependent elastic modulus on the SLS model. Parameters of the SNS model were estimated from experimental load deformation and stress-relaxation curves obtained from the literature. The SNS model was able to predict the cyclic modulus of the IVD at frequencies of 0.01 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 1 Hz. Furthermore, the SNS model was able to quantitatively predict the load relaxation at a frequency of 0.01 Hz. However, model performance was unsatisfactory when predicting load relaxation and hysteresis at higher frequencies (0.1 Hz and 1 Hz). The SLS model of the lumbar IVD may require strain-dependent elastic and viscous behavior to represent the dynamic response to compressive strain.

  7. A variational constitutive framework for the nonlinear viscoelastic response of a dielectric elastomer

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran; Wafai, Husam; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    to perform a variety of simulations on different types of electrically driven actuators under various electromechanical loadings. The electromechanical response of the DE and the critical conditions at which EMI occurs were found to be greatly affected

  8. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  9. Homogenized description and retrieval method of nonlinear metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Larouche, Stéphane; Smith, David R.

    2018-03-01

    A patterned, plasmonic metasurface can strongly scatter incident light, functioning as an extremely low-profile lens, filter, reflector or other optical device. When the metasurface is patterned uniformly, its linear optical properties can be expressed using effective surface electric and magnetic polarizabilities obtained through a homogenization procedure. The homogenized description of a nonlinear metasurface, however, presents challenges both because of the inherent anisotropy of the medium as well as the much larger set of potential wave interactions available, making it challenging to assign effective nonlinear parameters to the otherwise inhomogeneous layer of metamaterial elements. Here we show that a homogenization procedure can be developed to describe nonlinear metasurfaces, which derive their nonlinear response from the enhanced local fields arising within the structured plasmonic elements. With the proposed homogenization procedure, we are able to assign effective nonlinear surface polarization densities to a nonlinear metasurface, and link these densities to the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities and averaged macroscopic pumping fields across the metasurface. These effective nonlinear surface polarization densities are further linked to macroscopic nonlinear fields through the generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs). By inverting the GSTCs, the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities of the metasurfaces can be solved for, leading to a generalized retrieval method for nonlinear metasurfaces. The application of the homogenization procedure and the GSTCs are demonstrated by retrieving the nonlinear susceptibilities of a SiO2 nonlinear slab. As an example, we investigate a nonlinear metasurface which presents nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in near infrared regime. The method is expected to apply to any patterned metasurface whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelengths of operation, with inclusions of arbitrary geometry

  10. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  11. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging method for closed cracks using subtraction of responses at different external loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yoshikazu; Horinouchi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Makoto; Shintaku, Yohei; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2011-08-01

    To improve the selectivity of closed cracks for objects other than cracks in ultrasonic imaging, we propose an extension of a novel imaging method, namely, subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation (SPACE) as well as another approach using the subtraction of responses at different external loads. By applying external static or dynamic loads to closed cracks, the contact state in the cracks varies, resulting in an intensity change of responses at cracks. In contrast, objects other than cracks are independent of external load. Therefore, only cracks can be extracted by subtracting responses at different loads. In this study, we performed fundamental experiments on a closed fatigue crack formed in an aluminum alloy compact tension (CT) specimen using the proposed method. We examined the static load dependence of SPACE images and the dynamic load dependence of linear phased array (PA) images by simulating the external loads with a servohydraulic fatigue testing machine. By subtracting the images at different external loads, we show that this method is useful in extracting only the intensity change of responses related to closed cracks, while canceling the responses of objects other than cracks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Note on nonlinear seismic response of reinforced concrete structures with low initial periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozen, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This note was prepared to illustrate by specific examples an opinion on the seismic response of reinforced concrete structures with low initial periods. The object is to point out what the writer considers to be important in relation to the behavior of such structures at levels of ground shaking higher than indicated by design criteria. Structures of concern are assumed to have low initial periods. A structure with a low initial period is assumed to have both of two attributes: (a) its flexural stiffness is high so that its total overall lateral deformation is not dominated by flexural deformation and (b) its calculated period is below the one at which the calculated response spectrum may be idealized to change from the nearly-constant acceleration to the nearly-constant velocity response range

  13. Characterization of Photon-Counting Detector Responsivity for Non-Linear Two-Photon Absorption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlan, S. E.; Farr, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-band absorption at 1550 nm has been demonstrated and characterized on silicon Geiger mode detectors which normally would be expected to have no response at this wavelength. We compare responsivity measurements to singlephoton absorption for wavelengths slightly above the bandgap wavelength of silicon (approx. 1100 microns). One application for this low efficiency sub-band absorption is in deep space optical communication systems where it is desirable to track a 1030 nm uplink beacon on the same flight terminal detector array that monitors a 1550 nm downlink signal for pointingcontrol. The currently observed absorption at 1550 nm provides 60-70 dB of isolation compared to the response at 1064 nm, which is desirable to avoid saturation of the detector by scattered light from the downlink laser.

