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Sample records for strong maternal age

  1. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the asso......INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess...... the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...

  2. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  3. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  4. Maternal residential atrazine exposure and gastroschisis by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Langlois, Peter H; Cai, Yi; Canfield, Mark A; Lupo, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Previous literature has suggested a link between maternal exposure to atrazine (the most commonly used herbicide in the US) and risk for gastroschisis (a birth defect that involves incomplete closure of the abdominal wall). Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between maternal atrazine exposure and gastroschisis risk by maternal age. We analyzed data for 1,161 cases with isolated gastroschisis and 8,390 controls delivered in Texas from 1999 through 2008. We estimated atrazine exposure based on maternal county of residence and data from the United States Geological Survey. Logistic regression was conducted among all subjects, and separately among offspring of women <25 and ≥25 years. Risk for gastroschisis in offspring was significantly increased for women ≥25 years with high levels of residential atrazine exposure compared to low (adjusted odds ratio: 1.97, 95 % confidence interval 1.19-3.26). This association was not observed among women <25 years. Our results provide additional insight into the suspected relationship of gastroschisis with atrazine. This relationship appears to be different in older versus younger mothers, providing further evidence that the etiology of gastroschisis may vary based on maternal age.

  5. Maternal Age at Child Birth, Birth Order, and Suicide at a Young Age: A Sibling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars Johan; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967–1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families wit...

  6. Advanced Maternal Age Worsens Postpartum Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude S. Morton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life. We hypothesized that pregnancy at an advanced maternal age would lead to postpartum vascular dysfunction. We used a reproductively aged rat model to investigate vascular function in never pregnant (virgin, previously pregnant (postpartum and previously mated but never delivered (nulliparous rats at approximately 13.5 months of age (3 months postpartum or equivalent. Nulliparous rats, in which pregnancy was spontaneously lost, demonstrated significantly reduced aortic relaxation responses (methylcholine [MCh] Emax: 54.2 ± 12.6% vs. virgin and postpartum rats (MCh Emax: 84.8 ± 3.5% and 84.7 ± 3.2% respectively; suggesting pregnancy loss causes a worsened vascular pathology. Oxidized LDL reduced relaxation to MCh in aorta from virgin and postpartum, but not nulliparous rats, with an increased contribution of the LOX-1 receptor in the postpartum group. Further, in mesenteric arteries from postpartum rats, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH-mediated vasodilation was reduced and a constrictive prostaglandin effect was apparent. In conclusion, aged postpartum rats exhibited vascular dysfunction, while rats which had pregnancy loss demonstrated a distinct vascular pathology. These data demonstrate mechanisms which may lead to worsened outcomes at an advanced maternal age; including early pregnancy loss and later life cardiovascular dysfunction.

  7. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerable and strong--lesbian women encountering maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidsberg, Bente Dahl

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study to describe the maternity care experiences narrated by a sample of lesbian couples. Pregnant and labouring women are dependent on the professional skill and caring ability of the healthcare provider. Studies show that lesbian women who reveal their sexual identity are exposed to homophobic prejudice and discrimination in midwifery care. A phenomenological hermeneutical study inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur was conducted. Six lesbian couples were recruited in Norway by a snowball method, reporting a total of eight children conceived by donor insemination. Joint interviews were performed in January 2006, and the participants were encouraged to share narratives about important events in their maternity care experiences. The fundamental life conditions of vulnerability, responsibility and caring permeated the narratives, and were related with the couples' decisions to be open about their sexual identity. Being exposed, they experienced under- and over-focusing on sexuality. They felt responsible for having the right attitude in interactions, which meant being open, but not over-assertive. They described genuinely caring situations as well as being content with less genuine care, and demonstrated that in addition to receiving care, they provided care in the encounters. Lesbian women are a vulnerable group when encountering maternity care. They took responsibility in caring situations because of healthcare providers' uncertainty and anxiety. Existential needs, such as being seen, being cared for and communicated with, should be considered equally important for lesbian women and heterosexual women in labour.

  9. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi S. Kalewad; Trupti Nadkarni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Purpose of this study is to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcome in advanced maternal age women. As numbers of pregnancies in advanced maternal age continue to grow, obstetric care provider would benefit from up to date outcome data to enhance their preconceptional and antenatal counseling. Methods: It is observational prospective analytic study, conducted in Nowrosjee Wadia maternity hospital, Parel, Mumbai. Total 100 patients were included in study, fulfilling inclusion cr...

  10. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age.Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%. Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models.Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth.

  11. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29...... years or less. METHODS:: A nested case control study was conducted using data from the Long Life Family Study. Three hundred eighty-seven women who gave birth to at least one child and lived to the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort, or died before the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort...... in the first tertile. CONCLUSIONS:: These findings show an association between longer leukocyte telomere length and a later maternal age at birth of last child, suggesting that extended maternal age at last childbirth may be a marker for longevity....

  12. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N; Bierer, Linda M; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

  13. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  14. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  15. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  16. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Wohlfahrt, J; Christens, P

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history.......To estimate the association between maternal age and fetal death (spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth), taking into account a woman's reproductive history....

  17. Predictors of maternal mortality among women of reproductive age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of maternal mortality among women of reproductive age seeking health care services at Kisii Level 5 Hospital. ... lack of access to quality care, poor health infrastructure, women empowerment and socio-economic issues. Key words: Maternal mortality, Quality of care, Women empowerment, Health infrastructure ...

  18. Maternal and female fetal testosterone levels are associated with maternal age and gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sandelin-Francke, Lotta; Ubhayasekhera, Kumari; Bergquist, Jonas; Axelsson, Ove; Comasco, Erika; Campbell, Rebecca E; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome. Given the limited information on what maternal characteristics influence maternal testosterone levels, and the even less explored routes by which female fetus androgen exposure would occur, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal age, BMI, weight gain, depressed mood and aromatase SNPs on testosterone levels in maternal serum and amniotic fluid of female fetuses. Blood samples from pregnant women ( n  = 216) obtained in gestational weeks 35-39, and pre-labor amniotic fluid samples from female fetuses ( n  = 56), taken at planned Caesarean section or in conjunction with amniotomy for induction of labor, were analyzed. Maternal serum testosterone and amniotic fluid testosterone and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Multiparity (β = -0.28, P  testosterone levels. Maternal age (β = -0.34, P  testosterone in female fetuses, explaining 64.3% of the variability in amniotic fluid testosterone. Young maternal age and excessive maternal weight gain may increase the prenatal androgen exposure of female fetuses. Further studies are needed to explore this finding. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Can oxytocin augmentation modify the risk of epidural analgesia by maternal age in cesarean sections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Janne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Løkkegård, Ellen; Rasmussen, Steen; Bergholt, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn E

    2018-03-07

    Maternal age is an established risk factor for cesarean section; epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation may modify this association. We investigated the effects and interactions of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia and maternal age on the risk of cesarean section. In all, 416 386 nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor, ≥37 weeks of gestation and singleton infants with a cephalic presentation during 2000-2011 from Norway and Denmark were included [Ten-group classification system (Robson) group 1]. In this case-control study the main exposure was maternal age; epidural analgesia, oxytocin augmentation, birthweight and time period were explanatory variables. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to estimate associations and interactions. The cesarean section rate increased consistently with advancing maternal age, both overall and in strata of epidural analgesia and oxytocin augmentation. We observed strong interactions between maternal age, oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia for the risk of cesarean section. Women with epidural analgesia generally had a reduced adjusted odds ratio when oxytocin was used compared with when it was not used. In Norway, this applied to all maternal age groups but in Denmark only for women ≥30 years. Among women without epidural, oxytocin augmentation was associated with an increased odds ratio for cesarean section in Denmark, whereas no difference was observed in Norway. Oxytocin augmentation in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia is associated with a reduced risk of cesarean section in labor with spontaneous onset. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, C V

    1988-01-01

    Nulliparous Long-Evans rats were bred at one of four different ages and assigned to one of three treatment groups within each age condition. Maternal ages were 9, 18, 32, and 36 weeks. Treatment groups were ethanol (E), administered by gavage as 8 g/kg in two divided doses on days 10-14 of gestation, pair-fed (PF) controls, administered as an isocaloric sucrose solution by gavage on days 10-14 of gestation, and ad lib fed controls (C). All offspring were surrogate fostered shortly after delivery to untreated recently parturient dams. Litter sizes were standardized to 8 on the day of birth. Offspring were assessed longitudinally for growth, mortality, and behavior (olfaction, locomotor activity, maze learning, avoidance acquisition and startle). Approximately 85% of the 36 week old dams did not produce viable litters. In the remaining maternal age conditions, ethanol delayed offspring olfactory orientation and increased locomotor activity, the latter dissipating after 50-60 days of age. These ethanol-related effects occurred independent of maternal age condition. Maternal age, independent of ethanol, was a factor which reduced litter size and offspring weight up to 50 days, but produced few effects on behavior. The combination of maternal age and prenatal ethanol interacted to increase pregnancy loss (oldest maternal age), reduce offspring weight up to day 99 (oldest and middle maternal age), alter olfactory orientation performance (oldest and middle maternal age), reverse the typical ethanol-induced increase in activity for males in the figure-8 test (oldest maternal age group), shift the pattern of open-field activity, and change errors in a complex water maze. Not all of these interactions turned out to be specific to the ethanol X old maternal age condition. Several of the interactions occurred in both the old and middle maternal age conditions. The only effect of old maternal age that interacted strongly with ethanol was in their combined effects on

  1. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Advanced Maternal Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Line Elmerdahl; Ernst, Andreas; Brix, Nis

    2018-01-01

    . Pregnant women aged 35 years or older were divided into two advanced maternal age groups, 35-39 years and 40 years or older, and compared with pregnant women aged 20-34 years. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were chromosomal abnormalities, congenital malformations, miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth before 34......OBJECTIVE: To study the possible associations between advanced maternal age and risk of selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: The study used a nationwide cohort of 369,516 singleton pregnancies in Denmark followed from 11-14 weeks of gestation to delivery or termination of pregnancy...... weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, a risk prediction model for a composite adverse pregnancy outcome was made with prespecified predicting factors. RESULTS...

  2. Maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Wuxi, China: Effect modification by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Jiang, Panhua; Dong, Tianyu; Ding, Xinliang; Chen, Ting; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Aase, Heidi; Huang, Lu; Xia, Yankai

    2018-08-15

    Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM 10 ), and ozone (O 3 ), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group ( = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age air pollution exposure. With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM 10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM 10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O 3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM 10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM 10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, P interaction = 0.032). Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution

  3. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  4. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education and Occupation Amongst Preschool Children Attending Health Centres in a Semi Urban Area of South Western Nigeria. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Children between the ages of 6-11 months had the highest risk for malnutrition.

  5. Is maternal age at delivery related to childhood food allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioun, Anahita F; Harris, Sion Kim; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2003-08-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is increasing. Concurrently, the average maternal age at birth is also increasing. We conducted a preliminary study to evaluate whether maternal age at the time of delivery is associated with a food allergy in children. Case and control patients were identified among consecutive patients seen by one of us (AD) in the Allergy/Immunology program at the Children's Hospital Boston between 11/1/98 and 2/28/00. Case patients were born in Massachusetts and had evidence of clinical sensitivity and IgE to one or more food allergens (n = 58). Control patients were those born in Massachusetts who had a negative skin test and/or RAST to inhalant and/or food allergens (n = 96). A second comparison group consisted of all live births in Massachusetts in 1999 (n = 80,866). Information on maternal age at birth was missing from 3/58 (5%) of patients with a food allergy and 4/96 (4%) of the control patients, so these patients were not included in the analysis. The proportion of children whose mother was aged 30 and over at their birth was significantly higher in children with a food allergy than control patients (78% vs. 55% p = 0.005) and higher than all births in Massachusetts (78% vs. 53% p = 0.0002). Mothers of children with a food allergy had about three times greater odds of being aged 30 or over at the time of delivery than mothers in either of the comparison groups. Further exploration of the data using logistic regression showed that maternal age over 30 at delivery and being first born were independent predictors of the child having a food allergy. In this study, the presence of a food allergy in children was related to older maternal age at delivery. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate this relationship and its potential implication in preventive strategies for food allergies in children.

  6. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (..., such as childhood socio-economic characteristics—a confounder we hypothesized would exaggerate the young maternal age–adverse outcomes association but mask the older maternal age–adverse outcome association. Results There was a U-shaped association of maternal age with risk of preterm birth (lowest risk age 24......–30 years) and SGA (lowest risk age 26–30 years) in cohort analyses. In analyses with sister control, there was a J-shaped association of maternal age with preterm birth, with a monotonic increase in risk across the maternal age range from 24 years of maternal age. For SGA, risk increased across the age...

