WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong negative association

  1. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  2. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  3. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  4. Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    random sampling without replacement, and (i) joint distribution of ranks. ... wide applications in multivariate statistical analysis and system reliability, the ... strong law of large numbers for negatively associated sequences under the case where.

  5. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  6. Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Jackson, Christine

    2011-07-01

    To understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline. Regression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level delivery of television advertisements measured by target audience rating points (TARPs). Advertisements were characterised by their overall objective--promoting cessation, highlighting the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) or other--and by their portrayals of strong negative emotions and graphic images. Per smoker call volume is positively correlated with total TARPs (padvertisements are more effective than SHS advertisements in promoting quitline call volume. Advertisements with graphic images only or neither strong negative emotions nor graphic images are associated with higher call volume with similar effect sizes. Call volume was not significantly associated with the number of TARPs for advertisements with strong negative emotions only (p=0.71) or with both graphic images and strong emotions (p=0.09). Exposure to television advertisements is strongly associated with quitline call volume, and both cessation and SHS advertisements can be effective. The use of strong negative emotions in advertisements may be effective in promoting smoking cessation in the population but does not appear to influence quitline call volume. Further research is needed to understand the role of negative emotions in promoting calls to quitlines and cessation more broadly among the majority of smokers who do not call quitlines.

  7. Graphene nanomesh-based devices exhibiting a strong negative differential conductance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Nguyen, V; Mazzamuto, F; Saint-Martin, J; Bournel, A; Dollfus, P

    2012-01-01

    Using atomistic quantum simulation based on a tight binding model, we have investigated the transport characteristics of graphene nanomesh-based devices and evaluated the possibilities of observing negative differential conductance. It is shown that by taking advantage of bandgap opening in the graphene nanomesh lattice, a strong negative differential conductance effect can be achieved at room temperature in pn junctions and n-doped structures. Remarkably, the effect is improved very significantly (with a peak-to-valley current ratio of a few hundred) and appears to be weakly sensitive to the transition length in graphene nanomesh pn hetero-junctions when inserting a pristine (gapless) graphene section in the transition region between n and p zones. The study therefore suggests new design strategies for graphene electronic devices which may offer strong advantages in terms of performance and processing over the devices studied previously. (paper)

  8. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-10-28

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  9. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non-combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague-to-crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly-cluttered scenarios and results in an orders-of-magnitude improvement in signal-to-clutter ratio.

  10. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  11. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  12. Strong association of HMB-45 expression with renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kilinc, Niha; Ozdemir, Enver

    2004-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign neoplasm consisting of varying mixtures of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat. Although, most of these tumors are easy to recognize, some may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to unusual histologic features. Recently, it was suggested that melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45) immunoreactivity may be used for diagnostic confirmation of several neoplasm. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of HMB-45 in patients with AML. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, during the period January 2000 to September 2003. HMB-45 immunoreactivity was analyzed in 6 patients with AML and in 34 patients with other renal and retroperitoneal pathologies, including 10 nephrectomized patients for non-neoplastic reasons by means of immunohistochemistry. Patients with AML were positive for HMB-45. Whereas, HMB-45 immunoreactivity was negative in all of the histologic specimens from the patients with renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal sarcomas, Wilms tumor, lipoma, leiomyoma, and nephrectomized kidneys of non-neoplastic reason. The association of AML with HMB-45 immunoreactivity was highly significant (p<0.001). Our findings suggest that HMB-45 may not be a melanocyte-restricted marker, and can be useful in differential diagnosis between AML and other tumors seen in kidney and retroperitoneal region. (author)

  13. Strong association of HMB-45 expression with renal angiomyolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldiz, Mehmet; Kilinc, Nihal; Ozdemir, Enver

    2004-08-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign neoplasm consisting of varying mixtures of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat. Although, most of these tumors are easy to recognize, some may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to unusual histologic features. Recently, it was suggested that melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45) immunoreactivity may be used for diagnostic confirmation of several neoplasm. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of HMB-45 in patients with AML. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, during the period January 2000 to September 2003. HMB-45 immunoreactivity was analyzed in 6 patients with AML and in 34 patients with other renal and retroperitoneal pathologies, including 10 nephrectomized patients for non-neoplastic reasons by means of immunohistochemistry. Patients with AML were positive for HMB-45. Whereas, HMB-45 immunoreactivity was negative in all of the histologic specimens from the patients with renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal sarcomas, Wilms' tumor, lipoma, leiomyoma, and nephrectomized kidneys of non-neoplastic reason. The association of AML with HMB-45 immunoreactivity was highly significant (pHMB-45 may not be a melanocyte-restricted marker, and can be useful in differential diagnosis between AML and other tumors seen in kidney and retroperitoneal region.

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  15. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Burgess, Neil

    2013-12-17

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 demonstrated that item memory was facilitated by emotional affect, whereas memory for an associated context was reduced. In Experiment 2, arousal was manipulated independently of the memoranda, by a threat of shock, whereby encoding trials occurred under conditions of threat or safety. Memory for context was equally impaired by the presence of negative affect, whether induced by threat of shock or a negative item, relative to retrieval of the context of a neutral item in safety. In Experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral and negative items as paired associates, including all combinations of neutral and negative items. The results showed both above effects: compared to a neutral item, memory for the associate of a negative item (a second item here, context in Experiments 1 and 2) is impaired, whereas retrieval of the item itself is enhanced. Our findings suggest that negative affect impairs associative memory while recognition of a negative item is enhanced. They support dual-processing models in which negative affect or stress impairs hippocampal-dependent associative memory while the storage of negative sensory/perceptual representations is spared or even strengthened.

  16. Strong Light Localization and a Peculiar Feature of Light Leakage in the Negative Curvature Hollow Core Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey D. Pryamikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we would like to continue a discussion started in our previous work and devoted to the mechanism of light localization in hollow core microstructured fibers with a noncircular core-cladding boundary. It has been shown in many works that, for waveguide microstructures with different types of core-cladding boundary shape, the positions of the transmission bands’ edges can be predicted by applying the well-known anti–resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW model. At the same time, the ARROW model cannot explain the strong light localization and guiding at high material loss inside the transmission bands which are observed in negative curvature hollow core fibers, for example. In this paper we want to clarify our previous findings and consider the light localization process from another point of view, namely, by comparing the light leakage process in waveguide microstructures with different shapes of the core-cladding boundary. The results are discussed based on the ARROW model and a new approach associated with the consideration of spatial dispersion occurring under the interaction of the air core mode with the core-cladding boundary.

  17. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  18. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  19. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  20. Hometown associations and solidarities in Kurdish transnational villages<strong> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2008-01-01

    The politization of transnational relations obscures and dichotomizes our perceptions of migrants and their development activities in the sending society. A current boost in hometown associations for a cluster of Kurdish villages in Turkey, should thus be connected to a more self-conscious transn......The politization of transnational relations obscures and dichotomizes our perceptions of migrants and their development activities in the sending society. A current boost in hometown associations for a cluster of Kurdish villages in Turkey, should thus be connected to a more self......-conscious transnational component in the village community, rather than to the polarization among migrants, producing on the one hand developers (of the hometown) and integration activists. Social remittances - ideas, norms and practices transferred by migrants to their sending society are not widely recognized...

  1. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  2. Is perfectionism associated with academic burnout through repetitive negative thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Howell, Joel; Hayes, Lana; Boyes, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Academic burnout is prevalent among university students, although understanding of what predicts burnout is limited. This study aimed to test the direct and indirect relationship between two dimensions of perfectionism (Perfectionistic Concerns and Perfectionistic Strivings) and the three elements of Academic Burnout (Exhaustion, Inadequacy, and Cynicism) through Repetitive Negative Thinking. In a cross-sectional survey, undergraduate students ( n  = 126, M age = 23.64, 79% female) completed well-validated measures of Perfectionism, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Academic Burnout. Perfectionistic Concerns was directly associated with all elements of burnout, as well as indirectly associated with Exhaustion and Cynicism via Repetitive Negative Thinking. Perfectionistic Strivings was directly associated with less Inadequacy and Cynicism; however, there were no indirect associations between Perfectionistic Strivings and Academic Burnout operating through Repetitive Negative Thinking. Repetitive Negative Thinking was also directly related to more burnout Exhaustion and Inadequacy, but not Cynicism. It is concluded that future research should investigate whether interventions targeting Perfectionistic Concerns and Repetitive Negative Thinking can reduce Academic Burnout in university students.

  3. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  4. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  5. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  6. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisjahbana, B.; Crevel, R. van; Sahiratmadja, E.; Heijer, M. den; Maya, A.; Istriana, E.; Danusantoso, H.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Nelwan, R.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but no studies have been reported from South-East Asia, which has a high burden of TB and a rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To examine if and to what extent diabetes is associated with an increased risk of TB

  7. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use of hydrochlorothia......Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use...... of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Methods: We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk......-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined...

  8. On strongly J -clean rings associated with polynomial identity g ( x =0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haj seyyed javadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the new notion of strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$‎, ‎as a generalization of strongly $ J $-clean rings‎. ‎We denote strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$ by strongly $ g(x $-$J $-clean rings‎. ‎Next‎, ‎we investigate some properties of strongly $ g(x $-$ J $-clean.

  9. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannab...

  10. Strong negative interference of ethamsylate (Dicynone®) in serum creatinine quantification via enzymatic assay using Trinder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorka, Ondrej; Dastych, Milan; Čermáková, Zdenka

    2013-08-01

    With discrepancies encountered as early as the verification of enzymatic method for quantification of serum creatinine, our research pointed to a later confirmed interference caused by a compound called ethamsylate present in the commonly used antihemorrhagic drug Dicynone. We measured concentrations of creatinine of 10 patients with blood taken before and 15 minutes after the intravenous administration of a 500 mg dose of Dicynone. The creatinine concentration was determined using Jaffe method and enzymatic method that utilize Trinder reaction (Roche) in analyzer Cobas c 501 (Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland). We also monitored concentration of blood creatinine in three patients before and 15 minutes after application of Dicynone (500 mg i.v.) and in the following 6th, 12th, 18th, and 24th hours. We discovered a significant negative bias in creatinine results using enzymatic assay with Trinder reaction in blood taken 15 min after i.v. application of 500 mg Dicynone to patients compared to their pre-application values (average decrease of 47%). Unlike this, the results of compensated Jaffe method yielded steady results in all samples (average deviation 0.6% from original values). However, 12 h after the drug administration comparable results were seen as before the administration. Considering the strong negative interference of ethamsylate in enzymatic assay using Trinder reaction for creatinine quantification, blood from patients with prescribed Dicynone should be taken at least 12 h after the last application of the drug for obtaining the correct creatinine values.

  11. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms, empirical findings are mixed. We hypothesized that negative cognitive style may not predict depressive symptoms in adolescents with normative depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, negative cognitive style and dependent negative life events were assessed in young adolescents (N = 1343; mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.77; 52.3 % girls) at four time points over an 18-month period. Using a cross-lagged panel design, results revealed that depressive symptoms predicted a negative cognitive style but not vice versa. However, when including dependent negative life events as a variable, depressive symptoms did not prospect a negative cognitive style consistently. When dependent negative life events were used as a time-varying covariate, depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style were not related. We concluded that negative cognitive style is not predictive of depressive symptoms in a community sample of young adolescents. Moreover, the findings suggest that longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and a negative cognitive style are not meaningful when dependent negative life events are not considered.

  12. Distinct microbiological signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sagarika; Wei, Zhi; Tan, Fei; Peck, Kristen N; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Michael; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Alwine, James C; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-10-15

    Infectious agents are the third highest human cancer risk factor and may have a greater role in the origin and/or progression of cancers, and related pathogenesis. Thus, knowing the specific viruses and microbial agents associated with a cancer type may provide insights into cause, diagnosis and treatment. We utilized a pan-pathogen array technology to identify the microbial signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This technology detects low copy number and fragmented genomes extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded archival tissues. The results, validated by PCR and sequencing, define a microbial signature present in TNBC tissue which was underrepresented in normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering analysis displayed two broad microbial signatures, one prevalent in bacteria and parasites and one prevalent in viruses. These signatures demonstrate a new paradigm in our understanding of the link between microorganisms and cancer, as causative or commensal in the tumor microenvironment and provide new diagnostic potential.

  13. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  14. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  15. Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Williams, Dana M; Lim, Alexandra N; Kroeger, Svenja; Martin, Julien G A

    2018-01-31

    Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together or have more affiliative associates emphasizes the potential importance of social relationships on health and longevity. Previous studies have focused on the impact of social metrics on longevity in obligately social species. However, if sociality indeed has a key role in longevity, we might expect that affiliative relationships should also influence longevity in less social species. We focused on socially flexible yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventer ) and asked whether female longevity covaries with the specific nature of social relationships. We quantified social relationships with social network statistics that were based on affiliative interactions, and then estimated the correlation between longevity and sociality using bivariate models. We found a significant negative phenotypic correlation between affiliative social relationship strength and longevity; marmots with greater degree, closeness and those with a greater negative average shortest path length died at younger ages. We conclude that sociality plays an important role in longevity, but how it does so may depend on whether a species is obligately or facultatively social. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  17. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p SPOT.TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  18. Low vitamin D is associated with negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah O; Kvitland, Levi R; Dieset, Ingrid; Hope, Sigrun; Dahl, Sandra R; Weibell, Melissa A; Romm, Kristin L; Faerden, Ann; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    There are indications that low S-25(OH)D is associated with increased disease severity in psychotic disorder. Our first aim was to investigate the relations between low S-25(OH)D and positive, negative and depressive symptoms. Our second aim was to explore if associations between S-25(OH)D and symptoms were influenced by levels of inflammatory markers. Participants (N=358) with a medical history of one or more psychotic episodes were recruited. Current symptomatology was assessed by The Structured Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scaleanalyzed by a five-factor model. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia was used to assess depression and suicidal ideation. Blood samples were analyzed for S-25(OH)D, CRP, sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG. We performed bivariate correlations and multiple regression models to evaluate the effect of S-25(OH)D on the outcomes. Low S-25(OH)D was significantly associated with negative symptoms (adjusted R 2 =0.113, F(6,357)=8.58, pD (rho=-0.13, p=0.02) and negative symptoms (rho=0.14, p=0.01), but did not act as a mediator. The correlations between S-25(OH)D and the inflammatory markers sTNF-R1, IL-Ra and OPG were not significant. There is a strong association between low S-25(OH)D and higher negative and depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. Randomized controlled trials should be performed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjuvant treatment strategy in patients with prominent negative or depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Keane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPast studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction.MethodUsing the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset.ResultsIncreased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning.ConclusionA brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  1. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  2. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  3. Interview-based assessment of cognition is a strong predictor of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and severe negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno F. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the correlation between quality of life, symptoms, and cognition assessed by the interview-based Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS. Methods: Seventy-nine outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Quality of Life Scale – Brazilian version (QLS-BR, the SCoRS, and symptoms scales (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. After determining the potential explanatory variables using Spearman’s correlation and Student’s t test results, we ran simple, multivariate, and decision-tree regression analyses to assess the impact of SCoRS and PANSS ratings on mean overall quality of life. Results: Cognitive deficits and negative symptoms were the best predictors of quality of life. A low degree of negative symptoms (PANSS negative < 11 was a strong predictor of better quality of life (QLS ∼ 75, regardless of SCoRS rating. Among participants with more severe negative symptoms, elevated cognitive impairment (interviewer SCoRS ∼ 44 was a predictor of worse quality of life (QLS ∼ 44. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment determined by interview-based assessment seems to be a strong predictor of quality of life in subjects with severe negative symptoms. These results support the usefulness of SCoRS for cognitive assessment that is relevant to the everyday life of patients with schizophrenia.

  4. College Binge Drinking Associated with Decreased Frontal Activation to Negative Emotional Distractors during Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo. Subjects were 23 college freshmen (seven male, 18–20 years who engaged in a range of drinking behavior (past 3 months’ binge episodes range = 0–19, mean = 4.6, total drinks consumed range = 0–104, mean = 32.0. Brain activation on inhibitory trials (NoGo was contrasted between negative and neutral conditions and between positive and neutral conditions using non-parametric testing (5000 permutations and cluster-based thresholding (z = 2.3, p ≤ 0.05 corrected. Results showed that a higher recent incidence of binge drinking was significantly associated with decreased activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, brain regions strongly implicated in executive functioning, during negative relative to neutral inhibitory trials. No significant associations between binge drinking and brain activation were observed for positive relative to neutral images. While task performance was not significantly associated with binge drinking in this sample, subjects with heavier recent binge drinking showed decreased recruitment of executive control regions under negative versus neutral distractor conditions. These findings suggest that in young adults with heavier recent binge drinking, processing of negative emotional

  5. Linking the Negative Binomial and Logarithmic Series Distributions via their Associated Series

    OpenAIRE

    SADINLE, MAURICIO

    2008-01-01

    The negative binomial distribution is associated to the series obtained by taking derivatives of the logarithmic series. Conversely, the logarithmic series distribution is associated to the series found by integrating the series associated to the negative binomial distribution. The parameter of the number of failures of the negative binomial distribution is the number of derivatives needed to obtain the negative binomial series from the logarithmic series. The reasoning in this article could ...

  6. Drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies as mediators of the association between negative urgency and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenien, Amber M; Lembo, Jordanna; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the effects of negative urgency, a unique facet of impulsivity marked by engaging in potentially unhealthy and rash behaviors in order to cope with anxiety or negative moods, on drinking behavior can be explained by positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies and specific drinking motives (i.e., coping and enhancement). College students (N=194) completed web-based surveys in exchange for course credit. Students completed measures of negative urgency, comprehensive effects of alcohol, drinking motives, and alcohol use behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated significant indirect effects of negative urgency and alcohol use through both alcohol outcome expectancies and enhancement motives. The effects of enhancement motives on drinking were mediated by positive alcohol outcome expectancies. The effects of coping motives on drinking were not attributable to negative expectancies. Individuals high on negative urgency may consume alcohol in order to ameliorate their emotional distress due to strong desires to increase positive and decrease negative experiences associated with drinking. Emotion-focused impulsivity's influence on drinking outcomes can be ascribed to enhancement motives for drinking as well as positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Prevention efforts should target drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies among those higher in negative urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong but variable associations between social dominance and clutch sex ratio in a colonial corvid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H. M.; Dijkstra, C.; Verhulst, S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied primary sex ratio of clutches in relation to social dominance for 6 years in a colony of free-living jackdaws, a small corvid. Social dominance was strongly associated with clutch sex ratio, with the difference in clutch sex ratio between the most and least dominant pairs being 30-40%. To

  8. Negative confounding by essential fatty acids in methylmercury neurotoxicity associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2014-01-01

    acid concentrations in the analysis (-22.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-39.4, -4.62). In structural equation models, poorer memory function (corresponding to a lower score in the learning trials and short delay recall in CVLT) was associated with a doubling of prenatal exposure to methylmercury after...... concentrations of fatty acids were determined in cord serum phospholipids. Neuropsychological performance in verbal, motor, attention, spatial, and memory functions was assessed at 7 years of age. Multiple regression and structural equation models (SEMs) were carried out to determine the confounder......-adjusted associations with methylmercury exposure. RESULTS: A short delay recall (in percent change) in the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was associated with a doubling of cord blood methylmercury (-18.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-36.3, -1.51). The association became stronger after the inclusion of fatty...

  9. Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Status Was Strongly Associated with Gout and Weakly Associated with Hyperuricaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Lai-Chu; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Chou, I-Jun; Ko, Yu-Shien; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Liu, Jia-Rou

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of hyperuricaemia and gout in people with hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status. Methods This study analyzed data from individuals who participated in health screening programs at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in northern Taiwan (2000–2010). Participants were categorized as having euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid status according to their thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (95% CI) for hyperuricaemia and gout in participants with thyroid dysfunction compared to euthyroid participants. Results A total of 87,813 (euthyroid, 83,502; hypothyroid, 1,460; hyperthyroid, 2,851) participants were included. The prevalence of hyperuricaemia was higher in hyperthyroid subjects (19.4%) than in euthyroid subjects (17.8%) but not in hypothyroid subjects (19.3%). The prevalence of gout was significantly higher in both hypothyroid (6.0%) and hyperthyroid (5.3%) subjects than in euthyroid subjects (4.3%). In men, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia. However, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.47 (1.10–1.97) and 1.37 (1.10–1.69), respectively, for gout. In women, hypothyroid status was not associated with hyperuricaemia or gout. However, hyperthyroid status was associated with ORs (95% CI) of 1.42 (1.24–1.62) for hyperuricaemia and 2.13 (1.58–2.87) for gout. Conclusions Both hyperthyroid and hypothyroid status were significantly associated with gout and weakly associated with hyperuricaemia. A thyroid function test for gout patients may by warranted. PMID:25486420

  10. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  11. REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION: ASSOCIATIONS WITH NEGATIVE MATERNAL BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Biberdzic, Marko; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mothers who manifest insensitive and disconnected behaviors in interaction with their infants differ in terms of maternal reflective functioning (RF), personality organization, and histories of abuse. A total of 86 mother-infant dyads, 28 of them with histories of abuse, participated in the study. RF was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1985), and personality organization was assessed with the self-report Inventory of Personality Organization (M.F. Lenzenweger, J.F. Clarkin, O.F. Kernberg, & P.A. Foelsh, 2001; L. Normandin et al., 2002), before the birth of the baby. Maternal behaviors were assessed using the Disconnected and Extremely Insensitive Parenting measure when the infants were 15 to 18 months old. The results of multivariate analyses of covariance indicate that both RF and personality organization were associated with disconnected and extremely insensitive maternal behaviors. Mothers classified as presenting intrusive/aggressive behaviors had significantly lower RF as well as significantly more difficulties in personality organization, including reality testing, identity, and defense mechanisms. Withdrawn and disconnected maternal behaviors were associated with the combination of difficulties in mentalization and personality organization rather than difficulties in one specific area. In sum, the study provides new evidence regarding the importance of a mentalizing stance about early attachment relationships for the modulation of maternal behaviors, especially intrusive/aggressive behaviors. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Dávila-Román, Victor G; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that lipid factors independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease risk. Because circulating lipoproteins comprise only a small fraction of total body cholesterol, the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol from plasma and tissue pools may be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Our hypothesis is that fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol is protective against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness were quantitated in 86 nondiabetic adults. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 solubilized in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol by cholesterol-d 5 and the nonabsorbable stool marker sitostanol-d 4 . Plasma and stool samples were collected while subjects consumed a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet and were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Carotid intima-media thickness was negatively correlated with fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol ( r =-0.426; P cholesterol ( r =-0.472; P ≤0.0001), and daily percent excretion of cholesterol from the rapidly mixing cholesterol pool ( r =-0.343; P =0.0012) and was positively correlated with percent cholesterol absorption ( r =+0.279; P =0.0092). In a linear regression model controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and statin drug use, fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol remained significant ( P =0.0008). Excretion of endogenous cholesterol is strongly, independently, and negatively associated with carotid intima-media thickness. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway comprising the intestine and the rapidly mixing plasma, and tissue cholesterol pool could be an unrecognized determinant of cardiovascular disease risk not reflected in circulating lipoproteins. Further work is needed to relate measures of

  13. Marker-Negative Pheochromocytoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poudyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma associated with inferior vena cava (IVC thrombosis is very rare. A 27-year-old female presented with right flank pain and hypertensive urgency. Contrast-enhanced CT abdomen and gadolinium-contrast MRI abdomen revealed right adrenal mass suspicious of malignancy with invasion and compression to the right IVC wall along with IVC thrombus extending from the level of renal veins to the level of confluence with hepatic veins. Her routine laboratory investigations including 24-hour urine fractionated metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid, and cortisol were normal. Right adrenalectomy with IVC thrombectomy was done. Perioperative period was uneventful. Histopathology of the mass turned out to be pheochromocytoma with thrombus revealing fibroadipose tissue with fibrin. Pheochromocytoma may present with IVC thrombus as well as normal serum and urinary markers. Thus, clinical suspicion is imperative in perioperative management of adrenal mass.

  14. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  15. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  16. Let It Go: Lingering Negative Affect in Response to Daily Stressors Is Associated With Physical Health Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Almeida, David M

    2018-03-01

    The way we respond to life's daily stressors has strong implications for our physical health. Researchers have documented the detrimental effects of initial emotional reactivity to daily stressors on future physical health outcomes but have yet to examine the effects of emotions that linger after a stressor occurs. The current study investigated how negative affect that lingers the day after a minor stressor occurs is associated with health-related outcomes. Participants ( N = 1,155) in a community-based, nationwide study answered questions about daily stressors and affect across 8 consecutive days and about their physical health almost 10 years later. Multilevel models indicated that people experience heightened levels of negative affect the day after a stressor occurs. Furthermore, higher levels of lingering negative affect are associated with greater numbers of chronic conditions and worse functional limitations 10 years later. Findings suggest that affective recovery from daily stressors has unique importance for long-term physical health.

  17. Reward-dependent modulation of working memory is associated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Bischof, Martin; Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have been associated with altered neural activity during both reward processing and cognitive processing. Even though increasing evidence suggests a strong interaction between these two domains, it has not been studied in relation to negative symptoms. To elucidate neural mechanisms of the reward-cognition interaction, we applied a letter variant of the n-back working memory task and varied the financial incentives for performance. In the interaction contrast, we found a significantly activated cluster in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the middle frontal gyrus, and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. The interaction did not differ significantly between the patient group and a healthy control group, suggesting that patients with schizophrenia are on average able to integrate reward information and utilize this information to maximize cognitive performance. However within the patient group, we found a significant inverse correlation of ACC activity with the factor diminished expression. This finding is consistent with the model that a lack of available cognitive resources leads to diminished expression. We therefore argue that patients with diminished expression have difficulties in recruiting additional cognitive resources (as implemented in the ACC) in response to an anticipated reward. Due to this lack of cognitive resources, less processing capacity is available for effective expression, resulting in diminished expressive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Opposing effects of negative emotion on amygdalar and hippocampal memory for items and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Hørlyck, Lone D; Burgess, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Although negative emotion can strengthen memory of an event it can also result in memory disturbances, as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the effects of negative item content on amygdalar and hippocampal function in memory for the items themselves and for the associations between them. During fMRI, we examined encoding and retrieval of paired associates made up of all four combinations of neutral and negative images. At test, participants were cued with an image and, if recognised, had to retrieve the associated (target) image. The presence of negative images increased item memory but reduced associative memory. At encoding, subsequent item recognition correlated with amygdala activity, while subsequent associative memory correlated with hippocampal activity. Hippocampal activity was reduced by the presence of negative images, during encoding and correct associative retrieval. In contrast, amygdala activity increased for correctly retrieved negative images, even when cued by a neutral image. Our findings support a dual representation account, whereby negative emotion up-regulates the amygdala to strengthen item memory but down-regulates the hippocampus to weaken associative representations. These results have implications for the development and treatment of clinical disorders in which diminished associations between emotional stimuli and their context contribute to negative symptoms, as in PTSD. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Do Puzzle Pieces and Autism Puzzle Piece Logos Evoke Negative Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Boston, Jilana S.; Harp, Bev

    2018-01-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public.…

  20. Associations of positive affect and negative affect with allostatic load : A Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Hendrika M; Jeronimus, Bertus F; van der Krieke, Lian; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Allostatic load (AL) reflects the deteriorating influences of stress on the body, and comprises a selection of biological markers. AL is associated with negative life events, stress, and negative affect (NA), as well as poor health outcomes. However, whether AL is also associated with

  1. Further Investigating Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This article used multitrait-multimethod methodology and covariance modeling for an investigation of the presence and correlates of method effects associated with negatively worded items on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (Rosenberg, 1989) using a sample of 757 adults. Results showed that method effects associated with negative item phrasing…

  2. Cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis: an underappreciated pattern strongly associated with gram-positive bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Derhagopian, Robert P; Gould, Edwin W

    2011-09-01

    Although granulomatous lobular mastitis is associated with gram-positive bacilli such as Corynebacterium, this association is not well known. We report 3 cases of mastitis caused by gram-positive bacilli. All 3 abscesses were suppurative with distinct enlarged cystic spaces in which rare gram-positive bacilli were identified. Two cases were also granulomatous. Cultures in all 3 cases were negative. All 3 patients recovered after biopsy and tetracycline-based therapy. Infection in the breast by gram-positive bacilli is associated with a distinct histologic pattern, including cystic spaces in the setting of neutrophilic/granulomatous inflammation that can be recognized and should prompt careful search for the organism within enlarged vacuoles.

  3. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  4. Periodontitis in coronary heart disease patients: strong association between bleeding on probing and systemic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar H; Khan, Ayyaz A; Butt, Arshad K; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Ashfaq, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of individual periodontal parameters with individual systemic biomarkers. This study assessed the possible association between specific clinical parameters of periodontitis and systemic biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk in coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis. Angiographically proven coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis (n = 317), aged >30 years and without other systemic illness were examined. Periodontal clinical parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) and systemic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and white blood cells (WBC) were noted and analyzed to identify associations through linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Unadjusted linear regression showed significant associations between periodontal and systemic parameters; the strongest association (r = 0.629; p periodontal and systemic inflammation marker, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis models revealed that BOP was a predictor of systemic CRP levels (p periodontal parameter significantly associated with each systemic parameter (CRP, FIB, and WBC). In coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis, BOP is strongly associated with systemic CRP levels; this association possibly reflects the potential significance of the local periodontal inflammatory burden for systemic inflammation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  6. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  7. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  8. Strong association between house characteristics and malaria vectors in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van der Hoek, Wim

    2003-01-01

    . The type of house construction and the exact location of all houses were determined. In a multivariate analysis, distance of less than 750 meters between a house and the main vector-breeding site was strongly associated with the presence of Anopheles culicifacies in the house (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, 95......The objective of this study was to determine whether house characteristics could be used to further refine the residual insecticide-spraying program in Sri Lanka. Indoor-resting mosquito densities were estimated in 473 houses based on fortnightly collections over a two-and-a-half-year period...

  9. Partial and specific source memory for faces associated to other- and self-relevant negative contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a source memory advantage for faces presented in negative contexts. As yet it remains unclear whether participants remember the specific type of context in which the faces were presented or whether they can only remember that the face was associated with negative valence. In the present study, participants saw faces together with descriptions of two different types of negative behaviour and neutral behaviour. In Experiment 1, we examined whether the participants were able to discriminate between two types of other-relevant negative context information (cheating and disgusting behaviour) in a source memory test. In Experiment 2, we assessed source memory for other-relevant negative (threatening) context information (other-aggressive behaviour) and self-relevant negative context information (self-aggressive behaviour). A multinomial source memory model was used to separately assess partial source memory for the negative valence of the behaviour and specific source memory for the particular type of negative context the face was associated with. In Experiment 1, source memory was specific for the particular type of negative context presented (i.e., cheating or disgusting behaviour). Experiment 2 showed that source memory for other-relevant negative information was more specific than source memory for self-relevant information. Thus, emotional source memory may vary in specificity depending on the degree to which the negative emotional context is perceived as threatening.

  10. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  11. Do hostile attributions and negative affect explain the association between authoritarian beliefs and harsh parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associated genetic syndromes and extracardiac malformations strongly influence outcomes of fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemlali, Myriam; Bajolle, Fanny; Ladouceur, Magalie; Fermont, Laurent; Lévy, Marilyne; Le Bidois, Jérôme; Salomon, Laurent J; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-05-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with extracardiac malformations (ECMs) and genetic syndromes. To determine the effect of cytogenetic anomalies and/or ECMs associated with CHD on parental decision to choose termination of pregnancy (TOP) or compassionate care (CC), as well as on the outcome of children born alive. This 10-year retrospective study included all prenatally diagnosed cases of CHD in a single tertiary referral centre. From January 2002 to December 2011, 2036 consecutive cases of fetal CHD (798 TOPs and 1238 live births, including 59 with postnatal CC) were included. CHD was associated with a known cytogenetic anomaly in 9.8% of cases and a major ECM in 11.7% of cases. The proportion of prenatally identified associated cytogenetic anomalies was significantly lower in the live-birth group than in the TOP plus CC group (4.2% vs 17.5%; P<0.001); this was also true for ECMs (8.1% vs 16.7%; P<0.001). The mortality rate was higher in the group with an associated cytogenetic anomaly or ECM (29.1%) than in cases with isolated CHD; a 2.4-fold increase in the death rate was observed (95% confidence interval 1.34-4.38; P=0.003). These associations remained significant after multivariable analysis, including the severity of the CHD (uni- or biventricular physiology). Prenatal diagnosis of a known cytogenetic anomaly or major ECM strongly influences parental decision to choose TOP or postnatal CC. Genetic syndromes and ECMs are associated with a higher mortality rate, independent of the complexity of the CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Instagram #instasad?: exploring associations among instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lup, Katerina; Trub, Leora; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    As the use and influence of social networking continues to grow, researchers have begun to explore its consequences for psychological well-being. Some research suggests that Facebook use can have negative consequences for well-being. Instagram, a photo-sharing social network created in 2010, has particular characteristics that may make users susceptible to negative consequences. This study tested a theoretically grounded moderated meditation model of the association between Instagram use and depressive symptoms through the mechanism of negative social comparison, and moderation by amount of strangers one follows. One hundred and seventeen 18-29 year olds completed online questionnaires containing demographics, frequency of Instagram use, amount of strangers followed on Instagram, the Center for Epidemiological Resources Scale for Depression, and the Social Comparison Rating Scale. Instagram use was marginally positively associated with depressive symptoms, and positive social comparison was significantly negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Amount of strangers followed moderated the associations of Instagram use with social comparison (significantly) and depressive symptoms (marginally), and further significantly moderated the indirect association of Instagram use with depressive symptoms through social comparison. Findings generally suggest that more frequent Instagram use has negative associations for people who follow more strangers, but positive associations for people who follow fewer strangers, with social comparison and depressive symptoms. Implications of negative associations of social networking for people who follow strangers and the need for more research on Instagram use given its increasing popularity are explored.