  14. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Çelebi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of wave transmission along the truncated interface of the semi-infinite space, are adopted in the non-linear finite element formulation in the time domain along with Newmark's integration. The slenderness ratio of the superstructure and the local soil conditions as well as the characteristics of input excitations are important parameters for the numerical simulation in this research. The mechanical behavior of the underlying soil medium considered in this prediction model is simulated by an undrained elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb model under plane-strain conditions. To emphasize the important findings of this type of problems to civil engineers, systematic calculations with different controlling parameters are accomplished to evaluate directly the structural response of the vibrating soil-structure system. When the underlying soil becomes stiffer, the frequency content of the seismic motion has a major role in altering the seismic response. The sudden increase of the dynamic response is more pronounced for resonance case, when the frequency content of the seismic ground motion is close to that of the SSI system. The SSI effects under different seismic inputs are different for all considered soil conditions and structural types.

  15. Nonlinear mixed effects dose response modeling in high throughput drug screens: application to melanoma cell line analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kuan-Fu; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Finlay, Darren; Yin, Hongwei; Hendricks, William P D; Sereduk, Chris; Kiefer, Jeffrey; Sekulic, Aleksandar; LoRusso, Patricia M; Vuori, Kristiina; Trent, Jeffrey M; Schork, Nicholas J

    2018-01-12

    Cancer cell lines are often used in high throughput drug screens (HTS) to explore the relationship between cell line characteristics and responsiveness to different therapies. Many current analysis methods infer relationships by focusing on one aspect of cell line drug-specific dose-response curves (DRCs), the concentration causing 50% inhibition of a phenotypic endpoint (IC 50 ). Such methods may overlook DRC features and do not simultaneously leverage information about drug response patterns across cell lines, potentially increasing false positive and negative rates in drug response associations. We consider the application of two methods, each rooted in nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) models, that test the relationship relationships between estimated cell line DRCs and factors that might mitigate response. Both methods leverage estimation and testing techniques that consider the simultaneous analysis of different cell lines to draw inferences about any one cell line. One of the methods is designed to provide an omnibus test of the differences between cell line DRCs that is not focused on any one aspect of the DRC (such as the IC 50 value). We simulated different settings and compared the different methods on the simulated data. We also compared the proposed methods against traditional IC 50 -based methods using 40 melanoma cell lines whose transcriptomes, proteomes, and, importantly, BRAF and related mutation profiles were available. Ultimately, we find that the NLME-based methods are more robust, powerful and, for the omnibus test, more flexible, than traditional methods. Their application to the melanoma cell lines reveals insights into factors that may be clinically useful.

  16. Maximum in the middle: nonlinear response of microbial plankton to ultraviolet radiation and phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2×5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the presence vs. absence of ultraviolet radiation. HMFW underwent a mid-term (<20 days acute development following a noticeable unimodal response to P enrichment, which peaked at intermediate P-enrichment levels and, unexpectedly, was more accentuated under ultraviolet radiation. However, after depletion of dissolved inorganic P, the HMFW collapsed and was outcompeted by a low-diversity autotrophic compartment, which constrained the development of HMFW and caused a significant loss of functional biodiversity. The dynamics and relationships among variables, and the response patterns found, suggest the importance of biotic interactions (predation/parasitism and competition in restricting HMFW development, in contrast to the role of abiotic factors as main drivers of autotrophic compartment. The response of HMFW may contribute to ecosystem resilience by favoring the maintenance of the peculiar paths of energy and nutrient-mobilization in these pristine ecosystems, which are vulnerable to threats by the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change.