  7. Preimplantation development of embryos in women of advanced maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chaplia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the influence of genetic component on the early embryo development, the retrospective study of morphokinetic characteristics of 717 embryos subjected to preimplantation genetic testing was conducted. Blastomere biopsy for FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening of 7 chromosomes was performed on the third day of culture, while embryo developmental potential and morphological features at the cleavage and blastulation stage were studied regarding maternal age particularly in the group of younger women and patients older than 36. Results of genetic testing revealed that euploid embryos rate gradually decreased with maternal age comprising 39.9% in young women group and 25.3% of specimen belonging to elder patients. At the cleavage stage, morphological characteristics of aneuploid and euploid embryos didn’t differ significantly regardless of the age of patients that could be accounted for the transcriptional silence of embryo genome till the third day of its development. However, in case of prolonged culture chromosomally balanced embryos rarely faced developmental arrest (in 7.9% and formed blastocysts half more frequently compared to aberrant embryos (respectively 75.6 versus 49.8%. Nevertheless, no substantial difference was found between blastocyst formation rate among embryos with similar genetic component regardless of the maternal age. Taking into consideration high rate of chromosomally unbalanced embryos specific to patients of advanced maternal age, the relative proportion of aneuplouid blastocysts was significantly higher in this group of embryos. Thus, without genetic screening there is a possibility of inaccurate selection of embryos for women of advanced reproductive age for transfer procedure even in case of prolonged culture. Consequently, increase of aneuploid embryos frequency associated with permanent preimplantation natural selection effectiveness along with the postimplantation natural selection failure

  8. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Line Elmerdahl; Ernst, Andreas; Brix, Nis; Braskhøj Lauridsen, Lea Lykke; Roos, Laura; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist

    2018-03-01

    To study the possible associations between advanced maternal age and risk of selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study used a nationwide cohort of 369,516 singleton pregnancies in Denmark followed from 11-14 weeks of gestation to delivery or termination of pregnancy. Pregnant women aged 35 years or older were divided into two advanced maternal age groups, 35-39 years and 40 years or older, and compared with pregnant women aged 20-34 years. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were chromosomal abnormalities, congenital malformations, miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, a risk prediction model for a composite adverse pregnancy outcome was made with prespecified predicting factors. Among the pregnant women aged 40 years or older, 10.82% experienced one or more of the selected adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with 5.46% of pregnant women aged 20-34 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 99.8% CI 1.78-2.29). When pregnant women 40 years or older were compared with women aged 20-34 years, they had a higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities (3.83% vs 0.56%, OR 7.44 [CI 5.93-9.34]), miscarriage (1.68% vs 0.42%, OR 3.10 [CI 2.19-4.38]), and birth before 34 weeks of gestation (2.01% vs 1.21%, OR 1.66 [CI 1.23-2.24]), but no increased risk of congenital malformations and stillbirth. The risk prediction chart showed that advanced maternal age, use of assisted reproductive technology, nulliparous pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, and obesity increased the absolute predictive risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. Women older than 40 years have a higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities, miscarriage, and birth before 34 weeks of gestation than younger women and should be monitored accordingly. No increased risk was observed for stillbirth and other congenital malformations. Several factors increase the

  9. Maternal age at birth and daughters' subsequent childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, O; Weinberg, C R; D'Aloisio, A A; Sandler, D P

    2018-02-01

    Does maternal age at a daughter's birth predict her subsequent probability of lifelong childlessness? In this study population, women born to older mothers were more likely to be childless. Although maternal age at childbearing is increasing in many countries, there is limited evidence on whether being born to older parents may influence offspring fertility. This analysis included 43 135 women from the US-based Sister Study, a cohort study of 50 884 sisters of women with breast cancer recruited between 2003 and 2009. Participants had no breast cancer at baseline. Women were included in the analytic sample if they were born between 1930 and 1964 and were at least 44 years old at enrolment. Median age when reproductive history was last ascertained was 63.8 years. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% CI of lifelong childlessness as a function of maternal age at birth, using multivariable log-binomial models, including total number of siblings, birth order, socioeconomic indicators of the family of origin, race and birth cohort. We examined the association in different subgroups and in a sibling-matched analysis including 802 sister pairs discordant for childlessness. Compared with women born to 20-24-year-old mothers, those born to mothers aged 25-29, 30-34 and ≥35 years were more likely to be childless [RR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.14-1.29), 1.30 (1.22-1.39) and 1.40 (1.31-1.50), respectively]. The association was consistent in strata defined by birth cohort, number of siblings, birth order, and participant's educational level, as well as within sister pairs. Overall, we found weak evidence for an independent contribution of paternal age at birth to the daughter's probability of childlessness. All participants had at least one sister, and all information was self-reported. We had no knowledge of whether childlessness was intentional and found only a modest association between maternal age at birth and self-reported indicators of infertility. Still, the association with

  10. Advanced Maternal Age and Maternal Education Disparity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Meng-Chih; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2018-02-06

    Objective Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the association between advanced parental age and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sociodemographic status of parents has been found to be associated with children with ASD, however. Therefore, a pathway analysis was undertaken of the roles of maternal age and education in ASD diagnosis and community screening, in a national birth cohort database, using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Method The 6- and 66-month Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset was used (N = 20,095). The PSM exact matching method was used to select 1700 families (ratio of 1:4 between ASD diagnosis and control) from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study dataset. Results (1) The results from the complete dataset and the PSM exact matching dataset both show that the risk of a child being diagnosed with ASD was increased by the mother being over 40 years old. (2) Although more children of mothers with lower-than-average education were positive on screening, more children of mothers with higher-than-average education were also diagnosed with ASD. Conclusions for Practice Advanced maternal age had a higher association with the diagnosis of ASD, and maternal educational disparity was found between ASD clinical diagnosis and community screening. Community and primary medical care services should pay more attention to children of parents with lower education during ASD screening to prevent delayed diagnosis.

  11. Maternal education and age: inequalities in neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Flores, Patricia Viana Guimarães; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2017-11-17

    Evaluate the interaction between maternal age and education level in neonatal mortality, as well as investigate the temporal evolution of neonatal mortality in each stratum formed by the combination of these two risk factors. A nonconcurrent cohort study, resulting from a probabilistic relationship between the Mortality Information System and the Live Birth Information System. To investigate the risk of neonatal death we performed a logistic regression, with an odds ratio estimate for the combined variable of maternal education and age, as well as the evaluation of additive and multiplicative interaction. The neonatal mortality rate time series, according to maternal education and age, was estimated by the Joinpoint Regression program. The neonatal mortality rate in the period was 8.09‰ and it was higher in newborns of mothers with low education levels: 12.7‰ (adolescent mothers) and 12.4‰ (mother 35 years old or older). Low level of education, without the age effect, increased the chance of neonatal death by 25% (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.14-1.36). The isolated effect of age on neonatal death was higher for adolescent mothers (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.33-1.46) than for mothers aged ≥ 35 years (OR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.23). In the time-trend analysis, no age group of women with low education levels presented a reduction in the neonatal mortality rate for the period, as opposed to women with intermediate or high levels of education, where the reduction was significant, around 4% annually. Two more vulnerable groups - adolescents with low levels of education and older women with low levels of education - were identified in relation to the risk of neonatal death and inequality in reducing the mortality rate.

  12. Experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing of women of advanced maternal age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kyoko; Turale, Sue; Skirton, Heather; Doris, Faye; Tsujino, Kumiko; Ito, Misae; Kutsunugi, Saeko

    2016-03-01

    The number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age has increased worldwide. Women in this group have an increased chance of fetal abnormality. To explore Japanese women's experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing, we conducted a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women aged 35 years or over who had given birth within the previous three months to a healthy, term infant. Thematic analysis of transcribed interview data was performed and three major themes were identified: inadequate understanding of genetic risks; insufficiently informed choice regarding prenatal testing; and need for more information from health professionals. Some participants were not aware of maternal age-specific risks to the fetus. Many took their cues from health professionals and did not raise the topic themselves, but would have considered prenatal testing if made aware of the risks. Nurses, midwives and other health professionals need to adequately inform pregnant women about the genetic risks to the fetus and offer testing at an appropriate stage early in the pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  14. Maternal age, parity and gestational age on the size of the newborn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess birthweight, length and head circumference of live births, and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Tikur Anbessa, Zewditu, Gandhi memorial and St. Pauls hospitals, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjects: Four ...

  15. Screening gestational diabetes mellitus: The role of maternal age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Heng Kuo

    Full Text Available Using a specific cutoff of fasting plasma glucose (FPG to screen gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM can reduce the use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Since the prevalence of GDM increases with age, this screening method may not be appropriate in healthcare systems where women become pregnant at older ages. Therefore, we aimed to develop a screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration.We included 945 pregnant women without history of GDM who received 75g OGTT to diagnose GDM in 2011. Screening algorithms using FPG with or without age were developed. Another 362 pregnant women were recruited in 2013-2015 as the validation cohort.Using FPG criteria alone, more GDM diagnoses were missed in women ≥35 years than in women <35 years (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p <0.001. Among GDM women ≥35 years, 63.6% had FPG <92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L. Use of the algorithm with an "age plus FPG" cutoff could reduce the use of OGTT (OGTT% from 77.6% to 62.9%, while maintaining good sensitivity (from 91.9% to 90.2% and specificity (from 100% to 100%. Similar reduction in OGTT% was found in the validation cohort (from 86.4% to 76.8%. In the simulation, if the percentage of women ≥35 years were 40% or more, the screening algorithm with an "age plus FPG" cutoff could further reduce OGTT% by 11.0%-18.8%.A screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration can reduce the use of OGTT when women become pregnant at older ages.

  16. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  17. Heat stress and age induced maternal effects on wing size and shape in parthenogenetic Drosophila mercatorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Scali, V

    2005-01-01

    and progeny from heat stressed flies in both size and shape with increased maternal heat stress temperature. The effects of maternal age, however, led to different responses in size and shape between the different progeny groups. The observed variation in landmark displacements was similar, and in both cases......Maternal effects on progeny wing size and shape in a homozygous parthenogenetic strain of Drosophila mercatorum were investigated. The impact of external maternal factors (heat stress) and the impact of internal maternal factors (different maternal and grand maternal age) were studied...... in landmark displacement was visualized by principal component analysis. Both kinds of maternal effects had a significant impact on progeny wing size and shape. Maternal heat stress led to the same pattern of response in size and shape among the progeny, with increased difference between the control group...

  18. Maternal education and stillbirth: estimating gestational-age-specific and cause-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Delézire, Pauline; Harper, Sam; Platt, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Associations between risk factors and perinatal outcomes may be biased at preterm gestational ages, if preterm delivery behaves as an effect modifier due to other unmeasured factors in the causal pathway. We evaluated whether fetuses-at-risk denominators could be used in regression models instead of conventional denominators to obtain less biased estimates of the association between maternal education and stillbirth at preterm gestational intervals. Data included 2,143,134 live-born and 8946 stillborn singletons from 1981 through 2006 in Québec, Canada. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the relationship between education and stillbirth according to cause of fetal death, adjusting for maternal age, marital status, home language, parity, and period. We examined associations for 4 gestational intervals (education at all gestational intervals. Using conventional denominators, low education (relative to high education) was more strongly associated with term than preterm stillbirth and was apparently protective at education was more strongly associated with preterm stillbirth than term stillbirth, even at education was most strongly associated with diabetic-related stillbirth at ≥28 weeks (odds ratio = 5.04) relative to high education. Low education is associated with stillbirth throughout gestation, especially diabetic-related stillbirth. Use of fetuses-at-risk denominators in regression models can avoid potentially biased estimates obtained with conventional denominators at preterm gestational ages.

  19. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: : Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  20. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steegers Eric AP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started.

  1. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  2. Advancing maternal age predisposes to mitochondrial damage and loss during maturation of equine oocytes invitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambags, B. P B; van Boxtel, D. C J; Tharasanit, T.; Lenstra, J. A.; Colenbrander, B.; Stout, T. A E

    2014-01-01

    In many mammalian species, reproductive success decreases with maternal age. One proposed contributor to this age-related decrease in fertility is a reduction in the quantity or functionality of mitochondria in oocytes. This study examined whether maternal age or (in vitro maturation). IVM affect

  3. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  4. Microchimerism is strongly correlated with tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Partha; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Bobadilla, Joseph L; Roenneburg, Drew A; Yan, Zhen; Torrealba, Jose R; Burlingham, William J

    2009-10-22

    In mice and humans, the immunologic effects of developmental exposure to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMAs) are quite variable. This heterogeneity likely reflects differences in the relative levels of NIMA-specific T regulatory (T(R)) versus T effector (T(E)) cells. We hypothesized that maintenance of NIMA-specific T(R) cells in the adult requires continuous exposure to maternal cells and antigens (eg, maternal microchimerism [MMc]). To test this idea, we used 2 sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests to detect MMc in different organs of NIMA(d)-exposed H2(b) mice. MMc was detected in 100% of neonates and a majority (61%) of adults; nursing by a NIMA+ mother was essential for preserving MMc into adulthood. MMc was most prevalent in heart, lungs, liver, and blood, but was rarely detected in unfractionated lymphoid tissues. However, MMc was detectable in isolated CD4+, CD11b+, and CD11c+ cell subsets of spleen, and in lineage-positive cells in heart. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and in vivo lymphoproliferation correlated with MMc levels, suggesting a link between T(R) and maternal cell engraftment. In the absence of neonatal exposure to NIMA via breastfeeding, MMc was lost, which was accompanied by sensitization to NIMA in some offspring, indicating a role of oral exposure in maintaining a favorable T(R) > T(E) balance.

  5. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  6. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.