  14. Daily interactions with aging parents and adult children: Associations with negative affect and diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Manalel, Jasmine A; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Midlife adults report greater investment in their children than in their parents, and these ties have important implications for well-being. To date, little research has addressed daily experiences in these ties. The present study examines daily experiences (negative and positive) with aging parents and adult children and their associations with daily negative affect and diurnal cortisol rhythms. Participants were middle-aged adults (N = 156; 56% women) from Wave 2 of the Family Exchanges Study, conducted in 2013, who completed a 7-day daily diary study, which included assessments of daily negative and positive social encounters and negative affect, and 4 days of saliva collection, which was collected 3 times a day (upon waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime) and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models revealed that individuals were more likely to have contact with adult children than with parents but more likely to have negative experiences (negative interactions, avoidance, negative thoughts) with parents than with adult children. Nevertheless, contact and negative experiences with adult children were more consistently associated with negative affect and daily cortisol patterns than were interactions with parents. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis, which suggests that individuals have a greater stake in their children than in their parents. Indeed, negative experiences with adult children may be more salient because tensions with adult children occur less frequently than do tensions with parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  16. Reciprocal, Longitudinal Associations among Adolescents' Negative Feedback-Seeking, Depressive Symptoms, and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal associations among adolescents' negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, perceptions of friendship quality, and peer-reported social preference over an 11-month period. A total of 478 adolescents in grades 6-8 completed measures of negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, friendship quality,…

  17. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The

  18. An analysis of five negative sprite-parent discharges and their associated thunderstorm charge structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Levi D.; Liu, Ningyu; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Glenn, Chad; Rassoul, Hamid; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyze the discharge morphologies of five confirmed negative sprite-parent discharges and the associated charge structures of the thunderstorms that produced them. The negative sprite-parent lightning took place in two thunderstorms that were associated with a tropical disturbance in east central and south Florida. The first thunderstorm, which moved onshore in east central Florida, produced four of the five negative sprite-parent discharges within a period of 17 min, as it made landfall from the Atlantic Ocean. These negative sprite-parents were composed of bolt-from-the-blue (BFB), hybrid intracloud-negative cloud-to-ground (IC-NCG), and multicell IC-NCGs discharges. The second thunderstorm, which occurred inland over south Florida, produced a negative sprite-parent that was a probable hybrid IC-NCG discharge and two negative gigantic jets (GJs). Weakened upper positive charge with very large midlevel negative charge was inferred for both convective cells that initiated the negative-sprite-parent discharges. Our study suggests tall, intense convective systems with high wind shear at the middle to upper regions of the cloud accompanied by low cloud-to-ground (CG) flash rates promote these charge structures. The excess amount of midlevel negative charge results in these CG discharges transferring much more charge to ground than typical negative CG discharges. We find that BFB discharges prefer an asymmetrical charge structure that brings the negative leader exiting the upper positive charge region closer to the lateral positive screening charge layer. This may be the main factor in determining whether a negative leader exiting the upper positive region of the thundercloud forms a BFB or GJ.

  19. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  20. Negative illness perceptions associated with low mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng; Zhao, Xudong; Fritzsche, Kurt; Salm, Florian; Leonhart, Rainer; Jing, Wei; Yang, Jianzhong; Schaefert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In western countries, negative illness perceptions are associated with poor health status and affect health outcomes in primary care populations. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between illness perception and mental and physical health status in general hospital outpatients in China. This multicentre, cross-sectional study analysed a total of 281 consecutive patients from four general hospital outpatient departments of internal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing and Kunming. The patients answered questionnaires concerning illness perception (Brief-IPQ), somatic symptom severity (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), illness behaviour (Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behaviour), emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and health-related quality of life (Twelve-Item Short Form Health Survey). Negative illness perception, especially negative emotional reactions, perceived illness consequences, encumbering illness concerns, and strong illness identity were significantly associated with high emotional distress, impairing illness consequences, and a low mental and physical quality of life. Using a multiple linear regression model, five strongest correlates of negative illness perception were high anxiety, seeking diagnosis verification, low mental and physical quality of life and high somatic symptom severity. The variance explained by this model was 35%. Chinese general hospital outpatients showed associations between negative illness perceptions and poor mental and physical health status that were similar to those of primary care patients in western countries. The main difference was that no association with perceived illness control was found in Chinese patients. Chinese physicians should be sensitised to their patients' negative illness perceptions and should focus on helping patients cope with uncertainty and anxiety by providing an understandable illness model and increasing control beliefs.

  1. Esophageal Motor Disorders Are a Strong and Independant Associated Factor of Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Camille; Benezech, Alban; Alessandrini, Marine; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Vitton, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal motor disorder (EMD) has been shown to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the association of EMD with a Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence of EMD was an independent factor associated with BE. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted in GERD patients who all had oeso-gastroduodenal endoscopy and high-resolution esophageal manometry. The clinical data collected was known or potential risk factors for BE: male gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, age, body mass index, presence of hiatal hernia, frequency, and age of GERD. EMD were classified according to the Chicago classification into: ineffective motor syndrome, fragmented peristalsis and absence of peristalsis, lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. Results Two hundred and one patients (101 in the GERD + BE group and 100 in the GERD without BE) were included. In univariate analysis, male gender, alcohol consumption, presence of hiatal hernia, and EMD appeared to be associated with the presence of BE. In a multivariate analysis, 3 independent factors were identified: the presence of EMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71–9.28; P = 0.001), the presence of hiatal hernia (OR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.45–12.76; P motor syndrome and lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia) is a strong independent associated factor of BE. Searching systematically for an EMD in patients suffering from GERD could be a new strategy to organize the endoscopic follow-up. PMID:29605977

  2. Esophageal Motor Disorders Are a Strong and Independant Associated Factor of Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Camille; Benezech, Alban; Alessandrini, Marine; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Vitton, Veronique

    2018-04-30

    Esophageal motor disorder (EMD) has been shown to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the association of EMD with a Barrett's esophagus (BE) is controversial. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence of EMD was an independent factor associated with BE. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in GERD patients who all had oeso-gastroduodenal endoscopy and high-resolution esophageal manometry. The clinical data collected was known or potential risk factors for BE: male gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, age, body mass index, presence of hiatal hernia, frequency, and age of GERD. EMD were classified according to the Chicago classification into: ineffective motor syndrome, fragmented peristalsis and absence of peristalsis, lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia. Two hundred and one patients (101 in the GERD + BE group and 100 in the GERD without BE) were included. In univariate analysis, male gender, alcohol consumption, presence of hiatal hernia, and EMD appeared to be associated with the presence of BE. In a multivariate analysis, 3 independent factors were identified: the presence of EMD (odds ratio [OR], 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-9.28; P = 0.001), the presence of hiatal hernia (OR, 5.60; 95% CI, 2.45-12.76; P < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori infection (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.84; P = 0.035). The presence of EMD (particularly ineffective motor syndrome and lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia) is a strong independent associated factor of BE. Searching systematically for an EMD in patients suffering from GERD could be a new strategy to organize the endoscopic follow-up.

  3. ALK-1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with breast implants: a new clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Bocci, Guido; Giannotti, Giordano; Fanelli, Giovanni; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Danesi, Romano; Tuccori, Marco; Pantaloni, Marcello; D'Aniello, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    Concerns have been raised recently regarding the increasing number of reports of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that developed in close proximity to silicone or saline breast implants. In particular, an increased risk of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in patients with breast prostheses has been proposed. We reviewed clinical and pathologic findings in 40 women who received a diagnosis of breast NHL arising in association with breast implants and of 27 patients who had a diagnosis of ALCL with breast involvement reported in the published literature. Among the 40 reported cases of prosthesis-associated breast lymphomas, 28 were anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1-negative (ALK-1(-)) ALCLs, whereas of 27 ALCLs in patients without implants found in the literature, only 10 were ALK-1(-). The finding of 28 cases of breast ALK-1(-) ALCL occurring in patients with implants compared with 10 cases in women without implants is in favor of an association between silicone breast prostheses and ALK-1(-) ALCL. Although the incidence of this type of lymphoma remains remarkably low given that breast prostheses have been widely used for decades, clinical and pathologic evidence for a causative role is becoming dramatically strong. The histologic, phenomenologic, and clinical similarities of the majority of implant-related ALK-1(-) ALCLs suggest a common mechanism, especially when compared with the counterpart of patients without implants in which very few and highly dishomogeneous cases of the same malignancy were detected. There is convincing evidence that primary implant-related ALK-1(-) ALCL represents a distinct clinicopathologic entity that has been inappropriately fitted into the category of systemic ALK-1(-) ALCL. Thus it should be recognized as a separate category and classified on its own. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  5. Associations among negative parenting, attention bias to anger, and social anxiety among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Lauren D; Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2014-02-01

    Theories of affective learning suggest that early experiences contribute to emotional disorders by influencing the development of processing biases for negative emotional stimuli. Although studies have shown that physically abused children preferentially attend to angry faces, it is unclear whether youth exposed to more typical aspects of negative parenting exhibit the same type of bias. The current studies extend previous research by linking observed negative parenting styles (e.g., authoritarian) and behaviors (e.g., criticism and negative affect) to attention bias for angry faces in both a psychiatrically enriched (ages 11-17 years; N = 60) and a general community (ages 9-15 years; N = 75) sample of youth. In addition, the association between observed negative parenting (e.g., authoritarian style and negative affect) and youth social anxiety was mediated by attention bias for angry faces in the general community sample. Overall, findings provide preliminary support for theories of affective learning and risk for psychopathology among youth.

  6. Pathway-Enriched Gene Signature Associated with 53BP1 Response to PARP Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saima; Esch, Amanda; Liby, Tiera; Gray, Joe W; Heiser, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC 50 value was calculated for each cellular phenotype and each PARP inhibitor. The EC 50 values for both 53BP1 metrics strongly correlated with IC 50 values for each PARP inhibitor. Pathway enrichment analysis identified a set of DNA repair and cell cycle-associated genes that were associated with 53BP1 response following PARP inhibition. The overall accuracy of our 63 gene set in predicting response to olaparib in seven breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors was 86%. In triple-negative breast cancer patients who had not received anti-PARP therapy, the predicted response rate of our gene signature was 45%. These results indicate that 53BP1 is a biomarker of response to anti-PARP therapy in the laboratory, and our DNA damage response gene signature may be used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to PARP inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2892-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  8. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cystine addiction of triple-negative breast cancer associated with EMT augmented death signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; Ding, C-K; Wu, J; Sjol, J; Wardell, S; Spasojevic, I; George, D; McDonnell, D P; Hsu, D S; Chang, J T; Chi, J-T

    2017-07-27

    Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, breast cancers still cause significant mortality. For some patients, especially those with triple-negative breast cancer, current treatments continue to be limited and ineffective. Therefore, there remains an unmet need for a novel therapeutic approach. One potential strategy is to target the altered metabolic state that is rewired by oncogenic transformation. Specifically, this rewiring may render certain outside nutrients indispensable. To identify such a nutrient, we performed a nutrigenetic screen by removing individual amino acids to identify possible addictions across a panel of breast cancer cells. This screen revealed that cystine deprivation triggered rapid programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in the basal-type breast cancer cells mostly seen in TNBC tumors. In contrast, luminal-type breast cancer cells are cystine-independent and exhibit little death during cystine deprivation. The cystine addiction phenotype is associated with a higher level of cystine-deprivation signatures noted in the basal type breast cancer cells and tumors. We found that the cystine-addicted breast cancer cells and tumors have strong activation of TNFα and MEKK4-p38-Noxa pathways that render them susceptible to cystine deprivation-induced necrosis. Consistent with this model, silencing of TNFα and MEKK4 dramatically reduces cystine-deprived death. In addition, the cystine addiction phenotype can be abrogated in the cystine-addictive cells by miR-200c, which converts the mesenchymal-like cells to adopt epithelial features. Conversely, the introduction of inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cystine-independent breast cancer cells conferred the cystine-addiction phenotype by modulating the signaling components of cystine addiction. Together, our data reveal that cystine-addiction is associated with EMT in breast cancer during tumor progression. These findings provide the genetic and

  10. Adults' implicit associations to infant positive and negative acoustic cues: Moderation by empathy and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Venuti, Paola; Giordano, Francesca; Napolitano, Maria; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-09-01

    In this study a novel auditory version of the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT-A) was developed to investigate (a) the valence of adults' associations to infant cries and laughs, (b) moderation of implicit associations by gender and empathy, and (c) the robustness of implicit associations controlling for auditory sensitivity. Eighty adults (50% females) were administered two SC-IAT-As, the Empathy Quotient, and the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale. Adults showed positive implicit associations to infant laugh and negative ones to infant cry; only the implicit associations with the infant laugh were negatively related to empathy scores, and no gender differences were observed. Finally, implicit associations to infant cry were affected by noise sensitivity. The SC-IAT-A is useful to evaluate the valence of implicit reactions to infant auditory cues and could provide fresh insights into understanding processes that regulate the quality of adult-infant relationships.

  11. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  12. Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA......Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9......1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer....

  13. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  14. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting stress mediates the association between negative affectivity and harsh parenting: A longitudinal dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yunying; Fredman, Steffany J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program. There were indirect actor effects of negative affect on a parent's own harsh parenting through both dimensions of parenting stress, with a stronger mediating effect for personal distress than child rearing stress. There were also indirect partner effects of negative affect on one's partner's harsh parenting through the partner's parenting stress, with a stronger indirect partner effect from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting than vice versa. Specifically, the mediating effect of personal distress was found for both mothers and fathers, whereas the mediating effect of child rearing stress was found from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting only. Findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach in examining the longitudinal association between negative affect and harsh parenting and suggest that reducing parenting stress in the first year postpartum may decrease the risk of future harsh parenting among couples in which one or both partners experience negative affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armour reduction in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Rouzic, Arnaud; Østbye, Kjartan; Klepaker, Tom O; Hansen, Thomas F; Bernatchez, Louis; Schluter, Dolph; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading with the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armour, has occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic changes were tracked for 20 years. Fish from the last generation were genotyped for the Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) locus, the major gene involved in armour development. We found a strong fitness advantage for the freshwater-type fish (on average, 20% fitness advantage for the freshwater morph, and 92% for the freshwater genotype). The trend is best explained by assuming that this fitness advantage is maximum at the beginning of the invasion and decreases with time. Such fitness differences provide a quantifiable example of rapid selection-driven phenotypic evolution associated with environmental change in a natural population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  18. Positive and negative associations between bacterial species in dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Drucker, D B; Lilley, J D

    1994-01-01

    Significant associations have been previously reported between certain pairs of bacterial species isolated from human dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine microbiologically a more extensive series of cases, with particular reference to obligate anaerobes which accounted for 64% of total isolations. A total of 65 different species was isolated and individual root canals yielded a maximum of eleven bacterial species. Highly significant positive associations (p spp. and Prevotella spp., between Peptostreptococcus spp. and P. melaninogenica, between P. micros and Prevotella spp., P. micros and P. melaninogenica and between Prevotella spp. and Eubacterium spp., all with an ODDS ratio of > 9.0. In contrast, negative and highly significant associations (p spp., B. gracilis/F. nucleatum and between B. gracilis/Fusobacterium spp.; all with an ODDS ratio of < 0.5. Some previously published associations were confirmed and some new associations were found, while some negative associations became apparent.

  19. Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, Marina; Niklasson, Johan; Saarela, Jan; Nygård, Mikael; Olofsson, Birgitta; Conradsson, Mia; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-10-27

    The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period. The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses. The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale. Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  20. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

  1. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  2. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  3. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  4. Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Kar, Siddhartha; Lindström, Sara; Hui, Shirley; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Dennis, Joe; Jiang, Xia; Rostamianfar, Asha; Finucane, Hilary; Bolla, Manjeet K; McGuffog, Lesley; Wang, Qin; Aalfs, Cora M; Adams, Marcia; Adlard, Julian; Agata, Simona; Ahmed, Shahana; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Allen, Jamie; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher I; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Norbert; Aronson, Kristan J; Auber, Bernd; Auer, Paul L; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bacot, François; Balmaña, Judith; Barile, Monica; Barjhoux, Laure; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrdahl, Myrto; Barnes, Daniel; Barrowdale, Daniel; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Blazer, Kathleen R; Blok, Marinus J; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bobolis, Kristie; Boeckx, Bram; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Bozsik, Aniko; Bradbury, Angela R; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Brewer, Carole; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brunet, Joan; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S; Byun, Jinyoung; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldés, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Canzian, Federico; Caron, Olivier; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D; Castelao, J Esteban; Castera, Laurent; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Chan, Salina B; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Christiansen, Hans; Claes, Kathleen B M; Clarke, Christine L; Conner, Thomas; Conroy, Don M; Cook, Jackie; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Coupier, Isabelle; Cox, Angela; Cox, David G; Cross, Simon S; Cuk, Katarina; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; Davidson, Rosemarie; De Leeneer, Kim; Devilee, Peter; Dicks, Ed; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ditsch, Nina; Doheny, Kimberly F; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dubois, Stéphane; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Ehrencrona, Hans; Eilber, Ursula; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ekici, Arif B; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fachal, Laura; Faivre, Laurence; Fasching, Peter A; Faust, Ulrike; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Fritschi, Lin; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gaddam, Pragna; Gammon, Marilie D; Ganz, Patricia A; Gapstur, Susan M; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; García-Sáenz, José A; Gaudet, Mia M; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Goodfellow, Paul; Greene, Mark H; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Qi; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Healey, Catherine S; Hein, Alexander; Helbig, Sonja; Henderson, Alex; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Bob; Hopper, John L; Hu, Chunling; Huang, Guanmengqian; Hulick, Peter J; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Iwasaki, Motoki; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Janni, Wolfgang; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kast, Karin; Keeman, Renske; Kerin, Michael J; Kets, Carolien M; Keupers, Machteld; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N; Kruse, Torben A; Kwong, Ava; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Laitman, Yael; Lalloo, Fiona; Lambrechts, Diether; Landsman, Keren; Lasset, Christine; Lazaro, Conxi; Le Marchand, Loic; Lecarpentier, Julie; Lee, Andrew; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Lesueur, Fabienne; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lincoln, Anne; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Loud, Jennifer T; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lush, Michael; MacInnis, Robert J; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Malone, Kathleen E; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolin, Sara; Martens, John W M; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Menéndez, Primitiva; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Austin; Miller, Nicola; Mitchell, Gillian; Montagna, Marco; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Nadesan, Sue; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nevelsteen, Ines; Niederacher, Dieter; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Norman, Aaron; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olswold, Curtis; Ong, Kai-ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Pankratz, V Shane; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Lloyd, Rachel; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peixoto, Ana; Perez, Jose I A; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Poppe, Bruce; Porteous, Mary E; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Rennert, Hedy S; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Richardson, Andrea; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Rookus, Matti A; Rudolph, Anja; Ruediger, Thomas; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sanders, Joyce; Sandler, Dale P; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Schwentner, Lukas; Scott, Christopher; Scott, Rodney J; Seal, Sheila; Senter, Leigha; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Xin; Shimelis, Hermela; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Side, Lucy E; Singer, Christian F; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stegmaier, Christa; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Surowy, Harald; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tan, Yen Y; Taylor, Jack A; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Mary B; Tessier, Daniel C; Teulé, Alex; Thöne, Kathrin; Thull, Darcy L; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Toland, Amanda E; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Tranchant, Martine; Truong, Thérèse; Tucker, Kathy; Tung, Nadine; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Viel, Alessandra; Vijai, Joseph; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Walker, Lisa; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wendt, Camilla; Wesseling, Jelle; Whittemore, Alice S; Wijnen, Juul T; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Xiaohong R; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Zorn, Kristin K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Mannermaa, Arto; Olsson, Håkan; Teixeira, Manuel R; Stone, Jennifer; Offit, Kenneth; Ottini, Laura; Park, Sue K; Thomassen, Mads; Hall, Per; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Droit, Arnaud; Bader, Gary D; Pharoah, Paul D P; Couch, Fergus J; Easton, Douglas F; Kraft, Peter; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Antoniou, Antonis C; Simard, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease1. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10−8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 14% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:29058716

  5. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...) Show The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne...gative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Authors Lang T,

  6. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  7. Postural disorders and spatial neglect in stroke patients: a strong association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérennou, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the arguments for a strong association between spatial neglect and postural disorders and attempt to better understand the mechanisms which underlie that. We first provide a general overview of the available tools for a rational assessment of postural control in a clinical context. We then analyse the arguments in favour of a close relationship, although not necessarily causal, between spatial neglect and: 1) body orientation with respect to gravity (including verticality perception i.e. the visual vertical, the haptic vertical, and the postural vertical); 2) body stabilisation with respect to the base of support; 3) posturographic features of stroke patients; 4) and finally their postural disability in daily life. This second part of the paper is based both on the literature review and on results of our current research. Neglect patients show a dramatic postural disability, due both to problems in body orientation with respect to gravity and to problems in body stabilisation. It might be that these problems are partly caused by a neglect phenomenon bearing on graviceptive (somaesthetic > vestibular) and visual information serving postural control. This could correspond to a kind of postural neglect involving both the bodily and nonbodily domains of spatial neglect. The existence of distorsion(s) in the body scheme are also probably involved, especially to explain the weight-bearing asymmetry in standing, and probably an impaired multisegmental postural coordination leading to an impaired body stabilisation. The present paper explains why neglect patients show longer/worse recovery of postural-walking autonomy than other stroke patients.

  8. Associations between infant negative affect and parent anxiety symptoms are bidirectional: Evidence from mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant fear-based negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant fear-based negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.

  9. Individual differences in heart rate variability are associated with the avoidance of negative emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-12-01

    Although the emotional outcome of a choice generally affects subsequent decisions, humans can inhibit the influence of emotion. Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as an objective measure of individual differences in the capacity for inhibitory control. In the present study, we investigated how individual differences in HRV at rest are associated with the emotional effects of the outcome of a choice on subsequent decision making using a decision-making task in which emotional pictures appeared as decision outcomes. We used a reinforcement learning model to characterize the observed behaviors according to several parameters, namely, the learning rate and the motivational value of positive and negative pictures. Consequently, we found that individuals with a lower resting HRV exhibited a greater negative motivational value in response to negative pictures, suggesting that these individuals tend to avoid negative pictures compared with individuals with a higher resting HRV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E.; Nelson, Eric E.; Stroud, Laura J.; Siegle, Greg J.; Morgan, Judith K.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence. PMID:24613174

  11. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  12. Cytokeratin 20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma is infrequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Andrew G; Patel, Rajiv M; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Minca, Eugen C; Fullen, Douglas R; Harms, Paul W; Billings, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma most commonly seen in sun-damaged skin. Histologically, the tumor consists of primitive round cells with fine chromatin and numerous mitoses. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrate expression of neuroendocrine markers. In addition, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) is expressed in ∼95% of cases. In 2008, Merkel cell carcinoma was shown to be associated with a virus now known as Merkel cell polyomavirus in ∼80% of cases. Prognostic and mechanistic differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma may exist. There has been the suggestion that CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinomas less frequently harbor Merkel cell polyomavirus, but a systematic investigation for Merkel cell polyomavirus incidence in CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma has not been done. To test the hypothesis that Merkel cell polyomavirus is less frequently associated with CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma, we investigated 13 CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinomas from the files of the Cleveland Clinic and the University of Michigan for the virus. The presence or absence of Merkel cell polyomavirus was determined by quantitative PCR performed for Large T and small T antigens, with sequencing of PCR products to confirm the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Ten of these (77%) were negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus and three (23%) were positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Merkel cell polyomavirus is less common in CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma. Larger series and clinical follow-up may help to determine whether CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma is mechanistically and prognostically unique.

  13. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara

    2013-01-01

    differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls......), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER...

  14. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Hendrik T J; Wiggers, Jim K; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastases in patients with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of 146 patients underwent curative-intent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with regional lymphadenectomy at two university medical centers in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients (62 %) without lymph node metastases at routine histology were included. Micrometastases were identified by multiple sectioning of all lymph nodes and additional immunostaining with an antibody against cytokeratin 19 (K19). The association with overall survival was assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis. Median follow-up was 48 months. Micrometastases were identified in 16 (5 %) of 324 lymph nodes, corresponding to 11 (12 %) of 91 patients. There were no differences in clinical variables between K19 lymph node-positive and -negative patients. Five-year survival rates in patients with lymph node micrometastases were significantly lower compared to patients without micrometastases (27 vs. 54 %, P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed micrometastases as an independent prognostic factor for survival (adjusted Hazard ratio 2.4, P = 0.02). Lymph node micrometastases are associated with worse survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of lymph node micrometastases leads to better staging of patients who were initially diagnosed with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology.

  15. Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,4...

  16. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought ...

  17. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  18. Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Roger L.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Kar, Siddhartha; Lindström, Sara; Hui, Shirley; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Dennis, Joe; Jiang, Xia; Rostamianfar, Asha; Finucane, Hilary K; Bolla, Manjeet K.; McGuffog, Lesley; Wang, Qin; Aalfs, Cora M.; Adams, Marcia; Adlard, Julian; Agata, Simona; Ahmed, Shahana; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Allen, Jamie; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher I; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Arnold, Norbert; Aronson, Kristan J; Auber, Bernd; Auer, Paul L.; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bacot, François; Balmaña, Judith; Barile, Monica; Barjhoux, Laure; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrdahl, Myrto; Barnes, Daniel R; Barrowdale, Daniel; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Bignon, Yves Jean; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Blok, Marinus J.; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bobolis, Kristie; Boeckx, Bram; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Bozsik, Aniko; Bradbury, Angela R; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Brewer, Carole; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Brunet, Joan; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S.; Byun, Jinyoung; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldés, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Canzian, Federico; Caron, Olivier; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D; Castelao, J Esteban; Castera, Laurent; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Chan, Salina B; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Christiansen, Hans; Claes, Kathleen B M; Clarke, Christine L; Conner, Thomas; Conroy, Don M; Cook, Jackie; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Coupier, Isabelle; Cox, Angela; Cox, David G.; Cross, Simon S.; Cuk, Katarina; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Darabi, Hatef; Davidson, Rosemarie; De Leeneer, Kim; Devilee, Peter; Dicks, Ed; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ditsch, Nina; Doheny, Kimberly F; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dubois, Stéphane; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Dumont, Martine; Dunning, Alison M.; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Ehrencrona, Hans; Eilber, Ursula; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fachal, Laura; Faivre, Laurence; Fasching, Peter A.; Faust, Ulrike; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Fritschi, Lin; Frost, Debra; Gabrielson, Marike; Gaddam, Pragna; Gammon, Marilie D.; Ganz, Patricia A; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; García-Sáenz, José A; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Gerdes, Anne Marie; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Goodfellow, Paul; Greene, Mark H.; Alnæs, Grethe I Grenaker; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Qi; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Healey, Catherine S.; Hein, Alexander; Helbig, Sonja; Henderson, Alex; Heyworth, Jane S.; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Hogervorst, Frans Bl; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Bob; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Chunling; Huang, Guanmengqian; Hulick, Peter J; Humphreys, Keith; Hunter, David J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Iwasaki, Motoki; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Janni, Wolfgang; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kast, Karin; Keeman, Renske; Kerin, Michael J.; Kets, Carolien M.; Keupers, Machteld; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Kruse, Torben A.; Kwong, Ava; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Laitman, Yael; Lalloo, Fiona; Lambrechts, Diether; Landsman, Keren; Lasset, Christine; Lazaro, Conxi; Le Marchand, Loic; Lecarpentier, Julie; Lee, Andrew; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Lesueur, Fabienne; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lincoln, Anne; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; So, Wing Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Loud, Jennifer T; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lush, Michael J.; MacInnis, Robert J; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Malone, Kathleen E.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, Joann E.; Margolin, Sara; Martens, John W. M.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Mclean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Menéndez, Primitiva; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Austin; Miller, Nicola; Mitchell, Gillian; Montagna, Marco; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Nadesan, Sue; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nevelsteen, Ines; Niederacher, Dieter; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olswold, Curtis; Ong, Kai Ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Pankratz, V Shane; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Lloyd, Rachel; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peixoto, Ana; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Poppe, Bruce; Porteous, Mary E.; Prentice, Ross L.; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Rennert, Hedy S; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Richardson, Andrea; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Rookus, Matti A.; Rudolph, Anja; Ruediger, Thomas; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sanders, Joyce; Sandler, Dale P; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Schwentner, Lukas; Scott, Christopher; Scott, Rodney J; Seal, Sheila; Senter, Leigha; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen Yang; Sheng, Xin; Shimelis, Hermela; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Side, Lucy E.; Singer, Christian F.; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Surowy, Harald M.; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tan, Yen; Taylor, Jack A; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C.; Teulé, Alex; Thöne, Kathrin; Thull, Darcy L; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Toland, Amanda E.; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Tranchant, Martine; Truong, Thérèse; Tucker, Kathy; Tung, Nadine; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; Van Den Berg, David; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Viel, Alessandra; Vijai, Joseph; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Walker, Lisa; Wang, Zhaoming; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Wendt, Camilla; Wesseling, Jelle; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, B.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Zorn, Kristin K; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Mannermaa, Arto; Olsson, Håkan; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Stone, Jennifer; Offit, Kenneth; Ottini, Laura; Park, Sue K.; Thomassen, Mads; Hall, Per; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Droit, Arnaud; Bader, Gary D.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Couch, Fergus J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kraft, Peter; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Simard, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414

  19. Effortful control as modifier of the association between negative emotionality and adolescents' mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which effortful control moderated the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems associated with high negative emotionality in a Dutch population sample of pre- and early adolescents (N = 1,922). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed with the

  20. Effect of physical activity on frailty and associated negative outcomes: the LIFE randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may prevent frailty and associated negative outcomes in older adults. Definitive data from large, long-term, randomized trials are lacking. Objective: To determine whether a long-term structured moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) p...

  1. Child sex moderates the association between negative parenting and childhood conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple dimensions of negative parenting behavior are associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), there is relatively little research on whether the association is equally robust in boys and girls. To improve the specificity of current models of negative parenting and offspring CP, we explored the potential moderating role of child sex in a sample of 179 5- to 10-year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were assessed using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales, semistructured interviews) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, race-ethnicity, and ADHD diagnostic status (i.e., ADHD vs. non-ADHD), inconsistent discipline was positively associated with offspring aggression and rule-breaking behavior, whereas harsh punishment was positively associated with aggression, rule-breaking behavior, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Furthermore, child sex significantly moderated the association of inconsistent discipline and aggression and rule-breaking behavior, such that inconsistent discipline was positively associated with CP for boys, but not for girls. Given the centrality of negative parenting to theories of and efficacious interventions for aggression and CP, we discuss these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework and consider their implications for intervention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel Fanconi anaemia subtype associated with a dominant-negative mutation in RAD51

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameziane, Najim; May, Patrick; Haitjema, Anneke; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari E.; Ristic, Dejan; Williams, Gareth J.; Balk, Jesper; Rockx, Davy; Li, Hong; Rooimans, Martin A.; Oostra, Anneke B.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Bleijerveld, Onno B.; Maarten Altelaar, A. F.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Joenje, Hans; Glusman, Gustavo; Roach, Jared; Hood, Leroy; Galas, David; Wyman, Claire; Balling, Rudi; den Dunnen, Johan; de Winter, Johan P.; Kanaar, Roland; Gelinas, Richard; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a hereditary disease featuring hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linker-induced chromosomal instability in association with developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a strong predisposition to cancer. A total of 17 FA disease genes have been reported, all of which act

  3. The structures of lipopolysaccharides from plant-associated gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinaro, Antonio; Newman, Mari-Anne; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) have multiple roles in plant-microbe interactions. LPSs contribute to the low permeabilities of bacterial outer membranes, which act as barriers to protect bacteria from plant-derived antimicrobial substances. Conversely, perception of LPSs...... is an important prerequisite for any further understanding of the biological processes in plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, the LPSs from Gram-negative bacteria - especially those originating from plant-associated bacteria - are a great source of novel monosaccharides with unusual and occasionally astounding...

  4. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A general population sample aged 19 to 72years was examined in 2006-2008 and again in 2011-2012. Longitudinal data on CI were analysed with the purpose of examining baseline negative affect as a risk factor for having developed CI at 5-year follow-up and for reporting persistent CI. Participants.......4% of the participants who had reported CI at baseline also reported CI at follow-up. In participants with no baseline CI, 15.5% reported CI at follow-up and 18.1% reported symptoms related to chemicals but no daily life adjustments. Baseline negative affect was positively and statistically significantly associated...

  5. South Korean alcohol free associations: negative expectancy not predicting drinks per occasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Benjamin J; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Cultural and biological particulars existing in East Asian countries are likely to mediate differences in the alcohol consumption experience. Despite this no research to date has directly explored the alcohol free association or expectancy of any East Asian nations. The current research aims to provide a set of South Korean alcohol expectancies. Two hundred and thirty-seven South Koreans participated in an alcohol free association test and completed a demographic survey. The results both confirmed and contradicted areas of past alcohol expectancy research. There appears to be differences in associates with high probability of recall and alcohol expectancy, where negative, negative sedating and sedating expectancy categories were not found to be predictors of South Korean drinker level. The results suggest that South Koreans have a more even level of negative expectancy across all drinker categories, possibly due to a combination of linguistic, cultural and biological difference found among this population. The results provide a list of South Korean alcohol free association norms for future alcohol research in the region, with the results also underlining the need for alcohol free association tests among East Asian nations. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6. Scores for affect were obtained from the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire in 2006-7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=-0.066 [95% CI -0.086, -0.046]), soda (β=-0.025 [95% CI -0.037, -0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=-0.046 [95% CI -0.062, -0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=-0.076 [95% CI -0.099, -0.052]), fruit (β=-0.033 [95% CI -0.053, -0.014]) and nuts (β=-0.088 [95% CI -0.116, -0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (Pnegative affect in females only. Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  8. Working with MRI: An investigation of occupational exposure to strong static magnetic fields and associated symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the

  9. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  10. Resilience in Adolescents with Cancer: Association of Coping with Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Bettis, Alexandra H; Gruhn, Meredith A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prospective association between adolescents' coping with cancer-related stress and observed positive and negative affect during a mother-adolescent interaction task involving discussion of cancer-related stressors. Adolescents (age 10-15 years) self-reported about their coping and affect approximately 2 months after cancer diagnosis. Approximately 3 months later, adolescents and mothers were video recorded having a discussion about cancer, and adolescents were coded for expression of positive affect (positive mood) and negative affect (sadness and anxiety). Adolescents' use of secondary control coping (i.e., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal, and distraction) in response to cancer-related stress predicted higher levels of observed positive affect, but not negative affect, over time. Findings provide support for the importance of coping in the regulation of positive emotions. The potential role of coping in preventive interventions to enhance resilience in adolescents facing cancer-related stress is highlighted.

  11. Negative attitude towards medication is associated with working memory impairment in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Silver, Henry

    2005-03-01

    A lack of insight into illness and negative attitudes towards medication are common among individuals with schizophrenia and impact clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards medication and cognitive function in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-five male forensic inpatients who were suffering from chronic schizophrenia participated in the study. A drug attitude inventory was used to evaluate the attitudes of the patients towards medication. Neuropsychological function was assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Patients with positive attitudes towards medication performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on tests of verbal working memory (digit span forwards and backwards), inhibition and set shifting (Penn Inhibition test), delayed object memory and overall mental status (Mini Mental State Examination). There were no differences in age, education, hospitalizations or clinical symptoms between the groups. Our findings support an association between negative attitudes towards medication and poor cognitive performance, particularly of working memory.