  17. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  18. Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mirkka; Ferrier, Simon; Condit, Richard

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant species turnover in central Panamanian forests has been principally attributed to the effects of dispersal limitation and a strong Caribbean to Pacific gradient in rainfall seasonality. Despite marked geological heterogeneity, the role of soil variation has not been rigorously examined. 2....... We modelled the compositional turnover of trees and ferns in the Panama Canal watershed as a function of soil chemistry, climate and geographical separation, using generalized dissimilarity models (GDMs). 3. Predictability in both plant groups was strong, with 74% of turnover explained in trees...... and 49% in ferns. Major trends in the two plant groups were strikingly similar. The independent effects of soils, and of climate for trees, were sizeable, but those of geographical distance were minor. In both plant groups, distance and climatic effects on species turnover covaried strongly. 4. Including...

  19. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.

  20. Rationale for nonlinear dose response functions of power greater or less than one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1977-08-01

    Risk estimates and radiation protection standards are generally made using a nonthreshold premise and linear extrapolations from existing data to estimate biological radiation effects at lower doses and at lower dose rates. This seems reasonable in light of the variety of shapes of dose-effect relations which have been observed both in animal studies and in human epidemiological studies. An unexplained observation in several studies was a response which followed a power function of dose with exponent less than one. One explanation offered for this type of response in humans was a postulated population of heterogeneous sensitivity. An alternate, though related, way of considering this question is in terms of multiple-stresses, and this postulate is discussed

  1. Theory of nonlinear optical response of ensembles of double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Anna; Machnikowski, Paweł

    2009-09-01

    We study theoretically the time-resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) response of an ensemble of pairs of quantum dots undergoing radiative recombination. At short (picosecond) delay times, the response signal shows beats that may be dominated by the subensemble of resonant pairs, which gives access to the information on the interdot coupling. At longer delay times, the decay of the FWM signal is governed by two rates which result from the collective interaction between the two dots and the radiation modes. The two rates correspond to the subradiant and super-radiant components in the radiative decay. Coupling between the dots enhances the collective effects and makes them observable even when the average energy mismatch between the dots is relatively large.

  2. Disorder and non-linear magnetic response of high Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burin, J.P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Fouad, Y. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Raboutou, A. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Peyral, P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Lebeau, C. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Rosenblatt, J. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Mokhtari, M. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Pena, O. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Perrin, C. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France))

    1993-05-10

    We measure the low frequency magnetic response of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.7]F[sub x] (0 [<=] x < 0.2) ceramics in a wide range of a.c. fields (10[sup -7] T [<=] [mu][sub 0]H[sub 0] [<=] 10[sup -4]). When changing the amount of disorder (varying x) on the microscopic level we find the same non linear response with field amplitude H[sub 0] as in granular conventional superconductors. The real part of the susceptibility appears as a universal function of H[sub 1](T)/H[sub 0] where H[sub 1](T) is the field of first flux penetration. The power law dependence found for H[sub 1](T) can be understood in the framework of the coherence transition of granular superconductors with random couplings. (orig.)

  3. Maximum in the Middle: Nonlinear Response of Microbial Plankton to Ultraviolet Radiation and Phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-S?nchez, Juan Manuel; Delgado-Molina, Jos? Antonio; Bratbak, Gunnar; Bullejos, Francisco Jos?; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentaci?n

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW) to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2??5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses) after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the ...

  4. Maximum in the middle: nonlinear response of microbial plankton to ultraviolet radiation and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Delgado-Molina, José Antonio; Bratbak, Gunnar; Bullejos, Francisco José; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2013-01-01

    The responses of heterotrophic microbial food webs (HMFW) to the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change have been studied in an oligotrophic high-mountain lake. A 2×5 factorial design field experiment performed with large mesocosms for >2 months was used to quantify the dynamics of the entire HMFW (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates, and viruses) after an experimental P-enrichment gradient which approximated or surpassed current atmospheric P pulses in the presence vs. absence of ultraviolet radiation. HMFW underwent a mid-term (ultraviolet radiation. However, after depletion of dissolved inorganic P, the HMFW collapsed and was outcompeted by a low-diversity autotrophic compartment, which constrained the development of HMFW and caused a significant loss of functional biodiversity. The dynamics and relationships among variables, and the response patterns found, suggest the importance of biotic interactions (predation/parasitism and competition) in restricting HMFW development, in contrast to the role of abiotic factors as main drivers of autotrophic compartment. The response of HMFW may contribute to ecosystem resilience by favoring the maintenance of the peculiar paths of energy and nutrient-mobilization in these pristine ecosystems, which are vulnerable to threats by the joint action of abiotic stressors related to global change.