  7. Maternal age during pregnancy is associated with third trimester blood pressure level: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Bakker, Rachel; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that hemodynamic adaptations related to pregnancy and ageing might be associated with differences in blood pressure levels during pregnancy between younger and older women. This might partly explain the increased risk of gestational hypertensive disorders with advanced maternal age. We examined the associations of maternal age with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. The study was conducted among 8,623 women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards. Age was assessed at enrolment. Blood pressure was measured in each trimester. Information about gestational hypertensive disorders was available from medical records. In second and third trimester, older maternal age was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (-0.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.4, -0.3) and -0.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -1.1, -0.02) per additional 10 maternal years, respectively). Older maternal age was associated with higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure (0.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.9) per additional 10 maternal years). Maternal age was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension among overweight and obese women. Older maternal age is associated with lower second and third trimester systolic blood pressure, but higher third trimester diastolic blood pressure. These blood pressure differences seem to be small and within the physiological range. Maternal age is not consistently associated with the risks of gestational hypertensive disorders. Maternal body mass index might influence the association between maternal age and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  8. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  9. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Sean G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers' age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  10. Contribution of maternal age and pregnancy checkbox on maternal mortality ratios in the United States, 1978-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole L; Hoyert, Donna L; Goodman, David A; Hirai, Ashley H; Callaghan, William M

    2017-09-01

    Maternal mortality ratios (MMR) appear to have increased in the United States over the last decade. Three potential contributing factors are (1) a shifting maternal age distribution, (2) changes in age-specific MMR, and (3) the addition of a checkbox indicating recent pregnancy on the death certificate. To determine the contribution of increasing maternal age on changes in MMR from 1978 to 2012 and estimate the contribution of the pregnancy checkbox on increases in MMR over the last decade. Kitagawa decomposition analyses were conducted to partition the maternal age contribution to the MMR increase into 2 components: changes due to a shifting maternal age distribution and changes due to greater age-specific mortality ratios. We used National Vital Statistics System natality and mortality data. The following 5-year groupings were used: 1978-1982, 1988-1992, 1998-2002, and 2008-2012. Changes in age-specific MMRs among states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox onto their death certificate before 2008 (n = 23) were compared with states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (n = 11) to estimate the percentage increase in the MMR due to the pregnancy checkbox. Overall US MMRs for 1978-1982, 1988-1992, and 1998-2002 were 9.0, 8.1, and 9.1 deaths per 100,000 live births, respectively. There was a modest increase in the MMR between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 11 states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (8.6 and 9.9 deaths per 100,000, respectively). However, the MMR more than doubled between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 23 states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox (9.0-22.4); this dramatic increase was almost entirely attributable to increases in age-specific MMRs (94.9%) as opposed to increases in maternal age (5.1%), with an estimated 90% of the observed change reflecting the change in maternal death identification rather

  11. Interrelationships of Maternal Serum Leptin, Body Mass Index and Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Yang

    2005-10-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum leptin concentration was significantly related to gestational age (except in the first trimester and BMI in the 3 trimesters and throughout pregnancy. Serum leptin concentration peaked during the early third trimester and declined significantly thereafter. Maternal BMI was related to gestational age in the second trimester and the whole pregnancy.

  12. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  14. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of maternal age, medical and obstetric history to maternal and perinatal morbidity/mortality for women aged 35 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan M; Totterdell, James; Bin, Yu Sun; Ford, Jane B; Roberts, Christine L

    2018-02-01

    As age is not modifiable, pregnancy risk information based on age alone is unhelpful for older women. To determine severe morbidity/mortality rates for women aged ≥35 years according to maternal profile based on parity, pre-existing medical conditions and prior pregnancy complications, and to assess the independent contribution of age. Population-based record-linkage study using NSW hospitalisation and birth records 2006-2012. Maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity were assessed for non-anomalous singleton births to women aged ≥35 years. For 117 357 pregnancies among 99 375 women aged ≥35 years, the median age at delivery was 37 years (range 35-56 years), including: 35 652 (30.4%) multiparae without pre-existing medical or obstetric complications, 33,058 (28.2%) nulliparae without pre-existing medical conditions and 30 325 (25.8%) multiparae with prior pregnancy complications. Maternal and perinatal mortality/morbidity varied by maternal profile with ranges of 0.9-3.5% and 2.4-11.9%, respectively. For nulliparae, each five-year increase in age did not contribute significantly to maternal risk after controlling for medical conditions (adjustedodds ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.25), but did confer perinatal risk (1.14; 1.05-1.25). For multiparae, each five-year increase in age beyond 35 years was independently associated with adverse maternal (1.23; 1.09-1.39) and perinatal outcomes (1.23; 1.09-1.39). For women aged ≥35 years, presence of medical conditions conferred a greater risk for morbidity/mortality than age itself. For multiparous women, the effects of medical and obstetric history were additive. The contribution of maternal age to adverse outcomes in pregnancies without significant medical and obstetric history is modest. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  17. Maternal education, dental visits and age of pacifier withdrawal: pediatric dentist role in malocclusion prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Suárez, V; Carrillo-Diaz, M; Crego, A; Romero, M

    2013-01-01

    Although discouraged, pacifier usage is widespread and often practiced beyond two years of age. The current study explored the effects of maternal education and dental visits on the age of pacifier withdrawal. The dental histories of 213 children (53.1% male) attending a primary school in Madrid were obtained along with maternal education level and age at pacifier withdrawal. Data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA two-way ANOVA and a complementary non-parametric approach was also used. There was a significant effect of maternal education on the age of pacifier withdrawal; the higher the maternal education, the younger the age of withdrawal. The frequency of dental visits influenced the relationship between maternal education and the age of pacifier withdrawal. Dental visits considerably shortened pacifier use among children with low- and medium-educated mothers. Pediatric dentists play a critical role in the correction of unhealthy oral habits such as prolonged pacifier use. The educational component of pediatric dentistry could reverse the lack of knowledge or misinformation among high-risk groups (e.g. low maternal education). As a consequence, we recommend that children start dental visits at an early age and maintain visits with a high frequency.

  18. Maternal age and serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavaldsen, Camilla; Fedorcsak, Peter; Tanbo, Tom; Eskild, Anne

    2014-12-01

    To study whether maternal age is associated with serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. All vital pregnancies in gestational week 8 conceived by in vitro fertilization between February 1996 and February 2013 (n = 4472). Serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin were measured on day 12 after embryo transfer/day 16 following ovulation induction. Trends in geometric means of human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations by maternal age group were tested by linear regression analysis. We also studied the association of maternal age (years) with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations, and adjustments were made for number of embryos transferred, method of in vitro fertilization and year (period) of embryo transfer. Serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin. Geometric mean concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin decreased with increasing maternal age (p = 0.024, test for trend by weighted linear regression). Also, we estimated a significant negative association of maternal age with log-transformed human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (adjusted regression coefficient -0.011, standard error 0.003, p human chorionic gonadotropin in very early pregnancy decreased with maternal age. Since human chorionic gonadotropin is synthesized in trophoblast cells only, the lower human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in women of advanced age may reflect functional impairment or delayed proliferation of trophoblast cells in early pregnancy in these women. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Maternal health enters the information age in Peru | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... In Peru, a pilot project that aims to improve maternal health by using technology to improve the health-care system's efficiency could one day have an impact on the entire country. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between IDRC ...

  20. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMIeducational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.66) is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Is advanced maternal age a risk factor for congenital heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Kate E; Rankin, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Studies have reported that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD), but none of these have been performed in the United Kingdom. Currently, women in the United Kingdom are not referred for specialist fetal echocardiography based on maternal age alone. The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence in the North of England. Singleton cases of CHD notified to the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey and born between January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, were included. Cases with chromosomal anomalies were excluded. The relative risk (RR) of CHD according to maternal age at delivery was estimated using Poisson regression. There were 4024 singleton cases of nonchromosomal CHD, giving a prevalence of 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8-8.3) per 1000 live and stillbirths. There was no association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence (p = 0.97), with no evidence of an increased risk of CHD in mothers aged ≥35 compared to aged 25 to 29 (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09). There were no significant associations between maternal age at delivery and severity III CHD (p = 0.84), severity II CHD (p = 0.74), or severity I CHD (p = 0.66), although there was a slight increased risk of severity I CHD in mothers aged ≥35 (RR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.83-1.95). We found little evidence that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for CHD. There is no evidence that women in the United Kingdom should be referred for specialist prenatal cardiac screening based on their age. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:461-467, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  4. Maternal mortality audit in Suriname between 2010 and 2014, a reproductive age mortality survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodan, Lachmi R; Verschueren, Kim J C; van Roosmalen, Jos; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M

    2017-08-29

    The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5) aimed to improve maternal health, targeting a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) reduction of 75% between 1990 and 2015. The objective of this study was to identify all maternal deaths in Suriname, determine the extent of underreporting, estimate the reduction, audit the maternal deaths and assess underlying causes and substandard care factors. A reproductive age mortality survey was conducted in Suriname (South-American upper-middle income country) between 2010 and 2014 to identify all maternal deaths in the country. MMR was compared to vital statistics and a previous confidential enquiry from 1991 to 1993 with a MMR 226. A maternal mortality committee audited the maternal deaths and identified underlying causes and substandard care factors. In the study period 65 maternal deaths were identified in 50,051 live births, indicating a MMR of 130 per 100.000 live births and implicating a 42% reduction of maternal deaths in the past 25 years. Vital registration indicated a MMR of 96, which marks underreporting of 26%. Maternal deaths mostly occurred in the urban hospitals (84%) and the causes were classified as direct (63%), indirect (32%) or unspecified (5%). Major underlying causes were obstetric and non-obstetric sepsis (27%) and haemorrhage (20%). Substandard care factors (95%) were mostly health professional related (80%) due to delay in diagnosis (59%), delay or wrong treatment (78%) or inadequate monitoring (59%). Substandard care factors most likely led to death in 47% of the cases. Despite the reduction in maternal mortality, Suriname did not reach MDG-5 in 2015. Steps to reach the Sustainable Development Goal in 2030 (MMR ≤ 70 per 100.000 live births) and eliminate preventable deaths include improving data surveillance, installing a maternal death review committee, and implementing national guidelines for prevention and management of major complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium.

  5. Maternal educational status at birth, maternal educational advancement, and neurocognitive outcomes at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Kuban, Karl K

    2017-11-22

    BackgroundTo determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP).MethodEight hundred and seventy-three children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined.ResultsChildren of mothers in the lowest education stratum at birth were significantly more likely to score ≥2 SDs below normative expectation on 17 of 18 tests administered. Children of mothers who advanced in education (n=199) were at reduced risk for scoring ≥2 SDs on 15 of 18 measures, but this reduction was statistically significant on only 2 of 18 measures.ConclusionAmong EP children, socioeconomic disadvantage at birth, indexed by maternal education, is associated with significantly poorer neurocognitive and academic outcomes at 10 years of age, independently of GA. Maternal educational advancement during the child's first 10 years of life is associated with modestly improved neurocognitive outcomes.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.267.

  6. Maternal age-associated congenital anomalies among newborns: a retrospective study in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zīle, Irisa; Villeruša, Anita

    2013-01-01

    In Latvia, the mean age of women giving birth increased from 27.3 in 2000 to 29.0 years in 2010 during the last 11 years. The aim of this study was to report on major congenital anomalies of newborns at birth by the maternal age and to compare the mean maternal age by different diagnosis subgroups and maternal and neonatal characteristics. A cross-sectional retrospective study with the data from the Medical Birth Register (2000-2010) was carried out. The live birth prevalence rate was calculated for the subgroups of major congenital anomalies per 10 000 live births by the maternal age. The live birth prevalence rate of major congenital anomalies during the period 2000-2010 was 211.4 per 10 000 live births. The prevalence rate increased depending on the maternal age. Congenital heart defects, limb defects, and urinary system anomalies were the most common anomalies. The study results showed an age-related risk of abdominal wall defects, orofacial clefts, and chromosomal anomalies. There were significantly higher proportions of preterm births, newborns with low birth weight, and complications during pregnancy among mothers aged 35 years and more. The data on congenital anomalies from the Latvian Medical Birth Register can be used for the assessment of epidemiology of congenital anomalies. The results of this retrospective study showed a decrease in the live birth prevalence rate of major congenital anomalies despite an increase in the mean age of mothers in Latvia.

  7. Maternal age and in vitro culture affect mitochondrial number and function in equine oocytes and embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W Karin; Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Paris, Damien B B P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard A J; Stout, Tom A E

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age and in vitro embryo production (IVP) predispose to pregnancy loss in horses. We investigated whether mare age and IVP were associated with alterations in mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number or function that could compromise oocyte and embryo development. Effects of mare age

  8. Obstetric outcomes of twin pregnancies at advanced maternal age: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caixia; Wang, Malie; Niu, Gang; Yang, Juan; Wang, Zilian

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate obstetric outcomes in twin pregnancies of advanced maternal age (≥35 years). A retrospective study involved 470 twin pregnancies in a single center from Sep. 1, 2012 to Mar. 31, 2015. Clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were recorded and compared among twin pregnancies who were classified as follows: age 20-29, 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years. The incidence of gestational diabetes (age 20-29 years 15.8%; 30-34 years 24.3%; 35-39 years 30.4%; ≥40 years 57.1%; p = 0.004) and premature delivery (20-29 years 58.6%; 30-34 years 69.1%; 35-39 years 72.2%; ≥40 years 85.7%; p = 0.001) significantly increased with increasing age whereas spontaneous abortion (20-29 years 27.6%; 30-34 years 11.6%; 35-39 years 11.4%; ≥40 years 0.0%; p = 0.021) decreased in twin pregnancies of advanced maternal age. In addition, the rate of postpartum hemorrhage increased almost continuously by age and advanced maternal age was described as a risk factor for postpartum hemorrhage (age 35-39, adjusted OR 3.377; 95% confidence interval 1729-6.598; p age ≥ 40, adjusted OR 10.520; 95% CI 1.147-96.492; p = 0.037). However, there was no significant difference between advanced maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes. In twin pregnancies, advanced maternal age experienced significant higher risk of postpartum hemorrhage, gestational diabetes and premature delivery. Neither adverse neonatal outcomes nor stillbirth was significantly associated with maternal age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypoth......Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century....... Findings: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44...