  12. Reduced hippocampal volume is associated with overgeneralization of negative context in individuals with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Szabo, Csilla; Richter-Levin, Gal; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated reduced hippocampal volume in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the functional role the hippocampus plays in PTSD symptomatology is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore generalization learning and its connection to hippocampal volume in individuals with and without PTSD. Animal and human models argue that hippocampal deficit may result in failure to process contextual information. Therefore we predicted associations between reduced hippocampal volume and overgeneralization of context in individuals with PTSD. We conducted MRI scans of bilateral hippocampal and amygdala formations as well as intracranial and total brain volumes. Generalization was measured using a novel-learning paradigm, which separately evaluates generalization of cue and context in conditions of negative and positive outcomes. As expected, MRI scans indicated reduced hippocampal volume in PTSD compared to non-PTSD participants. Behavioral results revealed a selective deficit in context generalization learning in individuals with PTSD, F(1, 43) = 8.27, p < .01, η(p)² = .16. Specifically, as predicted, while generalization of cue was spared in both groups, individuals with PTSD showed overgeneralization of negative context. Hence, they could not learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome, F(1, 43) = 7.33, p = .01, η(p)² = .15. Most importantly, overgeneralization of negative context significantly correlated with right and left hippocampal volume (r = .61, p = .000; r = .5, p = .000). Finally, bilateral hippocampal volume provided the strongest prediction of overgeneralization of negative context. Reduced hippocampal volume may account for the difficulty of individuals with PTSD to differentiate negative and novel conditions and hence may facilitate reexperiencing symptoms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Observations of Blue Discharges Associated With Negative Narrow Bipolar Events in Active Deep Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Zhu, Baoyou; Lu, Gaopeng; Qin, Zilong; Lei, Jiuhou; Peng, Kang-Ming; Chen, Alfred B.; Huang, Anjing; Cummer, Steven A.; Chen, Mingli; Ma, Ming; Lyu, Fanchao; Zhou, Helin

    2018-03-01

    On 19 August 2012, the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite captured a sequence of seven blue discharges within 1 min that emanated from a parent thunderstorm over Lake Taihu in East China. The analysis of lightning activity produced in the thunderstorm indicates that at least six of these events occurred in association with negative narrow bipolar events (NBEs) that were concurrent with the blue discharge by less than 1 ms, and negative cloud-to-ground occurred within 6 s before each blue discharge, which is in agreement with the modeling presented by Krehbiel et al. (2008). Therefore, the frequent occurrence of negative cloud-to-ground could provide the favorable condition for the production of blue discharges, and negative NBEs are probably the initial event of blue discharges. The detection of negative NBEs might provide a convenient approach to detect the occurrence of blue discharges as lightning bolt shooting upward from the top of energetic thunderstorms.

  14. Drinking Patterns Among Older Couples: Longitudinal Associations With Negative Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Cranford, James A; Manalel, Jasmine A; Antonucci, Toni C

    2018-04-16

    Research with younger couples indicates that alcohol use has powerful effects on marital quality, but less work has examined the effects of drinking among older couples. This study examined whether dyadic patterns of drinking status among older couples are associated with negative marital quality over time. Married participants (N = 4864) from the Health and Retirement Study reported on alcohol consumption (whether they drink alcohol and average amount consumed per week) and negative marital quality (e.g., criticism and demands) across two waves (Wave 1 2006/2008 and Wave 2 2010/2012). Concordant drinking couples reported decreased negative marital quality over time, and these links were significantly greater among wives. Wives who reported drinking alcohol reported decreased negative marital quality over time when husbands also reported drinking and increased negative marital quality over time when husbands reported not drinking. The present findings stress the importance of considering the drinking status rather than the amount of alcohol consumed of both members of the couple when attempting to understand drinking and marital quality among older couples. These findings are particularly salient given the increased drinking among baby boomers and the importance of marital quality for health among older couples.

  15. Positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy are associated with differential patterns of episodic memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sahakyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25. Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.

  16. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...... with ampliconic sequences we propose that intra-genomic conflict between the X and the Y chromosomes is a major driver of X chromosome evolution....

  17. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making me...

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model revealed that a less flexible work environment and greater work pressure predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and further, that these associations were mediated by perceptions of negative work-family spillover. Additionally, results from a two-group mediation model suggested that work pressure predicted greater perceptions of spillover only for mothers employed full-time. Findings suggest the need for policies that reduce levels of work stress and help mothers manage their work and family responsibilities.

  19. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-06-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  20. Gene–Environment Correlation Underlying the Association Between Parental Negativity and Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Narusyte, Jurgita; Spotts, Erica L.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene–environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent–adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents′ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11–22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986

  1. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  2. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With Schizophreniaand their Association With Positive and Negative Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and its association with negative and positive symptom of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, 80 schizophrenic subjects were randomly selected from patients who referred to the clinics of psychiatry hospital in Kerman, Iran. Eighty non-schizophrenic patients were chosen as the control group. Both groups were...

  4. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of

  5. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  6. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Factors associated with negative self-perception of oral health among institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Laércio Almeida de; Sousa, Meily de Mello; Medeiros, Annie Karoline Bezerra de; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of oral-health in institutionalized elderly, and look into the sociodemographic and clinical aspects associated with negative self-perception. One hundred and sixty-six elderly were assessed by answering a self-perception question that predicts the GOHAI (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index). Sociodemographic data was obtained from a previously validated questionnaire and clinical data taken from the WHO file and QST-TMD used to check the existence of TMD (temporomandibular disturbance). The data gathered was submitted to Mann-Whitney, Fisher's Exact and Chi-squared tests with a 5% significance level. The average age of the study population was 80.5, and 75.9% were women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth in permanent teeth) was 28.9, the majority of the sample subject (65%) reported good to excellent teeth, gums and prostheses (dentures and bridges). Three questions in the TMD questionnaire (QST-DTM) were associated with negative self-perception. Those claiming that their jaws "lock" when they open or close their mouth, who always have pain at the front or side of their jaw, or whose jaws get tired during the course of the day are less satisfied with their oral health. We conclude that clinical and sociodemographic conditions have little influence on self-perception of oral health, possibly because pain is the main factor associated with negative self-perception in these individuals.

  8. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral multipliers on spaces of distributions associated with non-negative self-adjoint operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    and Triebel–Lizorkin spaces with full range of indices is established too. As an application, we obtain equivalent norm characterizations for the spaces mentioned above. Non-classical spaces as well as Lebesgue, Hardy, (generalized) Sobolev and Lipschitz spaces are also covered by our approach.......We consider spaces of homogeneous type associated with a non-negative self-adjoint operator whose heat kernel satisfies certain upper Gaussian bounds. Spectral multipliers are introduced and studied on distributions associated with this operator. The boundedness of spectral multipliers on Besov...

  10. Sleep Efficiency Modulates Associations Between Family Stress and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Kim, Joanna J; Almeida, David M; Bower, Julienne E; Dahl, Ronald E; Irwin, Michael R; McCreath, Heather; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether sleep moderates the associations between family-related stress and depressive symptoms and negative affect outcomes during adolescence. We combined traditional survey measures of stress and depressive symptoms with daily assessments of stress and negative affect to examine whether sleep differentially impacts the link between chronic and acute experiences of stress and affect. Participants were 316 adolescents from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Primary caregivers and adolescents reported on stressful family events during the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Adolescents also reported on their daily experiences of family demands for 15 days and wore actigraph watches for the assessment of sleep during the first eight nights. Regression analyses revealed that more stressful family events were related to more depressive symptoms. This relation was stronger among adolescents with lower sleep efficiency. The same pattern emerged for the relation between daily family demands and negative affect aggregated across the 15 days. Daily-level analyses indicated that daily negative affect was related to daily family demands when sleep efficiency was higher than usual, but only among European American adolescents. These findings suggest that chronic experiences of lower sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, may render adolescents more vulnerable to the negative effects of family stress on emotional adjustment. A more complex picture emerged for the role of prior night's sleep in the day-to-day variation in negative affect reactivity to family stress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative association of acetate with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layden BT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian T Layden1, Sudha K Yalamanchi1, Thomas MS Wolever2, Andrea Dunaif1, William L Lowe Jr11Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine (BTL, SKY, AD, WLL, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2Department of Nutritional Sciences (TMSW, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaBackground: The composition of gut flora has been proposed as a cause of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess whether serum short chain fatty acids, a major by-product of fermentation in gut flora, are associated with obesity and/or diabetes-related traits (insulin sensitivity and secretion.Methods: The association of serum short chain fatty acids levels with measures of obesity was assessed using body mass index, computerized tomography scan, and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were both determined from an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was also determined from a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp.Results: In this population of young, obese women, acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue determined by computerized tomography scan and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan, but not body mass index. The level of the short chain fatty acids acetate, but not propionate or butyrate, was also negatively associated with fasting serum insulin and 2 hour insulin levels in the oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusions: In this population, serum acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels. Future studies need to verify these findings and expand on these observations in larger cohorts of subjects.Keywords: obesity, insulin, gut flora, short chain fatty acids 

  12. Mindfulness Trait Predicts Neurophysiological Reactivity Associated with Negativity Bias: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa S. P. Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship of mindfulness trait with the early and late stages of affective processing, by examining the two corresponding ERP components, P2 and LPP, collected from twenty-two male Chinese participants with a wide range of meditation experiences. Multiple regression analyses was performed on the mindfulness scores, as measured by CAMS-R, with the subjective affective ratings and ERP data collected during an emotion processing task. The results showed that increased mindfulness scores predicted increased valence ratings of negative stimuli (less negative, as well as increased P2 amplitudes at the frontocentral location for positive compared to negative stimuli. Based on these findings, a plausible mechanism of mindfulness in reducing negativity bias was discussed. Moreover, our results replicated previous findings on the age-related increase of P2 amplitudes at the frontal sites for positive compared to neutral stimuli. Since the locations at which P2 amplitudes were found as associated with age and mindfulness differed, as did the emotional contents of the stimuli being compared, indicating that the effect of age did not confound our findings on mindfulness and the two factors might operate on early affective processing from distinct sources and mechanisms.

  13. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    and in their partners, ultradian and circadian rhythmicity of TSH, temporal relationship, and feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH. METHODS: We collected blood samples every 10 minutes for 24 hours for TSH and TH profiles. We used a deconvolution analysis to estimate basal (nonpulsatile), pulsatile......, and other secretion parameters to characterize ultradian rhythmicity and locally weighted polynomial regression of TSH to assess circadian rhythmicity. A cross-correlation analysis was used to investigate the temporal relationship between TSH and TH and cross-approximate entropy to assess feedback...... TSH secretion and a strong temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 but not with differences in ultradian or circadian TSH rhythmicity or feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH....

  14. Strong antitumor activities of IgG3 antibodies to a human melanoma-associated ganglioside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, I.; Brankovan, V.; Hellstroem, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal IgG3 antibodies, 2B2, IF4, and MG-21, recognize a G/sub D3/ ganglioside antigen that is expressed at the cell surface of most human melanomas. All three antibodies mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro when tested with human lymphocytes or effector cells in a 2-hr or 4-hr 51 Cr-release test, and one antibody, MG-21, also gives strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity with human serum. Antibody 2B2, which gives ADDC also in the presence of mouse lymphocytes, inhibited the outgrowth of a human melanoma in nude mice, but antibody IF4, which showed no ADCC with mouse lymphocyte effectors, did not

  15. Negative parental attributions mediate associations between risk factors and dysfunctional parenting: A replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-05-12

    The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task). Similar to our previous study, negative parental attributions mediated the relation between parenting stress and self-reported harsh and abusive parenting for both mothers and fathers. For mothers, this mediation effect was also found in the relation between parenting stress and lower levels of observed supportive parenting in a challenging disciplinary task. In addition, the relation of partner-related stress and abuse risk with harsh, abusive, and (low) supportive parenting were also mediated by maternal negative attributions. When parenting stress, partner-related stress, and abuse risk were studied in one model, only parenting stress remained significant. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting parental attributions for prevention and intervention purposes in families experiencing stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective associations with negativity: Why popular peers attract youths' visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; M age =11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular. Prior to each trial, the early adolescents were presented with a positive prime, the word "nice"; a negative prime, the word "stupid"; or no prime. Primary analyses focused on first-gaze preference and total gaze time The results showed a stronger first gaze preference for popular peers than for unpopular peers in the no-prime and negative prime trials than in the positive prime trials. The visual preference for a popular peer, thus, was attenuated by the positive prime. These findings are consistent with the notion that youths may visually attend to high-status peers due to their association with more negative characteristics and the threat they may pose to youths' own social standing and ability to gain interpersonal resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Paradigm to Assess Implicit Attitudes towards God: The Positive/Negative God Associations Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Carp, Sean; Rosmarin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Psychological research on the relationship between spirituality/religion and mental health has grown considerably over the past several decades and now constitutes a sizable body of scholarship. Among dimensions of S/R, positive beliefs about God have been significantly related to better mental health outcomes, and conversely negative beliefs about God are generally associated with more distress. However, prior research on this topic has relied heavily upon self-report Likert-type scales, which are vulnerable to self-report biases and measure only explicit cognitive processes. In this study, we developed and validated an implicit social cognition task, the Positive/Negative God Go/No-go Association Task (PNG-GNAT), for use in psychological research on spirituality and religion (S/R). Preliminary evidence in a large sample (N = 381) suggests that the PNG-GNAT demonstrates internal consistency, test-retest and split-half reliability, and concurrent evidence of validity. Further, our results suggest that PNG-GNAT scores represent different underlying dimensions of S/R than explicit self-report measures, and incrementally predict mental health above and beyond self-report assessment. The PNG-GNAT appears to be an effective tool for measuring implicit positive/negative beliefs about God.

  18. Smoking attenuates the negative association between carotenoids consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiter, Y; Gruber, S B; Ben-Amotz, A; Almog, R; Rennert, H S; Fischler, R; Rozen, G; Rennert, G

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables and fruits, physical activity, obesity and caloric intake are all strongly related to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between dietary intake of carotenoids from vegetables/fruits and risk of CRC in the context of cigarette smoking was studied in a nutritionally diverse population. The study included 1,817 age sex residence-matched case-control pairs from a population-based study in Northern Israel. Data were acquired by food-frequency questionnaire. Individual intake of carotenoid isomers was calculated using an Israeli food content database. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for known risk factors. Strong inverse associations were found with consumption of 9-cis-beta-carotene (OR = 0.35, 0.26-0.47), all-trans-beta-carotene (OR = 0.58, 0.44-0.76), cis-beta-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.67, 0.50-0.90), all-trans-zeaxanthin (OR = 0.64, 0.48-0.86), and lutein (OR = 0.74, 0.57-0.96). Lycopene (OR = 2.22, 1.71-2.89) and all-trans-beta-cryptoxanthin (OR = 2.01, 1.48-2.73) were associated with increased risk of CRC. Inverse associations of most carotenoids with CRC, demonstrated in non-smokers, were much attenuated or reversed in past or current smokers with a highly significant interaction term. Consumption of most dietary carotenoids was found to be strongly associated with reduced risk of CRC. However, smoking significantly attenuated or reversed this observed protective effect on CRC occurrence. Smokers should be advised that smoking also hampers the potential health promoting effects of high fruit and vegetable consumption.

  19. Effects of stress conditions on the generation of negative bias temperature instability-associated interface traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Pu Shi; Lei Xiao-Yi; Chen Qing; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    The exponent n of the generation of an interface trap (N it ), which contributes to the power-law negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation, and the exponent's time evolution are investigated by simulations with varying the stress voltage V g and temperature T. It is found that the exponent n in the diffusion-limited phase of the degradation process is irrelevant to both V g and T. The time evolution of the exponent n is affected by the stress conditions, which is reflected in the shift of the onset of the diffusion-limited phase. According to the diffusion profiles, the generation of the atomic hydrogen species, which is equal to the buildup of N it , is strongly correlated with the stress conditions, whereas the diffusion of the hydrogen species shows V g -unaffected but T-affected relations through the normalized results

  20. High permeation rates in liposome systems explain rapid glyphosate biodegradation associated with strong isotope fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrl, Benno; Mogusu, Emmanuel O; Kim, Kyoungtea; Hofstetter, Heike; Pedersen, Joel A; Elsner, Martin

    2018-05-23

    Bacterial uptake of charged organic pollutants such as the widely used herbicide glyphosate is typically attributed to active transporters, whereas passive membrane permeation as an uptake pathway is usually neglected. For 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes, pH-dependent membrane permeation coefficients (Papp) of glyphosate, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, varied from Papp(pH 7.0) = 3.7 (+/-0.3) × 10-7 m∙s-1 to Papp(pH 4.1) = 4.2 (+/-0.1) × 10-6 m∙s-1. This surprisingly rapid membrane permeation depended on glyphosate speciation and was, at physiological pH, in the range of polar, non-charged molecules suggesting that passive membrane permeation is a potential uptake pathway during glyphosate biodegradation. To test this hypothesis, a Gram-negative glyphosate degrader, Ochrobactrum sp. FrEM, was isolated from glyphosate-treated soil and glyphosate permeation rates inferred from the liposome model were compared to bacterial degradation rates. Estimated maximum permeation rates were, indeed, two orders of magnitudes higher than glyphosate degradation rates. Moreover, biodegradation of millimolar glyphosate concentrations gave rise to pronounced carbon isotope fractionation with an apparent kinetic isotope effect of AKIEcarbon= 1.014 ± 0.003. This value is consistent with unmasked enzymatic isotope fractionation demonstrating that glyphosate biodegradation was little mass transfer-limited and glyphosate exchange across the cell membrane was rapid relative to enzymatic turnover.

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF A STRONGLY LENSED PLANCK-ASSOCIATED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jullo, E. [Observatoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Perez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Djorgovski, S. G.; Scoville, N.; Yan, L.; Riechers, D. A.; Bradford, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Auld, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1160 Wien (Austria); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G., E-mail: haif@uci.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present high-resolution maps of stars, dust, and molecular gas in a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 3.259. HATLAS J114637.9-001132 is selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) as a strong lens candidate mainly based on its unusually high 500 {mu}m flux density ({approx}300 mJy). It is the only high-redshift Planck detection in the 130 deg{sup 2} H-ATLAS Phase-I area. Keck Adaptive Optics images reveal a quadruply imaged galaxy in the K band while the Submillimeter Array and the Jansky Very Large Array show doubly imaged 880 {mu}m and CO(1{yields}0) sources, indicating differentiated distributions of the various components in the galaxy. In the source plane, the stars reside in three major kpc-scale clumps extended over {approx}1.6 kpc, the dust in a compact ({approx}1 kpc) region {approx}3 kpc north of the stars, and the cold molecular gas in an extended ({approx}7 kpc) disk {approx}5 kpc northeast of the stars. The emissions from the stars, dust, and gas are magnified by {approx}17, {approx}8, and {approx}7 times, respectively, by four lensing galaxies at z {approx} 1. Intrinsically, the lensed galaxy is a warm (T{sub dust} {approx} 40-65 K), hyper-luminous (L{sub IR} {approx} 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }; star formation rate (SFR) {approx}2000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), gas-rich (M{sub gas}/M{sub baryon} {approx} 70%), young (M{sub stellar}/SFR {approx} 20 Myr), and short-lived (M{sub gas}/SFR {approx} 40 Myr) starburst. With physical properties similar to unlensed z > 2 SMGs, HATLAS J114637.9-001132 offers a detailed view of a typical SMG through a powerful cosmic microscope.

  2. Understanding the Association Between Negative Symptoms and Performance on Effort-Based Decision-Making Tasks: The Importance of Defeatist Performance Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Felice; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Marder, Stephen R; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared; Green, Michael F

    2017-11-13

    Effort-based decision-making paradigms are increasingly utilized to gain insight into the nature of motivation deficits. Research has shown associations between effort-based decision making and experiential negative symptoms; however, the associations are not consistent. The current study had two primary goals. First, we aimed to replicate previous findings of a deficit in effort-based decision making among individuals with schizophrenia on a test of cognitive effort. Second, in a large sample combined from the current and a previous study, we sought to examine the association between negative symptoms and effort by including the related construct of defeatist beliefs. The results replicated previous findings of impaired cognitive effort-based decision making in schizophrenia. Defeatist beliefs significantly moderated the association between negative symptoms and effort-based decision making such that there was a strong association between high negative symptoms and deficits in effort-based decision making, but only among participants with high levels of defeatist beliefs. Thus, our findings suggest the relationship between negative symptoms and effort performance may be understood by taking into account the role of defeatist beliefs, and finding that might explain discrepancies in previous studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  3. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  4. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  5. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  6. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...

  7. Mutations in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 are strongly associated with chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, J P H; te Morsche, R; Jansen, J B M J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Although chronic pancreatitis is associated with risk factors such as alcoholism, hyperparathyroidism, and hypertriglyceridaemia, little is known of the actual aetiology of the disease. It is thought that inappropriate activation of trypsinogen causes pancreatitis, and indeed in cases of hereditary pancreatitis mutations of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) have been described. As serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) is a potent natural inhibitor of pancreatic trypsin activi...

  8. Manganese availability is negatively associated with carbon storage in northern coniferous forest humus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendahl, Johan; Berg, Björn; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-11-14

    Carbon sequestration below ground depends on organic matter input and decomposition, but regulatory bottlenecks remain unclear. The relative importance of plant production, climate and edaphic factors has to be elucidated to better predict carbon storage in forests. In Swedish forest soil inventory data from across the entire boreal latitudinal range (n = 2378), the concentration of exchangeable manganese was singled out as the strongest predictor (R 2  = 0.26) of carbon storage in the extensive organic horizon (mor layer), which accounts for one third of the total below ground carbon. In comparison, established ecosystem models applied on the same data have failed to predict carbon stocks (R 2  < 0.05), and in our study manganese availability overshadowed both litter production and climatic factors. We also identified exchangeable potassium as an additional strong predictor, however strongly correlated with manganese. The negative correlation between manganese and carbon highlights the importance of Mn-peroxidases in oxidative decomposition of recalcitrant organic matter. The results support the idea that the fungus-driven decomposition could be a critical factor regulating humus carbon accumulation in boreal forests, as Mn-peroxidases are specifically produced by basidiomycetes.

  9. Association between serum levels of bioavailable vitamin D and negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jie Yin; See, Yuen Mei; Abdul Rashid, Nur Amirah; Neelamekam, Sasi; Lee, Jimmy

    2016-09-30

    Total vitamin D levels had been commonly reported to be lowered in patients with chronic psychotic illnesses in countries from the higher latitudes. However, studies on patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) are limited. In this study we investigated serum concentrations of total and bioavailable vitamin D levels in FEP patients compared to healthy controls and the association between symptom severity and vitamin D components. A total of 31 FEP patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited from Institute of Mental Health, Singapore. FEP patients were identified using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-1) and severity symptoms were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Sera from participants were analyzed for total vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and bioavailable vitamin D. Linear regressions were performed to examine the associations between serum total and bioavailable vitamin D and the PANSS subscales. Current study noted a significantly lower bioavailable vitamin D was in the FEP group and an association between bioavailable vitamin D and negative symptoms in FEP patients in a population with a consistent supply of sun exposure throughout the year. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  11. Negative self-perception of smile associated with malocclusions among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Moura, Fabiana Torres Cavalcante; Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho

    2013-08-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of negative self-perception of smile because of occlusion abnormalities and investigated their association according to standard clinical criteria. The sample consisted of 1290 randomly selected Brazilian adolescent boys and girls aged 12-16 years. The outcome of interest was dissatisfaction with smile, and data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Occlusion characteristics were assessed using the dental aesthetic index (DAI). The other study variables were gender, age, and use of dental services. A chi-square test and Poisson multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. Of the 1290 students interviewed and examined, 539 (41.8 per cent) were dissatisfied with their smile; of these, 373 (69.2 per cent) assigned their dissatisfaction to the presence of an occlusal abnormality, and 166 (30.8 per cent) reported reasons other than occlusal abnormalities for their negative self-perception of their smile. In multivariate analysis, the following variables were associated with the outcome of interest: maxillary anterior irregularity [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.40; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-1.80], incisal spacing (PR = 1.37; 95 per cent CI = 1.19-1.57), vertical open bite (PR = 1.34; 95 per cent CI = 1.15-1.55), mandibular anterior irregularity (PR = 1.29; 95 per cent CI = 1.14-1.46), permanent anterior teeth missing (PR = 1.21; 95 per cent CI = 1.05-1.39), and incisal diastema (PR = 1.14; 95 per cent CI = 1.01-1.31). The negative self-perception of smile was statistically associated with severity of occlusal disorders according to the DAI scores, which suggests that self-perception should be used together with standard clinical criteria when decisions about orthodontic treatments are made in public health care systems.

  12. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle. We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012), comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI) category and smoking status. Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference), individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21]) and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]). In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]). A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals. Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  13. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  14. Heavy Smoking Is More Strongly Associated with General Unhealthy Lifestyle than Obesity and Underweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Lohse

    Full Text Available Smoking and obesity are major causes of non-communicable diseases. We investigated the associations of heavy smoking, obesity, and underweight with general lifestyle to infer which of these risk groups has the most unfavourable lifestyle.We used data from the population-based cross-sectional Swiss Health Survey (5 rounds 1992-2012, comprising 85,575 individuals aged≥18 years. Height, weight, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and physical activity were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to analyse differences in lifestyle between the combinations of body mass index (BMI category and smoking status.Compared to normal-weight never smokers (reference, individuals who were normal-weight, obese, or underweight and smoked heavily at the same time had a poorer general lifestyle. The lifestyle of obese and underweight never smokers differed less from reference. Regardless of BMI category, in heavy smoking men and women the fruit and vegetable consumption was lower (e.g. obese heavy smoking men: relative risk ratio (RRR 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.30;2.21] and high alcohol intake was more common (e.g. normal-weight heavy smoking women 5.51 [3.71;8.20]. In both sexes, physical inactivity was observed more often in heavy smokers and obese or underweight (e.g. underweight never smoking 1.29 [1.08;1.54] and heavy smoking women 2.02 [1.33;3.08]. A decrease of smoking prevalence was observed over time in normal-weight, but not in obese individuals.Unhealthy general lifestyle was associated with both heavy smoking and BMI extremes, but we observed a stronger association for heavy smoking. Future smoking prevention measures should pay attention to improvement of general lifestyle and co-occurrence with obesity and underweight.

  15. Domains of Pyrococcus furiosus L-asparaginase fold sequentially and assemble through strong intersubunit associative forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Dushyant K; Tomar, Rachana; Dhoke, Reema R; Srivastava, Ankit; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report the folding and assembly of a Pyrococcus furiosus-derived protein, L-asparaginase (PfA). PfA functions as a homodimer, with each monomer made of distinct N- and C-terminal domains. The purified individual domains as well as single Trp mutant of each domain were subjected to chemical denaturation/renaturation and probed by combination of spectroscopic, chromatographic, quenching and scattering techniques. We found that the N-domain acts like a folding scaffold and assists the folding of remaining polypeptide. The domains displayed sequential folding with the N-domain having higher thermodynamic stability. We report that the extreme thermal stability of PfA is due to the presence of high intersubunit associative forces supported by extensive H-bonding and ionic interactions network. Our results proved that folding cooperativity in a thermophilic, multisubunit protein is dictated by concomitant folding and association of constituent domains directly into a native quaternary structure. This report gives an account of the factors responsible for folding and stability of a therapeutically and industrially important protein.

  16. Strong inverse association between physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a large school-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Robert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing

  17. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  18. Associations of Eu(III) with Gram-negative bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kimura, Takaumi; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association of Eu(III) with Gram-negative bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans by a batch method and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The kinetics study showed that the Eu(III) adsorption on the bacteria rapidly proceeded. The Eu(III) adsorption on A. faecalis and P. denitrificans at pHs 3, 4, and 5, and that on S.putrefaciens at pHs 4 and 5 reached a maximum within 5 minutes after contact. For P. denitrificans, the percent adsorption of Eu(III) decreased after the maximum percent adsorption was attained, which suggests the existence of exudates with an affinity with Eu(III). TRLFS showed that the coordination of Eu(III) on these bacteria is multidentate through an inner-spherical process. The ligand field of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was as strong as the ones observed for halophilic microorganisms, while that of A. faecalis and S. putrefaciens was the typical one observed for non-halophilic microorganisms. The coordination environment of Eu(III) on the bacteria differed from each other, though they are categorized as Gram-negative bacteria with the similar cell wall components. (author)

  19. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  20. Regret associated with the decision for breast reconstruction: the association of negative body image, distress and surgery characteristics with decision regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Joanne; Sherman, Kerry A; Lam, Thomas; Boyages, John

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychosocial and surgical factors on decision regret among 123 women diagnosed with breast cancer who had undergone immediate (58%) or delayed (42%) breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The majority of participants (52.8%, n = 65) experienced no decision regret, 27.6% experienced mild regret and 19.5% moderate to strong regret. Bivariate analyses indicated that decision regret was associated with negative body image and psychological distress - intrusion and avoidance. There were no differences in decision regret either with respect to methods or timing patterns of reconstructive surgery. Multinominal logistic regression analysis showed that, when controlling for mood state and time since last reconstructive procedure, increases in negative body image were associated with increased likelihood of experiencing decision regret. These findings highlight the need for optimal input from surgeons and therapists in order to promote realistic expectations regarding the outcome of breast reconstruction and to reduce the likelihood of women experiencing decision regret.

  1. Adiponectin-resistin index and its strong association with acute coronary syndrome in South Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prerna; Sridhar, M G; Rajappa, Medha; Balachander, J; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu

    2014-11-01

    India has the highest burden of acute coronary syndromes worldwide. Apart from certain lipid alterations that have been established to be definite risk factors, low level of adiponectin, high levels of resistin, and IL-6 have been shown to be risk factors for cardiovascular events. Insulin resistance is also a significant predictor of poor outcome in patients admitted with ACS. 69 male patients with ACS and 70 age-matched healthy males were recruited in the study. Insulin, total adiponectin, resistin, and IL-6 levels were assayed in all study subjects. Indices of insulin resistance and novel adipokine indices were calculated using standard formulae. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to find out the best predictor of ACS. Resistin, IL-6, insulin resistance indices, AR index, and IRAR index were found to be significantly higher, while insulin sensitivity indices and total adiponectin were found to be lower in cases, as compared with controls (p < 0.001). Insulin resistance was found to be higher in the admission sample, when compared to the fasting sample in patients with ACS (p = 0.01). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR and AR index were found to be significantly associated with ACS. AR index was the best independent predictor of ACS, with the highest odds ratio (AR index: adjusted OR 17.528, p < 0.0001 versus HOMA-IR: adjusted OR 1.146, p = 0.001). The present results implicate that adipokines are significantly associated with pathogenesis of ACS, warranting adequate and early appropriate treatment to reverse this metabolic dysregulation. In our study, AR index was the best predictor of ACS. Hence, the novel AR index might be useful in routine clinical practice for screening persons with increased risk of future development of ACS.

  2. Surgeon Experience is Strongly Associated with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy for all Preoperative Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric A; Bianco, Fernando J; Serio, Angel M; Eastham, James A; Kattan, Michael W; Pontes, J. Edson; Vickers, Andrew J; Scardino, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. In this study we sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by patient risk as defined by preoperative tumor characteristics. Methods The study included 7,683 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total prior number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable survival-time regression models were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, separately for each preoperative risk group. Results We saw no evidence that patient risk affects the learning curve: there was a statistically significant association between biochemical recurrence and surgeon experience in all analyses. The absolute risk difference for a patient receiving treatment from a surgeon with 10 compared to 250 prior radical prostatectomies was 6.6% (95% C.I. 3.4%, 10.3%), 12.0% (6.9%, 18.2%) and 9.7% (1.2%, 18.2%) for patients at low, medium and high preoperative risk patients. Recurrence-free probability for patients with low risk disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons Conclusions Cancer control after radical prostatectomy improves with increasing surgeon experience irrespective of patient risk. Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with low risk disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggests that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. The results have significant implications for clinical care. PMID:18423716

  3. Prostate Cancer Patient Characteristics Associated With a Strong Preference to Preserve Sexual Function and Receipt of Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, James R; Basak, Ramsankar; Nielsen, Matthew E; Reeve, Bryce B; Usinger, Deborah S; Spearman, Kiayni C; Godley, Paul A; Chen, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients' sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer. In this population-based cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, baseline patient-reported sexual function was assessed using a validated instrument. Patients were also asked whether preservation of sexual function was very, somewhat, or not important. Prostate cancer disease characteristics and treatments received were abstracted from medical records. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to compute adjusted risk ratio (aRR) estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 1194 men, 52.6% indicated a strong preference for preserving sexual function. Older men were less likely to have a strong preference (aRR = 0.98 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97 to 0.99), while men with normal sexual function were more likely (vs poor function, aRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.82). Among 568 men with low-risk cancer, there was no clear association between baseline sexual function or strong preference to preserve function with receipt of active surveillance. However, strong preference may differnetially impact those with intermediate baseline function vs poor function (Pinteraction = .02). Treatment choice may not always align with patients' preferences. These findings demonstrate opportunities to improve delivery of patient-centered care in early prostate cancer.