  5. Non-linearity of the response accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3 ± 1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4 m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p accommodative stimuli, but tended to increase with accommodative demand. Significant variability in response AC/A ratio was found, both within individuals to different accommodative demands, and between individuals across the data set.

  6. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  7. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  8. Nonlinear response of the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia as a function of variable attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Lobianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Latorre, Valeria; Sambataro, Fabio; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal prefrontal and cingulate activity during attentional control processing in schizophrenia. However, it is not clear how variation in attentional control load modulates activity within these brain regions in this brain disorder. The aim of this study in schizophrenia is to investigate the impact of increasing levels of attentional control processing on prefrontal and cingulate activity. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses of 16 outpatients with schizophrenia were compared with those of 21 healthy subjects while performing a task eliciting increasing levels of attentional control during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Results showed reduced behavioral performance in patients at greater attentional control levels. Imaging data indicated greater prefrontal activity at intermediate attentional control levels in patients but greater prefrontal and cingulate responses at high attentional control demands in controls. The BOLD activity profile of these regions in controls increased linearly with increasing cognitive loads, whereas in patients, it was nonlinear. Correlation analysis consistently showed differential region and load-specific relationships between brain activity and behavior in the 2 groups. These results indicate that varying attentional control load is associated in schizophrenia with load- and region-specific modification of the relationship between behavior and brain activity, possibly suggesting earlier saturation of cognitive capacity.

  9. Lysis solution composition and non-linear dose-response to ionizing radiation in the non-denaturing DNA filter elution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    The suggestion by Okayasu and Iliakis (1989) that the non-linear dose-response curve, obtained with the non-denaturing filter elution technique for mammalian cells exposed to low-LET radiation, is the result of a technical artefact, was not confirmed. (author)

  10. Nonlinear transient responses of beams and rings to impulse loading or fragment impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witmer, E.A.; Stagliano, T.R.; Rodal, J.J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a very limited part of the cited fragment threat; namely, fragments from high speed rotating machinery such as (1) aircraft engine rotors and (2) stationary power plant turbine rotors. Further, it is assumed that the structures intended to contain or control these fragments consist of initially-isotropic elastic-plastic metals. Certain potential containment/control (C/C) structures behave in a planar (or two-dimensional) fashion while other fragment-attacked C/C structures will undergo general three-dimensional deformations. Predictions for only the former category of fragment-attacked structures are discussed in the present paper. Pertinent experimental data discussed here on fragment-attacked structures include (a) steel-sphere impact data involving beam targets and (b) engine rotor fragment impact against a steel containment ring. In all of these cases large-deflection, elastic-plastic transient structural response occur. The governing equations employed are presented in the present analysis to predict the responses of protective (metal) structures to engine-rotor-fragment impact. The protective structure is intended either to contain or to deflect the attacking fragments away from important regions; large-deflection, elasic-plastic structural response is expected because these protective structures must have the least feasible weight. Concise geometric and assumed-displacement-field descriptions of the several types of finite elements to be utilized in subsequent examples are given, together with several categories of strain displacement relations. Both low- and higher-order elements are discussed

  11. Nonlinear response to the multiple sine wave excitation of a softening--hardening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, B.; Subudhi, M.; Curreri, J.

    1979-01-01

    In studying the earthquake response of the HTGR core, it was observed that the system can display softening--hardening characteristics. This is of great consequence in evaluating the structural safety aspects of the core. In order to obtain a better understanding of the governing parameters, an investigation was undertaken with a single-degree-of-freedom system having a softening--hardening spring characteristic and excited by multiple sine waves. A parametric study varying the input amplitudes and the spring characteristic was performed. Transients were introduced into the system, and the jump phenomena between the lower softening characteristics to the higher hardening curve was studied

  12. Multi-frequency Defect Selective Imaging via Nonlinear Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, Igor; Busse, Gerd

    The concept of defect-selective ultrasonic nonlinear imaging is based on visualization of strongly nonlinear inclusions in the form of localized cracked defects. For intense excitation, the ultrasonic response of defects is affected by mechanical constraint between their fragments that makes their vibrations extremely nonlinear. The cracked flaws, therefore, efficiently generate multiple new frequencies, which can be used as a nonlinear "tag" to detect and image them. In this paper, the methodologies of nonlinear scanning laser vibrometry (NSLV) and nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) are applied for nonlinear imaging of various defects in hi-tech and constructional materials. A broad database obtained demonstrates evident advantages of the nonlinear approach over its linear counterpart. The higher-order nonlinear frequencies provide increase in signal-to-noise ratio and enhance the contrast of imaging. Unlike conventional ultrasonic instruments, the nonlinear approach yields abundant multi-frequency information on defect location. The application of image recognition and processing algorithms is described and shown to improve reliability and quality of ultrasonic imaging.