  10. Cognitive Functioning in Toddlerhood: The Role of Gestational Age, Attention Capacities, and Maternal Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Maingay-Visser, Arnoldina P. G. F.; Spanjerberg, Louise; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2018-01-01

    Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers.…

  11. Spontaneous abortion rate and advanced maternal age: Consequences for prenatal diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M.E.M. Den Ouden; L. Pijpers (Leendert); M.G. Jahoda (M.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Maternal age related and procedure-related fetal abortion rates were studied in 384 women aged 36 and over scheduled for transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS) at 12-14 weeks of gestation. The pre-TA-CVS abortion rate within 30 days of intake (at 6-10 weeks of

  12. Telomere erosion varies with sex and age at immune challenge but not with maternal antibodies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Gasparini, Julien; Corbel, Hélène; Frantz, Adrien; Perret, Samuel; Zahn, Sandrine; Criscuolo, Francois; Jacquin, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Conditions experienced early in life have profound impact on adult fitness, and telomere erosion could be a key mechanism in this process. In particular, early exposure to parasites is a frequent phenomenon in young vertebrates, which is associated with several short- and long-term costs such as telomere erosion. However, the timing of exposure to parasites during ontogeny and maternal antibodies can strongly modulate the costs of immunity, and could differentially affect telomere erosion. Here, we compared the effects of an early or late immune challenge on telomere erosion rate in male and female young feral pigeons (Columba livia) having received or not maternal antibodies. More specifically, we tested whether (i) early or late injections of antigens had different effects on nestling telomere erosion rate, (ii) whether this effect was different between male and female nestlings, and (iii) whether maternal antibodies could modulate telomere erosion rate. Our results show an interaction between sex and age at injection. Late-injected nestlings (injected at 14 days of age) had an accelerated erosion rate compared with the early-injected nestlings (injected at 3 days of age), and this effect was higher in females compared with the males. However, we did not find any effect of maternal antibodies on telomere erosion rate. These results suggest that the age at which an immune challenge occurs is important for telomere erosion and that sex-specific approaches are needed to better understand the short-term and long-term costs of parasite exposure in young vertebrates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Borrell, Antoni; Garcia-Posada, Raul; Borobio, Virginia; Muñoz, Miriam; Creus, Montserrat; Soler, Anna; Sanchez, Aurora; Balasch, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Is there any effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage? There was no significant difference in the chromosome abnormality rate between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage but the chromosome abnormality rate increased significantly with maternal age. About 50-70% of non-recurrent miscarriages occur because of a chromosomal anomaly, but no agreement about the effect of either maternal age or the number of previous miscarriages on the chromosomal anomaly rate has been reached. A retrospective cohort of 353 miscarriages successfully karyotyped in the same center between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to the number of miscarriages and maternal age. Among the 353 women, 153 were below 35 years (73 with sporadic, 48 with two and 32 with recurrent miscarriage) and 200 were 35 years or more (81 with sporadic, 55 with two and 64 with recurrent miscarriage). The chromosomal anomaly rate and the anomaly spectrum were compared between sporadic and recurrent miscarriage, within the two maternal age groups, using the chi-square test and the Bonferroni correction for all the P-values. Risk of chromosomal anomaly was estimated for maternal age, number of miscarriages and previous live births by multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. Sporadic and recurrent miscarriage did not show significantly different chromosomal anomaly rates (68 versus 60%) and maternal age was the only statistically significant predictor of the chromosomal anomaly risk we identified. Some trends were observed in the chromosomal anomaly spectrum when sporadic was compared with recurrent miscarriage: recurrent miscarriage exhibited a decrease in viable trisomies (37 versus 11%) and an increase in non-viable trisomies (38 versus 57%) in women >35 years, together with an increase in unbalanced structural anomalies (4.9 versus 29%) in younger women. The mixed origin of our study population, and the limited number of recurrent miscarriages, particularly in

  14. Black-White Differences in Maternal Age, Maternal Birth Cohort, and Period Effects on Infant Mortality in the U.S. (1983-2002)1

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate three interrelated sources of change in infant mortality rates over a 20 year period using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth and infant death cohort files. The effects of maternal age, maternal birth cohort, and time period of childbirth on infant mortality are estimated using a modified age/period/cohort (APC) model that identifies age, period, cohort effects. We document black-white differences in the patterning of these effects and find that mater...

  15. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa-Horta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age 2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were utilized as the regression method. Results: After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR = 3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80 and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42. Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77. Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions.

  16. Maternal mortality in Mexico, beyond millennial development objectives: An age-period-cohort model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Aguilar, Román

    2018-01-01

    The maternal mortality situation is analyzed in México as an indicator that reflects the social development level of the country and was one of the millennial development objectives. The effect of a maternal death in the related social group has multiplier effects, since it involves family dislocation, economic impact and disruption of the orphans' normal social development. Two perspectives that causes of maternal mortality were analyzed, on one hand, their relationship with social determinants and on the other, factors directly related to the health system. Evidence shows that comparing populations based on group of selected variables according to social conditions and health care access, statistically significant differences prevail according to education and marginalization levels, and access to medical care. In addition, the Age-Period-Cohort model raised, shows significant progress in terms of a downward trend in maternal mortality in a generational level. Those women born before 1980 had a greater probability of maternal death in relation to recent generations, which is a reflection of the improvement in social determinants and in the Health System. The age effect shows a problem in maternal mortality in women under 15 years old, so teen pregnancy is a priority in health and must be addressed in short term. There is no clear evidence of a period effect.

  17. The effects of maternal immunity and age structure on population immunity to measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, A; Ferrari, M J; Shea, K

    2015-05-01

    Measles was successfully eradicated in the Pan-American Health Region in 2002. However, maintenance of elimination in parts of Africa, Europe, the USA, and other regions is proving difficult, despite apparently high vaccine coverage. This may be due to the different age structure in developed and developing populations, as well as to differences in the duration of maternal immunity. We explore the interaction between maternal immunity and age structure and quantify the resulting immunity gap between vaccine coverage and population immunity; we use this immunity gap as a novel metric of vaccine program success as it highlights the difference between actual and estimated immunity. We find that, for some combinations of maternal immunity and age structure, the accepted herd immunity threshold is not maintainable with a single-dose vaccine strategy for any combination of target age and coverage. In all cases, the herd immunity threshold is more difficult to maintain in a population with developing age structure. True population immunity is always improved if the target age at vaccination is chosen for the specific combination of maternal immunity and age structure.

  18. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte (Joke); N.W.E. Schuitemaker (Nico); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); J. van Roosmalen (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become

  19. .Down's syndrome in South Africa - incidence, :maternal age and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-16

    Feb 16, 1991 ... of spontaneous abortion/ a routine prenatal test was made available by the DNHPD to all women aged 40 years and. OVer. This age group is considered a ..... and basic expenses of at least R5000 - RIO000 per year, the total care-cost per individual amounts to between R150000 and R300 000 (excluding ...

  20. Maternal age over 40 years and pregnancy outcome: a hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozio, Luca; Picardo, Elisa; Filippini, Claudia; Mainolfi, Erika; Berchialla, Paola; Cavallo, Franco; Tancredi, Annalisa; Benedetto, Chiara

    2017-12-07

    Increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes with advancing maternal age has been described but the strength of association remains debated, particularly in presence of confounding factors such as parity, twin pregnancy and pregnancy from assisted reproductive technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of women aged over 40 years. The hypothesis was that advanced maternal age may be an independent risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. We reviewed the clinical records of 56,211 women who delivered at Sant'Anna University Hospital, Turin, Italy, in the period between 2009 and 2015. Of these, 3798 women aged over 40 years were divided into two age groups (40 - 44 years and ≥45 years). Women of any parity, with singleton or twin pregnancies, or with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies were included. Women aged less than 40 years were considered as controls. Primary outcome measures were maternal and perinatal complications. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to test the possible independent role of maternal age as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Maternal age was an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes (age 40-44 years: odds ratios (OR) 2.10, 95% CI 1.80-2.45; age ≥45 years: OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.79-4.46) and early-onset preeclampsia (age 40-44 years: OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.63-2.70; age ≥45 years: OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.68-5.94). The risk for placenta praevia was higher in the women aged 40-44 years (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.36-2.57). Neonatal outcomes were similar among groups, except for the rate of birth weight less than 2500 g, which was higher in women aged 40-44 years (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). However, older women showed an overall higher incidence of preterm birth. Maternal age over 40 years is an independent risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly for the mother

  1. Maternal Dietary Diversity and Growth of Children Under 24 Months of Age in Rural Dodoma, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Megan; Sudfeld, Christopher; Ismail, Abbas; Vuai, Said; Ntwenya, Julius; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2018-01-01

    To identify predictors of maternal dietary diversity in rural Dodoma, Tanzania and assess its association with child growth outcomes. A cross-sectional survey of 361 mothers with children under 24 months of age was conducted in 5 villages in rural Dodoma, Tanzania. Maternal diets were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and dietary diversity was categorized using Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) guidelines. Child anthropometric measures were taken to calculate height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the association between maternal dietary diversity and children's growth outcomes. About 40% of mothers did not consume a diverse diet (MDD-W diversity was associated with significantly greater child WHZ (mean difference = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.78; P = .01), WAZ (mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .01), and reduced risk of wasting (odds ratio = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.66; P = .01). Greater maternal dietary diversity was associated with improved child WHZ and WAZ outcomes. Sustainable interventions to increase maternal dietary diversity may improve WHZ and WAZ in young children in similar settings.

  2. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  3. Increasing the minimum age of marriage program to improve maternal and child health in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjarwati

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the article is to review the importance of understanding the adolescent reproductive health, especially the impact of early marriage to have commitment for health maintenance by increasing the minimum age of marriage. There are countless studies describing the impact of pregnancy at a very young age, the risk that young people must understand to support the program of increasing minimum age of marriage in Indonesia. Increasing the minimum age of marriage is as one of the government programs in improving maternal and child health. It also supports the Indonesian government's program about a thousand days of life. It is required that teens understand the impact of early marriage to prepare for optimal health for future generations. The maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high because health is not optimal since the early period of pregnancy. These studies reveal that the increased number of early marriages leads to rising divorce rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality and intensifies the risk of cervical cancer. The increase in early marriage is mostly attributed to unwanted pregnancy. It is revealed that early marriage increases the rate of pregnancy at too young an age with the risk of maternal and child health in Indonesia.

  4. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advanced maternal age and its association with placenta praevia and placental abruption: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrini Guidolini Martinelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the existence and magnitude of the association between advanced maternal age (AMA and occurrence of placenta praevia (PP and placental abruption (PA among nulliparous and multiparous women, by a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched articles published between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015, in any language, in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS. Women were grouped into two age categories: up to 34 years old and 35 years or older. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the studies. A meta-analysis was conducted for the PP and PA outcomes, using a meta-regression model to find possible covariates associated with heterogeneity among the studies and Egger’s test to assess publication bias. The protocol of this systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO system (CRD42016045594. Twenty-three studies met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. For both outcomes, an increase in age increased the magnitude of association strength, and PP (OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 2.79-3.57 was more strongly associated with AMA than PA (OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.35-1.54. For parity, there was no difference between nulliparous and multiparous women considered older for the PP and PA outcomes. Our review provided very low-quality evidence for both outcomes, since it encompasses observational studies with high statistical heterogeneity, diversity of populations, no control of confounding factors in several cases, and publication bias. However, the confidence intervals were small and there is a dose-response gradient, as well as a large magnitude of effect for PP.

  6. Contrasting Effects of Maternal and Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; Buka, Stephen L; McGrath, John J

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35?54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men ...

  7. Maternal life stress events in pregnancy link to children's school achievement at age 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianghong; Robinson, Monique; Malacova, Eva; Jacoby, Peter; Foster, Jonathan; van Eekelen, Anke

    2013-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that maternal antenatal exposure to life stress events is associated with lower achievement in literacy and numeracy at age 10 years, with sex differences in this link. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study recruited 2900 women at 18 weeks' pregnancy, and 2868 children were followed up at birth and postnatally. At age 10 years, information on 1038 children was linked to their literacy and numeracy test scores. Multivariate regression models were used to test the foregoing hypotheses, adjusting for important confounders. In girls, maternal antenatal exposure to 4 or more maternal life stress events or death of the mother's friend and/or relative was associated with lower reading scores. In contrast, exposure to 3 or more life stress events or to a pregnancy or financial problem was associated with higher reading scores in boys. Furthermore, maternal exposure to 4 or more life stress events was associated with higher mathematic scores and a residential move was linked to higher writing scores in boys. Maternal antenatal exposure to life stress events has differing effects on the school performance of male and female offspring. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for this sex difference. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction...

  9. Maternal age at first birth and obstetric outcome | Gharoro | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age on women going through their first pregnancy and delivery at extremes of reproductive life. All obstetric records of delivered mothers at the UBTH between January 1995 and December 1999 were extracted for the study. There were 2,658 primiparous birth (27.3%) ...

  10. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century, while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not been conclusive. Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring. Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100 control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic and private growth and development centers from January to April 2013, while control group were children of the same age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period, pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3; 95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significant association between maternal age during pregnancy and the incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR 10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9; P 0.003, respectively. Conclusion Paternal age >=40 years increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in

  11. Developmental outcome in preschoolers: Interrelations among maternal depression, perceived social support, and child's age of entry into Head Start

    OpenAIRE

    Papero, Anna L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a mediated-moderator model that was developed to explore whether age of entry into a Head Start Program moderated the relationship between maternal depressive symptomology and child cognitive and social outcome. In addition, the mediating role of maternal social support was examined. The study sample included 43 low-income mothers and their pre-school aged children who were enrolled in a large Head Start program in Southwest Virginia. Maternal depressive symptomology wa...

  12. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    pregnancy in relation to offspring growth through age 7 years among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes. Methods: In a prospective study of 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, maternal dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire...

  13. Choline concentrations in human maternal and cord blood and intelligence at 5 y of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signore, Caroline; Ueland, Per Magne; Troendle, James; Mills, James L

    2008-04-01

    Animal studies indicate that maternal prenatal choline supplementation leads to permanent enhancement of attention and spatial memory abilities in offspring, whereas dietary choline restriction during pregnancy impairs cognitive function in offspring. The association between gestational choline concentrations and neurodevelopmental outcome in humans has not been studied. Our objective was to assess the relation between maternal and cord blood choline concentrations and child intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 5 y of age. With data and samples from a prospective study (n = 404 maternal-child pairs), serum concentrations of free and total choline were measured in maternal serum at 4 gestational age intervals (16-18 wk, 24-26 wk, 30-32 wk, and 36-38 wk) and in cord blood. Child IQ at 5 y of age was assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the relation between choline concentrations and Full Scale IQ, Verbal and Performance IQ, and subscales that assess spatial relation and memory ability while adjusting for other factors that affect IQ. There was no effect at gestational ages 16-18 wk, 24-26 wk, 30-32 wk, and 36-38 wk or in cord blood of serum concentrations of free or total choline on Full Scale child IQ or on selected scales related to visuospatial processing and memory. Gestational and newborn choline concentrations in the physiologic range showed no correlation with childhood intelligence.