  4. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  5. New data and an old puzzle: the negative association between schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Hong; Byrne, Enda M; Hultman, Christina M; Kähler, Anna; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Ripke, Stephan; Andreassen, Ole A; Frisell, Thomas; Gusev, Alexander; Hu, Xinli; Karlsson, Robert; Mantzioris, Vasilis X; McGrath, John J; Mehta, Divya; Stahl, Eli A; Zhao, Qiongyi; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sullivan, Patrick F; Price, Alkes L; O'Donovan, Michael; Okada, Yukinori; Mowry, Bryan J; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Wray, Naomi R; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M; Cichon, Sven; Cormican, Paul; Curtis, David; Djurovic, Srdjan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Gejman, Pablo V; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Giegling, Ina; Hansen, Thomas F; Ingason, Andrés; Kim, Yunjung; Konte, Bettina; Lee, Phil H; McIntosh, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Morris, Derek W; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Pickard, Benjamin S; Posthuma, Danielle; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Schulze, Thomas G; Silverman, Jeremy M; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Werge, Thomas; Agartz, Ingrid; Amin, Farooq; Azevedo, Maria H; Bass, Nicholas; Black, Donald W; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G; Choudhury, Khalid; Cloninger, Robert C; Corvin, Aiden; Craddock, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Datta, Susmita; Donohoe, Gary J; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Fanous, Ayman; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Friedl, Marion; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Hamshere, Marian L; Hartmann, Annette M; Holmans, Peter A; Kahn, René S; Keller, Matthew C; Kenny, Elaine; Kirov, George K; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Lawrence, Jacob; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A; Medeiros, Helena; Melle, Ingrid; Milanova, Vihra; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M; Ophoff, Roel A; Owen, Michael J; Pimm, Jonathan; Purcell, Shaun M; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J; Rossin, Lizzy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Sanders, Alan R; Shi, Jianxin; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Stroup, T Scott; Van Os, Jim; Visscher, Peter M; Wiersma, Durk; Zammit, Stanley; Bridges, S Louis; Choi, Hyon K; Coenen, Marieke J H; de Vries, Niek; Dieud, Philippe; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Huizinga, Tom W J; Padyukov, Leonid; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Tak, Paul P; Worthington, Jane; De Jager, Philip L; Denny, Joshua C; Gregersen, Peter K; Klareskog, Lars; Mariette, Xavier; Plenge, Robert M; van Laar, Mart; van Riel, Piet

    2015-10-01

    A long-standing epidemiological puzzle is the reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in those with schizophrenia (SZ) and vice versa. Traditional epidemiological approaches to determine if this negative association is underpinned by genetic factors would test for reduced rates of one disorder in relatives of the other, but sufficiently powered data sets are difficult to achieve. The genomics era presents an alternative paradigm for investigating the genetic relationship between two uncommon disorders. We use genome-wide common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from independently collected SZ and RA case-control cohorts to estimate the SNP correlation between the disorders. We test a genotype X environment (GxE) hypothesis for SZ with environment defined as winter- vs summer-born. We estimate a small but significant negative SNP-genetic correlation between SZ and RA (-0.046, s.e. 0.026, P = 0.036). The negative correlation was stronger for the SNP set attributed to coding or regulatory regions (-0.174, s.e. 0.071, P = 0.0075). Our analyses led us to hypothesize a gene-environment interaction for SZ in the form of immune challenge. We used month of birth as a proxy for environmental immune challenge and estimated the genetic correlation between winter-born and non-winter born SZ to be significantly less than 1 for coding/regulatory region SNPs (0.56, s.e. 0.14, P = 0.00090). Our results are consistent with epidemiological observations of a negative relationship between SZ and RA reflecting, at least in part, genetic factors. Results of the month of birth analysis are consistent with pleiotropic effects of genetic variants dependent on environmental context.

  6. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Richardson, Aimee C; Miller, Jody C

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that low, and possibly high, selenium status is associated with depressed mood. More evidence is needed to determine whether this pattern occurs in young adults with a wide range of serum concentrations of selenium. The aim of this study was to determine if serum selenium concentration is associated with depressive symptoms and daily mood states in young adults. A total of 978 young adults (aged 17-25 y) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale and reported their negative and positive mood daily for 13 d using an Internet diary. Serum selenium concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. ANCOVA and regression models tested the linear and curvilinear associations between decile of serum selenium concentration and mood outcomes, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, and weekly alcohol intake. Smoking and childhood socioeconomic status were further controlled in a subset of participants. The mean ± SD serum selenium concentration was 82 ± 18 μg/L and ranged from 49 to 450 μg/L. Participants with the lowest serum selenium concentration (62 ± 4 μg/L; decile 1) and, to a lesser extent, those with the highest serum selenium concentration (110 ± 38 μg/L; decile 10) had significantly greater adjusted depressive symptoms than did participants with midrange serum selenium concentrations (82 ± 1 to 85 ± 1 μg/L; deciles 6 and 7). Depressive symptomatology was lowest at a selenium concentration of ∼85 μg/L. Patterns for negative mood were similar but more U-shaped. Positive mood showed an inverse U-shaped association with selenium, but this pattern was less consistent than depressive symptoms or negative mood. In young adults, an optimal range of serum selenium between ∼82 and 85 μg/L was associated with reduced risk of depressive symptomatology. This range approximates the values at which glutathione peroxidase is maximal, suggesting that future research should investigate

  8. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  9. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N.; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M.; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A. G.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed “ATCCT interruptions,” experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confers a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  10. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Vachon, Celine M; Canzian, Federico; Dunning, Alison; Millikan, Robert C; Wang, Xianshu; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ahmed, Shahana; Ambrosone, Christine B; Baglietto, Laura; Balleine, Rosemary; Bandera, Elisa V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berg, Christine D; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Buring, Julie E; Carey, Lisa A; Carpenter, Jane E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Clarke, Christine L; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Deming, Sandra L; Diasio, Robert B; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M; Driver, W Ryan; Dünnebier, Thomas; Durcan, Lorraine; Eccles, Diana; Edlund, Christopher K; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Feigelson, Heather S; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fostira, Florentia; Försti, Asta; Fountzilas, George; Gerty, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goodfellow, Paul; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hamann, Ute; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Holbrook, Andrea; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Jennifer J; Hunter, David J; Ingles, Sue A; Irwanto, Astrid; Ivanovich, Jennifer; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nicola; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Kolonel, Laurence N; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kulkarni, Swati; Lambrechts, Diether; Lee, Adam M; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lesnick, Timothy; Liu, Jianjun; Lindstrom, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Martin, Nicholas G; Miron, Penelope; Montgomery, Grant W; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stephan; Nyante, Sarah; Olswold, Curtis; Palmer, Julie; Pathak, Harsh; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Perou, Charles M; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pooler, Loreall C; Press, Michael F; Pylkäs, Katri; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ross, Eric; Rüdiger, Thomas; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Sawyer, Elinor; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Schumacher, Fredrick; Severi, Gianluca; Sheng, Xin; Signorello, Lisa B; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Stevens, Kristen N; Southey, Melissa C; Tapper, William J; Tomlinson, Ian; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Wauters, Els; Weaver, JoEllen; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Van Den Berg, David; Wan, Peggy; Xia, Lucy Y; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Siddiq, Afshan; Slager, Susan L; Stram, Daniel O; Easton, Douglas; Kraft, Peter; Henderson, Brian E; Couch, Fergus J

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10−10). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10−9), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10−9). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations. PMID:22037553

  12. A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Vachon, Celine M; Canzian, Federico; Dunning, Alison; Millikan, Robert C; Wang, Xianshu; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ahmed, Shahana; Ambrosone, Christine B; Baglietto, Laura; Balleine, Rosemary; Bandera, Elisa V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berg, Christine D; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Brauch, Hiltrud; Buring, Julie E; Carey, Lisa A; Carpenter, Jane E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J; Chasman, Daniel I; Clarke, Christine L; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Deming, Sandra L; Diasio, Robert B; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M; Driver, W Ryan; Dünnebier, Thomas; Durcan, Lorraine; Eccles, Diana; Edlund, Christopher K; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Feigelson, Heather S; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fostira, Florentia; Försti, Asta; Fountzilas, George; Gerty, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goodfellow, Paul; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hamann, Ute; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Holbrook, Andrea; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Jennifer J; Hunter, David J; Ingles, Sue A; Irwanto, Astrid; Ivanovich, Jennifer; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nicola; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Kolonel, Laurence N; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kulkarni, Swati; Lambrechts, Diether; Lee, Adam M; Marchand, Loïc Le; Lesnick, Timothy; Liu, Jianjun; Lindstrom, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Martin, Nicholas G; Miron, Penelope; Montgomery, Grant W; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stephan; Nyante, Sarah; Olswold, Curtis; Palmer, Julie; Pathak, Harsh; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Perou, Charles M; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pooler, Loreall C; Press, Michael F; Pylkäs, Katri; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ross, Eric; Rüdiger, Thomas; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Sawyer, Elinor; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Schumacher, Fredrick; Severi, Gianluca; Sheng, Xin; Signorello, Lisa B; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Stevens, Kristen N; Southey, Melissa C; Tapper, William J; Tomlinson, Ian; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Wauters, Els; Weaver, JoEllen; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Van Den Berg, David; Wan, Peggy; Xia, Lucy Y; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Siddiq, Afshan; Slager, Susan L; Stram, Daniel O; Easton, Douglas; Kraft, Peter; Henderson, Brian E; Couch, Fergus J

    2011-10-30

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 × 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 × 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.

  13. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  14. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  15. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  16. Seroadaptive practices: association with HIV acquisition among HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Vallabhaneni

    Full Text Available Although efficacy is unknown, many men who have sex with men (MSM attempt to reduce HIV risk by adapting condom use, partner selection, or sexual position to the partner's HIV serostatus. We assessed the association of seroadaptive practices with HIV acquisition.We pooled data on North American MSM from four longitudinal HIV-prevention studies. Sexual behaviors reported during each six-month interval were assigned sequentially to one of six mutually exclusive risk categories: (1 no unprotected anal intercourse (UAI, (2 having a single negative partner, (3 being an exclusive top (only insertive anal sex, (4 serosorting (multiple partners, all HIV negative, (5 seropositioning (only insertive anal sex with potentially discordant partners, and (6 UAI with no seroadaptive practices. HIV antibody testing was conducted at the end of each interval. We used Cox models to evaluate the independent association of each category with HIV acquisition, controlling for number of partners, age, race, drug use, and intervention assignment. 12,277 participants contributed to 60,162 six-month intervals with 663 HIV seroconversions. No UAI was reported in 47.4% of intervals, UAI with some seroadaptive practices in 31.8%, and UAI with no seroadaptive practices in 20.4%. All seroadaptive practices were associated with a lower risk, compared to UAI with no seroadaptive practices. However, compared to no UAI, serosorting carried twice the risk (HR = 2.03, 95%CI:1.51-2.73, whereas seropositioning was similar in risk (HR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.50-1.44, and UAI with a single negative partner and as an exclusive top were both associated with a lower risk (HR = 0.56, 95%CI:0.32-0.96 and HR = 0.55, 95%CI:0.36-0.84, respectively.Seroadaptive practices appear protective when compared with UAI with no seroadaptive practices, but serosorting appears to be twice as risky as no UAI. Condom use and limiting number of partners should be advocated as first-line prevention

  17. <strong>Pervasive strong>technology> in the strong>classroom>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses learning potentials of pervasive technology when used in the classroom setting. Explicitly this paper uses the research and development project “Octopus” as its point of departure and as the foundation for reflections on how learning takes place in intelligent contexts. We...... propose that pervasive and tangible media like the Octopus reshapes learning not only by utilizing the body as the epicenter for experiences, but also by changing the traditional temporal and vertical learning design (vertical refers to temporal gab between learned knowledge and applied knowledge......) normally associated with the traditional school system. Initial analyses on the research project “Octopus” indicate that the temporal and vertical learning patterns are replaced by spatial and simultaneous learning design. We suggest that this change signals a fundamental approach and at the same time...

  18. The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health among middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-04-01

    The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.

  19. Omentin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing properties, is negatively associated with insulin resistance in normal gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benny; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Hemi, Rina; Yinon, Yoav; Schiff, Eyal; Mashiach, Roy; Kanety, Hannah; Sivan, Eyal

    2015-05-01

    Omentin, a newly identified adipokine, enhances insulin mediated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, thus, inducing systemic insulin-sensitizing effect. The aims of this study were to determine whether circulating maternal omentin levels are associated with insulin resistance indices and to assess which compartment, maternal, fetal, or placental, is the source of omentin in maternal circulation. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, and omentin were determined in 25 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester, before and 3 days after elective cesarean section. Cord blood omentin was measured in the 25 term neonates. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity before and after delivery. Antepartum maternal omentin levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels (r=-0.41, P=0.04) and positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S; r=0.4, P=0.04). Postpartum omentin levels were negatively correlated with maternal body mass index (r=-0.44, P=0.02). Median maternal omentin levels was comparable before and after delivery (57.2, inter-quartile range: 38.2-76.2 ng/mL vs. 53.4, 39.8-69.4 ng/mL, respectively, P=0.25) and highly correlated (r=0.83, Pinsulin resistance indices, suggesting that this adipokine may play a role in metabolic adaptations of normal gestation. The strong correlation between anteparum and postpartum maternal omentin levels, as well as the lack of association between maternal and neonatal omentin levels, suggest that placental or fetal compartments are unlikely as the main source of circulating maternal omentin.

  20. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  1. Endogenous Pain Modulation: Association with Resting Heart Rate Variability and Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Houte, Maaike; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Bogaerts, Katleen; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-07-21

    Several chronic pain syndromes are characterized by deficient endogenous pain modulation as well as elevated negative affectivity and reduced resting heart rate variability. In order to elucidate the relationships between these characteristics, we investigated whether negative affectivity and heart rate variability are associated with endogenous pain modulation in a healthy population. An offset analgesia paradigm with noxious thermal stimulation calibrated to the individual's pain threshold was used to measure endogenous pain modulation magnitude in 63 healthy individuals. Pain ratings during constant noxious heat stimulation to the arm (15 seconds) were compared with ratings during noxious stimulation comprising a 1 °C rise and return of temperature to the initial level (offset trials, 15 seconds). Offset analgesia was defined as the reduction in pain following the 1 °C decrease relative to pain at the same time point during continuous heat stimulation. Evidence for an offset analgesia effect could only be found when noxious stimulation intensity (and, hence, the individual's pain threshold) was intermediate (46 °C or 47 °C). Offset analgesia magnitude was also moderated by resting heart rate variability: a small but significant offset effect was found in participants with high but not low heart rate variability. Negative affectivity was not related to offset analgesia magnitude. These results indicate that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is related to endogenous pain modulation (EPM) in a healthy population. Future research should focus on clarifying the causal relationship between HRV and EPM and chronic pain by using longitudinal study designs. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Negative learning bias is associated with risk aversion in a genetic animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabel, Steven J; Murphy, Ryan T; Malinow, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is activated by aversive stimuli and the omission of reward, inhibited by rewarding stimuli and is hyperactive in helpless rats-an animal model of depression. Here we test the hypothesis that congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats are more sensitive to decreases in reward size and/or less sensitive to increases in reward than wild-type (WT) control rats. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found that cLH rats were slower to switch preference between two responses after a small upshift in reward size on one of the responses but faster to switch their preference after a small downshift in reward size. cLH rats were also more risk-averse than WT rats-they chose a response delivering a constant amount of reward ("safe" response) more often than a response delivering a variable amount of reward ("risky" response) compared to WT rats. Interestingly, the level of bias toward negative events was associated with the rat's level of risk aversion when compared across individual rats. cLH rats also showed impaired appetitive Pavlovian conditioning but more accurate responding in a two-choice sensory discrimination task. These results are consistent with a negative learning bias and risk aversion in cLH rats, suggesting abnormal processing of rewarding and aversive events in the LHb of cLH rats.

  3. Serum BDNF Is Positively Associated With Negative Symptoms in Older Adults With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Sasha S; Hubbard, Erin M; Flowers, Elena; Miller, Bruce L; Leutwyler, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Older adults with chronic schizophrenia are at greater risk for functional disability and poorer health outcomes than those without serious mental illness. These individuals comprise 1-2% of the elderly population in the United States and are projected to number approximately 15 million by 2030. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be disabling for individuals, significantly reducing quality of life. Often, the negative symptoms (NS) are the most resistant to treatment and are considered a marker of illness severity, though they are challenging to measure objectively. Biomarkers can serve as objective indicators of health status. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker for schizophrenia and may serve as an important indicator of illness severity. A cross-sectional study with 30 older adults with chronic schizophrenia. Participants were assessed on serum levels of BDNF and psychiatric symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). Pearson's bivariate correlations (two-tailed) and linear regression models were used. A significant positive association ( p schizophrenia. It is possible that higher serum levels of BDNF reflect compensatory neuronal mechanisms resulting from neurodevelopmental dysfunction.

  4. Type and Timing of Negative Life Events Are Associated with Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Nishikawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated an association between negative life events (NLEs in childhood and resilience/posttraumatic growth (PTG with regard to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We hypothesized that the type and timing of NLEs interact to influence mental health in the general youth population. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the effects of NLE timing and intensity on current depressive symptoms, and to determine the direct and indirect effects of NLEs/resilience on PTG and depression among non-clinical adolescents. Data were collected from 1,038 high-school students across seven high schools in Fukui, Japan, during their freshman and sophomore years (648 boys and 390 girls, mean age = 15.71, SD = 0.524. Respondents completed a set of questionnaires designed to evaluate the type and timing of NLEs, depressive and traumatic symptoms, and PTG. Cluster analysis was used to divide participants into three groups based on outcomes: “cluster 1” (n = 631, for whom depressive scores were significantly lower than other two subgroups (p < 0.05, for both; “cluster 2” (n = 52, for whom levels of current and past perceived stress associated with NLEs were significantly higher than those of the other two subgroups (p < 0.05, for both; “cluster 3” (n = 374, for whom perceived stress at the time of NLE was significantly higher than that of participants in the cluster 1 (p < 0.05 group, but not the cluster 2 group. Our findings indicated that exposure to NLEs at a younger age resulted in stronger negative outcomes and that NLE timing and intensity were associated with PTG and current symptoms of depression. Furthermore, path analysis demonstrated that associations between perceived stress at the time of NLEs were direct and indirect predictors of current depression via PTG and that posttraumatic stress symptom and PTG mediate the association between NLEs/trait-resiliency and current

  5. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, Elsje C; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Laven, Joop S E; Koster, Maria P H

    2017-04-01

    To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Prospective periconception cohort study. Tertiary hospital. One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam Periconception Cohort (Predict study). None. Semen quality parameters-ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive motility, immotile sperm, and total motile sperm count (TMSC). Men included in our study were on average 35 (±6 standard deviation) years old and had a body mass index of 26.4 ± 4 kg/m 2 . Two dietary patterns were identified using principle component analysis, which were labeled as "healthy" and "unhealthy." An increase of one factor score (stated as β) represented an increase of 1 standard deviation. Sperm concentration (β = 0.278; 95% CI, 0.112-0.444), total sperm count (β = 1.369; 95% CI, 0.244-2.495), progressive motility (β = 4.305; 95% CI, 0.675-7.936), and TMSC (β = 0.319; 95% CI, 0.113-0.526) were all positively associated with a strong adherence to the healthy dietary pattern. Subgroup analysis showed that these associations were mainly present in men with a TMSC strong adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern. The positive associations between strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern and semen parameters in men with poor semen quality support the importance of preconceptional tailored nutritional counseling and coaching of couples who are trying to conceive. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between intrusive negative autobiographical memories and depression: A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, Stella; Jobson, Laura

    2018-02-23

    The study investigated several associations between depression and intrusive negative autobiographical memories. A systematic literature search identified 23 eligible studies (N = 2,582), which provided 59 effect sizes. Separate meta-analyses indicated that depression was moderately, positively associated with intrusive memory frequency, memory distress, maladaptive memory appraisals, memory avoidance, and memory rumination. Intrusive memory vividness was not significantly associated with depression. There were insufficient data to examine the relationship between depression and memory vantage perspective. Between-study heterogeneity was high for intrusive memory frequency and memory avoidance, and the percentage of females in studies significantly moderated the relationship between these variables and depression. An additional exploratory meta-analysis (3 studies; N = 257) indicated that intrusive memories were experienced more frequently by those with posttraumatic stress disorder than those with depression. Overall, the findings suggest that intrusive memories warrant clinical attention as they may contribute to the maintenance of depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Dysbindin and d-amino-acid-oxidase gene polymorphisms associated with positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirgenes, Katrine V; Djurovic, Srdjan; Agartz, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    -amino-acid-oxidase (DAO) gene, both involved in glutamate receptor function, reported associations with negative symptoms and with anxiety and depression, respectively, when measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). METHODS: In the present study, the suggested association between dysbindin and DAO...... single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PANSS scores was analyzed in 155 Norwegian schizophrenia patients. RESULTS: There was a significant association between the dysbindin SNP rs3213207 and severity of both negative symptoms and total symptom load, as well as between the DAO SNP rs2070587 and total...... symptom score and severity of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: The present association of dysbindin SNPs with negative symptoms and DAO SNPs with anxiety and depression is a replication of earlier findings and strengthens the hypothesis of a genetic association. It further indicates involvement...

  8. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  9. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  10. PTIP associated protein 1, PA1, is an independent prognostic factor for lymphnode negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takeshita

    Full Text Available Pax transactivation domain interacting protein (PTIP associated protein 1, PA1, was a newly found protein participating in the modulation of transactivity of nuclear receptor super family members such as estrogen receptor (ER, androgen receptor (AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Breast cancer is one of the most life threatening diseases for women and has tight association with estrogen and ER. This study was performed to understand the function of PA1 in breast cancer. The expression of PA1 had been evaluated in a total of 344 primary invasive breast cancer samples and examined the relationship with clinical output, relapse free survival (RFS, breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS. PA1 expression was observed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, however, appeared mainly in nuclear. PA1 nuclear expression was correlated with postmenopausal (P = 0.0097, smaller tumor size (P = 0.0025, negative Ki67 (P = 0.02, positive AR (P = 0.049 and positive ERβ (P = 0.0020. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated PA1 nuclear positive cases seemed to have a longer survival than negative ones for RFS (P = 0.023 but not for BCSS (P = 0.23. In the Cox hazards model, PA1 nuclear protein expression proved to be a significant prognostic univariate parameter for RFS (P = 0.03, but not for BCSS (P = 0.20. In addition, for those patients without lymphnode metastasis PA1 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.025, which was verified by univariate and multivariate analyses. These investigations suggested PA1 expression could be a potential prognostic indicator for RFS in breast cancer.

  11. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target

  12. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  13. Mildly Elevated Serum Bilirubin Levels Are Negatively Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis among Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79±8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 509 women aged 81±8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002), smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006), GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039), and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022) were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, pbilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006), and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (β = 0.103, p = 0.017) were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs) {95% confidence interval (CI)} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI) of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11–0.57) in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21–0.78) in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26–0.98) in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24–0.89) in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders. PMID:25479598

  14. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  15. Many behavioral tendencies associated with right-leaning (conservative) political ideologies are malleable and unrelated to negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Sussman, Abigail B

    2014-06-01

    Recent research has identified several judgment and decision making tendencies associated with right-leaning political ideologies that are difficult (if not impossible) to explain in terms of stable, negative affective appraisals because they (1) are uncorrelated with the negativity of the stimuli being considered, (2) do not reflect divergent affective evaluations, and (3) can be eliminated by superficial manipulations and interventions.

  16. Financial difficulties but not other types of recent negative life events show strong interactions with 5-HTTLPR genotype in the development of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, X; Eszlari, N; Kovacs, D; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Juhasz, G; Bagdy, G

    2016-05-03

    Several studies indicate that 5-HTTLPR mediates the effect of childhood adversity in the development of depression, while results are contradictory for recent negative life events. For childhood adversity the interaction with genotype is strongest for sexual abuse, but not for other types of childhood maltreatment; however, possible interactions with specific recent life events have not been investigated separately. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of four distinct types of recent life events in the development of depressive symptoms in a large community sample. Interaction between different types of recent life events measured by the List of Threatening Experiences and the 5-HTTLPR genotype on current depression measured by the depression subscale and additional items of the Brief Symptom Inventory was investigated in 2588 subjects in Manchester and Budapest. Only a nominal interaction was found between life events overall and 5-HTTLPR on depression, which failed to survive correction for multiple testing. However, subcategorising life events into four categories showed a robust interaction between financial difficulties and the 5-HTTLPR genotype, and a weaker interaction in the case of illness/injury. No interaction effect for the other two life event categories was present. We investigated a general non-representative sample in a cross-sectional approach. Depressive symptoms and life event evaluations were self-reported. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism showed a differential interaction pattern with different types of recent life events, with the strongest interaction effects of financial difficulties on depressive symptoms. This specificity of interaction with only particular types of life events may help to explain previous contradictory findings.

  17. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  19. Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Janse, J J; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Achterberg, R A; Verweij, J J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Versteeg, S A; Potts, J; Minelli, C; van Ree, R; Burney, P; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase expression is negatively associated with cell stemness and worse clinical outcome in prostate cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoli; Ji, Yasai; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Yu, Dandan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Li, Huixiang; Zhang, Mingzhi; Ji, Zhenyu; Fan, Dandan; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Yuan, Long; Hao, Bin; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    Cells generate adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP), the major currency for energy-consuming reactions, through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, also known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cancer cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of mitochondrial OXPHOS as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. One of the main players in controlling OXPHOS is the mitochondrial gatekeeperpyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its major subunit is E1α (PDHA1). To further analyze the function of PDHA1 in cancer cells, it was knock out (KO) in the human prostate cancer cell line LnCap and a stable KO cell line was established. We demonstrated that PDHA1 gene KO significantly decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and promoted anaerobic glycolysis, accompanied with higher stemness phenotype including resistance to chemotherapy, enhanced migration ability and increased expression of cancer stem cell markers. We also examined PDHA1 protein expression in prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and observed that reduced PDHA1 protein expression in clinical prostate carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results show that negative PDHA1 gene expressionis associated with significantly higher cell stemness in prostate cancer cells and reduced protein expression of this gene is associated with shorter clinical outcome in prostate cancers. PMID:28076853

  2. Is maternal nutrition knowledge more strongly associated with the diets of mothers or their school-aged children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren; Campbell, Karen; Abbott, Gavin; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-08-01

    Maternal nutrition knowledge has frequently been identified as an important target for nutrition promotion interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal nutrition knowledge is more strongly associated with the mother's own diet or that of her child. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression with interactions analyses of survey data. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Five hundred and twenty-three mothers and their children who participated in the Resilience for Eating and Physical Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study, a cross-sectional survey study conducted in 2009 among women and their children residing in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In adjusted models, for three (vegetable, chocolate/lollies and soft drink consumption) out of the seven dietary outcomes assessed, there was a significant association between maternal nutrition knowledge and maternal diet, whereas for the children's diets none of the seven outcomes were associated with maternal nutrition knowledge. Statistical comparison of regression coefficients showed no difference between the maternal nutrition knowledge-maternal diet association and the maternal nutrition knowledge-child diet association. Promoting maternal nutrition knowledge may represent an important avenue for improving diet in mothers from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, but more information is needed on how and when this knowledge is translated to benefits for their children's diet.

  3. Helicobacter pylori dupA and gastric acid secretion are negatively associated with gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, Shinobu; Ito, Masanori; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-12-01

    Few reports have described the cancer prevalence of peptic ulcer patients with long-term follow-up studies. We have conducted a long-term retrospective cohort study of Japanese peptic ulcer patients and evaluated the risk factors for the occurrence of gastric cancer (GCa). A total of 136 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcers from 1975 to 1983 were enrolled. These 136 cases [102 males and 34 females; 69 gastric ulcer (GU) and 67 duodenal ulcer (DU) patients at the time of enrollment; mean follow-up period of 14.4 years (range 1-30 years)] after being matched with a tumour registry database in Hiroshima prefecture were surveyed for GCa. We investigated Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer promoter gene A (dupA) using paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens in 56 cases. Gastric acid secretion and basal acid output (BAO) in 40 cases, and maximal acid output in 68 cases, had been measured at first diagnosis of peptic ulcers. GCa was detected in 24 patients (17 with GU, 7 with DU) during the follow-up. The prevalence of GCa was significantly higher in GU patients than in DU patients (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori was detected not only in DU patients (9/20) but also in GU patients (9/36). Gastric acid output was significantly larger in quantity in patients with dupA-positive H. pylori than in those with dupA-negative H. pylori (PdupA-positive H. pylori and a high BAO level (log-rank test PdupA-positive H. pylori were negatively associated with GCa.

  4. Betel Quid Chewing, Personality and Mood: Betel Quid Chewing Associated with Low Extraversion and Negative Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ping-Ho; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2018-02-08

    Betel quid (BQ), chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Little is known about psychological factors in BQ chewers. The present study was the first attempt to explore the relationships between BQ chewing, personality, and mood. A survey was conducted with a purposive sample to assess BQ chewing habits in four subgroups: BQ-only users, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, smokers and/or drinkers only, and substance nonusers. A total of 494 participants were recruited from the civilian, non-institutionalized population in Taiwan. Habitual consumption of BQ, smoking and drinking; socio-demographic variables; extraversion; and mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion, and self-esteem). All BQ chewers were evaluated on BQ dependence domains using DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 6-month BQ dependency rate among BQ chewers, defined by either DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, ranged from 42.9 to 45.6%. BQ-only users had significantly lower scores on extraversion than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had statistically significant higher scores on confusion and total mood than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had significantly higher scores on fatigue, anger, tension, and depression, than substance nonusers, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, and smokers and/or drinkers only. The number of BQ dependence domains correlated significantly negatively with total mood scores. Conclusions/Importance: The results supported the two hypotheses: (a) BQ chewing is associated with low extraversion; and (b) BQ chewing is related to negative mood.

  5. Poor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Christina M; Banks, Jonathan B; Fins, Ana I; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Poor sleep quality has been demonstrated to diminish cognitive performance, impair psychosocial functioning and alter the perception of stress. At present, however, there is little understanding of how sleep quality affects emotion processing. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which sleep quality, measured through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, influences affective symptoms as well as the interaction between stress and performance on an emotional memory test and sustained attention task. To that end, 154 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.27 years, standard deviation = 4.03) completed a series of measures, including the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Sustained Attention to Response Task, an emotion picture recognition task and affective symptom questionnaires following either a control or physical stress manipulation, the cold pressor test. As sleep quality and psychosocial functioning differ among chronotypes, we also included chronotype and time of day as variables of interest to ensure that the effects of sleep quality on the emotional and non-emotional tasks were not attributed to these related factors. We found that poor sleep quality is related to greater depressive symptoms, anxiety and mood disturbances. While an overall relationship between global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score and emotion and attention measures was not supported, poor sleep quality, as an independent component, was associated with better memory for negative stimuli and a deficit in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. Importantly, these effects were not sensitive to stress, chronotype or time of day. Combined, these results suggest that individuals with poor sleep quality show an increase in affective symptomatology as well as a negative cognitive bias with a concomitant decrease in sustained attention to non-emotional stimuli. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight....... However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...

  7. Comparison of QRS Duration and Associated Cardiovascular Events in American Indian Men Versus Women (The Strong Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Jason F; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Noonan, Carolyn; Best, Lyle G; Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Umans, Jason G

    2017-06-01

    Electrocardiographic QRS duration at rest is associated with sudden cardiac death and death from coronary heart disease in the general population. However, its relation to cardiovascular events in American Indians, a population with persistently high cardiovascular disease mortality, is unknown. The relation of QRS duration to incident cardiovascular disease during 17.2 years of follow-up was assessed in 1,851 male and female Strong Heart Study participants aged 45 to 74 years without known cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression with robust standard error estimates was used to determine the association between quintiles of QRS duration and incident cardiovascular disease in gender-stratified analyses, adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, body mass index, current smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albuminuria. In women only, QRS duration in the highest quintile (≥105 ms) conferred significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease than QRS duration in the lowest quintile (64 to 84 ms) (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4) likely because of higher risks of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1) and myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.7). Furthermore, when added to the Strong Heart Study Coronary Heart Disease Risk Calculator, QRS duration significantly improved prediction of future coronary heart disease events in women (Net Reclassification Index 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.47). In conclusion, QRS duration is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in women in the Strong Heart Study cohort and may have value in estimating risk in populations with similar risk profiles and a high lifetime incidence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative perceptions of illness and health are associated with frequent use of physiotherapy in primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opseth, Gro; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Bjørke, Gustav; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2018-03-01

    There is growing concern that an ageing population and increasing number of patients with chronic illnesses in the future will foster a need for health services beyond the resources available in society. Patients with chronic illnesses are reported to be frequent users of physicians' services in the primary health sector. Therapies for patients with chronic musculoskeletal illnesses are delivered by physiotherapists in this sector. However, we know little about the use of physiotherapy services and the factors that may explain their use. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the regular/non-regular use of physiotherapy services, impacts of illness, and perceptions of illness and health. A cross-sectional survey included patients between 18 and 70 years of age who visited a physiotherapy outpatient clinic in Oslo during one randomly chosen week. Patient characteristics and use of physiotherapy were mapped. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), a single item of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Ørebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ØMPQ) were used to assess perceptions of illness and health, and impacts of illness. Data were analysed using independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analysis. A total of 507 patients with a mean age of 46 (standard deviation 12) years participated, of whom 54% were regular users of physiotherapy. BIPQ (p = 0.02; β = 0.03) and the single-item on general health perception (p = 0.001; β = 0.44,) were the only significant variables in the final equation associated with regular use of physiotherapy. About half of the participants were regular, high consumers of physiotherapy, and negative perceptions of illness and health were associated with this regular use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  10. Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimus, B F; Ormel, J; Aleman, A; Penninx, B W J H; Riese, H

    2013-11-01

    High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were tested: (1) positive LEs (PLEs) decrease and negative LEs (NLEs) increase neuroticism; (2) LE-driven change in neuroticism is partly long-lasting; and (3) partly independent of LE-driven changes in anxiety/depression; and (4) childhood adversity (before age 16 years) moderates the influence of NLEs/PLEs on neuroticism scores in adult life. Data came from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety [NESDA, n = 2981, mean age 41.99 years (s.d. = 13.08), 66.6% women]. At follow-up (T₂) we assessed PLEs/NLEs with the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) over the prior 24 months and categorized them over recent and distant PLE/NLE measures (1-3 and 4-24 months prior to T₂ respectively) to distinguish distant NLE/PLE-driven change in trait neuroticism (using the Dutch version of the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) from state deviations due to changes in symptoms of depression (self-rated version of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, IDS-SR30) and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI). Distant NLEs were associated with higher and distant PLEs with lower neuroticism scores. The effects of distant LEs were weak but long-lasting, especially for distant PLEs. Distant NLE-driven change in neuroticism was associated with change in symptoms of anxiety/depression whereas the effect of distant PLEs on neuroticism was independent of any such changes. Childhood adversity weakened the impact of distant NLEs but enhanced the impact of distant PLEs on neuroticism. Distant PLEs are associated with small but long-lasting decreases in neuroticism regardless of changes in symptom levels of anxiety/depression. Long-lasting increases in neuroticism

  11. The preproghrelin 3056 TT genotype is associated with the feeling of hunger and low acylated ghrelin levels in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori-negative functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Seiji; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Izumi, Nikki; Ohishi, Noriko; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Shindo, Tomotaka; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Horie, Akane; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Gudis, Katya; Itoh, Takashi; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-01-01

    An impairment of gastric motility is strongly associated with the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD). Plasma ghrelin is one of the key molecules linked to gastric motility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether ghrelin (GHRL) gene polymorphisms are associated with clinical symptoms, the plasma ghrelin levels and gastric emptying in patients with FD as defined by the Rome III classification. We enrolled 74 Helicobacter pylori-negative patients presenting with typical symptoms of FD (epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), n=23; postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), n=51) and 102 healthy volunteers. Gastric motility was evaluated according to the Tmax value and T1/2 using the (13)C-acetate breath test. We used the Rome III criteria to evaluate upper abdominal symptoms and SRQ-D scores to determine the depression status. The Arg51Gln(346G->A), preproghrelin3056T->C, Leu72Met(408C->A) and Gln90Leu(3412T->A) polymorphisms were analyzed in DNA in blood samples obtained from the enrolled subjects. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction. There was a significant relationship (p=0.048) between the preproghrelin 3056TT genotype and the serum levels of acylated ghrelin in the H. pylori-negative FD patients. The preproghrelin 3056TT genotype was significantly (p=0.047) associated with the feeling of hunger in the H. pylori-negative FD patients. The preproghrelin 3056TT genotype is significantly associated with the acylated ghrelin levels and the feeling of hunger in H. pylori-negative FD patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between the preproghrelin 3056TT genotype and lower plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the impact of this relationship on the feeling of hunger in H. pylori-negative FD patients.