  13. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  14. Study of horizontal-vertical interactive Sway Rocking (SR) model for basemat uplift. Part 2: non-linear response analysis and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momma, T.; Shirahama, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ogihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-linear earthquake response analyses of a BWR MARK-II type nuclear reactor building are conducted by using a Sway Rocking model (SR model) proposed in Part 1 considering the interaction between horizontal and vertical motion. The results are compared with those of accurate mathematical model using the Green Function method. Horizontal response of the SR model agrees very well with that of the Green Function model. The floor response spectra of induced vertical motions by both methods are also corresponding well in periodic characteristics as well as peak-levels. From these results, it is confirmed that the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is applicable to non-linear response analyses considering basemat uplift. Based on the comparison of the induced vertical motions due to basemat uplift by both methods, an application limit of the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is set up at the ground contact ratio of about 50%. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of the patient’s response to drug effect during general anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Clara; Tenreiro Machado, Jose; De Keyser, Robin; Decruyenaere, Johan; Struys, Michel M. R. F.

    2015-03-01

    In today's healthcare paradigm, optimal sedation during anesthesia plays an important role both in patient welfare and in the socio-economic context. For the closed-loop control of general anesthesia, two drugs have proven to have stable, rapid onset times: propofol and remifentanil. These drugs are related to their effect in the bispectral index, a measure of EEG signal. In this paper wavelet time-frequency analysis is used to extract useful information from the clinical signals, since they are time-varying and mark important changes in patient's response to drug dose. Model based predictive control algorithms are employed to regulate the depth of sedation by manipulating these two drugs. The results of identification from real data and the simulation of the closed loop control performance suggest that the proposed approach can bring an improvement of 9% in overall robustness and may be suitable for clinical practice.

  16. Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented

  17. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  18. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  19. Experimental chaos in nonlinear vibration isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jingjun; Zhu Shijian; He Lin; He Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic vibration isolation method was studied thoroughly from an experimental perspective. The nonlinear load-deflection characteristic of the conical coil spring used in the experiment was surveyed. Chaos and subharmonic responses including period-2 and period-6 motions were observed. The line spectrum reduction and the drop of the acceleration vibration level in chaotic state and that in non-chaotic state were compared, respectively. It was concluded from the experiment that the nonlinear vibration isolation system in chaotic state has strong ability in line spectrum reduction.

  20. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  1. Nonlinear transient responses of beams and rings to impulse loading or fragment impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witmer, E.A.; Stagliano, T.R.; Rodal, J.J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant protective structures may be subjected to various external missiles such as aircraft and tornado-generated missiles: telephone poles, planks, pipes, rods, automobiles, and other blown vehicles. Also, 'internally-generated missiles' such as fragments from powerplant rotors and aircraft engine rotors may impact protective structures. The present paper is concerned with a very limited part of the cited fragment threat; namely, fragments from high speed rotating machinery such as (1) aircraft engine rotors and (2) stationary power plant turbine rotors. Further, it is assumed that the structures intended to contain or control these fragments consist of initially-isotopic elastic-plastic metals. Certain potential containment/control (C/C) structures behave in a planar (or two-dimensional) fashion while other fragment-attacked C/C structures will undergo general three-dimensional deformations. Predictions for only the former category of fragment-attacked structures are discussed in the present paper. Pertinent experimental data discussed on fragment-attacked structures include (a) steel-sphere impact data involving beam targets and (b) engine rotor fragment impact against a steel containment ring. In all of these cases large-deflection, elastic-plastic transient structural responses occur. (Auth.)