  14. Causes and consequences of maternal age-related aneuploidy in oocytes: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danylevska, Anna; Šebestová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 65-72 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/0743; GA ČR GAP502/12/2201 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : aneuploidy * oocyte * maternal age Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2013

  15. The Influence of Gestational Age on the Loss of Maternal Measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred in mother-infant pairs during third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational age (GA) affects the levels of MMA such that longer GA may result in infants starting out with high levels of MMA. Objective: To determine the influence of GA on the loss of MMA in ...

  16. Earliest gestational age for fetal sexing in cell-free maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, R. J. P.; van der Luijt, R. B.; Peters, E. D. J.; Goeree, J. K.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Christiaens, G. C. M. L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate at what gestational age fetal DNA can reliably be detected at the earliest in maternal plasma. METHODS: We performed consecutive blood sampling in the first trimester of pregnancy in 17 women who were pregnant after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination

  17. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  18. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Markunas

    Full Text Available Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child's DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers' age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7. These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother's age at pregnancy could affect her child's health through epigenetic mechanisms.

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamura

    2017-10-01

    the regulation of grain dormancy. Germination tests of F1 grains derived from reciprocal crosses between H602 and KNG revealed that the H602 strong dormancy phenotype shows maternal inheritance with incomplete dominance. These results provide new insight into the mechanisms regulating grain dormancy in barley.

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci and Maternal Effects Affecting the Strong Grain Dormancy of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgaressp.spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Sameri, Mohammad; Sato, Kazuhiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2017-01-01

    grain dormancy. Germination tests of F 1 grains derived from reciprocal crosses between H602 and KNG revealed that the H602 strong dormancy phenotype shows maternal inheritance with incomplete dominance. These results provide new insight into the mechanisms regulating grain dormancy in barley.

  1. Maternal Age and Infant Mortality for White, Black, and Mexican Mothers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N. Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the pattern of infant mortality by maternal age for white, black, and Mexican mothers using the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Public Use File from the Centers for Disease Control. The results are consistent with the “weathering” hypothesis, which suggests that white women benefit from delayed childbearing while for black women early childbearing is adaptive because of deteriorating health status through the childbearing years. For white women, the risk (adjusted for covariates of infant death is U-shaped—lowest in the early thirties—while for black women the risk increases linearly with age. Mexican-origin women show a J-shape, with highest risk at the oldest ages. The results underscore the need for understanding the relationship between maternal age and infant mortality in the context of unequal health experiences across race/ethnic groups in the US.

  2. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, A R A; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...... agreement between recalled and registered BW (MD =-0.2 g; ICC = 0.94) and GA (MD = 0.3 weeks; ICC = 0.76). Only 1.6% of BW would have been misclassified into low, normal or high BW and 16.5% of GA would have been misclassified into preterm, term or post-term based on maternal recall. The logistic regression...

  3. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  4. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Brittany J; Hilton, Tara N; Rivière, Raphaël N; Ferraro, Zachary M; Deonandan, Raywat; Walker, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the ethical and medical challenges faced by women of advanced maternal age who decide to have children. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) make post-menopausal pregnancy physiologically plausible, however, one must consider the associated physical, psychological, and sociological factors involved. A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms post-menopause, pregnancy + MeSH terms [donations, hormone replacement therapy, assisted reproductive technologies, embryo donation, donor artificial insemination, cryopreservation]. Overall, 28 papers encompassing two major themes (ethical and medical) were included in the review. There are significant ethical considerations and medical (maternal and fetal) complications related to pregnancy in peri- and post-menopausal women. When examining the ethical and sociological perspective, the literature portrays an overall positive attitude toward pregnancy in advanced maternal age. With respect to the medical complications, the general consensus in the evaluated studies suggests that there is greater risk of complication for spontaneous pregnancy when the mother is older (eg, >35 years old). This risk can be mitigated by careful medical screening of the mother and the use of ARTs in healthy women. In these instances, a woman of advanced maternal age who is otherwise healthy can carry a pregnancy with a similar risk profile to that of her younger counterparts when using donated oocytes.

  5. Effect of young maternal age and skeletal growth on placental growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C E; Greenwood, S L; Sibley, C P; Baker, P N; Jones, R L

    2011-12-01

    Teenagers are susceptible to delivering small-for-gestational-age infants. Previous studies implicate continued skeletal growth as a contributory factor, and impaired placental development was the primary cause of fetal growth restriction in growing adolescent sheep. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of young maternal age and growth on placental development. Placentas were collected from 31 teenagers, of which 12 were growing and 17 non-growing based on knee height measurements. An adult control group (n = 12) was included. Placental weight and morphometric measurements of villous, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and vessel areas, as well as indices of proliferation and apoptosis, were analysed in relation to maternal growth and age. Growing teenagers had a higher birthweight:placental weight ratio than non-growing teenagers (p adult and teenage pregnancies. Maternal smoking, a potential confounding factor, did not exert a major influence on the placental parameters examined, except for a stimulatory effect on placental proliferation (p development, and is consistent with our recent observations that maternal growth was not detrimental to fetal growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  7. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  8. Early Parturition: Is Young Maternal Age at First Birth Associated with Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Astone, Nan M

    2017-10-01

    Examine the association of age at first birth with body mass index (BMI), and explore the role of young maternal age and subsequent obesity. This study analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US families. Analyses were conducted using a mixed effects longitudinal linear regression with a random intercept to examine the effect of aging, age at first birth, and minority status using nested data. Study criteria yielded a final sample of 146 women with 707 observations. BMI. Age at first birth exhibited a significant association with BMI. The association of age at first birth with BMI was greatest for women age 21 and younger. Overall, women who experienced their first birth at age 21 or younger had a BMI 5 units greater than women who delayed childbearing until at least age 30 (point estimate, 5.02; P = .02; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-9.40). Young maternal age at first birth might be associated with increased BMI. Minority women also experience their first birth at younger ages compared with white women, suggesting possible linkages between the timing of reproductive events and obesity disparities. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Maternal and Neonatal Birth Factors Affecting the Age of ASD Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley; Minter, Bonnie; Higgins, Melinda; Guo, Ying; Zauche, Lauren Head; Hirst, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enables early intervention that improves long term functioning of children with ASD but is often delayed until age of school entry. Few studies have identified factors that affect timely diagnosis. This study addressed how maternal education, race, age, marital status as well as neonatal birth factors affect the age at which a child is diagnosed with ASD. This study involved a retrospective analysis of 664 records of children treated at one of the largest autism treatment centers in the United States from March 1, 2009 to December 30, 2010. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with age of diagnosis. Infant gender, maternal race, marital status, and maternal age were identified as significant factors for predicting the age of ASD diagnosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, only maternal race and marital status were included. Median survival age till diagnosis of children born to married mothers was 53.4 months compared to 57.8 months and 63.7 months of children born to single and divorced or widowed mothers respectively. Median survival age till diagnosis for children of African American mothers was 53.8 months compared to 57.2 months for children of Caucasian mothers. No statistically significant difference of timing of ASD diagnosis was found for children of varying gestational age. Children born to older or married mothers and mothers of minority races were more likely to have an earlier ASD diagnosis. No statistically significant differences in timing of ASD diagnosis were found for children born at varying gestational ages. Identification of these factors has the potential to inform public health outreach aimed at promoting timely ASD diagnosis. This work could enhance clinical practice for timelier diagnoses of ASD by supporting parents and clinicians around the world in identifying risk factors beyond gender

  11. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagel, T.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects...... represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated...... in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions...

  12. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  13. Relationship Between Advanced Maternal Age, Hiesho (Sensitivity to Cold) and Abnormal Delivery in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiyo; Horiuchi, Shigeko

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Japan, the proportion of women aged 35 and older giving birth has greatly increased in recent years, and maternal age is continuing to increase. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for abnormal delivery, as is hiesho (sensitivity to cold). Research Question: This study aimed to assess whether advanced maternal age and hiesho precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Method: The study design was a descriptive comparative study with a retrospective cohort group design. Subjects in this study were 2,810 Japanese women in hospital after childbirth. The research methods employed were a paper questionnaire and extraction of data from medical records. Results: Comparing the rate of occurrence of abnormal delivery among women aged 35 to 39 according to whether or not they had hiesho, results were premature delivery OR: 3.51 (95% CI: 1.66-7.43), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.90-1.74), weak labor pains OR: 2.94 (95% CI: 1.65-5.24), prolonged labor OR: 2.56 (95% CI: 1.23-5.26), and atonic bleeding, OR: 1.65 (95% CI: 0.14-2.40) when hiesho was present. Among women aged 40 and over, results were premature delivery OR: 5.09 (95% CI: 1.16-22.20), premature rupture of membranes OR: 1.60 (95% CI: 0.73-3.46), weak labor pains OR: 7.02 (95% CI: 1.56-31.55), prolonged labor OR:7.19 (95% CI: 1.49-34.60) and atonic bleeding OR: 2.00 (95% CI: 0.64-6.23). Conclusions: Regardless of maternal age, the presence of hiesho is a risk factor that can precipitate premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, weak labor pains, prolonged labor and atonic bleeding. Furthermore, hiesho coupled with advanced maternal age increases the incidence of premature delivery, weak labor pains and prolonged labor. PMID:24062862

  14. Maternal Weight after Childbirth versus Aging-Related Weight Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Kapinos, Kandice; Weiss, Marianne

    Pregnancy weight gain is believed to contribute to female overweight and obesity. However, most studies do not account for the changes in body weight expected to occur as women age. We examined the long-term weight trajectory of childbearing women relative to weight progression that could be expected in the absence of pregnancy. From the hospital records of 32,187 women with two births in Wisconsin during 2006 to 2013, we extracted the maternal weight at pregravid, delivery, and subsequent pregravid. We predicted the corresponding aging-progressed weights using a weight-for-age equation adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Nonparametric mixed effects models estimated the average maternal weight trajectory and the corresponding aging-related progression through 5 years after birth. The estimated aging-related progression predicted a gradual annual weight increase of 1.94 pounds (95% confidence interval 1.90-1.98), from 152.79 pounds at pregravid to 163.76 pounds by 5 years after birth. Actual maternal weight followed a sinusoidal pattern: increasing during gestation, decreasing during the first postbirth year, converging with the aging-related progression during the second postbirth year, and then increasing at 2.89 pounds (95% confidence interval 2.23-3.55) annually and diverging upward from the aging-related progression to 168.03 pounds by 5 years after birth. Pregnancy weight gain did not contribute to the aging-related trend, but lifestyle changes of parenthood may later exacerbate the long-term trend. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal age influences on reproductive rates in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nogueira Valentin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the effects of the maternal age on the fecundity (absolute and relative, egg production, and fertilization rates of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Females were divided into three groups: Group 1 (6 years old, Group 2 (3 years old, and Group 3 (8 months old. Males of eight months were used in all groups. Twice a week, the females' mouths were examined, and if they had eggs, these were removed and transferred to 2-L incubators. No difference was observed in the absolute fecundity between the different maternal age groups. Relative fecundity and egg production was greater in Group 3 (8 months and fertilization rates were lower in Group 1 (6 years. Younger tilapias are more viable for egg production, because they have better reproductive indexes.

  16. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.

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    Louise C Kenny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004-2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years with women aged 20-29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19% were aged 20-29 years, 62,371(27.63% were aged 30-34 years, 33,966(15.05% were aged 35-39 years and 7,066(3.13% were aged ≥40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR = 1.83, [95% CI 1.37-2.43], pre-term (RR = 1.25, [95% CI: 1.14-1.36] and very pre-term birth (RR = 1.29, [95% CI:1.08-1.55], Macrosomia (RR = 1.31, [95% CI: 1.12-1.54], extremely large for gestational age (RR = 1.40, [95% CI: 1.25-1.58] and Caesarean delivery (RR = 1.83, [95% CI: 1.77-1.90]. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

  17. Maternal periconceptional and gestational low protein diet affects mouse offspring growth, cardiovascular and adipose phenotype at 1 year of age.

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    Adam J Watkins

    Full Text Available Human and animal studies have revealed a strong association between periconceptional environmental factors, such as poor maternal diet, and an increased propensity for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adult offspring. Previously, we reported cardiovascular and physiological effects of maternal low protein diet (LPD fed during discrete periods of periconceptional development on 6-month-old mouse offspring. Here, we extend the analysis in 1 year aging offspring, evaluating mechanisms regulating growth and adiposity. Isocaloric LPD (9% casein or normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD was fed to female MF-1 mice either exclusively during oocyte maturation (for 3.5 days prior to mating; Egg-LPD, Egg-NPD, respectively, throughout gestation (LPD, NPD or exclusively during preimplantation development (for 3.5 days post mating; Emb-LPD. LPD and Emb-LPD female offspring were significantly lighter and heavier than NPD females respectively for up to 52 weeks. Egg-LPD, LPD and Emb-LPD offspring displayed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure at 52 weeks compared to respective controls (Egg-NPD, NPD. LPD females had significantly reduced inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad: body weight ratios compared to NPD females. Expression of the insulin receptor (Insr and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r in retroperitoneal fat was significantly elevated in Emb-LPD females (P<0.05, whilst Emb-LPD males displayed significantly decreased expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 gene compared to NPD offspring. LPD females displayed significantly increased expression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue when compared to NPD offspring. Our results demonstrate that aging offspring body weight, cardiovascular and adiposity homeostasis can be programmed by maternal periconceptional nutrition. These adverse outcomes further exemplify the criticality of dietary behaviour around the time of conception on long-term offspring

  18. Population Consequences of Age-Dependent Maternal Effects in Rockfish (Sebastes spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    I present a model of the early life history of a rockfish that includes an age-dependent maternal effect. The model is designed to accurately reflect the diverse uncertainties we have about early life history processes. The first portion of this thesis is devoted to an analytical treatment of the deterministic early life history model. I emphasize uncertainty about the functional form of density-dependent processes in the juvenile stage. The remainder of the thesis is devoted to demonstrating...