  12. Spatiotemporal seismic velocity change in the Earth's subsurface associated with large earthquake: contribution of strong ground motion and crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawazaki, K.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that seismic velocity of the subsurface medium changes after a large earthquake. The cause of the velocity change is roughly attributed to strong ground motion (dynamic strain change), crustal deformation (static strain change), and fracturing around the fault zone. Several studies have revealed that the velocity reduction down to several percent concentrates at the depths shallower than several hundred meters. The amount of velocity reduction correlates well with the intensity of strong ground motion, which indicates that the strong motion is the primary cause of the velocity reduction. Although some studies have proposed contributions of coseismic static strain change and fracturing around fault zone to the velocity change, separation of their contributions from the site-related velocity change is usually difficult. Velocity recovery after a large earthquake is also widely observed. The recovery process is generally proportional to logarithm of the lapse time, which is similar to the behavior of "slow dynamics" recognized in laboratory experiments. The time scale of the recovery is usually months to years in field observations, while it is several hours in laboratory experiments. Although the factor that controls the recovery speed is not well understood, cumulative strain change due to post-seismic deformation, migration of underground water, mechanical and chemical reactions on the crack surface could be the candidate. In this study, I summarize several observations that revealed spatiotemporal distribution of seismic velocity change due to large earthquakes; especially I focus on the case of the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Combining seismograms of Hi-net (high-sensitivity) and KiK-net (strong motion), geodetic records of GEONET and the seafloor GPS/Acoustic ranging, I investigate contribution of the strong ground motion and crustal deformation to the velocity change associated with the Tohoku earthquake, and propose a gross view of

  13. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemink, Elske; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-03-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task was used to assess implicit alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations in 92 participants. Results revealed that enhancement motives were specifically associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in positive affect situations and coping motives were associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in negative affect situations. Furthermore, alcohol associations in positive affect situations predicted prospective alcohol use and number of binges, depending on levels of working memory capacity. The current findings shed more light on the underpinnings of alcohol use and suggest that implicit memory processes and working memory capacity might be important targets for intervention.

  14. Childhood internalizing symptoms are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Heron, Jon; Cho, Seung Bin; Hickman, Matt; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between childhood internalizing problems and early adolescent alcohol use has been infrequently explored and remains unclear. Methods We employed growth mixture modeling of internalizing symptoms for a large, population-based sample of UK children (the ALSPAC cohort) to identify trajectories of childhood internalizing symptoms from age 4 through age 11.5. We then examined the relationship between membership in each trajectory and alcohol use in early adolescence (reported at age 13.8). Results Overall, children experiencing elevated levels of internalizing symptoms were less likely to use alcohol in early adolescence. This finding held true across all internalizing trajectories; i.e., those exhibiting increasing levels of internalizing symptoms over time, and those whose symptoms desisted over time, were both less likely to use alcohol than their peers who did not exhibit internalizing problems. Conclusions We conclude that childhood internalizing symptoms, unlike adolescent symptoms, are negatively associated with early adolescent alcohol experimentation. Additional studies are warranted to follow up on our preliminary evidence that symptoms of phobia and separation anxiety drive this effect. PMID:24848214

  15. Corneal Mechanical Thresholds Negatively Associate With Dry Eye and Ocular Pain Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; Felix, Elizabeth R.; McClellan, Allison L.; Parel, Jean Marie; Gonzalez, Alex; Feuer, William J.; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Levitt, Roy C.; Ehrmann, Klaus; Galor, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between corneal mechanical thresholds and metrics of dry eye. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding dry eye symptoms and ocular pain, corneal mechanical detection and pain thresholds, and a comprehensive ocular surface examination. The main outcome measures were correlations between corneal thresholds and signs and symptoms of dry eye and ocular pain. Results A total of 129 subjects participated in the study (mean age 64 ± 10 years). Mechanical detection and pain thresholds on the cornea correlated with age (Spearman's ρ = 0.26, 0.23, respectively; both P Dry eye symptom severity scores and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (modified for the eye) scores negatively correlated with corneal detection and pain thresholds (range, r = −0.13 to −0.27, P eye pain (pain to wind, light, temperature) and explained approximately 32% of measurement variability (R = 0.57). Conclusions Mechanical detection and pain thresholds measured on the cornea are correlated with dry eye symptoms and ocular pain. This suggests hypersensitivity within the corneal somatosensory pathways in patients with greater dry eye and ocular pain complaints. PMID:26886896

  16. Self-esteem and perceptions of conveyed impressions: is negative affectivity associated with greater realism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J D; Fehr, B

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the notion that negative affectivity (Watson & Clark, 1984) is associated with more accurate perceptions of conveyed impressions in social interactions. In Study 1 (n = 160), low self-esteem (LSE) and high self-esteem (HSE) subjects were paired with either an LSE or an HSE partner. After a 15-min interaction, they rated themselves, their partners, and how they believed their partners would rate them on 20 adjectives related to social competence. Study 2 (n = 40) was identical except that each interaction was observed by 2 observers who rated each participant, and participants also rated how they believed an observer would rate them. LSE subjects exhibited greater accuracy only with respect to the elevation component of observers' ratings; HSE subjects overestimated the positivity of observers' evaluations, whereas LSE subjects were relatively accurate. However, LSE subjects exhibited less overall accuracy with respect to their partners' ratings. We argue that when these results are considered with earlier research, there is no support for the notion of depressive realism in assessing conveyed impressions.

  17. Corneal Mechanical Thresholds Negatively Associate With Dry Eye and Ocular Pain Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; Felix, Elizabeth R; McClellan, Allison L; Parel, Jean Marie; Gonzalez, Alex; Feuer, William J; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D; Levitt, Roy C; Ehrmann, Klaus; Galor, Anat

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between corneal mechanical thresholds and metrics of dry eye. This was a cross-sectional study of individuals seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding dry eye symptoms and ocular pain, corneal mechanical detection and pain thresholds, and a comprehensive ocular surface examination. The main outcome measures were correlations between corneal thresholds and signs and symptoms of dry eye and ocular pain. A total of 129 subjects participated in the study (mean age 64 ± 10 years). Mechanical detection and pain thresholds on the cornea correlated with age (Spearman's ρ = 0.26, 0.23, respectively; both P Dry eye symptom severity scores and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (modified for the eye) scores negatively correlated with corneal detection and pain thresholds (range, r = -0.13 to -0.27, P eye pain (pain to wind, light, temperature) and explained approximately 32% of measurement variability (R = 0.57). Mechanical detection and pain thresholds measured on the cornea are correlated with dry eye symptoms and ocular pain. This suggests hypersensitivity within the corneal somatosensory pathways in patients with greater dry eye and ocular pain complaints.

  18. Adaptor protein Lnk negatively regulates the mutant MPL, MPLW515L associated with myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gery, Sigal; Gueller, Saskia; Chumakova, Katya; Kawamata, Norihiko; Liu, Liqin; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2007-11-01

    Recently, activating myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) mutations, MPLW515L/K, were described in myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) patients. MPLW515L leads to activation of downstream signaling pathways and cytokine-independent proliferation in hematopoietic cells. The adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of several cytokine receptors, including MPL. We show that overexpression of Lnk in Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells inhibits cytokine-independent growth, while suppression of Lnk in UT7-MPLW515L cells enhances proliferation. Lnk blocks the activation of Jak2, Stat3, Erk, and Akt in these cells. Furthermore, MPLW515L-expressing cells are more susceptible to Lnk inhibitory functions than their MPL wild-type (MPLWT)-expressing counterparts. Lnk associates with activated MPLWT and MPLW515L and colocalizes with the receptors at the plasma membrane. The SH2 domain of Lnk is essential for its binding and for its down-regulation of MPLWT and MPLW515L. Lnk itself is tyrosine-phosphorylated following thrombopoietin stimulation. Further elucidating the cellular pathways that attenuate MPLW515L will provide insight into the pathogenesis of MPD and could help develop specific therapeutic approaches.

  19. Solar, interplanetary and terrestrial features associated with periods of prolonged positive and negative Dst index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, G.

    1989-01-01

    From a survey of the published final values of the geomagnetic index D st for the period 1958-1972, we found long time intervals of over 25-30 days, during which this index remained consistently positive (D st +) or negative (D st -). A study is made of relevant parameters on the ground, in the magnetosphere, in the solar wind and on the Sun to seek out systematic features associated with the two conditions. In order to eliminate factors arising from seasonal and solar cycle variations, we selected pairs of D st + and D st - which involve successive months of the same year, or the same month of two successive years. Three parameters which show a systematic difference between D st + and D st - intervals are found to be 1) the state of solar photospheric magnetic fields 2) the flux density of solar MeV protons measured in the magnetosphere and 3) the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field. While the effect of the last on geomagnetic activity has been well-discussed in the literature, it is suggested that the correlations of the first two to the conditions of D st + and D st - demand a careful scrutiny of the solar-terrestrial relationship. (author)

  20. Television advertising, not viewing, is associated with negative dietary patterns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; Freeman, B; King, L; Chapman, K; Baur, L A; Gill, T

    2016-04-01

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a contributor to poor diets and weight gain. Television food advertising, in particular, has been the focus of research and policy discussions. We aimed to quantify the specific impact of television advertising, as distinct from television viewing generally, on children's usual diet. Methods Four hundred seventeen Australian children aged 10-16 participated in an online survey, which assessed television viewing habits and consumption of 12 frequently advertised unhealthy foods/drinks. Consumption of these foods/drinks was dichotomized (less weekly, weekly or more) and summed (1 point for each item consumed weekly or more) to give cumulative consumption scores. After adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, there was strong evidence of an increase in unhealthy food score (P food/drink combined score (P children who watched the most commercial television, and those who were actually exposed to advertisements embedded within programs. This association between advertisement exposure and poor diet emphasizes the need for public policy intervention to reduce children's food advertising exposures. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Chymotrypsinogen C Genetic Variants, Including c.180TT, Are Strongly Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Alicja Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Kujko, Aleksandra Anna; Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Bal, Jerzy; Koziel, Dorota; Kowalik, Artur; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies in adults/adolescent patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) identified chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) genetic variants but their association with CP risk has been difficult to replicate. To evaluate the risk of CP associated with CTRC variants in CP pediatric patients-control study. The distribution of CTRC variants in CP pediatric cohort (n = 136, median age at CP onset 8 years) with no history of alcohol/smoking abuse was compared with controls (n = 401, median age 45). We showed that p.Arg254Trp (4.6%) and p.Lys247_Arg254del (5.3%) heterozygous mutations are frequent and significantly associated with CP risk in pediatric patients (odds ratio [OR] = 19.1; 95% CI 2.8-160; P = 0.001 and OR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6-19.4; P = 0.001, respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that the c.180TT genotype of common p.Gly60Gly variant is strong, an independent CP risk factor (OR = 23; 95% CI 7.7-70; P A variant, both CA and AA genotype, is significantly underrepresented in CP compared with controls (15% vs 35%; OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; P risk factors. The c.493+51C>A variant may play a protective role against CP development.

  2. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years. Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13. To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total and controls (n = 101 total and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  3. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3–5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8–10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09×10−13). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS–guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders. PMID:23028339

  4. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S; Erdman, Ruud A M; van Nierop, Josephine W I; de Jaegere, Peter; van Domburg, Ron T

    2009-10-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. Consecutive PCI patients (n = 562) completed the Global Mood Scale at baseline to assess affect and the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12-month follow-up to assess health status. Negative affect [F(1, 522) = 17.14, P positive affect [F(1, 522) = 5.11, P = .02] at baseline were independent associates of overall health status at 12-month follow-up, adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Moreover, there was a significant interaction for negative by positive affect [F(1, 522) = 6.11, P = .01]. In domain-specific analyses, high negative affect was associated with problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression with the risk being two to fivefold. Low positive affect was only associated with problems in self-care (OR: 8.14; 95% CI: 1.85-35.9; P = .006) and usual activities (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.17-3.00; P = .009). Baseline negative and positive affect contribute independently to patient-reported health status 12 months post PCI. Positive affect moderated the detrimental effects of negative affect on overall health status. Enhancing positive affect might be an important target to improve patient-centered outcomes in coronary artery disease.

  5. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Brook, Mark N.; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S.; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E.; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G.; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J.; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L.; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S.; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H.; Radice, Paolo; teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C.; Park, Daniel J.; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J. Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; John, Esther M.; Chen, Gary K.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Millikan, Robert M.; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E.; Berg, Christine D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Willett, Walter C.; Hunter, David J.; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Sherman, Mark E.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including

  6. Negative thoughts and health: associations among rumination, immunity, and health care utilization in a young and elderly sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Hokland, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, it was tested whether rumination-negative, recurrent thoughts-would be associated with immune parameters and health care utilization. Because rumination has been associated with sadness and subjective sleep quality, it was tested whether these factors mediated the...... associations were found for the young participants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that rumination may be associated with health-related measures in the elderly. Thus, negative thoughts may be detrimental to health, independently of negative affect.......OBJECTIVE: In the present study, it was tested whether rumination-negative, recurrent thoughts-would be associated with immune parameters and health care utilization. Because rumination has been associated with sadness and subjective sleep quality, it was tested whether these factors mediated...... displayed a positive association with total leukocyte count, total lymphocyte count, and number of B cells among the elderly, and this was not mediated by sadness or subjective sleep quality. Rumination was also positively associated with number of telephone consultations during the follow...

  7. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  8. Working Memory Load and Negative Picture Processing: Neural and Behavioral Associations With Panic, Social Anxiety, and Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Jackson, T Bryan; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan

    2018-04-22

    Internalizing disorders such as anxiety may be characterized by an imbalance between bottom-up (stimulus-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) attention. The late positive potential (LPP) can be used to assess these processes when task-irrelevant negative and neutral pictures are presented within a working memory paradigm. Prior work using this paradigm has found that working memory load reduces the picture-elicited LPP across participants; however, anxious individuals showed a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP, suggesting increased distractibility. The current study assessed transdiagnostic associations between specific symptom dimensions of anxiety, the LPP, and behavior in a clinically representative, heterogeneous group of 76 treatment-seeking patients with internalizing disorders, who performed a working memory task interspersed with negative and neutral pictures. As expected, negative pictures enhanced the LPP, and working memory load reduced the LPP. Participants with higher social anxiety showed increased LPPs to negative stimuli during early and late portions of picture presentation. Panic symptoms were associated with reduced LPPs to negative pictures compared with neutral pictures as well as a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP during the late time window. Reduced positive affect was associated with greater behavioral interference from negative pictures. Hypervigilance for negative stimuli was uniquely explained by social anxiety symptoms, whereas panic symptoms were associated with the opposing effect-blunted processing/avoidance of these stimuli. Panic symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced top-down control. Results reveal distinct associations between neural reactivity and anxiety symptom dimensions that transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  10. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Froguel

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far.We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P(overall = 8.1 × 10(-59, explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance. The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.007. Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P(total cholesterol = 0.002 and P(LDL = 0.0008.Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact.

  12. Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Ley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC, articular calcified cartilage (ACC, subchondral bone (SCB and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints.

  13. Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, C J; Ekman, S; Hansson, K; Björnsdóttir, S; Boyde, A

    2014-03-25

    Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA) in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining) and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC), articular calcified cartilage (ACC), subchondral bone (SCB) and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints.

  14. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dien M.S. Hosny

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding. Both young age (< 20 years and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.

  15. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  16. Evidence for Transdiagnostic Repetitive Negative Thinking and Its Association with Rumination, Worry, and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: A Commonality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Gustavson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances have emphasized the commonality between rumination and worry, often referred to as repetitive negative thinking. Although not studied extensively, repetitive negative thinking may not only account for a substantial overlap between depression and anxiety symptoms but also encapsulate other constructs including one’s tendency to experience unwanted intrusive thoughts or have low levels of mindfulness. In this study, 643 college students completed self-report questionnaire measures of repetitive negative thinking (the Habit Index of Negative Thinking and other relevant constructs including rumination, worry, depression and anxiety symptoms, intrusive thoughts, and mindfulness. To analyze the data, we conducted systematic commonality analyses, which algebraically decomposed shared variances among these measures into various unique components. Results in Study 1 indicated that individual differences in repetitive negative thinking were explained largely by the overlap between rumination and worry, but also by some rumination-specific and worry-specific variance. Moreover, the shared variation in rumination and worry explained the frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms and their overlap. We also found in Study 2 that repetitive negative thinking was positively related to intrusive thoughts and negatively related to mindfulness. These associations were mostly explained by shared variance with rumination and worry, but there was also some mindfulness-specific variance. These results suggest that repetitive negative thinking may indeed lie at the core of the comorbidity between depression and anxiety symptoms, but that it is also a broader construct that encompasses intrusive thoughts and low levels of mindfulness.

  17. Association between changes on the Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16) and measures of functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn I; Alphs, Larry; Lancaster, Scott; Morlock, Robert; Mintz, Jim

    2009-09-30

    We examined whether changes in negative symptoms, as measured by scores on the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), were associated with changes in functional outcome. A group of 125 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and at 6 months using the NSA-16, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and multiple measures of functional outcome. Baseline adjusted regression coefficients indicated moderate correlations between negative symptoms and functional outcomes when baseline values of both variables were controlled. Results were nearly identical when we controlled for positive symptoms. Cross-lag panel correlations and Structural Equation Modeling were used to examine whether changes in negative symptoms drove changes in functional outcomes over time. Results indicated that negative symptoms drove the changes in the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS) rather than the reverse. Measures of Quality of Life and measures of negative symptoms may be assessing overlapping constructs or changes in both may be driven by a third variable. Negative symptoms were unrelated over time to scores on a performance-based measure of functional capacity. This study indicates that the relationship between negative symptom change and the change in functional outcomes is complex, and points to potential issues in selection of assessments.

  18. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, Jorg; Jong, Peter

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential. Automatic affective associations were positive in smokers but negative in non-smokers. Only automatic affective associations but not self-reported attitudes were significantly correlated wit...

  19. Between- and within-person associations between negative life events and alcohol outcomes in adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Pedersen, Sarah L; Louie, Kristine T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-09-01

    Escalations in alcohol use during adolescence may be linked with exposure to negative life events, but most of this research has focused on between-person associations. Moreover, adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be an especially vulnerable population, reporting more life events and alcohol involvement and may even be more sensitive to the effects of life events on alcohol outcomes compared with those without ADHD. We tested the between- and within-person effects of the number and perceptions of negative life events on the development of alcohol use outcomes from age 14 to 17 years in 259 adolescents with and without ADHD using generalized estimating equations. Between-person differences in exposure to negative life events across adolescence, but not the perception of those events, were associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years. Within-person differences in life events were associated with alcohol use above and beyond that predicted by an adolescents' typical trajectory over time. Parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with more negative perceptions of life events and with greater alcohol use and drunkenness at age 17 years, but symptoms did not moderate the life event-alcohol association. Interventions should consider the variables that produce vulnerability to life events as well as the immediate impact of life events. That the accumulation of life events, rather than their perceived negativity, was associated with alcohol outcomes indicates that interventions targeting the reduction of negative events, rather than emotional response, may be more protective against alcohol use in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Technical note: a pilot study using a mouse mastitis model to study differences between bovine associated coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyne, K; De Vliegher, S; De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Meyer, E

    2015-02-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of bacteria classified as either minor mastitis pathogens or commensal microbiota. Recent research suggests species- and even strain-related epidemiological and genetic differences within the large CNS group. The current pilot study investigated in 2 experiments whether a mouse mastitis model validated for bovine Staphylococcus aureus can be used to explore further differences between CNS species and strains. In a first dose titration experiment, a low inoculum dose of S. aureus Newbould 305 (positive control) was compared with increasing inoculum doses of a Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a chronic bovine intramammary infection to a sham-inoculated mammary glands (negative control). In contrast to the high bacterial growth following inoculation with S. aureus, S. chromogenes was retrieved in very low levels at 24 h postinduction (p.i.). In a second experiment, the inflammation inflicted by 3 CNS strains was studied in mice. The host immune response induced by the S. chromogenes intramammary strain was compared with the one induced by a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from cow bedding sawdust and by a S. chromogenes strain originating from a teat apex of a heifer. As expected, at 28 and 48 h p.i., low bacterial growth and local neutrophil influx in the mammary gland were induced by all CNS strains. As hypothesized, bacterial growth p.i. was the lowest for S. fleurettii compared with that induced by the 2 S. chromogenes strains, and the overall immune response established by the 3 CNS strains was less pronounced compared with the one induced by S. aureus. Proinflammatory cytokine profiling revealed that S. aureus locally induced IL-6 and IL-1β but not TNF-α, whereas, overall, CNS-inoculated glands lacked a strong cytokine host response but also induced IL-1β locally. Compared with both other CNS strains, S. chromogenes from the teat apex inflicted a more variable IL-1β response

  1. Seasonal variability of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum associated to lipophilic shellfish toxins in a strongly stratified Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Varela, Daniel; Contreras, Cristóbal; de La Iglesia, Pablo; Fernández, Pamela; Hipp, Byron; Hernández, Cristina; Riobó, Pilar; Reguera, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Diogène, Jorge; García, Carlos; Lagos, Néstor

    2014-03-01

    The fine scale vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Protoceratium reticulatum (potential producers of lipophilic shellfish toxins, LSTs) and its relation with LSTs in shellfish was studied in Reloncaví fjord, a strongly stratified system in Southern Chile. Samples were taken over two years from late spring to early autumn (2007-2008 period) and from early spring to late summer (2008-2009 period). Dinophysis spp., in particular Dinophysis acuminata, were always detected, often forming thin layers in the region of the salinity driven pycnocline, with cell maxima for D. acuminata of 28.5×103 cells L-1 in March 2008 and 17.1×103 cells L-1 in November 2008. During the 2008-2009 sampling period, blooms of D. acuminata co-occurred with high densities of cryptophyceans and the ciliate Mesodinium spp. The highest levels of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2; 2.2 ng L-1) were found in the plankton in February 2009, associated with moderate densities of D. acuminata, Dinophysis tripos and Dinophysis subcircularis (0.1-0.6×103 cells L-1). However, only trace levels of PTX-2 were observed in bivalves at that time. Dinophysistoxin (DTX-1 and DTX-3) levels in bivalves and densities of Dinophysis spp. were not well correlated. Low DTX levels in bivalves observed during a major bloom of D. acuminata in March 2008 suggested that there is a large seasonal intraspecific variability in toxin content of Dinophysis spp. driven by changes in population structure associated with distinct LST toxin profiles in Reloncaví fjord during the study period. A heterogeneous vertical distribution was also observed for P. reticulatum, whose presence was restricted to summer months. A bloom of this species of 2.2×103 cells L-1 at 14 m depth in February 2009 was positively correlated with high concentrations of yessotoxins in bivalves (51-496 ng g-1) and plankton samples (3.2 ng L-1). Our results suggest that a review of monitoring strategies for Dinophysis spp. in strongly stratified fjord systems

  2. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Asgari, Seyyed Alaeddin; Farshi, Alireza; Iravani, Shahrokh; Khoshdel, Alireza; Shekarchi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to opium continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. The study addressing the association between opium consumption and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is lacking. We determined the effects of opium consumption on serum PSA levels in opium-addict men. Our study subjects comprised 438 opium-addict men with a mean age of 52.2 ± 6.4 years (group 1). We compared these men with 446 men who did not indicate current or past opium use (group 2). Serum total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), % fPSA, and sex hormones were compared between the 2 groups. The mean serum tPSA level was significantly lower in group 1 (1.05 ng/mL) than in controls (1.45 ng/mL) (P = 0.001). Opium consumption was also associated with lower fPSA (P = 0.001) and % fPSA (P = 0.001). Serum free testosterone level in opium-addict patients (132.5 ± 42 pg/mL) was significantly lower than that in controls (156.2 ± 43 pg/mL) (P = 0.03). However, no significant correlation existed between tPSA and free testosterone levels (r = 0.28, 95% CI, -0.036 to 0.51, P = 0.34). Among the patients with cancer in group 1, 35% were found to have high-grade tumor (Gleason score ≥ 7) compared with 26.7% in group 2 (P = 0.02). Total PSA and fPSA were strongly correlated with duration of opium use (r = -0.06, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.08, P = 0.0001; and r = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.07, P = 0.0001, respectively). Opium consumption is independently and negatively associated with serum tPSA, fPSA, and % fPSA levels.

  3. hs-CRP is strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD): A data mining approach using decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayefi, Maryam; Tajfard, Mohammad; Saffar, Sara; Hanachi, Parichehr; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Taghipour, Ali; Ferns, Gordon A; Moohebati, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important public health problem globally. Algorithms incorporating the assessment of clinical biomarkers together with several established traditional risk factors can help clinicians to predict CHD and support clinical decision making with respect to interventions. Decision tree (DT) is a data mining model for extracting hidden knowledge from large databases. We aimed to establish a predictive model for coronary heart disease using a decision tree algorithm. Here we used a dataset of 2346 individuals including 1159 healthy participants and 1187 participant who had undergone coronary angiography (405 participants with negative angiography and 782 participants with positive angiography). We entered 10 variables of a total 12 variables into the DT algorithm (including age, sex, FBG, TG, hs-CRP, TC, HDL, LDL, SBP and DBP). Our model could identify the associated risk factors of CHD with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 96%, 87%, 94% and respectively. Serum hs-CRP levels was at top of the tree in our model, following by FBG, gender and age. Our model appears to be an accurate, specific and sensitive model for identifying the presence of CHD, but will require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heart rate reactivity associated to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karhunen, Leila; Narvainen, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Using food as a stimuli is known to cause multiple psychophysiological reactions. Heart rate variability (HRV) is common tool for assessing physiological reactions in autonomic nervous system. However, the findings in HRV related to food stimuli have not been consistent. In this paper the quick changes in HRV related to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli are investigated. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured from 18 healthy females while being stimulated with the pictures. Subjects also filled Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to determine their eating behavior. The inter-beat-interval time series and the HRV parameters were extracted from the ECG. The quick change in HRV parameters were studied by calculating the change from baseline value (10 s window before stimulus) to value after the onset of the stimulus (10 s window during stimulus). The paired t-test showed significant difference between positive and negative food pictures but not between positive and negative non-food pictures. All the HRV parameters decreased for positive food pictures while they stayed the same or increased a little for negative food pictures. The eating behavior characteristic cognitive restraint was negatively correlated with HRV parameters that describe decreasing of heart rate.

  5. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI......) at the ipsilateral finger during concomitant stimulation of the contralateral median nerve increased significantly, suggesting augmented functional inhibition. Since the CPT in the ipsilateral hallux did not significantly change in response to median nerve stimulation, it is more likely that the CPT......-increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition....

  6. Social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college drinkers: do protective behavioral strategies mediate the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  7. Association between social contact frequency and negative symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-12-30

    The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Better Off Alone: Daily Solitude Is Associated With Lower Negative Affect in More Conflictual Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Manalel, Jasmine A; Sommers, Heidi; Luong, Gloria; Fingerman, Karen L

    2018-06-19

    Older adults are often considered at risk for social isolation. Little is known, however, about how often older adults lack social contact (in person, phone, electronic) throughout the day, the implications of lacking contact (i.e., solitude), and whether the effects of solitude vary by the broader social context. Participants were from the Daily Experiences and Well-being Study (DEWS) which included 313 older adults (aged 65+) who completed baseline interviews followed by 5-6 days of ecological momentary assessments approximately every 3 hr. Individuals reported having no social contact (i.e., solitude) on 11% of the occasions. Solitude predicted lower negative and positive affect on those occasions. The solitude-negative affect link varied by social network quality. Solitude predicted lower negative affect among individuals with more conflictual social networks but not among those with less conflictual networks. Overall, solitude may serve as an adaptive strategy for individuals embedded in demanding or irritating social contexts.

  9. A negative association between video game experience and proactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence demonstrates that video game experience has a beneficial effect on visuospatial cognition. In contrast, other evidence indicates that video game experience may be negatively related to cognitive control. In this study we examined the specificity of the influence of video game experience on cognitive control. Participants with high and low video game experience performed the Stroop task while event-related brain potentials were recorded. The behavioral data revealed no difference between high and low gamers for the Stroop interference effect and a reduction in the conflict adaptation effect in high gamers. The amplitude of the medial frontal negativity and a frontal slow wave was attenuated in high gamers, and there was no effect of gaming status on the conflict slow potential. These data lead to the suggestion that video game experience has a negative influence on proactive, but not reactive, cognitive control.

  10. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Associations Between Negative and Positive Life Events and the Course of Depression: A Detailed Repeated-Assessments Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.

  13. Associations among Negative Parenting, Attention Bias to Anger, and Social Anxiety among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Lauren D.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of affective learning suggest that early experiences contribute to emotional disorders by influencing the development of processing biases for negative emotional stimuli. Although studies have shown that physically abused children preferentially attend to angry faces, it is unclear whether youth exposed to more typical aspects of negative…

  14. Amygdala to hippocampal volume ratio is associated with negative memory bias in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Negative memory bias is thought to be one of the main cognitive risk and maintenance factors for depression, but its neural substrates are largely unknown. Here, we studied whether memory bias is related to amygdala and hippocampal volume, two structures that are critical for emotional

  15. Resting RSA Is Associated with Natural and Self-Regulated Responses to Negative Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Heath A.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Everhart, D. Erik; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2004-01-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed among 111 adult participants. These individuals were then asked to watch a positive or negative affective film in either a natural manner or while exaggerating their facial response. Facial reactions to the film were video-recorded and subsequently rated in terms of facial affect.…

  16. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  17. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma : Associations with trauma severity and dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study

  18. Creativity, Psychopathology, and Emotion Processing: A Liberal Response Bias for Remembering Negative Information Is Associated with Higher Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drus, Marina; Kozbelt, Aaron; Hughes, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent do more creative people process emotional information differently than less creative people? This study examined the role of emotion processing in creativity and its implications for the creativity-psychopathology association. A total of 117 participants performed a memory recognition task for negative, positive, and neutral words;…

  19. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Versteeg (Henneke); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); R.A.M. Erdman (Ruud); J.W.I. van Nierop; P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); R.T. van Domburg (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. Methods: Consecutive PCI patients (n = 562) completed the Global Mood Scale at baseline to

  20. IGF2BP2 alternative variants associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies negative diabetes in Malaysian subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer D Salem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2 common variants (rs4402960 and rs1470579 with type 2 diabetes (T2D has been performed in different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of alternative variants of IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA negative diabetes in Malaysian Subjects. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 1107 GADA negative diabetic patients and 620 control subjects of Asian from Malaysia. The additive genetic model adjusted for age, race, gender and BMI showed that alternative variants; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 of IGF2BP2 associated with GADA negative diabetes (OR = 1.21; 1.36; 1.35, P = 0.03; 0.0004; 0.0002, respectively. In addition, the CCG haplotype and diplotype CCG-TCG increased the risk of diabetes (OR = 1.51, P = 0.01; OR = 2.36, P = 0.009, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IGF2BP2 alternative variants were associated with GADA negative diabetes. The IGF2BP2 haplotypes and diplotypes increased the risk of diabetes in Malaysian subject.

  1. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task

  2. Associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depression : A detailed repeated-assessments study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology

  3. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  4. High Densities of Tumor-Associated Plasma Cells Predict Improved Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Yeong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26–0.77; p = 0.004 but not overall survival (OS, after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005. The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558, while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655. Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell

  5. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, Sharon A; Ambs, Stefan; Prueitt, Robyn L; Ridnour, Lisa A; Boersma, Brenda J; Dorsey, Tiffany M; Wink, David A; Goodman, Julie E; Yfantis, Harris G; Lee, Dong H

    2010-01-01

    Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation. Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival. COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52). However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9). Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196. Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype

  6. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  7. Enhanced interoceptive awareness during anticipation of public speaking is associated with fear of negative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Brown, Gary; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-04-01

    Interoceptive awareness (IA)--the ability to detect internal body signals--has been linked to various aspects of emotional processing. However, it has been examined mostly as a trait variable, with few studies also investigating state dependent fluctuations in IA. Based on the known positive correlation between IA and emotional reactivity, negative affectivity, and trait anxiety, the current study examined whether IA, as indexed by heartbeat detection accuracy, would change during an anxiety-provoking situation. Participants in the experimental condition, in which they anticipated giving a speech in front of a small audience, displayed significant IA increases from baseline to anticipation. Enhancement in IA was positively correlated with fear of negative evaluation. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to the role of trait and state IA in emotional experience.

  8. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  9. TNF-alpha 308 SNP Rs3091256 GG Genotype is Strongly Associated with Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

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    Özgür GÜNAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to review the influence of host genetic factors on the clinical course, treatment response as well as fibrosis progression in patients with viral hepatitis C genotype 1. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and 97 controls were enrolled. The patients received pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN+ribavirin therapy for 48 weeks and were followed up for the next 48 weeks. Aspartat aminotransferase/platelet ratio (APRI was used to detect liver fibrosis DNA specimens were extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α 308 rs3091256 was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: All patients included in the study were infected with HCV genotype 1. of the 95 HCV-positive patients, spontaneous viral clearence was observed in 25.5%, rapid viral response in 44.2%, early viral response in 91.8%, and sustained viral response was found in 73.3% of patients. The allele and genotype were not significant between patients and controls. There was no significant difference in virologic response as well. However, TNF-α-308 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs3091256 GG genotype was strongly associated with fibrosis and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels (p=0.006 and p=0.017, respectively. Conclusion: TNF-α-308 polymorphisms may reveal different results among countries. Patients having SNP rs3091256 GG are prone to have higher ALT levels and fibrosis score but have better treatment outcome.

  10. Adaptor protein Lnk negatively regulates the mutant MPL, MPLW515L associated with myeloproliferative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gery, Sigal; Gueller, Saskia; Chumakova, Katya; Kawamata, Norihiko; Liu, Liqin; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Recently, activating myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) mutations, MPLW515L/K, were described in myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) patients. MPLW515L leads to activation of downstream signaling pathways and cytokine-independent proliferation in hematopoietic cells. The adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of several cytokine receptors, including MPL. We show that overexpression of Lnk in Ba/F3-MPLW515L cells inhibits cytokine-independent growth, while suppression of Lnk i...

  11. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross’ (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two specific types of deficits in emotion regulation, inhibited and disinhibited expression of negative emotion, to individual differences in depressive sym...