  2. Linear and Non-Linear Dielectric Response of Periodic Systems from Quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel approach that allows to calculate the dielectric response of periodic systems in the quantum Monte Carlo formalism. We employ a many-body generalization for the electric enthalpy functional, where the coupling with the field is expressed via the Berry-phase formulation for the macroscopic polarization. A self-consistent local Hamiltonian then determines the ground-state wavefunction, allowing for accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations where the polarization's fixed point is estimated from the average on an iterative sequence. The polarization is sampled through forward-walking. This approach has been validated for the case of the polarizability of an isolated hydrogen atom, and then applied to a periodic system. We then calculate the linear susceptibility and second-order hyper-susceptibility of molecular-hydrogen chains whith different bond-length alternations, and assess the quality of nodal surfaces derived from density-functional theory or from Hartree-Fock. The results found are in excellent agreement with the best estimates obtained from the extrapolation of quantum-chemistry calculations.P. Umari, A.J. Williamson, G. Galli, and N. MarzariPhys. Rev. Lett. 95, 207602 (2005).

  3. Efficient analysis of the nonlinear dynamic response of a building with a friction-based seismic base isolation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; Suy, H.M.R.; Galanti, F.M.B.; Nijmeijer, H.; Papadrakakis, M.; Charmpis, D.C.; Legaros, N.D.; Ssompanakis, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Many dynamic civil structures are subject to some form of non-smooth or discontinuous nonlinearity. One eminent example of such nonlinearity is friction. This is caused by the fact that friction always opposes the direction of movement, thus changing sign when the sliding velocity changes sign. In

  4. Influence of the aircraft crash induced local nonlinearities on the overall dynamic response of a RC structure through a parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzaud, C.; Gatuingt, F.; Hervé, G.; Moussallam, N.; Dorival, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Structures could resist to the induced accelerations which they might undergo. • The characterization of non-linearities in the signal of an aircraft impact. • The non linear impact area are studied through a sensitivity analysis. • This analysis should allow to achieve a link between aircraft impact parameters. - Abstract: In the process of nuclear power plant design, the safety of structures is an important aspect. Civil engineering structures have to resist the accelerations induced by, for example, seismic loads or shaking loads resulting from the aircraft impact. This is even more important for the in-structures equipments that have also to be qualified against the vibrations generated by this kind of hazards. In the case of aircraft crash, as a large variety of scenarios has to be envisaged, it is necessary to use methods that are less CPU-time consuming and that consider appropriately the nonlinearities. The analysis presented in this paper deals with the problem of the characterization of nonlinearities (damaged area, transmitted force) in the response of a structure subjected to an aircraft impact. The purpose of our study is part of the development of a new decoupled nonlinear and elastic way for calculating the shaking of structures following an aircraft impact which could be very numerically costly if studied with classical finite element methods. The aim is to identify which parameters control the dimensions of the nonlinear zone and so will have a direct impact on the induced vibrations. In a design context, several load cases (and simulations) are analyzed in order to consider a wide range of impact (different loading surfaces, momentum) and data sets of the target (thickness, reinforcements). In this work, the nonlinear area generated by the impact is localized and studied through a parametric analysis associated with a sensitivity analysis to identify the boundaries between the elastic domain and this nonlinear area.

  5. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  6. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Requena, Alejandro [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Immunobiology Division, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Bioengineering Research Institute, Biotech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela, E-mail: cescogaspere@gmail.com [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-11-09

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  7. Dynamic nonlinear elasticity in geo materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovsky, L.A.; Johnson, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic behaviour of earth materials is an extremely rich topic, one that has broad implications to earth and materials sciences, including strong ground motion, rock physics, nondestructive evaluation and materials science. The mechanical properties of rock appear to place it in a broader class of materials, it can be named the Structural nonlinear elasticity class (also Mesoscopic/nano scale elasticity, or MS/NSE class). These terms are in contrast to materials that display classical, Atomic Elasticity, such as most fluids and monocrystalline solids. The difference between these two categories of materials is both in intensity and origin of their nonlinear response. The nonlinearity of atomic elastic materials is due to the atomic/molecular lattice anharmonicity. The latter is relatively small because the intermolecular forces are extremely strong. In contrast, the materials considered below contain small soft features that it is called the bond system (cracks, grain contacts, dislocations, etc.) within a hard matrix and relaxation (slow dynamical effects) are characteristic, non of which appear in atomic elastic materials. The research begins with a brief historical background from nonlinear acoustics to the recent developments in rock nonlinearity. This is followed by an overview of some representative laboratory measurements which serve as primary indicators of nonlinear behaviour, followed by theoretical development, and finally, mention a variety of observations of nonlinearity under field conditions and applications to nondestructive testing of materials. The goal is not to survey all papers published in the are but to demonstrate some experimental and theoretical results and ideas that will the reader to become oriented in this broad and rapidly growing area bridging macro-, meso- and microscale (nano scale) phenomena in physics, materials science, and geophysics