  19. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology

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    Harrison BJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brittany J Harrison,1 Tara N Hilton,1 Raphaël N Rivière,1 Zachary M Ferraro,1–3 Raywat Deonandan,4 Mark C Walker1–3,51Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4University of Ottawa Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Newborn Care, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, CanadaObjectives: This review explores the ethical and medical challenges faced by women of advanced maternal age who decide to have children. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs make post-menopausal pregnancy physiologically plausible, however, one must consider the associated physical, psychological, and sociological factors involved.Methods: A quasi-systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Ovid using the key terms post-menopause, pregnancy + MeSH terms [donations, hormone replacement therapy, assisted reproductive technologies, embryo donation, donor artificial insemination, cryopreservation]. Overall, 28 papers encompassing two major themes (ethical and medical were included in the review.Conclusion: There are significant ethical considerations and medical (maternal and fetal complications related to pregnancy in peri- and post-menopausal women. When examining the ethical and sociological perspective, the literature portrays an overall positive attitude toward pregnancy in advanced maternal age. With respect to the medical complications, the general consensus in the evaluated studies suggests that there is greater risk of complication for spontaneous pregnancy when the mother is older (eg, >35 years old. This risk can be mitigated by careful medical screening of the mother and the use of ARTs in healthy women. In these instances, a woman of advanced maternal age who is otherwise healthy can carry a

  20. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. The effects of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes among those born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruofan; Park, Bo Y; Caughey, Aaron B

    2017-06-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with higher birth weight. Small for gestational age (SGA) neonates born to obese women may be associated with pathological growth with increased neonatal complications. This was a retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous singleton neonates born in Texas from 2006-2011. Analyses were limited to births between 34 and 42 weeks gestation with birth weight ≤10th percentile. Results were stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI class. The risk for stillbirth, neonatal death, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and five minute Apgar scores <7 were estimated for each obesity class and compared to the normal weight group. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. The rate of stillbirth was 1.4/1000 births for normal weight women, and 2.9/1000 among obese women (p < 0.001, aOR: 1.83 [1.43, 2.34]). The rate of neonatal deaths among normal weight women was 4.3/1000 births, whereas among obese women it was 4.7/1000 (p = 0.94, aOR: 1.10 [0.92, 1.30]). A dose-dependent relationship between maternal obesity and stillbirths was seen, but not for other neonatal outcomes. Among SGA neonates, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with increased risks for stillbirth, NICU admission and low Apgar scores but not neonatal death.

  2. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H

    2017-04-01

    Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  4. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

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    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  5. Maternal age at childbirth is associated with offspring insulin sensitivity: a cross-sectional study in adult male siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verroken, Charlotte; Zmierczak, Hans-Georg; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Lapauw, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Maternal age at childbirth is increasing worldwide, but studies investigating the consequences of this trend on offspring metabolic health are scarce. We investigated the associations of maternal age at childbirth with metabolic outcomes in adult male siblings. We used data from 586 men aged 25-45 participating in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling-pair study, including maternal age at childbirth and offspring birthweight, adult weight, height, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived body composition, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels from fasting serum samples. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Maternal age at childbirth was 27·1 ± 4·7 years and was inversely associated with glucose levels (β = -0·10, P = 0·022) and HOMA-IR (β = -0·06, P = 0·065) in age- and body composition-adjusted analyses. Moreover, sons of younger (aged HOMA-IR values than sons of mothers aged 30-34 (1·39, 1·35 and 1·42 vs 1·19, P = 0·028). Additional adjustment for birthweight did not substantially alter these results. Maternal age was inversely associated with cholesterol levels in unadjusted (β = -0·09, P = 0·032), but not in age- and body composition-adjusted analyses. No associations of maternal age were observed with blood pressure, leptin, or adiponectin levels or with any of the body composition measurements. Increasing maternal age at childbirth is associated with lower fasting glucose levels and higher insulin sensitivity in adult male offspring. However, this association might not hold true in offspring of women aged ≥35 years at childbirth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maternal hypertension and neonatal outcome among small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Magee, Laura Ann; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Muir, Jennifer C; Stewart, Shawn D; Sherman, Paul; Lee, Shoo K

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether maternal hypertension might improve perinatal outcome among small for gestational age (SGA) infants (neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and 3,244 SGA singletons. Multivariable regression was used to analyze the relation between maternal hypertension and each of the following: SNAP-II (Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology; ordinal regression) and neonatal survival and survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (logistic regression), adjusting for potential confounders. There were 698 (21.5%) neonates born to hypertensive mothers. Inversely associated with lower SNAP-II scores (healthier infant) were antenatal steroids (complete course: odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.83; incomplete: OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.88), lower gestational age (neonatal survival (93.0% versus 91.2%, and adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), but not survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (91.4% versus 87.0%, and adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0), respectively. Among SGA neonates in NICU, maternal hypertension is associated with improved admission neonatal physiology and survival.

  7. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25-29, 30-34 (reference), 35-39, and 40+ years). Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25-29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30-35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

  8. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Heitmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...... the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high...... agreement between recalled and registered BW (MD =-0.2 g; ICC = 0.94) and GA (MD = 0.3 weeks; ICC = 0.76). Only 1.6% of BW would have been misclassified into low, normal or high BW and 16.5% of GA would have been misclassified into preterm, term or post-term based on maternal recall. The logistic regression...

  9. The role of autonomy and pubertal status in understanding age differences in maternal involvement in diabetes responsibility across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Debra L; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J; Beveridge, Ryan M; Korbel, Carolyn D; Upchurch, Renn; Swinyard, Michael T; Lindsay, Rob; Donaldson, David L

    2004-01-01

    To examine how autonomy and pubertal status explain age decreases in maternal involvement in type 1 diabetes management across adolescence, how they relate to metabolic control, and the reasons that guide declines in maternal involvement. One hundred twenty-seven children ages 10-15 years with type 1 diabetes and their mothers participated. Data included maternal and child report of diabetes management, child report of autonomy level, maternal report of pubertal status, maternal reports of reasons for transfer of diabetes responsibility, and glycosylated hemoglobin (Hba(1c)) values. Autonomy and pubertal status partially mediated age effects on reports of maternal involvement. Mothers' reasons for transferring responsibility included responding to the child's competence, promoting competence and maturity in their child, and minimizing hassles and conflict. The transfer of diabetes responsibility from mother to child without sufficient autonomy and when pubertal status was low was related to higher Hba(1c) values. The importance of chronological age for changes in maternal involvement suggests the need to examine mothers' and adolescents' developmental expectations for diabetes management. The reasons for transferring responsibility from mother to child suggest many avenues for intervention.

  10. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  11. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  12. Examining maternal age, breastfeeding self-efficacy and health locus of control in psychological wellbeing of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abiodun Musbau; Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the direct and interaction influence of maternal age, breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE), health locus of control (HLOC) on six dimensions of psychological wellbeing of breastfeeding mothers in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 291 mothers attending health facilities in two suburb local government areas. The survey included socio-demographics (maternal age, marital status, ethnicity, education level and position of the baby currently breastfeeding), breastfeeding self-efficacy, health locus of control and psychological wellbeing scales. Independent variables were tested against sense of autonomy, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery and personal growth using factorial Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results showed direct influence of BSE, HLOC and maternal age on various dimensions of psychological wellbeing. Interaction influences indicate BSE and HLOC on environmental mastery; BSE and maternal age on self-acceptance and HLOC and maternal age on sense of autonomy, positive relationship with others and self-acceptance respectively. In conclusion, maternal age, breastfeeding self-efficacy and health locus of control are vital for mothers to enjoy plenty dimensions of psychological wellbeing. Breastfeeding mothers need to be confident in their abilities to breastfeed and have control over their health-related behaviour in order to enjoy sufficient dimensions of psychological wellbeing.

  13. Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Cruz, Kaliany Wanessa da; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de; Silveira, Marise Fernandes; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval), obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the SPSS 17.0 software. The results were analyzed with the relative risk for each variable, in order to estimate the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval, followed by a bivariate and multivariate analysis. among 200 children, 54% were males and 46% were females. As far as skin color is concerned most were brown, white and black, respectively. Cleft palates were the most common fissures found (54%), followed by lip cleft (30%) and palate cleft (16%). although with a limited sample, we noticed an association between maternal age and an increased risk for cleft lip and palate; however, paternal age, pregnancy order and interpregnancy interval were not significant.

  14. [Age-related loss of maternal antibodies against measles in children in La Plata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Buono, M B; Vaschetti, P; Iannicelli, J; Silber, R

    2003-01-01

    Measles outbreaks every 3-4 years have occurred in Argentina. The vaccine was introduced in 1978 as part of a regular program, and the age for the first vaccination was changed to one year old. The optimal age for first measles vaccination is defined as that age with the highest proportion of infants responding to the vaccine. It is dependent on the presence of maternal antibodies against measles virus and the maturation of the immune system. This paper reports the loss of maternal antibodies in infants from vaccinated mothers, attending at the Hospital I.A.E.P. Superiora Sor María Ludovica, La Piata, Argentina. To determine the IgG antibodies against measles virus, an ELISA test was used in a longitudinal follow up of 48 patients (4, 6 and 9 month-old infants). Only 18.7% of 4 month-old infants showed detectable levels of IgG antibodies against measles virus; this value declined to 4.2% in 6 month-old infants (p < 0.01) and measles virus antibodies were undetectable in 9 month-old infants. The extension of this study to a broader population is suggested, in order to reconsider the optimal age of the first measles vaccination.

  15. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  16. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal antioxidant intakes in pregnancy, and child temperament at age 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.

  17. Placenta mediates the association between maternal second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy and small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z; Xie, C; Wen, X; Tian, F; Ding, P; He, Y; Lin, J; Yuan, S; Guo, X; Jia, D; Chen, W-Q

    2015-08-01

    The causal relationship between maternal second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and small for gestational-age (SGA) has been affirmed, but the mechanism is still unclear. Previous studies have found that the placenta remarkably affects fetal intrauterine growth and that SHS exposure during pregnancy impairs placental growth and decreases placental weight. Therefore, the placenta may mediate the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. This study explores whether and to what extent the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA is mediated by the placenta. We investigated 562 pregnant women delivering SGA newborns (cases) and 1581 delivering appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns (controls) in this case-control study. Information on maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy, socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric conditions, including placental weight, were collected at the Maternity and Child Health Care Hospitals of Shenzhen and Foshan in Guangdong, China. Linear and hierarchical logistic regression models were fitted to examine the mediation effects of placental weight on the association between maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. After controlling for ethnicity, maternal age, educational level, family income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, gestational age and newborn gender, maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy was associated with a higher SGA risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.55) and lower placental weight (standard deviation (SD) = -0.15, SE = 0.04). Regression models illustrated that placental weight partially mediated (49.6%; 95% CI = 35.9-63.3%) the association between SHS exposure during pregnancy and SGA. Our findings suggest that the placenta plays an intermediary role in how maternal prenatal SHS exposure affects fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive biases and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children: examining the role of maternal cognitive bias and child age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2012-09-01

    Multiple cognitive biases associated with adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were tested in a clinical sample of children (ages 7-11) and adolescents (12-17) and their mothers. This study examined (a) the associations between child cognitive biases and OCD severity, (b) maternal cognitive biases and child OCD severity, and (c) maternal cognitive bias and child cognitive bias. It was hypothesized that age would significantly moderate these relationships, with stronger associations with OCD severity for cognitive bias in adolescents (relative to children), and maternal cognitive bias in younger children (relative to adolescents). Forty-six children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD and their mothers completed questionnaires assessing responsibility bias, thought-action fusion (TAF), thought suppression, and metacognitive beliefs. OCD symptoms were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and semistructured symptom interviews. As predicted, age significantly moderated associations between (a) child cognitive variables and OCD severity-specifically between child responsibility and child metacognition, which were associated with OCD severity for adolescents only; (b) maternal cognitive biases and child OCD severity-specifically for maternal responsibility and thought suppression, which were significantly and positively associated with child OCD severity but not adolescent OCD severity; and (c) maternal cognitive biases and child cognitive bias-such that significant associations were evident only in the younger child sample, and only between maternal TAF self and metacognition, with child suppression and child TAF moral, respectively. Maternal cognitive biases are more consistently linked to greater OCD severity among younger children, whereas personal cognitive biases are associated with greater OCD symptoms in adolescents. Treatments for pediatric OCD are likely to be improved by age-specific considerations for the role of maternal and child cognitive

  19. Maternal obesity in the rat impairs male offspring aging of the testicular antioxidant defence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Claudia J; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Morales, Angélica; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Cruz-Pérez, Fabiola; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2017-09-01

    A high-fat diet during intrauterine development predisposes offspring (F 1 ) to phenotypic alterations, such as lipid synthesis imbalance and increased oxidative stress, causing changes in male fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation on antioxidant enzymes in the F 1 testes. Female Wistar rats (F 0 ) were fed either a control (C, 5% fat) or an obesogenic (MO, maternal obesity, 25% fat) diet from weaning and throughout subsequent pregnancy and lactation. F 1 offspring were weaned to the control diet. Testes were retrieved at 110, 450 and 650 postnatal days (PND) for real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) antioxidant enzyme analyses. Catalase was similar between groups by RT-qPCR, whereas by IHC it was higher in the MO group at all ages than in the C group. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) had lower expression at PND 110 in MO than in C by both techniques; at PND 450 and 650 by immunoanalysis SOD1 was higher in MO than in C. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), GPX2 and GPX4 by RT-qPCR were similar between groups and ages; by IHC GPX1/2 was higher in MO than in C, whereas GPX4 showed the opposite result at PND 110 and 450. In conclusion, antioxidant enzymes in the rat testes are modified with age. Maternal obesity negatively affects the F 1 testicular antioxidant defence system, which, in turn, can explain the decrease in reproductive capacity.