  12. Development of event related negativity together with an internal model of audio-motor associations

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    Kai eLutz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s reactions to error are manifested in several event related potentials (ERP components, derived from electroencephalographic (EEG signals. Although these components have been known for decades, their interpretation is still controversial. A current hypothesis (first indicator hypothesis claims that the first indication of an action being erroneous leads to a negative deflection of the EEG signal over frontal midline areas. In some cases this requires sensory feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR. If KR is given, then the first negative deflection can be found around 250 ms after feedback presentation (feedback related negativity, FRN. When KR is not required, a negative deflection is found already around 100 ms after action onset (ERN. This deflection may be evoked when a mismatch between required and actually executed actions is detected. To detect such a mismatch, however, necessitates knowledge about which action is required. To test this assumption, the current study monitored EEG error components during acquisition of an internal model, i.e., acquisition of the knowledge of which actions are needed to reach certain goals. Actions consisted of finger presses on a piano keyboard and goals were tones of a certain pitch to be generated, thus the internal model represented audio-motor mapping. Results show that with increasing proficiency in mapping goals to appropriate actions, the amplitude of the ERN increased, whereas the amplitude of the FRN remained unchanged. Thus, when knowledge is present about which action is required, this supports generation of an ERN around 100ms, likely by detecting a mismatch between required and performed actions. This is in accordance with the first indicator hypothesis. The present study furthermore lends support to the notion that FRN mainly relies on comparison of sensory targets with sensory feedback.

  13. Failing to learn from negative prediction errors: Obesity is associated with alterations in a fundamental neural learning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathar, David; Neumann, Jane; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2017-10-01

    Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity. We show that human obesity is associated with insufficient incorporation of negative PEs into behavioral adaptation even in a non-food context, suggesting differences in a fundamental neural learning mechanism. Obese subjects were less efficient in using negative PEs to improve implicit learning performance, despite proper coding of PEs in striatum. We further observed lower functional coupling between ventral striatum and supplementary motor area in obese subjects subsequent to negative PEs. Importantly, strength of functional coupling predicted task performance and negative PE utilization. These findings show that obesity is linked to insufficient behavioral adaptation specifically in response to negative PEs, and to associated alterations in function and connectivity within the fronto-striatal system. Recognition of neural differences as a central characteristic of obesity hopefully paves the way to rethink established intervention strategies: Differential behavioral sensitivity to negative and positive PEs should be considered when designing intervention programs. Measures relying on penalization of unwanted behavior may prove less effective in obese subjects than alternative approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations Between Exposure to and Expression of Negative Opinions About Human Papillomavirus Vaccines on Social Media: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Leask, Julie; Zhou, Xujuan; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico

    2015-06-10

    Groups and individuals that seek to negatively influence public opinion about the safety and value of vaccination are active in online and social media and may influence decision making within some communities. We sought to measure whether exposure to negative opinions about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Twitter communities is associated with the subsequent expression of negative opinions by explicitly measuring potential information exposure over the social structure of Twitter communities. We hypothesized that prior exposure to opinions rejecting the safety or value of HPV vaccines would be associated with an increased risk of posting similar opinions and tested this hypothesis by analyzing temporal sequences of messages posted on Twitter (tweets). The study design was a retrospective analysis of tweets related to HPV vaccines and the social connections between users. Between October 2013 and April 2014, we collected 83,551 English-language tweets that included terms related to HPV vaccines and the 957,865 social connections among 30,621 users posting or reposting the tweets. Tweets were classified as expressing negative or neutral/positive opinions using a machine learning classifier previously trained on a manually labeled sample. During the 6-month period, 25.13% (20,994/83,551) of tweets were classified as negative; among the 30,621 users that tweeted about HPV vaccines, 9046 (29.54%) were exposed to a majority of negative tweets. The likelihood of a user posting a negative tweet after exposure to a majority of negative opinions was 37.78% (2780/7361) compared to 10.92% (1234/11,296) for users who were exposed to a majority of positive and neutral tweets corresponding to a relative risk of 3.46 (95% CI 3.25-3.67, Prelation to HPV vaccines. We found that among users that tweeted about HPV vaccines, those who were more often exposed to negative opinions were more likely to subsequently post negative opinions. Although this research may be useful for

  15. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

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    Ahn KT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kye Taek Ahn, Kwang-In Park, Mi Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Ji Hye Han, Hee Jin Kwon, Seon-Ah Jin, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, In-Whan Seong, Jin-Ok Jeong Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Objectives: Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75 were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results: A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%. The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=-0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005, a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=-0.632, 95% CI for height -0.929 to -0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. Keywords: hypertension, augmentation index, height, sex

  16. WIC mothers' depressive symptoms are associated with greater use of feeding to soothe, regardless of perceived child negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2017-04-01

    Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers. There is a cross-sectional sample of 60 mothers and their formula fed infants/toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Woman, Infants and Children Program. Measures included the Infant Behaviors Questionnaire, Baby's Basic Needs Questionnaire, the feeding problem assessment form and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms exceeded the clinical screening cut-off for 38% of women. Mothers with depressive symptoms perceived their child to be more negative and were more likely to use food to soothe, add cereal to the bottle and put baby to bed with bottle than mothers without depressive symptoms. Generalized linear models revealed that child negativity was associated with greater use of food to soothe but that this effect was moderated by maternal depression: negativity was positively associated with food to soothe among non-depressed but not depressed mothers. A high proportion of low-income mothers reported elevated depressive symptoms; depressive symptomatology was positively associated with perceived child negativity and greater reported use of controlling feeding practices. Screening for maternal depressive symptoms may help in providing more individually tailored counselling on responsive feeding. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Negative emotionality moderates associations among attachment, toddler sleep, and later problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Forbes, Erika E; Campbell, Susan B

    2013-02-01

    Secure parent-child relationships are implicated in children's self-regulation, including the ability to self-soothe at bedtime. Sleep, in turn, may serve as a pathway linking attachment security with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in children. We used path analysis to examine the direct relationship between attachment security and maternal reports of sleep problems during toddlerhood and the degree to which sleep serves as a pathway linking attachment with subsequent teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined infant negative emotionality as a vulnerability factor that may potentiate attachment-sleep-adjustment outcomes. Data were drawn from 776 mother-infant dyads participating in the National Institute of Child and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. After statistically adjusting for mother and child characteristics, including child sleep and emotional and behavioral problems at 24 months, we found no evidence for a statistically significant direct path between attachment security and sleep problems at 36 months; however, there was a direct relationship between sleep problems at 36 months and internalizing problems at 54 months. Path models that examined the moderating influence of infant negative emotionality demonstrated significant direct relationships between attachment security and toddler sleep problems and between sleep problems and subsequent emotional and behavioral problems, but only among children characterized by high negative emotionality at 6 months. In addition, among this subset, there was a significant indirect path between attachment and internalizing problems through sleep problems. These longitudinal findings implicate sleep as one critical pathway linking attachment security with adjustment difficulties, particularly among temperamentally vulnerable children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with repeated negative CSF JCV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, Monica E; Brosch, Jared R; Wiens, Andrea L; Bonnin, José M; Kamer, Aaron P; Mattson, David H; Snook, Riley J

    2013-05-01

    The development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab is a well-known potential risk. Diagnosis of PML can be confounded in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) if new demyelinating lesions develop, and the sensitivity of existing diagnostic tests is less than ideal. In the case presented here, four samples of cerebrospinal fluid tested negative for John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction, yet brain biopsy eventually proved positive by immunohistochemistry. A review of the limitations of existing clinical diagnostic tests is addressed, and we review the most recent literature on the proper management of natalizumab-treated MS patients.

  20. Define the Twist ATX LPAR1 Signaling Axis in Promoting Obesity Associated Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    with the research as presented in the original proposal and as defined in the statement of work . 6. Products We have generated mice with tissue...University of Kentucky College of Medicine 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: a.j.morris@uky.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer‐related death in women worldwide. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) carries a

  1. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in a rewarded perceptual decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckless, Greg E; Andreassen, Ole A; Server, Andres; Østefjells, Tiril; Jensen, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been associated with structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex. They often persist after treatment with antipsychotic medication which targets, in particular, the ventral striatum (VS). As schizophrenia has been suggested to arise from dysfunctional connectivity between neural networks, it is possible that residual aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in medicated patients plays a role in enduring negative symptomology. The present study examined the relationship between striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptoms in medicated schizophrenia patients. We manipulated motivation in a perceptual decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing healthy controls (n = 21) and medicated patients with schizophrenia (n = 18) we investigated how motivation-mediated changes in VS activation affected functional connectivity with the frontal cortex, and how changes in connectivity strength from the neutral to motivated condition related to negative symptom severity. A pattern of aberrant striato-cortical connectivity was observed in the presence of intact VS, but altered left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) motivation-mediated activation in patients. The more severe the patient's negative symptoms, the less the connectivity strength between the right VS and left IFG changed from the neutral to the motivated condition. Despite aberrant striato-cortical connectivity and altered recruitment of the left IFG among patients, both patients and healthy controls adopted a more liberal response strategy in the motivated compared to the neutral condition. The present findings suggest that there is a link between dysfunctional striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptom severity, and offer a possible explanation as to why negative symptoms persist after treatment with antipsychotics.

  2. The Role of Monitoring Gentamicin Levels in Patients with Gram-Negative Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Johnson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: There is limited available evidence regarding the role of monitoring serum gentamicin concentrations in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients receiving this antimicrobial agent in gram-negative PD-associated peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in all patients receiving PD at a single center who experienced a gram-negative peritonitis episode between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011, we investigated the relationship between measured serum gentamicin levels on day 2 following initial empiric antibiotic therapy and subsequent clinical outcomes of confirmed gram-negative peritonitis. ♦ Results: Serum gentamicin levels were performed on day 2 in 51 (77%) of 66 first gram-negative peritonitis episodes. Average serum gentamicin levels on day 2 were 1.83 ± 0.84 mg/L with levels exceeding 2 mg/L in 22 (43%) cases. The overall cure rate was 64%. No cases of ototoxicity were observed. Day-2 gentamicin levels were not significantly different between patients who did and did not have a complication or cure. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, failure to cure peritonitis was not associated with either day-2 gentamicin level (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 - 3.73) or continuation of gentamicin therapy beyond day 2 (OR 0.28, 0.02 - 3.56). The only exception was polymicrobial peritonitis, where day-2 gentamicin levels were significantly higher in episodes that were cured (2.06 ± 0.41 vs 1.29 ± 0.71, p = 0.01). In 17 (26%) patients receiving extended gentamicin therapy, day-5 gentamicin levels were not significantly related to peritonitis cure. ♦ Conclusion: Day-2 gentamicin levels did not predict gentamicin-related harm or efficacy during short-course gentamicin therapy for gram-negative PD-related peritonitis, except in cases of polymicrobial peritonitis, where higher levels were associated with cure. PMID:24385334

  3. Effects of Age on Negative Subsequent Memory Effects Associated with the Encoding of Item and Item–Context Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Julia T.; Wang, Tracy H.; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    It has consistently been reported that “negative” subsequent memory effects—lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items—are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item–context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the item's encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude of the effects correlated with source memory performance. It is concluded that negative item effects do not reflect processes necessary for the successful encoding of item–context associations in older subjects. Negative source effects, in contrast, appear to reflect the engagement of processes that are equally important for successful episodic encoding in older and younger individuals. PMID:23904464

  4. Mediating Effects of Global Negative Effect Expectancies on the Association between Problematic Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Blasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between social anxiety (SA and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale. A multiple mediation analysis was used to test whether marijuana effect expectancies mediate SA effect on problematic cannabis use. SA was negatively associated with cannabis use severity in this sample, and we found evidence that cannabis use expectancies fully mediated this relationship. Specifically, global negative effect expectancies influence the relationship between SA and problematic cannabis use. These findings may inform current prevention strategies and clinical intervention for young adults who use cannabis.

  5. Mediating Effects of Global Negative Effect Expectancies on the Association between Problematic Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasi, Maria; Cavani, Paola; Pavia, Laura; Tosto, Crispino; La Grutta, Sabina; Lo Baido, Rosa; Giordano, Cecilia; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between social anxiety (SA) and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male) who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test) and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale). A multiple mediation analysis was used to test whether marijuana effect expectancies mediate SA effect on problematic cannabis use. SA was negatively associated with cannabis use severity in this sample, and we found evidence that cannabis use expectancies fully mediated this relationship. Specifically, global negative effect expectancies influence the relationship between SA and problematic cannabis use. These findings may inform current prevention strategies and clinical intervention for young adults who use cannabis.

  6. Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in Dall's sheep and the negative association of the abomasal nematode, Marshallagia marshalli, with fitness indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleuy, O Alejadro; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Hoberg, Eric P; Veitch, Alasdair; Simmons, Norman; Kutz, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths can have a detrimental effect on the fitness of wild ungulates. Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are ideal for the study of host-parasite interactions due to the comparatively simple ecological interactions and limited confounding factors. We used a unique dataset assembled in the early seventies to study the diversity of gastrointestinal helminths and their effect on fitness indicators of Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Parasite diversity included nine species, among which the abomasal nematode Marshallagia marshalli occurred with the highest prevalence and infection intensity. The intensity of M. marshalli increased with age and was negatively associated with body condition and pregnancy status in Dall's sheep across all the analyses performed. The intensity of the intestinal whipworm, Trichuris schumakovitschi, decreased with age. No other parasites were significantly associated with age, body condition, or pregnancy. Our study suggests that M. marshalli might negatively influence fitness of adult female Dall's sheep.

  7. Variants within STAT genes reveal association with anticitrullinated protein antibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis in 2 European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddighzadeh, Maria; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ding, Bo; Ferreiro-Iglesias, Aida; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Clark, James D; Padyukov, Leonid

    2012-08-01

    STAT3 and 4 are, among other factors, critical for the interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 response, for transfer of IL-23 signals, and for survival and expansion of Th17 cells. We investigated the association of STAT3 and STAT4 polymorphisms with serologically distinct subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within STAT3 and STAT1-STAT4 loci were investigated in a Swedish cohort of 2043 RA cases and 1115 controls. Nine of the associated SNP were tested in a Spanish cohort of 1223 RA cases and 1090 controls. Fourteen SNP in the STAT3 and STAT1-STAT4 loci were associated with anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-negative RA in the Swedish cohort. Three of the SNP in STAT4 and 2 SNP in STAT3 remained associated with ACPA-negative RA after considering the Spanish results. In addition, rs7574865 and rs10181656, in STAT4, were associated with ACPA-positive RA in the Swedish study. One of these SNP, rs7574865, showed a similar pattern of the association in serologically distinct subgroups of RA in a metaanalysis of all 7 published studies. Our findings suggest that variants in STAT genes may contribute differentially to susceptibility to RA in seropositive and in seronegative patients.

  8. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mengrui Wu, Yiping Wang, Lianfu Deng, Wei Chen, Yi-Ping Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation...

  9. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and...

  10. Negative Posttrauma Cognitions Mediate the Association Between Morally Injurious Events and Trauma‐Related Psychopathology in Treatment‐Seeking Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Held, Philip; Klassen, Brian J.; Zou, Denise S.; Schroedter, Blake S.; Karnik, Niranjan S.; Pollack, Mark H.; Zalta, Alyson K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to potentially morally injurious events has been shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in military personnel. Few studies have examined factors that help to explain how potentially morally injurious events may contribute to the development of trauma‐related psychopathology. Negative posttrauma cognitions are thought to play a role in the etiology of PTSD and depression following trauma; however, it is unclear whether more gl...

  11. Associations of Physical and Psychologic Symptom Burden in Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shaffer, Kelly M; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    2018-01-31

    The physical symptom burden of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may last for extended periods during their disease trajectories and lead to psychologic distress, anxiety, or depression or all of these. This study evaluated the relationship between physical symptom burden captured by the Physical Problem List (PPL) on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and psychologic outcomes (distress, anxiety, and depression) in the MPN setting. Patients (N = 117) with MPNs completed questionnaires containing the Distress Thermometer and Problem List and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a dedicated MPN clinic within an academic medical center. They reported symptoms from any of 22 physical problems on the PPL. Items endorsed by more than 10% of participants were assessed for their associations with distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression). The total number of endorsed PPL items per participant was also evaluated. Nine of 22 PPL items (fatigue, sleep, pain, dry skin/pruritus, memory/concentration, feeling swollen, breathing, and sexual) were reported by >10% of participants. In univariate analyses, all PPL items but one were associated with distress and depression, and all but 2 were associated with anxiety. In multivariate analyses, the total number of PPL items was associated with depression only (p symptom burden in MPN patients was clearly associated with psychologic symptoms. Depression was uniquely associated with overall physical symptom burden. As such, the endorsement of multiple PPL items on the Distress Thermometer and Problem List should prompt an evaluation for psychologic symptoms to improve MPN patients' overall morbidity and quality of life. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensity of positive and negative emotions : Explaining the association between personality and depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to examine to what extent emotional intensity accounted for associations between the Big Five personality dimensions and depressive symptoms. Study 1 tested the model cross-sectionally, using survey data of 266 Dutch social science students. Study 2 experimentally examined how

  13. Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, B. F.; Ormel, J.; Aleman, A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Riese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were

  14. Is subjective perception of negative body image among adolescents associated with bullying?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Adolescents' body image dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on peer relationships. It may lead to changes in behaviour (aggressive or passive) and consequently to bullying behaviour. Our aim was to assess the association between body image dissatisfaction and involvement in bullying and whether

  15. Cognitive performance and iron status are negatively associated with hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khov, Kuong; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investig...

  16. High plasma folate is negatively associated with leukocyte telomere length in Framingham Offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi; Jacques, Paul F; Aviv, Abraham; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Levy, Daniel; Selhub, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Shortening of telomeres, the protective structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, is associated with age-related pathologies. Telomere length is influenced by DNA integrity and DNA and histone methylation. Folate plays a role in providing precursors for nucleotides and methyl groups for methylation reactions and has the potential to influence telomere length. We determined the association between leukocyte telomere length and long-term plasma folate status (mean of 4 years) in Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1,044, females = 52.1 %, mean age 59 years) using data from samples collected before and after folic acid fortification. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by Southern analysis and fasting plasma folate concentration using microbiological assay. There was no significant positive association between long-term plasma folate and leukocyte telomere length among the Framingham Offspring Study participants perhaps due to their adequate folate status. While the leukocyte telomere length in the second quintile of plasma folate was longer than that in the first quintile, the difference was not statistically significant. The leukocyte telomere length of the individuals in the fifth quintile of plasma folate was shorter than that of those in the second quintile by 180 bp (P folate concentrations in the upper four quintiles of plasma folate (P for trend = 0.001). Multivitamin use was associated with shorter telomeres in this cohort (P = 0.015). High plasma folate status possibly resulting from high folic acid intake may interfere with the role of folate in maintaining telomere integrity.

  17. The negative association between a history of recurrent herpes labialis and cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M. P.; Wilterdink, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    We considered the possibility that herpetic recurrences and herpes virus associated neoplasia are mutually exclusive disorders because they are expressions of different herpes virus-host relationships. We assumed that the human body copes with orofacial and genital herpes infections in the same

  18. Affective associations with negativity: Why popular peers attract youths' visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Troop-Gordon, W.

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual

  19. Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, B.F.; Ormel, J.; Aleman, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Riese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were

  20. Negative and positive life events are associated with small but lasting change in neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, B. F.; Ormel, J.; Aleman, A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Riese, H.

    Background. High neuroticism is prospectively associated with psychopathology and physical health. However, within-subject changes in neuroticism due to life experiences (LEs) or state effects of current psychopathology are largely unexplored. In this 2-year follow-up study, four hypotheses were

  1. Self-Esteem and Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items: Investigating Factorial Invariance by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) has been widely used in examinations of sex differences in global self-esteem. However, previous examinations of sex differences have not accounted for method effects associated with item wording, which have consistently been reported by researchers using the RSE. Accordingly, this study examined the…

  2. The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children's Altruism across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M; Lee, Kang; Mahasneh, Randa; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Selcuk, Bilge; Zhou, Xinyue

    2015-11-16

    Prosocial behaviors are ubiquitous across societies. They emerge early in ontogeny and are shaped by interactions between genes and culture. Over the course of middle childhood, sharing approaches equality in distribution. Since 5.8 billion humans, representing 84% of the worldwide population, identify as religious, religion is arguably one prevalent facet of culture that influences the development and expression of prosociality. While it is generally accepted that religion contours people's moral judgments and prosocial behavior, the relation between religiosity and morality is a contentious one. Here, we assessed altruism and third-party evaluation of scenarios depicting interpersonal harm in 1,170 children aged between 5 and 12 years in six countries (Canada, China, Jordan, Turkey, USA, and South Africa), the religiousness of their household, and parent-reported child empathy and sensitivity to justice. Across all countries, parents in religious households reported that their children expressed more empathy and sensitivity for justice in everyday life than non-religious parents. However, religiousness was inversely predictive of children's altruism and positively correlated with their punitive tendencies. Together these results reveal the similarity across countries in how religion negatively influences children's altruism, challenging the view that religiosity facilitates prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification, typing, ecology and epidemiology of coagulase negative staphylococci associated with ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Piepers, Sofie; Leroy, Frédéric; Van Coillie, Els; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-01-01

    Since phenotypic methods to identify coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) from the milk of ruminants often yield unreliable results, methods for molecular identification based on gene sequencing or fingerprinting techniques have been developed. In addition to culture-based detection of isolates, culture-independent methods may be of interest. On the basis of molecular studies, the five CNS species commonly causing intramammary infections (IMI) are Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus xylosus. Current knowledge suggests that S. chromogenes is a bovine-adapted species, with most cases of IMI due to this bacterium being opportunistic. S. haemolyticus also appears to be an opportunistic pathogen, but this bacterium occupies a variety of habitats, the importance of which as a source of IMI remains to be elucidated. S. xylosus appears to be a versatile species, but little is known of its epidemiology. S. epidermidis is considered to be a human-adapted species and most cases of IMI appear to arise from human sources, but the organism is capable of residing in other habitats. S. simulans typically causes contagious IMI, but opportunistic cases also occur and the ecology of this bacterium requires further study. Further studies of the ecology and epidemiology of CNS as a cause of IMI in cattle are required, along with careful attention to classification of these bacteria and the diseases they cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  6. Positive and negative affect and arousal: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with adolescent cortisol diurnal rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Craske, Michelle G; Mineka, Susan; Adam, Emma K

    2015-05-01

    Psychobiological research with adolescent populations tends to focus on negative mood, stress, and psychopathology, but the role of positive emotions is insufficiently understood. The current study examines the relative contributions of both negative and positive affective experiences to the basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by levels of cortisol across the waking day. A sample of 315 ethnically and racially diverse high school students (mean age = 17.1 years, 73% female) completed a multiple-day naturalistic salivary cortisol protocol twice over a 5-year period. Along with each saliva sample, youth provided diary reports of their current mood states. Principal components analysis revealed four factors: high arousal positive affect (PA), low arousal PA, high arousal negative affect (NA), and low arousal NA. Multilevel growth curve models suggested that greater high arousal PA was associated with adaptive patterns of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity: steeper cortisol slope from waking to bedtime and lower evening cortisol, independent of NA. In addition, increases in high arousal PA over the 5-year follow-up period were associated with a steepening of the diurnal cortisol slope (β = -0.038, p = .009; negative values indicate the decrease of cortisol throughout the day) and lower evening cortisol levels (β = -0.661, p = .027) based on within-person fixed-effect regression analysis. This study shows that high arousal PA, such as feeling alert and active, is associated with a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day. Low arousal positive emotions did not display this relationship.

  7. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in Middle Eastern triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Shaham; Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Jehan, Zeenath; Ajarim, Dahish; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway which is involved in the pathogenesis of many different tumor types and serves as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. However, the significance of the role of PTEN in Middle Eastern ethnic breast cancer has not been explored especially with the fact that breast cancer originating from this ethnic population tend to behave more aggressively than breast cancer in the west. In this study, we analyzed PTEN alteration in a tissue microarray format containing more than 1000 primary breast cancers with clinical follow-up data. Tissue Microarray sections were analyzed for protein expression and copy number change using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Loss of PTEN immunostaining was observed in 77 % of the cases. PTEN loss was significantly associated with large tumor size (p = 0.0030), high grade (p = 0.0281), tumor recurrence (p = 0.0333), and triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.0086). PTEN loss in triple-negative breast cancers was significantly associated with rapid tumor cell proliferation (p = 0.0396) and poor prognosis (p = 0.0408). PTEN deletion was found only in 60 cases (6.4 %). Loss of PTEN protein expression occurs at high frequency in Middle Eastern breast cancer. PTEN inactivation may potentially lead to an aggressive behavior of tumor cells through stimulation of tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, PTEN signaling pathway might be used as potential therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers since loss of its expression is shown to be significantly associated with this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.

  8. Positive and negative associations of individual social capital factors with health among community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabayama, Mai; Watanabe, Chie; Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature has found positive correlations between social capital and health in older adults, fewer studies have investigated the subdimension's effects of social capital on health. We aimed to determine the individual social capital subfactors in community-dwelling older adults in Japan, and to analyze the associations of these factors with physical and mental health. We sent a self-administered questionnaire assessing their perception of social group activity as the individual social capital, and mental and physical health (measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) to 4320 randomly selected older people. There were 1836 valid responses. We clarified that people who participated in any social activity group were in significantly better physical and mental health compared with the people who did not. By the factor analysis of the perception for the social group activity, we identified three components of the individual social capital aspect that we termed harmonious, hierarchic and diversity. Using multiple linear regression, we found the hierarchic aspect was significantly negatively associated with mental health, whereas the harmonious aspect was significantly positively associated with mental and physical health, and diversity was significantly positively associated with mental health. As the previous research literature on social capital has mainly emphasized its positive health consequences, the present findings provide a novel demonstration that some aspects of individual social capital can have negative associations with health outcomes in community-dwelling older people. For the practical application of promoting a healthier society, it is important to consider both the positive and negative sides of social capital. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2427-2434. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Hyper-parenting is negatively associated with physical activity among 7-12year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian

    2015-04-01

    To explore associations between helicopter, little emperor, tiger mom, and concerted cultivation hyper-parenting styles with child physical activity. 724 North American parents of 7-12 year olds completed a survey (May, 2014) that assessed their engagement in the hyper-parenting styles and the frequency that their child played outdoors, walked/bicycled, and played organized sports. Z-scores were generated for each hyper-parenting style and four groups were created: low (1 SD). Outdoor play, active transportation, and organized sport did not differ across helicopter parenting groups. Children in the low little emperor group had higher (Pparenting styles were associated with lower physical activity among 7-12 year olds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Iron deficiency anemia in an athlete associated with Campylobacter pylori-negative chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.; Sherman, P.

    1989-01-01

    A 14-year-old athletic boy with a 1-year history of decreased exercise tolerance presented with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Panendoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract were normal. However, persistent uptake of radionuclide using a 99m technetium-sucralfate scan suggested inflammation localized to the stomach. Mucosal biopsies demonstrated acute and chronic gastritis that was not associated with the presence of Campylobacter pylori

  11. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  12. Outcome of triple negative breast cancer: comparison of sporadic and BRCA1-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine; Gaughan, Elizabeth; Hacker, Michele R; Lee, Larissa J; Alexander, Brian; Poles, Emily; Schnitt, Stuart J; Garber, Judy E

    2014-07-01

    The majority of breast cancers developing in BRCA1 mutation carriers are triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), an aggressive subtype that accounts for 15-20 % of sporadic breast cancer. We compare the clinical outcome and sites of relapse of TNBC in BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Women with stage I-III TNBC who had BRCA1 testing within 36 months of diagnosis and received adjuvant chemotherapy were identified from clinical databases at two academic institutions. Sites of relapse, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were determined. RCA1 carriers (n = 89) were significantly younger at diagnosis (P < 0.0001) than non-carriers (n = 175). FFDM at 5 years was 80.5 % for carriers and 76.9 % for non-carriers; with median follow-up of 55 months, hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90, P = 0.71. Sites of recurrence, including brain, did not differ significantly. BCSS at 5 years was 88.1 % for carriers and 81.4 % for non-carriers; HR 0.60; P = 0.15 at 55 months follow-up. BRCA1 carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of death from TNBC, with an adjusted HR of 0.30 (95 % CI 0.10-0.94). Adjusting for age, oophorectomy, and prophylactic mastectomy, BRCA1 mutation status was not an independent predictor of survival (HR 2.1; P = 0.13). BRCA1 mutation carriers with TNBC had similar survival rates and sites of recurrence to non-carriers after treatment with conventional chemotherapy. Carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of breast cancer-related death; this finding should be studied further in all women with TNBC.

  13. Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Ferreira, Alaidistania A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Identify and analyze the factors associated to length of hospital stay among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with tuberculosis in Manaus city, state of Amazonas, Brazil, in 2010. Methods Epidemiological study with primary data obtained from monitoring of hospitalized patients with tuberculosis in Manaus. Data were collected by interviewing patients and analyzing medical records, according to the following study variables age, sex, co-morbidities, education, race, income, lifestyle, history of previous treatment or hospitalization due to tuberculosis, treatment regimen, adverse reactions, smear test, clinical form, type of discharge, and length of hospital stay. The associated factors were identified through chi-square or t-Student test at a 5% significance level. Results Income from 1 to 3 minimum wages (P = 0.028), pulmonary tuberculosis form (P = 0.011), negative smear test or no information in this regard (P = 0.014), initial 6-month treatment scheme (P = 0.029), and adverse drug reactions (P = 0.021) were associated to prolonged hospital stay in HIV positive patients. Conclusion We found out that although there were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay in HIV positive patients, all factors significantly associated to prolonged hospital stay occurred in this group of patients. This finding corroborates other studies indicating the severity of tuberculosis in HIV patients, which may also contribute to lengthen their hospital stay. PMID:23593227

  14. Maternal depressive symptoms are negatively associated with child growth and development: Evidence from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Friedman, Jed; Kak, Mohini; Menon, Purnima; Alderman, Harold

    2018-05-17

    Maternal depression has been suggested as a risk factor for both poor child growth and development in many low- and middle-income countries, but the validity of many studies is hindered by small sample sizes, varying cut-offs used in depression diagnostics, and incomplete control of confounding factors. This study examines the association between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child physical growth and cognitive development in Madhya Pradesh, India, where poverty, malnutrition, and poor mental health coexist. Data were from a baseline household survey (n = 2,934) of a randomized controlled trial assessing an early childhood development programme. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for socio-economic factors to avoid confounding the association of mental health and child outcomes. MDS (measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale) was categorized as low, medium, and high in 47%, 42%, and 10% of mothers, respectively. The prevalence of child developmental delay ranged from 16% to 27% for various development domains. Compared with children of mothers with low MDS, those of high MDS mothers had lower height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores (0.22, 0.21, and 0.15, respectively), a higher rate of stunting and underweight (~1.5 times), and higher rate of developmental delay (partial adjusted odds ratio ranged from 1.3-1.8 for different development domains and fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.4 for fine motor). Our results-that MDS is significantly associated with both child undernutrition and development delay-add to the call for practical interventions to address maternal depression to simultaneously address multiple outcomes for both women and children. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Gram negative bacteria are associated with the early stages of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Carlisle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC affects 5-10% of infants born weighing less than 1500 g. Most models of NEC recapitulate late-stage disease with gut necrosis and elevated inflammatory mediators. Evaluation of NEC at earlier, less lethal stages of disease will allow investigation of initial disease triggers and may advance our understanding of temporal relationships between factors implicated in NEC pathogenesis. In this manuscript, we describe our investigation of early NEC and test the hypothesis that bacteria and inflammatory mediators differ between animals with early NEC and disease free animals. METHODS: On DOL7 C3HeB/FeJ pups were fed liquid formula with 1×10(4 Streptococcus thoraltensis, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa every 3 h. To initiate NEC, pups underwent asphyxia (100% N(2 for 90 s and hypothermia (4°C for 10 min after feeding. Pups were euthanized at 72 h. Intestines were collected for histologic NEC scoring and DNA/RNA extraction. Bacterial populations were identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and principal component analysis (PCA. RNA isolates underwent QRT-PCR for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. RESULTS: Despite histologic, intestinal damage in mice with NEC, no gross necrosis was observed suggesting early disease. QRT-PCR yielded no difference between groups in TLR4 or iNOS mRNA levels. PCA demonstrated relative clustering of microbial communities based on presence or absence of NEC. 16S pyrosequencing demonstrated similar phyla between groups (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominated in all animals. However, the colonic microbiota of animals with NEC had more Citrobacter (p<0.01, Klebsiella (p<0.05, and Tatumella (p<0.05, while that of animals without NEC had more Streptococcus (p<0.01 and Enterococcus (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Tatumella are associated with NEC. Differential colonic bacteria were identified despite the lack of

  16. The double burden of and negative spillover between paid and domestic work: associations with health among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Kevin, May V; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the double burden of and negative spillover between domestic and full-time paid work are associated with an increase in health problems. Survey responses were linked with sickness absence records in a cross-sectional study of 6442 full-time municipal employees. Women and men experiencing severe work-family spillover had a 1.5-1.6 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence than those with no such experience. The corresponding odds ratios for psychological distress and suboptimal self-assessed health varied between 3.6 and 6.5 (2.3 to 11.0). Among the women, severe family-work spillover increased the risk of psychological distress and suboptimal health [odds ratios 2.0 (1.4 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3), respectively], and accumulated sole responsibilities were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) times higher odds ratio for psychological distress. Long domestic work hours (>50/week) were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence among the men, but there was no such increase among the women. We conclude that negative work-family spillover especially is associated with health problems among both women and men, and negative family-work spillover is related to a poorer health status among women.

  17. Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted of 8,535 students in grades 6–10 from 180 schools across Canada who completed the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. Street connectivity was measured in a 5 km circular buffer around these schools using established geographic information system measures. Physical activity performed outside of school hours was assessed by questionnaire, and multi-level regression analyses were used to estimate associations with street connectivity after controlling for several covariates. Compared to students living in the highest street connectivity quartile, those in the second (relative risk = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.35, third (1.25, 1.13–1.37, and fourth (1.21, 1.09–1.34 quartiles were more likely to be physically active outside of school. In conclusion, youth in neighbourhoods with the most highly connected streets reported less physical activity outside of school than youth from neighbourhoods with less connected streets. Relationships between street connectivity and physical activity reported in this national study are in the opposite direction to those previously observed for active transportation in adult populations.

  18. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Thomas E; Green, C Shawn

    2016-04-18

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. 'media multitasking') is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today's society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population.