  8. Strong reactive movement response of the medium-sized European hare to elevated predation risk in short vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterings, Martijn J.A.; Zaccaroni, Marco; Koore, van der Nikki; Zijlstra, Linda M.; Kuipers, Henry J.; Langevelde, van Frank; Wieren, van Sipke E.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive movement responses of prey are affected by habitat characteristics, such as cover, which determine predation risk. Open habitats with low cover facilitate predator detection, movement and escape, while closed habitats reduce the ability to detect predators and hinder movement. We

  9. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  10. The response of the Red Sea to a strong wind jet near the Tokar Gap in summer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy

    2013-01-01

    [1] Remote sensing and in situ observations are used to investigate the ocean response to the Tokar Wind Jet in the Red Sea. The wind jet blows down the atmospheric pressure gradient through the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese coast, at about 19°N, during

  11. Extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in a geometrically nonlinear lattice oscillating in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Smirnov, Valeri; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    We study the in-plane damped oscillations of a finite lattice of particles coupled by linear springs under distributed harmonic excitation. Strong nonlinearity in this system is generated by geometric effects due to the in-plane stretching of the coupling spring elements. The lattice has a finite number of nonlinear transverse standing waves (termed nonlinear normal modes - NNMs), and an equal number of axial linear modes which are nonlinearly coupled to the transverse ones. Nonlinear interactions between the transverse and axial modes under harmonic excitation give rise to unexpected and extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in the lattice. In particular, we directly excite a transverse NNM by harmonic forcing (causing simulataneous indirect excitation of a corresponding axial linear mode due to nonlinear coupling), and identify three energy transfer mechanisms in the lattice. First, we detect the stable response of the directly excited transverse NNM (despite its instability in the absence of forcing), with simultaneous stability of the indirectly excited axial linear mode. Second, by changing the system and forcing parameters we report extreme nonlinear "energy explosions," whereby, after an initial regime of stability, the directly excited transverse NNM loses stability, leading to abrupt excitation of all transverse and axial modes of the lattice, at all possible wave numbers. This strong instability is triggered by the parametric instability of an indirectly excited axial mode which builds energy until the explosion. This is proved through theoretical analysis. Finally, in other parameter ranges we report intermittent, intense energy transfers from the directly excited transverse NNM to a small set of transverse NNMs with smaller wavelengths, and from the indirectly excited axial mode to a small set of axial modes, but with larger wavelengths. These intermittent energy transfers resemble energy cascades occurring in turbulent flows. Our results show that

  12. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, GM; Phongsuwan, N; Jantzen, C; Roder, Cornelia; Khokiattiwong, S; Richter, C

    2012-01-01

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  13. Coral community composition and reef development at the Similan Islands, Andaman Sea, in response to strong environmental variations

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, GM

    2012-06-07

    The Similan Islands, a Thai archipelago in the Andaman Sea located near the shelf break, are subjected to frequent (up to several events per hour) and abrupt changes in physico-chemical conditions, particularly during the dry season (NE monsoon, January through April) and to an intense monsoon season with strong surface wave action (May to October). The exposed west slopes of the islands feature more coral species, but lack a carbonate reef framework. By contrast, the sheltered east sides show a complex reef framework dominated by massive Porites. Our results suggest that the sudden changes in temperature, pH and nutrients (drops of up to 10°C and 0.6 U and increases of up to 9.4 µmol NOx l−1, respectively) due to pulsed upwelling events may rival the importance of surface waves and storms in shaping coral distribution and reef development.

  14. Prediction of the Midlatitude Response to Strong Madden-Julian Oscillation Events on S2S Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.-C.; Barnes, E. A.; Maloney, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) forces strong variations in extratropical atmospheric circulations that have important implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction. In particular, certain MJO phases are characterized by a consistent modulation of geopotential height in the North Pacific and adjacent regions across different MJO events. Until recently, only limited research has examined the relationship between these robust MJO tropical-extratropical teleconnections and model prediction skill. In this study, reanalysis data and numerical forecast model ensemble hindcasts are used to demonstrate that robust teleconnections in specific MJO phases and time lags are also characterized by excellent agreement in the prediction of geopotential height anomalies across model ensemble members at forecast leads of up to 3 weeks. These periods of enhanced prediction capabilities extend the possibility for skillful extratropical weather prediction beyond traditional 10-13 day limits.