  20. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Liang Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children’s primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children’s autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  1. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  2. Sleep quality at 3 months postpartum considering maternal age: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shih-Yi; Ko, Yi-Li; Jou, Hei-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2018-03-01

    Poor sleep quality is related to old age among the general population, but few studies have focused on postpartum women of advanced maternal age. The present study aimed to describe and compare sleep quality between women younger or older than 35 years of age at 3 months postpartum, and to examine the related factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 160 postpartum women who had given birth at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. The participants were assigned to two groups according to age (≥35 years, n=80; and 20-34 years, n=80). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index with a cut-off score of 5. The prevalence of poor sleep quality at 3 months postpartum was higher in older mothers (61.6%) than in younger mothers (38.4%, psleep quality was positively correlated with the severity of postpartum physical symptoms, lack of exercise, and room-sharing with infants. After adjustment for those variables, older mothers were three times more likely to have poor sleep quality than younger mothers (odds ratio=3.08; 95% confidence interval 1.52-6.23). Health care providers should pay attention to sleep problems among postpartum women, especially mothers of advanced maternal age. In particular, health care providers should evaluate sleep quality among postpartum women, instruct them not to share the bed with their infants at night, perform exercise, and manage their postpartum physical symptoms to improve the sleep quality. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: The Role of Maternal Obesity - Introduction to DORIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Iozzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate studies to understand the consequences of maternal obesity on the offspring's health and for developing effective measures and policies to improve people's health before their conception and birth. Though the current knowledge suggests that the long-term impact of maternal obesity on the offspring's health may be substantial, the outcomes of maternal obesity over the lifespan have not been quantified, and the molecular changes induced by maternal obesity remain poorly characterized. We hypothesize that maternal insulin resistance and reduced placental glucocorticoid catabolism, leading to oxidative stress, may damage the DNA, either in its structure (telomere shortening or in its function (via epigenetic changes, resulting in altered gene expression/repair, disease during life, and pathological ageing. This review illustrates the background to the EU-FP7-HEALTH-DORIAN project.

  4. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...

  5. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  6. Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis and eczema up to 16 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, S; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Lind, T; Almqvist, C; Melén, E; Bergström, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been linked to offspring asthma; however, other allergy-related diseases, as well as the association beyond early school age, are largely unstudied. To examine the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and offspring asthma, rhinitis, eczema and sensitization up to 16 years of age. A total of 3294 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were included in the analyses. Maternal BMI was assessed around week 10 in pregnancy. Information on asthma, rhinitis, eczema, lifestyle factors and environmental exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 years. Sensitization was defined from IgE levels of inhalant allergens at 4, 8 and 16 years in a subsample of 2850 children. Generalized estimated equation models were used to analyse the associations between maternal BMI and the outcomes at 1-16 years. Maternal BMI was positively associated with overall risk of asthma up to age of 16 years (adj OR per 5 kg/m(2) increase: 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.40 for prevalent asthma) excluding underweight mothers. In contrast, no significant associations were found for rhinitis, eczema or sensitization. The association with asthma was restricted to obese, rather than overweight mothers, but was attenuated when adjusting for overweight in the offspring. A causal inference test at 16 years further indicated that the child's own overweight is a mediator in the suggested association between maternal BMI and offspring asthma at 16 years. Maternal BMI is associated with an increased risk of asthma, but not rhinitis, eczema or sensitization; however, overweight in the offspring seems to have a mediating role. Prevention strategies of maternal pre-pregnancy and childhood obesity might be important to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma. 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  9. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

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    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  11. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring adiposity; however the effect of maternal BMI on subsequent inflammatory concentrations among offspring is unexplored. The aim is to estimate the direct and indirect effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on C-Reactive protein (CRP...

  12. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal

  13. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  14. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013. VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged.

  15. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Demirci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16-19, and 20-34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia.

  16. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Maternal characteristics associated with milk leptin content in a sample of Filipino women and associations with infant weight for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Largado, Fe; Borja, Judith B; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    Human milk contains many metabolic hormones that may influence infant growth. Milk leptin is positively associated with maternal adiposity and inversely associated with infant growth. Most research has been conducted in populations with higher leptin levels; it is not well understood how milk leptin may vary in lean populations or the associations that reduced leptin may have with infant size for age. It is also largely unknown if associations between maternal body composition and milk leptin persist past 1 year of age. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk leptin content in a sample of lean Filipino women and the association between milk leptin content and infant size for age. Milk samples were collected at in-home visits from 113 mothers from Cebu, Philippines. Milk leptin content was measured using EIA techniques; anthropometric data, dietary recalls, and household information were also collected. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) milk leptin in this sample was 300.7 ± 293.6 pg/mL, among the lowest previously reported. Mean ± SD maternal percentage body fat was 24.8% ± 3.5%. Mean ± SD infant age was 9.9 ± 7.0 months, and mean ± SD weight for age z-score was -0.98 ± 1.06. Maternal percentage body fat was a significant, positive predictor of milk leptin content. Milk leptin was a significant, inverse predictor of infant weight and body mass index z-scores in infants 1 year old or younger. The association between maternal body composition, milk leptin, and infant growth persists in mothers with lean body composition. Milk leptin is not associated with growth in older infants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

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    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  19. Extreme maternal education and preterm birth: time-to-event analysis of age and nativity-dependent risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Park, Alison L; Wynant, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women achieve extremely high education, but the association with preterm birth (PTB) is poorly understood, especially over the life course. We sought to determine how very high educational attainment is associated with PTB, and to assess differences by maternal age and nativity. Data included singleton live births to mothers aged ≥ 20 years in metropolitan areas of Québec, Canada, from 1995 to 2005 (n = 537,525). Hazard ratios of PTB (education (0-30 years) according to maternal age (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, ≥ 35 years) and nativity in a flexible survival model. The relationship between education and PTB was not linear, but suggested that extremely high education was not as protective against PTB as slightly lower education. Education thresholds that offered maximum protection increased with maternal age, and were lower for Canadian-born (17-21 years of education) than foreign-born (22-25 years of education) mothers. Extremely high education did not confer more protection against PTB than slightly lower education, and associations varied over the life course. The threshold number of years of education most protective against PTB: (1) increased with maternal age, especially for Canadian-born mothers, and (2) was higher for foreign-born mothers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction of first trimester biochemical aneuploidy screening markers for smoking status: influence of gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Cowans, Nicholas J

    2013-02-01

    To examine the gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage effects of the reduction of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free-β human chorionic gonadotrophin (free hCGβ) in smokers. Maternal serum PAPP-A and free hCGβ corrected for confounders, excluding smoking, in first trimester smokers and nonsmokers were compared by gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage. A small set of second trimester smokers and nonsmoker controls were analysed for PAPP-A along with free hCGβ and assessed for gestational age effects of smoking. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A reduction by smoking in the first trimester was not influenced by gestational age, however free hCGβ levels were only significantly reduced in weeks 12 and 13 in smokers. Ethnicity and cigarette dosage were also found to influence the reduction of both makers in smokers in the first trimester. In second trimester smokers, PAPP-A was found to be reduced by less and free hCGβ reduced by more than in the first trimester, although no second trimester gestational age effect on smoking was found. Current methods of correcting for smoking status may be an oversimplification of a more complex subject. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dynamics of vanishing of maternally derived antibodies of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 suggests an optimal age for gilts vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Danielle; Souza, Carine Kunzler; Mores, Tiago José; Argenti, Laura Espíndola; Streck, André Felipe; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Bortolozzo, Fernando Pandolfo; Wentz, Ivo

    2017-06-01

    The prevention of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (UPV1) infection and consequently the reproductive losses is based on vaccination of all pigs intended for breeding. As maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with the development of immunity following vaccination, it is important to know the duration of anti-UPV1 MDA to determine the optimal age for the best vaccination efficacy. To elucidate the association between dam and piglet antibody levels against UPV1 and to estimate the decrease rate of MDA, sera and colostrum of 127 gilts (before the first vaccination against UPV1; 15 days after the second vaccine dose; at farrowing; and during the second pregnancy) and sera of 276 piglets (prior to initial colostrum intake; at 7, 21, 57, 87, and 128 days-old) were tested by ELISA. Most gilts (85.8%) had anti-UPV1 antibodies before vaccination and after vaccination all were positive. At 7 days old, the majority of the piglets had anti-UPV1 antibodies, but around 57 days old, only 35.3% were positive and at 87 days old, all were negative. The estimated average half-life of MDA was 29.8 (28.8-30.9) days. A strong correlation was determined between piglet serum at 7 days old with gilt serum at farrowing time (r = 0.77, n = 248, P vaccination can be performed earlier than usual.

  2. Multiple malformations and maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, K

    2000-07-01

    The Swedish health registries were used to investigate a possible effect of maternal smoking on the incidence of multiple malformations. Among 1413811 infants born in 1983-96 and with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy, 26619 with isolated malformations and 1409 with two or more malformations were selected. After controlling for year of birth, maternal age, parity and educational level, a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and multiple malformations was found (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.02, 1.29). Among isolated malformations, the estimated OR for maternal smoking was close to unity (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), but a strong heterogeneity of the magnitude of the association between maternal smoking and the different malformations was found. Among multimalformed, no such heterogeneity was indicated. The ORs for maternal smoking were calculated for all possible pairwise combinations of 44 selected malformations, but no association between maternal smoking and any specific combination could be detected. The ORs for maternal smoking among probable cases of VATER, CHARGE or OEIS non-random associations, respectively, were estimated, but no association was indicated between maternal smoking and any of the malformation complexes. The results of the present study indicate that maternal smoking is associated with a non-specific increased risk of multiple malformations, but further research is needed before such an inference can be made.

  3. Development of a Theory-based, Sociocultural Instrument to Assess Black Maternal Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Aged 9 to 12 Against HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L; O'Neal, Marcia R; Ivankova, Nataliya V; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could assist in reducing the cervical cancer disparity existing between Black and White women. Understanding factors influencing Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughter is essential in improving vaccination uptake. However, existing instruments do not comprehensively assess factors (e.g., culture) influencing maternal intentions. This paper describes the development of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Survey for Black Mothers with Girls Aged 9 to 12 (HPVS-BM), the first instrument to measure knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, and cultural beliefs relating to Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughters aged 9 to 12 years against HPV. The items and scales were refined using content review by experts, as well as cognitive interviews and pilot testing with target audience participants. The final version of the HPVS-BM was administered to 242 Black mothers with adolescent daughters. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha. An a priori hypothetical model was developed to determine convergent and discriminant validity. All scales of the HPVS-BM had an acceptable internal reliability of 0.70 or higher. The intention scale of HPVS-BM was significantly correlated (p < .05) with perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and subjective norms, supporting strong convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Exhibiting good psychometrics, this instrument could be used by healthcare researchers and professionals to develop programs to increase HPV vaccination among Black adolescent females aimed at reducing the racial disparities in cervical cancer. Further psychometric testing of this survey tool for understanding factors influencing maternal intentions is warranted.

  4. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  5. Justifiability of amniocentesis on the basis of positive findings of triple test, ultrasound scan and advanced maternal age

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    Dragoslav Bukvic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities based on maternal age (≥35 years, positive ultrasound findings or a positive triple test. Materials and methods. Retrospective six-year study. The pregnant women routinely underwent established clinical and laboratory practice at the Department of Medical Genetics between 1997 and 2003. The women’s case notes were examined to identify indications for karyotyping, gestation period and the outcome of karyotyping and pregnancy. Results. Invasive antenatal tests were performed on 1440 cases, 1168 (81.11% age 35(a, 72 (5.00% positive triple test (b, 24 (1.67% positive ultrasound scanning (c and 176 (12.2% other (psychological, personal reasons, etc (d. The overall positive predictive value was 1.67% (1.6%(a, 1.4% (b, 12.5% (c, 0.0% (d. The constructed model of logistic regression gave an odds-ratio of 8.647 for the “positive ultrasound result vs. maternal age ≥35” indication, while the odds-ratio for the triple test vs. maternal age ≥35 was 0.854. Conclusions. Amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis of foetal karyotype should be presented as a diagnostic possibility to all women over 35 years. The application of biochemical markers was far from the expected results. If we compare results for indication positive ultrasound scanning vs. maternal age, an oddsratio of ~9 was obtained. These results demonstrate that the likelihood of obtaining positive results (i.e. the presence of chromosome alterations from an amniocentesis having this indication is almost 9 times higher than from having an amniocentesis performed solely for advanced maternal age.

  6. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.