  19. Disclosure of disease status among employed multiple sclerosis patients: association with negative work events and accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E; Kordovski, Victoria M; Cookfair, Diane; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2015-02-01

    Unemployment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and detrimental to quality of life. Studies suggest disclosure of diagnosis is an adaptive strategy for patients. However, the role of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in disclosure are not well studied. The goals of this paper were to (a) determine clinical factors most predictive of disclosure, and (b) measure the effects of disclosure on workplace problems and accommodations in employed patients. We studied two overlapping cohorts: a cross-sectional sample (n = 143) to determine outcomes associated with disclosure, and a longitudinal sample (n = 103) compared at four time points over one year on reported problems and accommodations. A case study of six patients, disclosing during monitoring, was also included. Disclosure was associated with greater physical disability but not cognitive impairment. Logistic regression predicting disclosure status retained physical disability, accommodations and years of employment (p work problems and accommodations over time. The case study revealed that reasons for disclosing are multifaceted, including connection to employer, decreased mobility and problems at work. Although cognitive impairment is linked to unemployment, it does not appear to inform disclosure decisions. Early disclosure may help maintain employment if followed by appropriate accommodations. © The Author(s), 2014.

  20. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  1. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggelkow Wulf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766. Methods AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER, and HER2 were considered. Results Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P Conclusions AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors.

  2. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Jardim, Lorena Amaral; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  3. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Further mapping of 10q26 supports strong association of HTRA1 polymorphisms with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel; Yang, Zhenglin; Constantine, Ryan; Ma, Xiang; Camp, Nicola J; Yang, Xian; Chen, Hayou; Jorgenson, Adam; Hau, Vincent; Dewan, Andrew; Zeng, Jiexi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Brand, John M; Hoh, Josephine; Cameron, D Joshua; Dixit, Manjusha; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhang, Kang

    2008-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental influences. The genetic influences affecting AMD are not well understood and few genes have been consistently implicated and replicated for this disease. A polymorphism (rs11200638) in a transcription factor binding site of the HTRA1 gene has been described, in previous reports, as being most significantly associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigate haplotype association and individual polymorphic association by genotyping additional variants in the AMD risk-associated region of chromosome 10q26. We demonstrate that rs11200638 in the promoter region and rs2293870 in exon 1 of HTRA1, are among the most significantly associated variants for advanced forms of AMD.

  5. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  6. Impact of microarousal associated with increased negative esophageal pressure in sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Mayo; Noda, Akiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Nakata, Seiichi; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Miyata, Seiko; Honda, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Koike, Yasuo

    2009-11-01

    "Microarousals" during sleep have not been analyzed systematically. We investigated the importance of "microarousals" (lasting 1.5-3 s). Standard polysomnography including esophageal pressure (Pes) assessment was performed on ten patients (aged 54.0 +/- 5.0 years) with respiratory effort-related arousal > or =5/h. We measured the number of arousals per hour (American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) arousal index) and the number of microarousals lasting 1.5-3 s per hour (mASDA arousal index). On the night after the baseline sleep study, we performed overnight continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration. mASDA arousals, characterized by lower Pes values, were observed more frequently in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. The Pes results did not differ significantly between ASDA and mASDA arousals (-15.6 +/- -5.0 vs -15.0 +/- -4.4 cmH(2)O). mASDA arousals were significantly improved by CPAP treatment (mASDA arousals, 82.6 +/- 60.1 vs 6.0 +/- 1.4/h). mASDA arousals were characterized by an increase in Pes. mASDA arousals are thus key to our understanding of clinical manifestations in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

  7. Strong adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with better semen quality, especially in men with poor semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostingh, Elsje C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Laven, Joop S.E.; Koster, Maria P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. Design: Prospective periconception cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Patient(s): One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam

  8. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Insecure attachment is associated with paranoia but not hallucinations in psychotic patients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, S; Sitko, K; Bentall, R P

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research has investigated associations between insecure attachment styles and psychosis. However, despite good theoretical and epidemiological reasons for hypothesising that insecure attachment may be specifically implicated in paranoid delusions, few studies have considered the role it plays in specific symptoms. We examined the relationship between attachment style, paranoid beliefs and hallucinatory experiences in a sample of 176 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 113 healthy controls. We also investigated the possible role of negative self-esteem in mediating this association. Insecure attachment predicted paranoia but not hallucinations after co-morbidity between the symptoms was controlled for. Negative self-esteem partially mediated the association between attachment anxiety and clinical paranoia, and fully mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and clinical paranoia. It may be fruitful to explore attachment representations in psychological treatments for paranoid patients. If future research confirms the importance of disrupted attachment as a risk factor for persecutory delusions, consideration might be given to how to protect vulnerable young people, for example those raised in children's homes.

  10. The Association Between Peritraumatic Dissociation and PTSD Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Negative Beliefs About the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Jun, Janie J; Sloan, Denise M

    2017-04-01

    Peritraumatic dissociation, a term used to describe a complex array of reactions to trauma, including depersonalization, derealization, and emotional numbness, has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across a number of studies. Cognitive theory suggests that interpretations of traumatic events and reactions underlie the persistence of PTSD. The present study examined the associations among peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD symptoms in a group of trauma-exposed adults (N = 169). Results indicated that, after accounting for overall symptom severity and current dissociative tendencies, peritraumatic dissociation was significantly predictive of negative beliefs about the self (R 2 = .06, p < .001). Other categories of maladaptive posttraumatic cognitions did not show a similar relationship (R 2 = .01 to .02, nonsignificant). Negative thoughts about the self partially mediated the association between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD severity (completely standardized indirect effect = .25). These findings lend support to cognitive theories of PTSD and point to an important area for clinical intervention. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Wilson, Cailin; Hearlson, Jodie; Singleton, Jennifer; Thomas, R Brent; Crupper, Scott S

    2013-09-01

    Free-ranging Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) were captured from farm ponds located in the Flint Hills of Kansas and a zoo pond in Emporia, Kansas, USA, to evaluate their enteric bacterial flora and associated antibiotic resistance. Bacteria obtained from cloacal swabs were composed of six different Gram-negative genera. Although antibiotic resistance was present in turtles captured from both locations, 40 and 49% of bacteria demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance to four of the antibiotics tested from the zoo captured and Flint Hills ponds turtles, respectively. These data illustrate environmental antibiotic resistance is widespread in the bacterial flora obtained from Red-eared Sliders in east central Kansas.

  12. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression Among 700 Consecutive Endometrial Cancers: Strong Association With Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaibo; Joehlin-Price, Amy S; Rhoades, Jennifer; Ayoola-Adeola, Martins; Miller, Karin; Parwani, Anil V; Backes, Floor J; Felix, Ashley S; Suarez, Adrian A

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and determine clinical and pathological associations. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 was performed on sections of a triple-core tissue microarray of 700 ECs. Positive PD-L1 expression, defined as 1% of cells staining positive, was evaluated in tumor and stromal compartments. Using age-adjusted logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between PD-L1 expression (overall and by staining compartment) with clinical and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 expression was observed in 100 cases (14.3%), including 27 (3.9%) with expression in tumor cells only, 35 (5.0%) with expression in both tumor cells and stroma, and 38 (5.4%) with expression in stroma only. Expression was observed in ECs of different histologic types. Tumors characterized by loss of mismatch repair proteins were significantly associated with tumoral PD-L1 expression (P < 0.0001), but not with stromal PD-L1 expression. Both tumoral and stromal PD-L1 expressions were associated with high-grade endometrioid histology, nonendometrioid histology, and lymphovascular space invasion. We observed no significant associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 is expressed in a significant proportion of EC and is associated with mismatch repair deficiency, potentially representing a mechanism of tumor immune evasion and a therapeutic target in EC.

  13. MiR-34b is associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svoboda Marek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy with the highest incidence rates among women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC represents the major phenotype of basal-like molecular subtype of breast cancer, characterized by higher incidence in young women and a very poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs playing significant role in the pathogenesis of many cancers including breast cancer. Therefore, miRNAs are also potential prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers in triple-negative breast cancer patients. Methods Thirty-nine TNBC patients with available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues were enrolled in the study. MiR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c were analyzed using qRT-PCR and correlated to clinico-pathological features of TNBC patients. Results Expression levels of miR-34b significantly correlate with disease free survival (DFS (p = 0.0020, log-rank test and overall survival (OS (p = 0.0008, log-rank test of TNBC patients. No other significant associations between miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c with available clinical pathological data were observed. Conclusions MiR-34b expression negatively correlates with disease free survival and overall survival in TNBC patients. Thus, miR-34b may present a new promising prognostic biomarker in TNBC patients, but independent validations are necessary.

  14. ALDH2 polymorphism, associated with attenuating negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with add-on dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po-See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I-Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao-Chin; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the evidence of inflammation's contribution to schizophrenia; using anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic therapeutic agents to see whether they improve schizophrenia treatment. Dextromethorphan (DM), a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, might protect monoamine neurons. Whether treating schizophrenia with risperidone plus add-on DM is more effective than risperidone (RISP) alone, and the association between the ALDH2 polymorphism and treatment response were investigated. A double-blind study in which patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the RISP + DM (60 mg/day; n = 74) or the RISP + Placebo (n = 75) group. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores were used to evaluate clinical response during weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 11. The genotypes of the ALDH2 polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of ALDH2 polymorphism on the clinical performance of DM. PANSS and SANS scores were significantly lower in both groups after 11 weeks of treatment. SANS total scores were significantly lower in the RISP + DM group in patients with the ALDH2*2*2 genotype. RISP plus add-on DM treatment reduced negative schizophrenia symptoms in patients with the ALDH2 polymorphism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Chen

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD for invasive breast cancer (IBC is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC, an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC.A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models.Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2. This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes.We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs.

  16. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatich, Albert J.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Jianfang; Kvecher, Leonid; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Mitchell, Edith P.; Rui, Hallgeir; Shriver, Craig D.; Hu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC), an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC. Methods A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA) was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC) were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR) depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2). This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes. Conclusions We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs. PMID:26098961

  17. Property Values Associated with the Failure of Individual Links in a System with Multiple Weak and Strong Links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations are developed and illustrated for the distribution of link property values at the time of link failure in the presence of aleatory uncertainty in link properties. The following topics are considered: (i) defining properties for weak links and strong links, (ii) cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, (iii) integral-based derivation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (iv) sampling-based approximation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (v) verification of integral-based and sampling-based determinations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (vi) distributions of link properties conditional on time of link failure, and (vii) equivalence of two different integral-based derivations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure.

  18. Eczema in early childhood is strongly associated with the development of asthma and rhinitis in a prospective cohort

    OpenAIRE

    von Kobyletzki Laura B; Bornehag Carl-Gustaf; Hasselgren Mikael; Larsson Malin; Lindström Cecilia; Svensson Åke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to estimate the association between eczema in early childhood and the onset of asthma and rhinitis later in life in children. Methods A total of 3,124 children aged 1–2 years were included in the Dampness in Building and Health (DBH) study in the year 2000, and followed up 5 years later by a parental questionnaire based on an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. The association between eczema in early childhood and the inciden...

  19. Decreased BECN1 mRNA Expression in Human Breast Cancer is Associated With Estrogen Receptor-Negative Subtypes and Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both BRCA1 and Beclin 1 (BECN1 are tumor suppressor genes, which are in close proximity on the human chromosome 17q21 breast cancer tumor susceptibility locus and are often concurrently deleted. However, their importance in sporadic human breast cancer is not known. To interrogate the effects of BECN1 and BRCA1 in breast cancer, we studied their mRNA expression patterns in breast cancer patients from two large datasets: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA (n = 1067 and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC (n = 1992. In both datasets, low expression of BECN1 was more common in HER2-enriched and basal-like (mostly triple-negative breast cancers compared to luminal A/B intrinsic tumor subtypes, and was also strongly associated with TP53 mutations and advanced tumor grade. In contrast, there was no significant association between low BRCA1 expression and HER2-enriched or basal-like subtypes, TP53 mutations or tumor grade. In addition, low expression of BECN1 (but not low BRCA1 was associated with poor prognosis, and BECN1 (but not BRCA1 expression was an independent predictor of survival. These findings suggest that decreased mRNA expression of the autophagy gene BECN1 may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of HER2-enriched, basal-like, and TP53 mutant breast cancers.

  20. Association between immunoglobulin GM and KM genotypes and placental malaria in HIV-1 negative and positive women in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnaemeka C Iriemenam

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig GM and KM allotypes, genetic markers of γ and κ chains, are associated with humoral immune responsiveness. Previous studies have shown the relationships between GM6-carrying haplotypes and susceptibility to malaria infection in children and adults; however, the role of the genetic markers in placental malaria (PM infection and PM with HIV co-infection during pregnancy has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between the gene polymorphisms of Ig GM6 and KM allotypes and the risk of PM infection in pregnant women with known HIV status. DNA samples from 728 pregnant women were genotyped for GM6 and KM alleles using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Individual GM6 and KM genotypes and the combined GM6 and KM genotypes were assessed in relation to PM in HIV-1 negative and positive women, respectively. There was no significant effect of individual GM6 and KM genotypes on the risk of PM infection in HIV-1 negative and positive women. However, the combination of homozygosity for GM6(+ and KM3 was associated with decreased risk of PM (adjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.8; P = 0.019 in HIV-1 negative women while in HIV-1 positive women the combination of GM6(+/- with either KM1-3 or KM1 was associated with increased risk of PM infection (adjusted OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.18-3.73; P = 0.011. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE tests further showed an overall significant positive F(is (indication of deficit in heterozygotes for GM6 while there was no deviation for KM genotype frequency from HWE in the same population. These findings suggest that the combination of homozygous GM6(+ and KM3 may protect against PM in HIV-1 negative women while the HIV-1 positive women with heterozygous GM6(+/- combined with KM1-3 or KM1 may be more susceptible to PM infection. The deficit in heterozygotes for GM6 further suggests that GM6 could be under selection likely by malaria infection.

  1. Negative associations between corpus callosum midsagittal area and IQ in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Ganjavi

    Full Text Available Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198 recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = -0.147; p = 0.040. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12 (r = -0.279; p = 0.004 but not in adolescents (age≥12 (r = -0.005; p = 0.962. Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = -0.231; p = 0.034 but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389. Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender.

  2. Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO expression is regulated negatively by the transcription factor Foxa2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjin Guo

    Full Text Available Fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO is the first gene associated with body mass index (BMI and risk for diabetes. FTO is highly expressed in the brain and pancreas, and is involved in regulating dietary intake and energy expenditure. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of FTO expression, we created 5'-deletion constructs of the FTO promoter to determine which transcription factors are most relevant to FTO expression. The presence of an activation region at -201/+34 was confirmed by luciferase activity analysis. A potential Foxa2 (called HNF-3β binding site and an upstream stimulatory factor (USF-binding site was identified in the -100 bp fragment upstream of the transcription start site (TSS. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, we identified the Foxa2 binding sequence (-26/-14 as a negative regulatory element to the activity of the human FTO promoter. The USF binding site did not affect the FTO promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays were performed to confirm Foxa2 binding to the FTO promoter. Overexpression of Foxa2 in HEK 293 cells significantly down-regulated FTO promoter activity and expression. Conversely, knockdown of Foxa2 by siRNA significantly up-regulated FTO expression. These findings suggest that Foxa2 negatively regulates the basal transcription and expression of the human FTO gene.

  3. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggelkow, Wulf; Koelbl, Heinz; Gehrmann, Mathias; Marchan, Rosemarie; Cadenas, Cristina; Hengstler, Jan G; Schmidt, Marcus; Boehm, Daniel; Gebhard, Susanne; Battista, Marco; Sicking, Isabel; Lebrecht, Antje; Solbach, Christine; Hellwig, Birte; Rahnenführer, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA) are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766). AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER), and HER2 were considered. Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS) in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P < 0.001), Rotterdam (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.45– 2.63; P<0.001) and Transbig (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.14–2.04; P=0.005) cohorts. AURKA was also associated with MFS in the molecular subtype ER+/HER2- carcinomas (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.70–2.59; P<0.001), but not in ER-/HER2- nor in HER2+ carcinomas. In the multivariate Cox regression adjusted to age, grade and tumor size, AURKA showed independent prognostic significance in the ER+/HER2- subtype (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.24–2.42; P=0.001). Prognosis of patients in the highest quartile of AURKA expression was particularly poor. In addition, AURKA correlated with the proliferation metagene (R=0.880; P<0.001), showed a positive association with grade (P<0.001), tumor size (P<0.001) and HER2 (P<0.001), and was inversely associated with ER status (P<0.001). AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile) have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors

  4. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS registered descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Bickel, H.; Duffy, S.; Schernthaner, M.; Dubsky, P.; Pluschnig, U.; Rudas, M.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS registered classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS registered descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p registered breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  5. Elevated alanine aminotransferase is strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide and associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity. However, the impact of ALT activity on MetS incidence is inconsistent in published literature. We therefore estimated the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All published prospective cohort studies on the association between elevated ALT activity and incident MetS were retrieved from Pubmed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI. In all, seven prospective cohort studies, with 31545 participants and 2873 cases of incident MetS were recruited. If there was insignificant heterogeneity (P-value>0.05 and I(2<50%, the fixed-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs of incident MetS induced by raised ALT. Otherwise, the random-effect model was used. The calculated RR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-2.14 when the incidence of MetS was compared between the highest versus the lowest classification of ALT activities. The pooled RR was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16 in dose-response analysis with 5 units per liter (U/l of ALT increment. Subgroup analysis suggested that gender disparity might be the main origin of heterogeneity in overall analysis (P = 0.007 between RRs of gender-specific subgroups evaluated with 5 U/l increments of ALT. Women had a higher dose-response risk of MetS incidence (1.38, 95% CI: 1.20-1.55 than men. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. No publication bias was found in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Current evidence from prospective studies supports the association between ALT elevation and increasing MetS incidence. This association is closer and more consistent in female population. Further studies are needed to confirm this association and to investigate the potential mechanism of

  6. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity is more strongly associated than perinatal depressive symptoms with postnatal mother-infant interaction quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Karen; Cockshaw, Wendell; Boyce, Philip; Thorpe, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Maternal mental health has enduring effects on children's life chances and is a substantial cost driver for child health, education and social services. A key linking mechanism is the quality of mother-infant interaction. A body of work associates maternal depressive symptoms across the antenatal and postnatal (perinatal) period with less-than-optimal mother-infant interaction. Our study aims to build on previous research in the field through exploring the association of a maternal personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, with subsequent mother-infant interaction quality. We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine the association between antenatal interpersonal sensitivity and postnatal mother-infant interaction quality in the context of perinatal depressive symptoms. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured during early pregnancy and depressive symptoms in the antenatal year and across the first 21 months of the postnatal period. In a subsample of the ALSPAC, mother-infant interaction was measured at 12 months postnatal through a standard observation. For the subsample that had complete data at all time points (n = 706), hierarchical regression examined the contribution of interpersonal sensitivity to variance in mother-infant interaction quality. Perinatal depressive symptoms predicted little variance in mother-infant interaction. Antenatal interpersonal sensitivity explained a greater proportion of variance in mother-infant interaction quality. The personality trait, interpersonal sensitivity, measured in early pregnancy, is a more robust indicator of subsequent mother-infant-interaction quality than perinatal depressive symptoms, thus affording enhanced opportunity to identify vulnerable mother-infant relationships for targeted early intervention.

  7. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Lam, Ernest T.; Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in huma...

  8. Slow weight gain is strongly associated with morbidity in children under 6 months, but health staff fail to recognise it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeofor, Ifeyinwa; Garcia, Ada; Wright, Charlotte; Ibeziako, Ngozi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and aims: Young infants are weighed regularly and plotted on a Road-to-Health (RTH) or similar charts, but it is not clear whether early morbidity is associated with slow weight gain or whether health staff recognises it. We aimed to: 1) Compare the weight gain of very young Nigerian infants admitted to hospital to their healthy peers. 2) Assess whether health staff recognise slow weight gain. Methods: Weights were collected for 210 infants aged 2SD in weight, but these falls tend to be unrecognized, particularly when presented on the RTH format. (author)

  9. Anxiety and depression strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors among networks of young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Kajula, Lusajo Joel

    2017-02-01

    This study tested the association between mental health scores and sexual risk behaviors among male members of social groups known as "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Anxiety and depression were measured using the HSCL-25 and condom use and sexual partner concurrency were assessed through self-report. A total of 1113 sexually active men with an average age of 27 years were included in the analyses. Higher anxiety and depression scores were significantly associated with both condom use (Anxiety AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.77; Depression AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.77) and concurrency (Anxiety AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.73, 3.12; Depression AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.60, 2.70). The results of this study provide information salient to the development of effective HIV prevention interventions targeting populations with high burdens of anxiety and depression. The feasibility and effect of integrating mental health promotion activities into HIV prevention interventions should be explored.

  10. Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2017-10-12

    If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV. The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. The prevalence of all seven STIs were positively correlated excluding chlamydia. The correlations were strongest for HIV-HSV-2 (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and HSV-2-trichomoniasis (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). Our results of a generally positive association between the prevalences of a range of STIs suggests that higher prevalences were driven by common underlying determinants. We review different types of evidence which suggest that differential sexual connectivity is a plausible common determinant.

  11. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seho [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chunghun [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yoon-Jae [Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo [Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun, E-mail: tseo@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  12. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seho; Lim, Chunghun; Lee, Jae Young; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Junsoo; Choe, Joonho; Seo, Taegun

    2010-01-01

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  13. Vertical Jump Height is more Strongly Associated with Velocity and Work Performed Prior to Take-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J. R.; Loehr, J. A.; DeWitt, J. K.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Nash, R. E.; Leach, M. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) height is commonly used as a measure of athletic capability in strength and power sports. Although VJ has been shown to be a predictor of athletic performance, it is not clear which kinetic ground reaction force (GRF) variables, such as peak force (PF), peak power (PP), peak velocity (PV), total work (TW) or impulse (Imp) are the best correlates. To determine which kinetic variables (PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp) best correlate with VJ height. Twenty subjects (14 males, 6 females) performed three maximal countermovement VJs on a force platform (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA). VJ jump height was calculated as the difference between standing reach and the highest reach point measured using a Vertec. PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp were calculated using the vertical GRF data sampled at 1000 Hz from the lowest point in the countermovement through the concentric portion until take-off. GRF data were normalized to body mass measured using a standard scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO, USA). Correlation coefficients were computed between each GRF variable and VJ height using a Pearson correlation. VJ height (43.4 plus or minus 9.1 cm) was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with PF (998 plus or minus 321 N; r=0.51), PP (1997 plus or minus 772 W; r=0.69), PV (2.66 plus or minus 0.40 m (raised dot) s(sup -1); r=0.85), TW (259 plus or minus 93.0 kJ; r=0.82), and Imp (204 plus or minus 51.1 N(raised dot)s; r=0.67). Although all variables were correlated to VJ height, PV and TW were more strongly correlated to VJ height than PF, PP, and Imp. Therefore, since TW is equal to force times displacement, the relative displacement of the center of mass along with the forces applied during the upward movement of the jump are critical determinants of VJ height. PV and TW are key determinants of VJ height, and therefore successful training programs to increase VJ height should focus on rapid movement (PV) and TW by increasing power over time rather

  14. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which a ...

  15. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  16. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  17. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) induced by RANKL negatively regulates osteoclasts survival and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and confirmed by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) transduced with lentivirus carrying tank-shRNA were induced to form osteoclast in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Tank expression was downregulated by 90% by Tank-shRNA, which is confirmed by western blot. Compared with wild-type (WT) cells, osteoclastogenesis of Tank-silenced BMMs was increased, according to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain on day 5 and day 7. Number of bone resorption pits by Tank-silenced osteoclasts was increased by 176% compared with WT cells, as shown by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stain and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Survival rate of Tank-silenced mature osteoclast is also increased. However, acid production of Tank-knockdown cells was not changed compared with control cells. IκBα phosphorylation is increased in tank-silenced cells, indicating that TANK may negatively regulate NF-κB activity in osteoclast. In conclusion, Tank, whose expression is increased during osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast formation, activity and survival, by regulating NF-κB activity and c-FLIP expression. Tank enrolls itself in a negative feedback loop in bone resorption. These results may provide means for therapeutic intervention in diseases of excessive bone resorption.

  18. Cognitive Impairments in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Associations With Positive and Negative Affect, Alexithymia, Pain Catastrophizing and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Sánchez, Carmen M; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS. For this purpose, 67 female FMS patients and 32 healthy control subjects completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring processing speed, attention, visuospatial and verbal memory, cognitive flexibility and planning abilities. In addition, participants completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to positive and negative affect, alexithymia, pain catastrophizing and self-esteem. Clinical characteristics including pain severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, insomnia and fatigue were also assessed. FMS patients showed markedly poorer performance than healthy controls in all of the cognitive domains assessed, in addition to greater levels of depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, and lower self-esteem and positive affect. In exploratory correlation analysis in the FMS sample, lower cognitive performance was associated with higher pain severity, depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, as well as lower self-esteem and positive affect. However, in regression analyses, pain, self-esteem, alexithymia, and pain catastrophizing explained the largest portion of the variance in performance. While interference effects of clinical pain in cognition have been previously described, the present findings suggest that affective factors also substantially contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairments. They support the notion that affective disturbances

  19. Eczema in early childhood is strongly associated with the development of asthma and rhinitis in a prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kobyletzki Laura B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to estimate the association between eczema in early childhood and the onset of asthma and rhinitis later in life in children. Methods A total of 3,124 children aged 1–2 years were included in the Dampness in Building and Health (DBH study in the year 2000, and followed up 5 years later by a parental questionnaire based on an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. The association between eczema in early childhood and the incidence of asthma and rhinitis later in life was estimated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results The prevalence of eczema in children aged 1–2 years was 17.6% at baseline. Children with eczema had a 3-fold increased odds of developing asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.79–5.27, and a nearly 3-fold increased odds of developing rhinitis (aOR, 2.63; 1.85–3.73 at follow-up compared with children without eczema, adjusted for age, sex, parental allergic disease, parental smoking, length of breastfeeding, site of living, polyvinylchloride flooring material, and concomitant allergic disease. When eczema was divided into subgroups, moderate to severe eczema (aOR, 3.56; 1.62–7.83 and aOR, 3.87; 2.37–6.33, respectively, early onset of eczema (aOR, 3.44; 1.94–6.09 and aOR, 4.05; 2.82–5.81; respectively, and persistence of eczema (aOR, 5.16; 2.62–10.18 and aOR, 4.00; 2.53–6.22, respectively further increased the odds of developing asthma and rhinitis. Further independent risk factors increasing the odds of developing asthma were a parental history of allergic disease (aOR, 1.83; 1.29–2.60 and a period of breast feeding shorter than 6 months (aOR, 1.57; 1.03–2.39. The incidence of rhinitis was increased for parental history of allergic disease (aOR, 2.00; 1.59–2.51 and polyvinylchloride flooring (aOR, 1.60; 1.02–2.51. Conclusion Eczema in infancy is associated with

  20. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  1. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  2. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  3. Seismogenic ionospheric anomalies associated with the strong Indonesian earthquake occurred on 11 April 2012 (M = 8.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with a major earthquake (EQ) (M = 8.5) which occurred in India-Oceania region are investigated by monitoring subionospheric propagation of VLF signals transmitted from the NWC transmitter (F = 19.8 kHz), Australia to a receiving station at Varanasi (geographic lat. 25.3°N, long 82.99°E), India. The EQ occurred on 11 April 2012 at 08:38:35 h UT (magnitude ≈ 8.5, depth = 10 km, and lat. = 2.3°N, long. = 93.0°E). A significant increase of few days before the EQ has been observed by using the VLF nighttime amplitude fluctuation method (fixed frequency transmitter signal). The analysis of total electron contents (TEC) derived from the global positioning system (GPS) at three different stations namely, Hyderabad (latitude 17.38°N, longitude 78.48°E), Singapore (latitude 1.37°N, longitude 103.84°E) and Port Blair (latitude 11.62°N, longitude 92.72°E) due to this EQ has also been presented. Significant perturbation in TEC data (enhancements and depletion) is noted before and after the main shock of the EQ. The possible mechanisms behind these perturbations due to EQ have also been discussed.

  4. Negative self-referential processing is associated with genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR): Evidence from two independent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainer-Best, Justin; Disner, Seth G; McGeary, John E; Hamilton, Bethany J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    The current research examined whether carriers of the short 5-HTTLPR allele (in SLC6A4), who have been shown to selectively attend to negative information, exhibit a bias towards negative self-referent processing. The self-referent encoding task (SRET) was used to measure self-referential processing of positive and negative adjectives. Ratcliff's diffusion model isolated and extracted decision-making components from SRET responses and reaction times. Across the initial (N = 183) and replication (N = 137) studies, results indicated that short 5-HTTLPR allele carriers more easily categorized negative adjectives as self-referential (i.e., higher drift rate). Further, drift rate was associated with recall of negative self-referential stimuli. Findings across both studies provide further evidence that genetic variation may contribute to the etiology of negatively biased processing of self-referent information. Large scale studies examining the genetic contributions to negative self-referent processing may be warranted.

  5. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Clarissa; Rauch, Andreas; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable.

  6. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Bohlmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable.

  7. Diabetes stigma is associated with negative treatment appraisals among adults with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Browne, J. L.; Ventura, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    and psychosocial issues. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the responses of 456 adults with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (38% women; mean ± sd age: 61.2 ± 8.8 years; diabetes duration: 14.5 ± 7.5 years; years using insulin: 6.4 ± 5.5). Participants completed validated measures of perceived and experienced......, BMI, years using insulin, injections per day), self-efficacy, diabetes-specific distress and diabetes stigma (all P diabetes......Aim: To explore factors associated with negative insulin appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes, including perceived and experienced diabetes stigma. Methods: The second Diabetes MILES - Australia study (MILES-2) is a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural...

  8. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Clarissa; Rauch, Andreas; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable. PMID:29250004

  9. Wading through the stereotypes: positive and negative associations between media use and black adolescents' conceptions of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L Monique

    2004-03-01

    Although concern is often expressed that frequent media exposure may adversely affect the self-esteem and racial self-esteem of African American youths, evidence to support this assumption has been limited. To examine this issue, the author collected data among 156 African American high school students, testing connections among racial self-esteem, three dimensions of self-esteem, and multiple forms of media use. Whereas initial comparisons revealed media use to be a negative correlate of self-esteem, further analysis demonstrated that this association varied depending on the media genre and the domain of self in question, the content of students' media diets, and the individual characteristics of the viewer. In addition, both stronger identification with popular Black characters and greater religiosity emerged as possible protective factors. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  10. Study of Optical and Structural Characteristics of Ceria Nanoparticles Doped with Negative and Positive Association Lanthanide Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of adding lanthanides with negative association energy, such as holmium and erbium, to ceria nanoparticles doped with positive association energy lanthanides, such as neodymium and samarium. That is what we called mixed doped ceria nanoparticles (MDC NPs. In MDC NPs of grain size range around 6 nm, it is proved qualitatively that the conversion rate from Ce4+ to Ce3+ is reduced, compared to ceria doped only with positive association energy lanthanides. There are many pieces of evidence which confirm the obtained conclusion. These indications are an increase in the allowed direct band gap which is calculated from the absorbance dispersion measurements, a decrease in the emitted fluorescence intensity, and an increase in the size of nanoparticles, which is measured using both techniques: transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD. That gives a novel conclusion that there are some trivalent dopants, such as holmium and erbium, which can suppress Ce3+ ionization states in ceria and consequently act as scavengers for active O-vacancies in MDC. This promising concept can develop applications which depend on the defects in ceria such as biomedicine, electronic devices, and gas sensors.

  11. Objectively measured physical activity has a negative but weak association with academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Fernández-Santos, Jorge R; Conde-Caveda, Julio; Sallis, James F; Veiga, Oscar L

    2014-11-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence on the potential effects of regular physical activity on academic performance. The aim of this study was to add to the debate, by examining the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic performance in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents. The Spanish UP & DOWN study is a 3-year longitudinal study designed to assess the impact, overtime, of physical activity and sedentary behaviours on health indicators. This present analysis was conducted with 1778 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry. Academic performance was assessed using school grades. Physical activity was inversely associated with all academic performance indicators after adjustment for potential confounders, including neonatal variables, fatness and fitness (all p academic performance between the lowest and the second quartile of physical activity, compared to the highest quartile, with very small effect size (d academic performance during both childhood and adolescence, but this association was negative and very weak. Longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to further our understanding. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  13. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P free survival in multivariate models, as were seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and Gleason score, and preoperative PSA. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the assay can be readily introduced at first diagnosis in a cost effective manner analogous to the use of FISH for analysis of HER2/neu status in breast cancer. Combined with published research beginning 17 years ago, both the data and tools now exist to implement a PTEN assay in the clinic. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  15. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Rajput, Prashant; Shah, Ishrat Aasim

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR) model and ZINB model to assess the risk factors associated with dental caries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1138 12-year-old school children in Moradabad Town, Uttar Pradesh during months of February-August 2014. Selected participants were interviewed using a questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by recording decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index. To assess the risk factor associated with dental caries in children, two approaches have been applied - LR model and ZINB model. The prevalence of caries-free subjects was 24.1%, and mean DMFT was 3.4 ± 1.8. In LR model, all the variables were statistically significant. Whereas in ZINB model, negative binomial part showed place of residence, father's education level, tooth brushing frequency, and dental visit statistically significant implying that the degree of being caries-free (DMFT = 0) increases for group of children who are living in urban, whose father is university pass out, who brushes twice a day and if have ever visited a dentist. The current study report that the LR model is a poorly fitted model and may lead to spurious conclusions whereas ZINB model has shown better goodness of fit (Akaike information criterion values - LR: 3.94; ZINB: 2.39) and can be preferred if high variance and number of an excess of zeroes are present.

  16. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Glypican-4 gene polymorphism (rs1048369) and susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus-associated and -negative gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danrui; Liu, Shuzhen; Sun, Lingling; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Song; Kuang, Xiaojing; Shu, Jun; Luo, Bing

    2016-07-15

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to be highly related to GC carcinogenesis. Glypican-4 (GPC4), a member of the heparan sulphate proteoglycan family, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. However, little is known about polymorphisms of GPC4 gene and their associated susceptibility to GC, especially to Epstein-Barr virus-associated GC (EBVaGC). Here we studied the GPC4 polymorphism (rs1048369) in GC individuals, especially those with EBVaGC, and we explored an association between the GPC4 gene polymorphism (rs1048369) and susceptibility to EBVaGC and Epstein-Barr virus-negative GC (EBVnGC) in a population from Northern China. The GPC4 gene polymorphism (rs1048369) was detected in 54 cases of EBVaGC and 73 cases of EBVnGC using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred and seven peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals were also measured as a control group. There were significant differences in both the genotype and allelic frequency of GPC4 gene (rs1048369) between the EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Meanwhile, the distribution of genotype and allelic frequency of GPC4 (rs1048369) differed between EBVaGC and control groups. Distribution of the GPC4 genotype also revealed differences between EBVnGC and control groups, no significant differences in the allelic frequency of the GPC4 gene (rs1048369) were observed. The frequency of the T allele in EBVaGC group was significantly higher than that in control and EBVnGC groups. The GPC4 gene polymorphism and the allele of GPC4 are both associated with susceptibility to EBVaGC. The T allele of GPC4 may represent a risk factor for EBVaGC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regular and negative self-rated health in students from a public university fromNortheastern,Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

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    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.