  15. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  16. Induction of complex immune responses and strong protection against retrovirus challenge by adenovirus-based immunization depends on the order of vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfuß, Meike; Wensing, Ina; Windmann, Sonja; Hrycak, Camilla Patrizia; Bayer, Wibke

    2017-02-06

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To optimize the immunization outcome we evaluated vaccination strategies using combinations of these vaccines. While the vaccines on their own confer strong protection from a subsequent Friend virus challenge, the simple combination of the vaccines for the establishment of an optimized immunization protocol did not result in a further improvement of vaccine effectivity. We demonstrate that the co-immunization with GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vectors together with envelope-encoding vectors abrogates the induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells, and in successive immunization protocols the immunization with the GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vector had to precede the immunization with an envelope encoding vector for the efficient induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells. Importantly, the antibody response to envelope was in fact enhanced when the mice were adenovirus-experienced from a prior immunization, highlighting the expedience of this approach. To circumvent the immunosuppressive effect of envelope on immune responses to simultaneously or subsequently administered immunogens, we developed a two immunizations-based vaccination protocol that induces strong immune responses and confers robust protection of highly Friend virus-susceptible mice from a lethal Friend virus challenge.

  17. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S.; Gurevich, Yu.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  18. Nonlinear charge transport in bipolar semiconductors due to electron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Valdovinos, S., E-mail: sergiom@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Académica de Física, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, CP 98060, Zacatecas, Zac, México (Mexico); Gurevich, Yu.G. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Física, Av. IPN 2508, México D.F., CP 07360, México (Mexico)

    2016-05-27

    It is known that when strong electric field is applied to a semiconductor sample, the current voltage characteristic deviates from the linear response. In this letter, we propose a new point of view of nonlinearity in semiconductors which is associated with the electron temperature dependence on the recombination rate. The heating of the charge carriers breaks the balance between generation and recombination, giving rise to nonequilibrium charge carriers concentration and nonlinearity. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic (CVC) is proposed. • The hot electron temperature violates the equilibrium between electrons and holes. • This violation gives rise to nonequilibrium concentration of electrons and holes. • This leads to nonlinear CVC (along with the heating nonlinearity).

  19. Nonlinear analysis of a rotor-bearing system using describing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraini, Daniel; Nataraj, C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for modelling the nonlinear behavior of a rotor-bearing system with Hertzian contact, clearance, and rotating unbalance. The rotor-bearing system is separated into linear and nonlinear components, and the nonlinear bearing force is replaced with an equivalent describing function gain. The describing function captures the relationship between the amplitude of the fundamental input to the nonlinearity and the fundamental output. The frequency response is constructed for various values of the clearance parameter, and the results show the presence of a jump resonance in bearings with both clearance and preload. Nonlinear hardening type behavior is observed in the case with clearance and softening behavior is observed for the case with preload. Numerical integration is also carried out on the nonlinear equations of motion showing strong agreement with the approximate solution. This work could easily be extended to include additional nonlinearities that arise from defects, providing a powerful diagnostic tool.

  20. Strong vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses have cytolytic function in a chimpanzee clearing HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babs E Verstrepen

    Full Text Available A single correlate of effective vaccine protection against chronic HCV infection has yet to be defined. In this study, we analyzed T-cell responses in four chimpanzees, immunized with core-E1-E2-NS3 and subsequently infected with HCV1b. Viral clearance was observed in one animal, while the other three became chronically infected. In the animal that cleared infection, NS3-specific CD8 T-cell responses were observed to be more potent in terms of frequency and polyfunctionality of cytokine producing cells. Unique to this animal was the presence of killing-competent CD8 T-cells, specific for NS3 1258-1272, being presented by the chimpanzee MHC class I molecule Patr-A*03∶01, and a high affinity recognition of this epitope. In the animals that became chronically infected, T-cells were able to produce cytokines against the same peptide but no cytolysis could be detected. In conclusion, in the animal that was able to clear HCV infection not only cytokine production was observed but also cytolytic potential against specific MHC class I/peptide-combinations.