  19. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

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    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3,* Ting Dai,1,2,* Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Xing-Hua Li,1,2 Tao Qin,1–3 Li-Bing Song,1,2 Xi Wang1,2,41State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC present a higher probability of distant metastasis and lack of effective targeted therapy. ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4 is an ETS (E-26 transcription factor and has been associated with tumor metastasis. However, the clinical and functional significance of ETV4 in TNBC still remains unclear. Methods: A human tumor metastasis polymerase chain reaction array was used to profile differential expression of tumor metastasis-related genes in TNBC tissue. Real-time reverse transcription and Western blot analyses were performed to verify ETV4 expression in TNBC cells and tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of ETV4 protein in 135 TNBC tissue samples for association between ETV4 protein expression and clinical outcomes. Results: A total total of eight upregulated (CCL7, KISS1, MET, MMP7, NR4A3, ETV4, TIMP3, and TSHR and three downregulated (ITGA7, SSTR, and MMP2 genes were identified between TNBC tissue and the luminal subtype of breast cancer tissue. ETV4 messenger ribonucleic acid was more than five-fold upregulated in TNBC tissue compared with the control tissue. ETV4 overexpression was found in 57.0% of 135 TNBC cases. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was associated with an advanced stage and a higher proportion of positive lymph node and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with an ETV4

  20. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT

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    Zhen-Yu He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3 significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder as a moderator of the association between negative affect and bulimic symptoms: an ecological momentary assessment study.

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    Karr, Trisha M; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential moderating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the emotion-behavior relationship in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 119 women with BN were involved in the study. Participants were divided into 2 groups: those with BN and PTSD (n = 20) and those with BN only (n = 99). Ecological momentary assessment procedures were used for the examination of affect, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and the relationship of affect and bulimic behavior over time. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I Disorders was conducted for the diagnosis of BN, PTSD, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders functioned as covariates in all analyses. Statistical models showed that those in the PTSD group reported a greater daily mean level of negative affect (NA) and a greater daily frequency of bulimic behaviors than those in the BN-only group. Moderation was found for the association between NA and time in that the PTSD group showed a faster acceleration in NA before purging and faster deceleration in NA after purging. The association between positive affect and time was also moderated by group, indicating that the PTSD group had a faster acceleration in positive affect after purging than the BN-only group. These findings highlight the importance of recognizing PTSD when interpreting the emotion-behavior relationship in individuals with BN. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Histomorphologic spectrum of BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms in a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Zlatko; Buljan, Marija; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-06-01

    Multiple BAP1 negative melanocytic neoplasms are a hallmark of familial cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by BAP1 germline mutation. The syndrome is characterized by increased incidence of renal cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, cholangiocarcinoma, cutaneous and uveal melanoma and some other neoplasms. We report histomorphologic characteristics of six cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms with loss of BAP1 expression in two members of a family with BAP1-associated cancer susceptibility syndrome. The neoplasms were dermal melanocytic nevi characterized by a proliferation of large epithelioid (spitzoid) melanocytes, and adipocytic metaplasia. Nuclear pseudoinclusions and multinucleated melanocytes were present in most neoplasms. In two of the cases, a nodular melanoma was found associated with a dermal nevus. None of the melanomas recurred or metastasized after 6 and 3 years of follow up. We report two new cases of melanoma arising in a BAP1-deficient melanocytic nevus in the setting of familial tumor predisposition syndrome. Adipocytic metaplasia and nuclear pseudoinclusions may be additional morphologic clues to a BAP1-deficient nevus. It remains to be seen whether these features are more common in familial than sporadic lesions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Negative association between parental care and sibling cooperation in earwigs: a new perspective on the early evolution of family life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J; Thesing, J; Meunier, J

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of family life requires net fitness benefits for offspring, which are commonly assumed to mainly derive from parental care. However, an additional source of benefits for offspring is often overlooked: cooperative interactions among juvenile siblings. In this study, we examined how sibling cooperation and parental care could jointly contribute to the early evolution of family life. Specifically, we tested whether the level of food transferred among siblings (sibling cooperation) in the European earwig Forficula auricularia (1) depends on the level of maternal food provisioning (parental care) and (2) is translated into offspring survival, as well as female investment into future reproduction. We show that higher levels of sibling food transfer were associated with lower levels of maternal food provisioning, possibly reflecting a compensatory relationship between sibling cooperation and maternal care. Furthermore, the level of sibling food transfer did not influence offspring survival, but was associated with negative effects on the production of the second and terminal clutch by the tending mothers. These findings indicate that sibling cooperation could mitigate the detrimental effects on offspring survival that result from being tended by low-quality mothers. More generally, they are in line with the hypothesis that sibling cooperation is an ancestral behaviour that can be retained to compensate for insufficient levels of parental investment. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. 2q36.3 is associated with prognosis for oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Lindström, Linda S; Foo, Jia N; Rafiq, Sajjad; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Pharoah, Paul D P; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Cornelissen, Sten; Rutgers, Emiel; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Dite, Gillian S; Hopper, John L; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Blomqvist, Carl; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Smeets, Ann; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Seibold, Petra; Rudolph, Anja; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe I Grenaker; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Nord, Silje; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje; Kriege, Mieke; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans; Li, Yi; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans U; Rüdiger, Thomas; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Chen, Shou-Tung; Teo, Soo Hwang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Har Yip, Cheng; Fuang Ho, Gwo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Maishman, Tom; Tapper, William J; Dunning, Alison; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Eccles, Diana M; Nevanlinna, Heli; Easton, Douglas; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2014-06-17

    Large population-based registry studies have shown that breast cancer prognosis is inherited. Here we analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes implicated in human immunology and inflammation as candidates for prognostic markers of breast cancer survival involving 1,804 oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients treated with chemotherapy (279 events) from 14 European studies in a prior large-scale genotyping experiment, which is part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) initiative. We carry out replication using Asian COGS samples (n=522, 53 events) and the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) study (n=315, 108 events). Rs4458204_A near CCL20 (2q36.3) is found to be associated with breast cancer-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (n=2,641, 440 events, combined allelic hazard ratio (HR)=1.81 (1.49-2.19); P for trend=1.90 × 10(-9)). Such survival-associated variants can represent ideal targets for tailored therapeutics, and may also enhance our current prognostic prediction capabilities.

  5. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

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    Greta S Aeby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  6. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C. Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A.; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L.; Work, Thierry M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  7. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Gruber, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bickel, H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Duffy, S. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Schernthaner, M. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Pluschnig, U. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, M. [Medical University Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS {sup registered} classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p < 0.001), irregular margin (p < 0.001), heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001), Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.02), increasing patient age (p = 0.02) and larger lesion size (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant associations with malignancy remained for mass shape (p = 0.06), mass margin (p < 0.001), internal enhancement pattern (p = 0.03) and Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.06). The ACR BI-RADS {sup registered} breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  8. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer: association between prolonged preoperative treatment and lymph-node negativity and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadera, Brian E; Sunjaya, Dharma B; Isacoff, William H; Li, Luyi; Hines, O Joe; Tomlinson, James S; Dawson, David W; Rochefort, Matthew M; Donald, Graham W; Clerkin, Barbara M; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2014-02-01

    ), also correlated with OS. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling of HP and prognostic biomarkers, only SMAD4 protein loss was significant (hazard ratio, 9.3; P=.004). Our approach to patients with LA/BR PDAC, which includes prolonged preoperative chemotherapy, is associated with a high incidence of LN-negative disease and excellent OS. After surgical resection, HP treatment response, perineural invasion, and SMAD4 status should help determine who should receive adjuvant therapy in this select subset of patients.

  9. High infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3* Rong-Zhen Luo,1,2,4,* Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Cong Xue1–3 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 3Departments of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 4Departments of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and high probability of distant metastases. Tumor microenvironments play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are one of the main cell components, and they are correlated with increasing metastatic risk. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of the infiltration of TAMs in patients with TNBC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD68 (a marker for macrophages was performed on tissue microarrays of operable breast cancer among 287 patients with TNBC, and the number of infiltrating TAMs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found that TNBC with a large number of infiltrating TAMs had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis, as well as lower rates of disease-free survival and overall survival than those with a smaller number of infiltrating TAMs. Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of infiltrating TAMs was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.001 in all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggested that high infiltrating TAMs are a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with TNBC, and they could become a potentially useful prognostic marker for TNBC. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, tumor-associated macrophages, prognosis

  10. Invited review: effect, persistence, and virulence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with ruminant udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghen, W; Piepers, S; Leroy, F; Van Coillie, E; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species on udder health and milk yield in ruminants, and to evaluate the capacity of CNS to cause persistent intramammary infections (IMI). Furthermore, the literature on factors suspected of playing a role in the pathogenicity of IMI-associated CNS, such as biofilm formation and the presence of various putative virulence genes, is discussed. The focus is on the 5 CNS species that have been most frequently identified as causing bovine IMI using reliable molecular identification methods (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Although the effect on somatic cell count and milk production is accepted to be generally limited or nonexistent for CNS as a group, indications are that the typical effects differ between CNS species and perhaps even strains. It has also become clear that many CNS species can cause persistent IMI, contrary to what has long been believed. However, this trait appears to be quite complicated, being partly strain dependent and partly dependent on the host's immunity. Consistent definitions of persistence and more uniform methods for testing this phenomenon will benefit future research. The factors explaining the anticipated differences in pathogenic behavior appear to be more difficult to evaluate. Biofilm formation and the presence of various staphylococcal virulence factors do not seem to (directly) influence the effect of CNS on IMI but the available information is indirect or insufficient to draw consistent conclusions. Future studies on the effect, persistence, and virulence of the different CNS species associated with IMI would benefit from using larger and perhaps even shared strain collections and from adjusting study designs to a common framework, as the large variation currently existing therein is a major problem. Also within-species variation should

  11. Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    Full Text Available Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12, we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an

  12. Associations Between Enteral Colonization With Gram-Negative Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Infections and Colonization of the Respiratory Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jos F; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; Plantinga, Nienke L; Spitoni, Cristian; van de Groep, Kirsten; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M

    2018-02-01

    Enteral and respiratory tract colonization with gram-negative bacteria may lead to subsequent infections in critically ill patients. We aimed to clarify the interdependence between gut and respiratory tract colonization and their associations with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections in patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD). Colonization status of the rectum and respiratory tract was determined using twice-weekly microbiological surveillance in mechanically ventilated subjects receiving SDD between May 2011 and June 2015 in a tertiary medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands. Acquisition of infections was monitored daily by dedicated observers. Marginal structural models were used to determine the associations between gram-negative rectal colonization and respiratory tract colonization, ICU-acquired gram-negative infection, and ICU-acquired gram-negative bacteremia. Among 2066 ICU admissions, 1157 (56.0%) ever had documented gram-negative carriage in the rectum during ICU stay. Cumulative incidences of ICU-acquired gram-negative infection and bacteremia were 6.0% (n = 124) and 2.1% (n = 44), respectively. Rectal colonization was an independent risk factor for both respiratory tract colonization (cause-specific hazard ratio [CSHR], 2.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.02-4.23]) and new gram-negative infection in the ICU (CSHR, 3.04 [95% CI, 1.99-4.65]). Both rectal and respiratory tract colonization were associated with bacteremia (CSHR, 7.37 [95% CI, 3.25-16.68] and 2.56 [95% CI, 1.09-6.03], respectively). Similar associations were observed when Enterobacteriaceae and glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria were analyzed separately. Gram-negative rectal colonization tends to be stronger associated with subsequent ICU-acquired gram-negative infections than gram-negative respiratory tract colonization. Gram-negative rectal colonization seems hardly associated with subsequent ICU-acquired gram-negative respiratory tract

  13. The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Lazo, Mariana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Gamble, Mary V; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Cole, Shelley A; Umans, Jason G; Howard, Barbara V; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-03-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose) in 1,047 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective family-based cohort in American Indian communities (baseline visits in 1998-1999 and 2001-2003, follow-up visits in 2001-2003 and 2006-2009). 32% of participants developed metabolic syndrome over follow-up. An IQR increase in arsenic exposure was associated with 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) greater risk for elevated fasting plasma glucose but not with other individual components or overall metabolic syndrome. Arsenic metabolism, specifically lower MMA% and higher DMA% was associated with higher risk of overall metabolic syndrome and elevated waist circumference, but not with any other component. These findings support there is a contrasting and independent association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic outcomes which may contribute to overall diabetes risk.

  14. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene TCF7L2 is strongly associated with hyperglycemia in the Saudi Arabia Population of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Al-Elq, A; Al-Nafaie, A; Muzaheed, M; Al-Ali, A

    2015-08-01

    We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs4506565 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility gene, transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) with T2DM among the population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. In a case-control study, blood samples were collected from 359 T2DM patients and 351 age and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. Genotyping was done by allele specific PCR assay. Our results revealed a strong association between risk T alleles in variants rs12255372 (OR: G/T=1.4233; T/T=2.0395) and rs4506565 (OR: A/T=1.6066; T/T=3.1301) and T2DM among the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This is the first time that this association has been identified in a Saudi population. However, a common variant, rs7903146, often found to be associated with T2DM in other populations failed to demonstrate any association to T2DM with the present population. These data further strengthens the hypothesis that Saudi populations might carry a distinct risk allele in T2DM susceptibility gene TCF7L2. The present results confirm that rs12255372 and rs4506565 variants of TCF7L2 show an association, but not rs7903146, with T2DM for the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

  16. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  17. Integrative analysis of genomic alterations in triple-negative breast cancer in association with homologous recombination deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawazu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC cells do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Currently, apart from poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, there are few effective therapeutic options for this type of cancer. Here, we present comprehensive characterization of the genetic alterations in TNBC performed by high coverage whole genome sequencing together with transcriptome and whole exome sequencing. Silencing of the BRCA1 gene impaired the homologous recombination pathway in a subset of TNBCs, which exhibited similar phenotypes to tumors with BRCA1 mutations; they harbored many structural variations (SVs with relative enrichment for tandem duplication. Clonal analysis suggested that TP53 mutations and methylation of CpG dinucleotides in the BRCA1 promoter were early events of carcinogenesis. SVs were associated with driver oncogenic events such as amplification of MYC, NOTCH2, or NOTCH3 and affected tumor suppressor genes including RB1, PTEN, and KMT2C. Furthermore, we identified putative TGFA enhancer regions. Recurrent SVs that affected the TGFA enhancer region led to enhanced expression of the TGFA oncogene that encodes one of the high affinity ligands for epidermal growth factor receptor. We also identified a variety of oncogenes that could transform 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, suggesting that individual TNBC tumors may undergo a unique driver event that can be targetable. Thus, we revealed several features of TNBC with clinically important implications.

  18. Frequency of janus associated kinase 2 (jak2) mutation in patients of bcr-abl negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.A.; Ahmed, S.; Ali, N.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Janus associated kinase 2 mutation in the patients of BCR-ABL negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from Jul 2011 to Jul 2012. Patients and Methods: Ninety three consecutive patients of Polycythaemia vera (PV), Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and Idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) diagnosed by the conventional haematological criteria were included in the study. All patients were screened for G-T point mutation (V617F) in the JAK2 gene on chromosome 9 by an allele specific PCR. Results: Out of the 93 myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, 33(35%) had polycythaemia vera, 36(39%) had essential thrombocythaemia and 24(26%) had idiopathic myelofibrosis. JAK2 mutation was seen in 64/93 (69%) patients including 33/33(100%) in PV, 19/36(52.6%) in ET and 12/24(50%) in IMF. Conclusion: Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms are an important group of heamatological disorder in our country. JAK2 gene mutation is seen in significant proportion of these disorders (69%). JAK2 mutation analysis can be used to differentiate between polycythemia vera and secondary polycythemia in most cases with near certainty, where it was found in 100% of the cases. (author)

  19. Analysis of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities associated with negative effects of pseudostellaria heterophylla consecutive monoculture on yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Lin, W.X.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. (author)

  20. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load: prospective results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that high levels of negative emotions may affect health. However, it is likely that the absence of an emotional response following stressful events may also be problematic. Accordingly, we investigated whether a non-linear association exists between negative emotional response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong influence of dietary intake and physical activity on body fatness in elderly Japanese men: age-associated loss of polygenic resistance against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Ise, Ryuken; Oshima, Satomi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Tanaka, Masashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged populations; however, it is unclear whether these SNPs are associated with body fatness in elderly people. We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) from BMI-associated SNPs and body fatness in elderly Japanese men. We also examined the contribution of GRS, dietary macronutrient intake, and physical activity to body fatness by different age groups. GRS was calculated from 10 BMI-associated SNPs in 84 middle-aged (30-64 years) and 97 elderly (65-79 years) Japanese men; subjects were divided into low, middle, and high GRS groups. Dietary macronutrient intake was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical activity was evaluated using both a questionnaire and an accelerometer. The middle-aged individuals with a high GRS had greater BMI; waist circumference; and total abdominal fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat areas than the middle-aged individuals with low GRS, whereas the indicators were not different between the GRS groups in elderly individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that GRS was the strongest predictor of BMI, total abdominal fat, and visceral fat in the middle-aged group, whereas fat, alcohol, and protein intakes or vigorous-intensity physical activity were more strongly associated with these indicators than was GRS in the elderly group. These results suggest that GRS from BMI-associated SNPs is not predictive of body fatness in elderly Japanese men. The stronger contribution of dietary macronutrient intake and physical activity to body fatness may attenuate the genetic predisposition in elderly men.

  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  3. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  4. Strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of DAT and rK39 serological titers.We used available data on four cohorts from villages in India and Nepal that are highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. In each cohort two serosurveys had been conducted. Based on results of initial surveys, subjects were classified as seronegative, moderately seropositive or strongly seropositive using both DAT and rK39. Based on the combination of first and second survey results we identified seroconvertors for both markers. Seroconvertors were subdivided in high and low titer convertors. Subjects were followed up for at least one year following the second survey. Incident VL cases were recorded and verified.We assessed a total of 32,529 enrolled subjects, for a total follow-up time of 72,169 person years. Altogether 235 incident VL cases were documented. The probability of progression to disease was strongly associated with initial serostatus and with seroconversion; this was particularly the case for those with high titers and most prominently among seroconvertors. For high titer DAT convertors the hazard ratio reached as high as 97.4 when compared to non-convertors. The strengths of the associations varied between cohorts and between markers but similar trends were observed between the four cohorts and the two markers.There is a strongly increased risk of progressing to disease among DAT and/or rK39 seropositives with high titers. The options for prophylactic treatment for this group merit further investigation, as it could be of clinical benefit if it prevents progression to disease. Prophylactic treatment might also have a public health benefit if it can be corroborated that these asymptomatically infected individuals are infectious for sand flies.

  5. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  7. Association Between a Germline OCA2 Polymorphism at Chromosome 15q13.1 and Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzato, E.M.; Tyrer, J.; Fasching, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    -sided. In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C > G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried.......92, P = 5 x 10(-4)). The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer...

  8. Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Hu, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 10 ) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM 10 ). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM 10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  10. The association of suicide risk with negative life events and social support according to gender in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim Sulaiman, Ahmad; Srisurapanont, Manit; Chang, Sung-man; Liu, Chia-Yih; Bautista, Dianne; Ge, Lan; Choon Chua, Hong; Pyo Hong, Jin

    2015-08-30

    We investigated the associations between negative life events, social support, depressive and hostile symptoms, and suicide risk according to gender in multinational Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 547 outpatients with MDD (352 women and 195 men, mean age of 39.58±13.21 years) were recruited in China, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the List of Threatening Experiences. Negative life events, social support, depressive symptoms, and hostility were all significantly associated with suicidality in female MDD patients. However, only depressive symptoms and hostility were significantly associated with suicidality in male patients. Depression severity and hostility only partially mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in female patients. In contrast, hostility fully mediated the association of negative life events and poor social support with suicidality in male patients. Our results highlight the need of in-depth assessment of suicide risk for depressed female patients who report a number of negative life events and poor social supports, even if they do not show severe psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Further evidence for the existence of environmental and host-associated species of coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Anneleen; Supré, Karlien; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Zadoks, Ruth N; Piessens, Veerle; Van Coillie, Els; Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2014-08-27

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are abundantly present in the dairy farm environment and on bovine skin and mucosae. They are also the most prevalent bacteria causing bovine intramammary infections (IMI). Reservoirs and transmission routes of CNS are not yet fully unraveled. The objectives of this study were to explore the distribution of CNS in parlor-related extramammary niches and to compare it to the distributions of CNS causing IMI in those herds. Niches that were targeted in this study were cows' teat apices, milking machine unit liners, and milker's skin or gloves. Each of the three herds had its own CNS microbiota in those niches. The most prevalent species in the parlor-related extramammary niches were Staphylococcus cohnii, S. fleurettii, and S. equorum in the first, second, and third herd, respectively, whereas S. haemolyticus and S. sciuri were found in all herds. S. cohnii and S. fleurettii, as well as S. haemolyticus, which was present in each herd, were also frequently found in milk samples. By contrast, S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus favored the mammary gland, whereas S. equorum was more common in the parlor-associated niches. Within each herd, species distribution was similar between teat apices and milking machine unit liners. In conclusion, some of the extramammary niches related to the milking process might act as infection sources for IMI-causing CNS. This study provides further evidence that the group of CNS species is comprised of environmental, opportunistic and host-adapted species which differ in ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  13. Effect of extended infusion of meropenem and nebulized amikacin on Gram-negative multidrug-resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ahmed Ammar

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Adding nebulized amikacin to systemic antibiotics in patients with VAP caused by Gram-negative MDRO may offer efficacy benefits, and the use of extended infusions of meropenem could improve the clinical outcomes in critically ill populations.

  14. A capsule/lipopolysaccharide/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 of Pasteurella multocida is likely to be strongly associated with swine respiratory disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Wang, Haonan; Liang, Wan; Chen, Yibao; Tang, Xibiao; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory disease in pigs worldwide. In this study, we determined the genetic characteristics of 115 P. multocida isolates from the lungs of pigs with respiratory disease in China in 2015 using capsular typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotyping, and virulence genotyping based on the detection of virulence-associated genes. The results showed that the isolates belonged to three capsular types: A (49.6%), D (46.1%), and nontypable (4.3%); and two LPS genotypes: L3 (22.6%) and L6 (77.4%). When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, a genotype group D: L6 (46.1%) was the most prevalent among the strains. Among the 23 virulence-associated genes detected in this study, a small number of them displayed a certain level of "genotype-preference". We found that pfhA, hgbA, and hgbB had a close association with P. multocida LPS genotypes, while tadD was more associated with P. multocida capsular types. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on 40 P. multocida isolates identified four sequence types: ST3, ST10, ST11, and ST16, and the distribution of ST11 was significantly higher than the other MLST genotypes. Interestingly, all of the ST11 isolates detected in this study were genotype D: L6 strains and they were 100% positive for hgbB. Our data suggest that a capsule/LPS/MLST genotype D/L6/ST11 is likely to be strongly associated with respiratory clinical manifestation of the disease in pigs.

  15. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies.We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility.677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  16. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1 Tumor Expression Is Associated with a Better Prognosis and Diabetic Disease in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Botti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value. However, data available in the literature about PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer are often discordant and not uniform, probably for the use of different antibodies clones and the high molecular heterogeneity of the different tumor types. The absence of target therapies, in particular for TNBC, has shifted the clinical attention mainly on the role of PD-L1 in this subtype of breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated tumor and TIL (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes PDL-1 expression in a series of TNBC, included in Tissue Micro Arrays (TMAs, to define its real prognostic value, optimizing immunohistochemistry method with an “approved for diagnostic assay” antibody. PD-L1 expression directly correlated with proliferation index (Ki-67, glycemia, the presence of diabetes and indirectly with menopausal status, presence of lymph node metastasis and relapse. The analysis of Kaplan–Meier showed that an increased PD-L1 expression was strongly associated with better disease-free survival (DFS but not correlated with overall survival (OS. Our data confirmed that PD-L1 could be an important marker for prognostic stratification and for planning immune checkpoint inhibitors therapies in patients with TNBC.

  17. Association of Low-Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with Incident Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Gribble, Matthew O; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Jones Spratlen, Miranda; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Umans, Jason G; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Cole, Shelley A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-12-20

    High arsenic exposure has been related to diabetes, but at low-moderate levels the evidence is mixed. Arsenic metabolism, which is partly genetically controlled and may rely on certain B vitamins, plays a role in arsenic toxicity. We evaluated the prospective association of arsenic exposure and metabolism with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. We included 1,838 American Indian men and women free of diabetes (median age, 36 y). Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) urine concentrations (ΣAs). Arsenic metabolism was evaluated by the proportions of iAs, MMA, and DMA over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was measured at baseline and follow-up visits. Incident diabetes was evaluated at follow-up. Median ΣAs, iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% was 4.4 μg/g creatinine, 9.5%, 14.4%, and 75.6%, respectively. Over 10,327 person-years of follow-up, 252 participants developed diabetes. Median HOMA2-IR at baseline was 1.5. The fully adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident diabetes per an interquartile range increase in ΣAs was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.08) in participants without prediabetes at baseline. Arsenic metabolism was not associated with incident diabetes. ΣAs was positively associated with HOMA2-IR at baseline but negatively with HOMA2-IR at follow-up. Increased MMA% was associated with lower HOMA2-IR when either iAs% or DMA% decreased. The association of arsenic metabolism with HOMA2-IR differed by B-vitamin intake and AS3MT genetics variants. Among participants without baseline prediabetes, arsenic exposure was associated with incident diabetes. Low MMA% was cross-sectional and prospectively associated with higher HOMA2-IR. Research is needed to confirm possible interactions of arsenic metabolism with B vitamins and AS3MT variants on diabetes risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2566.

  18. Negative Affect during a Collective (but Not an Individual Task Is Associated with Holistic Attention in East Asian Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Tominaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that individuals from East Asian cultures are more likely to show holistic attention—a pattern of attention that incorporates contextual information into focal stimuli—than individuals from North American cultures. Holistic attention is also prevalent in communities that require close cooperation. However, it is not yet known how cooperation is related to holistic attention. We theorized that holistic attention increases when people experience negative affect (e.g., worry, sadness, and frustration during collective tasks (but not during individual tasks because negative affect in social contexts signals the existence of potential threats to social harmony, thus indicating a need to restore social harmony. To examine this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted in which participants performed a musical duet either with another participant (a collective task requiring cooperation, or individually with a computer (an individual task. After the musical task, the Framed Line Task (FLT was administered to examine their holistic attention. Participants also reported their emotional states both before and after the music task. Results suggested that negative affect in the collective task—but not the individual task—was positively correlated with a holistic pattern of attention. The function of negative affect in social contexts as motivation to restore relationships and how this enhances holistic attention is discussed. The moderating effect of social context on the link between negative affect and cognition is also discussed.

  19. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  20. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  1. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  2. An evidence for the strong association of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone with some organic species in three Chinese bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.M.; Zong, Z.M.; Jia, J.X.; Liu, G.F.; Wei, X.Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School for Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Three Chinese bituminous coals collected from Shenfu, Heidaigou and Feicheng coal fields were respectively extracted with carbon-disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (volume ratio 1:1) at room temperature followed by distillation of CS{sub 2} under ambient pressure and subsequent removal of most of NMP by distillation at 110{sup o}C under reduced pressure to afford mixed solvent-extractable fractions (MSEFs) with small amount of NMP. Acetone-extractable fraction 1 (AEF1) was obtained by extracting each MSEF under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature and subsequently using a Soxhlet extractor. Direct extraction of each bituminous coal affords acetone-soluble fraction 2 (AEF2). GC/MS analysis shows that mlz of base or secondary peak in mass spectra of a series of components from each AEF1 is 98, whereas such components were not detected in AEF2. Since m/z of base peak in mass spectrum of NMP itself is 99, the base or secondary peak at m/z 98 should result from loss of a-H from NMP, i.e., NMP is strongly associated with some organic species (OSs) and thereby the components detected with base or secodary peak at m/z 98 in their mass spectra should be associated NMP-OS.

  3. Why are convertible bond announcements associated with increasingly negative abnormal stock returns? An arbitrage-based explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duca, E.; Dutordoir, M.; Veld, C.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2012-01-01

    While convertible offerings announced between 1984 and 1999 induce average abnormal stock returns of -1.69%, convertible announcement effects over the period 2000-2008 are more than twice as negative (-4.59%). We hypothesize that this evolution is attributable to a shift in the convertible bond

  4. Survival is associated with complete response on MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, Claudette E; Rigter, Lisanne S; Pengel, Kenneth E; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D Vrancken; Sikorska, Karolina; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological complete remission (pCR) of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is rarely achieved after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In addition, the prognostic value of pCR for this breast cancer subtype is limited. We

  5. Association of a Negative Wealth Shock With All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged and Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Lindsay R; Burgard, Sarah A; Needham, Belinda L; Elliott, Michael R; Langa, Kenneth M; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2018-04-03

    A sudden loss of wealth-a negative wealth shock-may lead to a significant mental health toll and also leave fewer monetary resources for health-related expenses. With limited years remaining to regain lost wealth in older age, the health consequences of these negative wealth shocks may be long-lasting. To determine whether a negative wealth shock was associated with all-cause mortality during 20 years of follow-up. The Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study of US adults aged 51 through 61 years at study entry. The study population included 8714 adults, first assessed for a negative wealth shock in 1994 and followed biennially through 2014 (the most recent year of available data). Experiencing a negative wealth shock, defined as a loss of 75% or more of total net worth over a 2-year period, or asset poverty, defined as 0 or negative total net worth at study entry. Mortality data were collected from the National Death Index and postmortem interviews with family members. Marginal structural survival methods were used to account for the potential bias due to changes in health status that may both trigger negative wealth shocks and act as the mechanism through which negative wealth shocks lead to increased mortality. There were 8714 participants in the study sample (mean [SD] age at study entry, 55 [3.2] years; 53% women), 2430 experienced a negative wealth shock during follow-up, 749 had asset poverty at baseline, and 5535 had continuously positive wealth without shock. A total of 2823 deaths occurred during 80 683 person-years of follow-up. There were 30.6 vs 64.9 deaths per 1000 person-years for those with continuously positive wealth vs negative wealth shock (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.67). There were 73.4 deaths per 1000 person-years for those with asset poverty at baseline (adjusted HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.44-1.94; compared with continuously positive wealth). Among US adults aged 51 years and older

  6. Explaining Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items in Trait and State Global and Domain-Specific Self-Esteem Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura; Sancho, Patricia; Lila, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Several investigators have interpreted method effects associated with negatively worded items in a substantive way. This research extends those studies in different ways: (a) it establishes the presence of methods effects in further populations and particular scales, and (b) it examines the possible relations between a method factor associated…

  7. Faculty Perceptions of Conflict with Administrators: An Analysis of the Associations between the Nature of Conflict and Positive and Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancks, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of faculty members regarding conflict experiences with administrators. It is driven by the question, "To what extent are faculty perceptions of positive and negative outcomes of faculty-administrator conflict associated with domain, nature and disciplinary context of the conflict," where domain refers…

  8. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  9. Strong association between a splice mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6 in hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguay, R.M.; St-Louis, M.; Gibson, K. [Universite Laval, Ste-Foy (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT I; McKusick 276700) is a severe inborn error of tyrosine catabolism pathway caused by a deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). The highest frequency reported is the one in Saguenay-Lac St-Jean (Quebec, Canada) where 1:1,846 births are affected. The FAH gene has been cloned and several mutations have been described. Allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization was used to examine the frequency of a splice (IVS12-5G{r_arrow}A) mutation recently reported and RFLP analysis was done to identify haplotypes related to HT I. The splice mutation was found on 45/50 alleles (90%) in patients from SLSJ and 12/66 (18%) alleles from patients world-wide. All 25 patients from the SLSJ region were positive with 20 being homozygous, indicating that this mutation is the major cause of HT I in French Canada. Of these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is these 25 patients, 96% were positive for one haplotype called no 6 which is identified by TaqI, RsaI, BglII, MspI and KpnI digestions. These data show a really strong association between the mutation (IVS12+5G{r_arrow}A) and haplotype 6. Among our patients from around the world, {approximately}52% were positive for haplotype 6 indicating its strong relation with HT I. These results provide the rationale for DNA-based carrier testing for HT I in the F-C population at risk as well as in HT I patients in general.

  10. Absence of arabinan in the side chains of the pectic polysaccharides strongly associated with cell walls of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia non-organogenic callus with loosely attached constituent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, H; Ishii, T; Satoh, S

    2001-10-01

    When leaf disks from haploid plants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. were transformed with T-DNA and cultured on shoot-inducing medium, nonorganogenic callus. designated nolac (for non-organogenic callus with loosely attached cells), appeared on approximately 7% of leaf disks. In contrast, normal callus was generated on T-DNA-transformed leaf disks from diploid plants and on non-transformed leaf disks from haploid and diploid plants. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the middle lamellae and the cell walls of one line of mutant callus (nolac-H14) were barely stained by ruthenium red. even after demethylesterification with NaOH, whereas the entire cell wall and the middle lamella were strongly stained in normal callus. In cultures of nolac-H14 callus, the level of sugar components of pectic polysaccharides in the hemicellulose fraction was reduced and that in the culture medium was elevated, as compared with cultures of normal callus. These results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are not retained in the cell walls and middle lamellae of nolac-H14 callus. In nolac-H14, the ratio of arabinose to galactose was low in the pectic polysaccharides purified from all cell wall fractions and from the medium, in particular, in the hemicellulose fractions. The low levels of arabinofuranosyl (T-Araf, 5-Araf, 2,5-Araf, and 3,5-Araf) residues in the pectic polysaccharides of the hemicellulosic fraction of nolac-H,14 indicated that no neutral-sugar side chains, composed mainly of linear arabinan. were present in nolac-H14. Arabinose-rich pectins. which are strongly associated with cellulose-hemicellulose complexes, might play an important role in intercellular attachment in the architecture of the cell wall.

  11. Which categories of social and lifestyle activities moderate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Arai, Asuna; Ishida, Kozo; Tomimori, Masashi; Lee, Romeo B.; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social and lifestyle activities may serve as potential moderators of the association between negative life events (NLEs) and depressive symptoms among older adults. In this study, we examined whether social and lifestyle activities moderate the association between NLEs and depressive symptoms among older adults, and which activities are significant moderators. Methods: The data came from a community-based sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 65 years or older. Of the 731 el...

  12. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.