    This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. The study population consisted of 3684 Dutch

  7. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

  8. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  9. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  10. Transgenerational effects of maternal care interact with fetal growth and influence attention skills at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Marla F; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André K; Fleming, Alison; Wazana, Ashley; Steiner, Meir; Levitan, Robert D; Meaney, Michael J; Silveira, Patrícia P

    2014-05-01

    Evidence suggests that there is an association between being born small for gestational age (SGA) and an increased risk of internalizing and externalizing problems, such as ADHD. Additionally, individuals who report having received a lower quality of maternal care show an increased prevalence of depression and anxiety, and they are generally worse caregivers of their offspring. Therefore, an interaction between the birth weight status and the quality of maternal care perceived by the mother could affect behavioral outcomes of the children. Evaluate the influence of being born SGA and parental bonding, as perceived by the mother during her infancy, on the children's behavior at 18 months of age. Nested cross-sectional study within a Canadian prenatal cohort (MAVAN, Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment) recruited from 2003 to 2010. Data from 305 children who were evaluated at 18 months of age. Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire--ECBQ and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment--ITSEA) were included. Children born SGA whose mothers reported low maternal care during her infancy (using the Parental Bonding Instrument--PBI) showed lower scores in the attentional set shifting trait (ECBQ, p=0.002) and attention construct (ITSEA, p=0.05) at 18 months of age. We also found that SGA increases decreases cuddliness (p=0.011) and poor perceived maternal care decreases low intensity pleasure (p=0.016) on the ECBQ. These findings suggest a complex transgenerational transmission whereby mother's own care interacts with the fetal growth of her offspring to predict its attentional skills at 18 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of first-trimester combined test for Down syndrome in different maternal age groups: reason for adjustments in screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Melanie A. J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; van Vugt, John M. G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first-trimester combined test (FCT) in different maternal age groups and to discuss whether adjustments in screening policies should be made. In this retrospective study data (n = 26 274) from a fetal medicine center on FCT (maternal age, fetal NT, free β-human

  12. Association between maternal vascular murmur and the small-for-gestational-age fetus with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riknagel, Diana; Farlie, Richard; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal vascular murmurs (MVMs) and fetal growth restriction (defined as small-for-gestational-age [SGA] fetus) and abnormal Doppler pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine and/or umbilical arteries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women aged 18...... participants had MVMs. There was a clear association between MVMs and a composite of SGA and an abnormal PI of the uterine and/or the umbilical artery (P

  13. Second-trimester maternal distress increases the risk of small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, A S; Everard, C; McCowan, L M E; Dekker, G; Moss-Morris, R; Baker, P N; Poston, L; Walker, J J; Kenny, L C

    2014-10-01

    The effect of prenatal distress on the risk of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant is uncertain. We have addressed the influences of prenatal stress, anxiety and depression on the risk of SGA. We also examined the effects of infant sex and timing of distress during pregnancy on any observed associations. The study population comprised 5606 healthy nulliparous pregnant women who participated in the international prospective Screening for Obstetric and Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Women completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 15 ± 1 and 20 ± 1 weeks' gestation. SGA was defined as birthweight below the 10th customized percentile. Logistic regression was used for data analysis, adjusting for several potential confounders such as maternal age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, socio-economic status and physical exercise. The risk of SGA was increased in relation to mild [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.71], moderate (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49), high (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.95) and very high stress scores (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.37); very high anxiety score (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13-1.86); and very high depression score (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.24) at 20 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Sensitivity analyses showed that very high anxiety and very high depression increases the risk of SGA in males but not in females whereas stress increases the risk of SGA in both males and females. These findings suggest that prenatal stress, anxiety and depression measured at 20 weeks' gestation increase the risk of SGA. The effects of maternal anxiety and depression on SGA were strongest in male infants.

  14. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  15. Maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan

    2018-01-01

    /Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Results: Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/l versus 0.1-2.49 mIU/l: -8...... results (the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised/Test of Everyday Attention for Children at Five), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function...... hypothyroxinemia. Conclusions: Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was of importance, whereas for motor function, executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia...

  16. Education Attainment and Parity Explain the Relationship Between Maternal Age and Breastfeeding Duration in U.S. Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipps, Mackenzie D M

    2017-02-01

    Prior research in high-income countries finds that young mothers tend to breastfeed their infants for shorter durations than older mothers; however, there are gaps in our understanding of the processes by which age influences breastfeeding. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to test the mediating effects of parity and education attainment on the association between maternal age and two breastfeeding outcomes: total duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. This study was a secondary data analysis of the IFPS II, a prospective, longitudinal study of ~ 4,900 American mothers. Robust and bias-corrected regression analyses tested the direct effect of age and the indirect effects of age through parity and education for each outcome of interest. Parity and education attainment together explain nearly all of the association between maternal age and both measures of breastfeeding duration. The mediating role of education is significantly larger than parity for both outcomes. These findings indicate that maternal age primarily indexes parity and education but contributes minimally to breastfeeding duration via a direct effect. The findings have implications for intervention development and targeting strategies.

  17. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  18. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Géa‐Horta

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter‐sectoral interventions.

  19. Maternal education and diarrhea among children aged 0-24 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood diarrhea remains a problem in countries like Nigeria where access to potable water, good hygiene and sanitation are lacking. Maternal education is an important determinant of health status of under-five children. Very few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal education and diarrhea in ...

  20. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  1. Maternal perinatal mental health and offspring academic achievement at age 16: the mediating role of childhood executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rebecca M; Bornstein, Marc H; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have investigated the association between perinatal maternal depression and poor academic achievement in adolescence. The pathways to explain the risks are also unclear. Prospective observational data from 5,801 parents and adolescents taking part in a large UK population cohort (Avon-Longitudinal-Study-of-Parents-and-Children) were used to test associations between maternal and paternal depression and anxiety in the perinatal period, executive function (EF) at age 8, and academic achievement at the end of compulsory school at age 16. Adolescents of postnatally depressed mothers were 1.5 times (1.19, 1.94, p = .001) as likely as adolescents of nondepressed mothers to fail to achieve a 'pass' grade in math; antenatal anxiety was also an independent predictor of poor math. Disruption in different components of EF explained small but significant proportions of these associations: attentional control explained 16% (4%, 27%, p working memory explained 17% (13%, 30%, p = .003) of the association with antenatal anxiety. A similar pattern was seen for language grades, but associations were confounded by maternal education. There was no evidence that paternal factors were independently associated with impaired child EF or adolescent exams. Maternal postnatal depression and antenatal anxiety are risk factors for adolescents underachieving in math. Preventing, identifying, and treating maternal mental health in the perinatal period could, therefore, potentially increase adolescents' academic achievement. Different aspects of EF partially mediated these associations. Further work is needed, but if these pathways are causal, improving EF could reduce

  2. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12–23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010–11 from Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010–2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. Results The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12–23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother’s education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Discussion Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother’s health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children’s vaccination status. Given the

  3. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12-23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010-11 from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12-23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010-2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12-23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother's education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother's health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children's vaccination status. Given the results of this study, it is strongly recommended that the

  4. Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study

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    Gordon Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal age is a known risk factor for stillbirth and delayed childbearing is a societal norm in developed country settings. The timing and reasons for age being a risk factor are less clear. This study aimed to document the gestational specific risk of maternal age throughout pregnancy and whether the underlying causes of stillbirth differ for older women. Methods Using linkage of state maternity and perinatal death data collections the authors assessed risk factors for antepartum stillbirth in New South Wales Australia for births between 2002 – 2006 (n = 327,690 using a Cox proportional hazards model. Gestational age specific risk was calculated for different maternal age groups. Deaths were classified according to the Perinatal Mortality Classifications of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. Results Maternal age was a significant independent risk factor for antepartum stillbirth (35 – 39 years HR 1.4 95% CI 1.12 – 1.75; ≥ 40 years HR 2.41 95% CI 1.8 – 3.23. Other significant risk factors were smoking HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.56 –2.12 nulliparity HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08 – 1.40, pre-existing hypertension HR 2.77 (95% CI 1.94 – 3.97 and pre-existing diabetes HR 2.65 (95% CI 1.63 – 4.32. For women aged 40 or over the risk of antepartum stillbirth beyond 40 weeks was 1 in 455 ongoing pregnancies compared with 1 in 1177 ongoing pregnancies for those under 40. This risk was increased in nulliparous women to 1 in 247 ongoing pregnancies. Unexplained stillbirths were the most common classification for all women, stillbirths classified as perinatal infection were more common in the women aged 40 or above. Conclusions Women aged 35 or older in a first pregnancy should be counselled regarding stillbirth risk at the end of pregnancy to assist with informed decision making regarding delivery. For women aged 40 or older in their first pregnancy it would be reasonable to offer induction of labour by 40 weeks

  5. Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010

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    Michael J. Fassett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (. Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%. From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, -value for trend <.001, Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, -value for trend <.001, Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, -value for trend <.001, and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, -value for trend <.001. The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%, term 138% (108%–173%], for Blacks [preterm 24% (−9%–81%, term 62% (30%–101%], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%, term 135% (114%–159%], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%, term 145% (109%–188%]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation.

  6. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Campbell, James; Guerra-Arias, Maria; de Bernis, Luc; Moran, Allisyn; Matthews, Zoë

    2014-01-04

    The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery

  7. Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Low Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery: a Within-Family Analysis Using Finnish Population Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisis, Alice; Remes, Hanna; Barclay, Kieron; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (family models (children born to different mothers at different ages) with within-family models (children born to the same mother at different ages). The latter procedure reduces confounding by unobserved parental characteristics that are shared by siblings. We used Finnish population registers, including 124,098 children born during 1987–2000. When compared with maternal ages 25–29 years in between-family models, maternal ages of 35–39 years and ≥40 years were associated with percentage increases of 1.1 points (95% confidence intervals: 0.8, 1.4) and 2.2 points (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 2.9), respectively, in the probability of low birth weight. The associations are similar for the risk of preterm delivery. In within-family models, the relationship between advanced maternal age and low birth weight or preterm birth is statistically and substantively negligible. In Finland, advanced maternal age is not independently associated with the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery among mothers who have had at least 2 live births. PMID:29206985

  8. Asian/White differences in the relationship of maternal age to low birth weight: Analysis of the PRAMS Survey, 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine (a maternal age patterns of low birth weight (LBW; birth weight < 2,500 g for non-Hispanic (N-H Asian and N-H White women, and (b Asian–White gaps in LBW risk by maternal age and their mechanisms. Logistic regression analyses were performed on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data of N-H Asian and N-H White women who delivered their first singleton birth without birth defects in 13 states between 2004 and 2011. Age- and race/ethnicity-specific LBW risk was estimated, unadjusted and adjusted for maternal risk factors (e.g., marital status, maternal education, pregnancy intention, stress, maternal morbidities, smoking, and prenatal care and their interactions with maternal age or race/ethnicity. The interaction between maternal age and race/ethnicity was statistically significant (p < .0001 with covariates and interactions held constant. N-H Asian women showed a reverse W-shaped maternal-age pattern of LBW with the highest risk in their late 30s (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.26, 1.94] whereas N-H White women experienced a maternal age-related increase in LBW. N-H Asian women were more likely to deliver LBW infant than their N-H White counterparts between their late 20s and late 30s, with the greatest racial/ethnic gap in their late 20s (OR = 4.19, 95% CI [3.33, 5.29]. Preventive strategies should be developed targeting N-H Asian women aged 25 to 39 years to reduce the Asian–White disparities in LBW. Considering the known maternal risk factors failed to explain such disparities, future research is warranted to explore other risk factors unique to this at-risk population.

  9. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

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    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for

  10. Risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury increases with maternal age irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Ulla; Ekéus, Cecilia

    2017-09-15

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is a rare but serious outcome of vaginal birth. Based on concerns about the increasing number of women who commence childbearing later than previous generation, this study aimed at investigating age-related risk of OASI in women of different parity. A population-based register study including 959,559 live singleton vaginal births recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1999 to 2011. In each parity group risks of OASI at age 25-29 years, 30-34 years, and ≥35 years compared with age birth, education, region of birth, smoking, Body Mass Index, infant birthweight and fetal presentation; and in parous women, history of OASI and cesarean section. Additional analyses also adjusted for mediating factors, such as epidural analgesia, episiotomy, and instrumental delivery, and maternal age-related morbidity. Rates of OASI were 6.6%, 2.3% and 0.9% in first, second and third births respectively. Age-related risk increased from 25-29 years in first births (Adjusted OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.59-1.72) and second births (Adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.58-2.01), and from 30-34 years in third births (Adjusted OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.00-2.56). In all parity groups the risk was doubled at age ≥ 35 years, compared with the respective reference group of women under 25 years. Adding mediating factors and maternal age-related morbidity only marginally reduced these risk estimates. Maternal age is an independent risk factor for OASI in first, second and third births. Although age-related risks by parity are relatively similar, more nulliparous than parous women will be exposed to OASI due to the higher baseline rate.

  11. Evaluating the Agreement of Risk Categorization for Fetal Down Syndrome Screening between Ultrasound-Based Gestational Age and Menstrual-Based Gestational Age by Maternal Serum Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaksuwat, Pakorn; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the agreement of risk categorization for Down syndrome screening between ultrasound scan-based gestational age (GA) and last menstrual period-based gestational age in both first and second trimesters by maternal serum markers. Data comprising 4,055 and 4,016 cases of first and second trimester screening were used. The maternal serum markers were analyzed using the ultrasound-based GA and menstrual age. The subjects whose menstrual age and ultrasound-based GA fell in different trimesters were excluded because the risk could not be calculated due to the different serum markers used in each trimester. The agreement of risk categorization for fetal Down syndrome was evaluated. The agreement of Down syndrome screening in the first and the second trimesters were 92.7% and 89%, respectively. The study found a good agreement of risk categorization by Kappa index, which was 0.615 for the overall screening. The menstrual age had a slight decrease in the detection rate and a lower false-positive rate. Menstrual age is acceptable in cases of accurate last menstrual period. However, in places where ultrasonography is not readily available, gestational age estimation by menstrual age along with clinical examination that corresponds to the gestational age can be reliable.

  12. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-05-01

    Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.

  13. The effect of maternal age and reproductive history on offspring survival and lifetime reproduction in preindustrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Duncan O S; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-07-01

    Senescence is one of the least understood aspects of organism life history. In part, this stems from the relatively late advent of complete individual-level datasets and appropriate statistical tools. In addition, selection against senescence should depend on the contribution to population growth arising from physiological investment in offspring at given ages, but offspring are rarely tracked over their entire lives. Here, we use a multigenerational dataset of preindustrial (1732-1860) Finns to describe the association of maternal age at offspring birth with offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We then conduct longitudinal analyses to understand the drivers of this association. At the population level, offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) declined by 22% and individual λ, which falls with delays to reproduction, declined by 45% as maternal age at offspring birth increased from 16 to 50 years. These results were mediated by within-mother declines in offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We also found evidence for modifying effects of offspring sex and maternal socioeconomic status. We suggest that our results emerge from the interaction of physiological with social drivers of offspring LRS, which further weakens selection on late-age reproduction and potentially molds the rate of senescence in humans. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, George M; Walker, Kate; Morris, Joan K

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Records of prenatal and postnatal diagnoses from seven UK regional congenital anomaly registers and two Australian registers covering 4.5 million births included 975 diagnoses of trisomy 13 and 2254 of trisomy 18. Prevalence at birth in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination was calculated by adjusting for prenatally diagnosed pregnancies that were terminated according to their likelihood of surviving to term. The live birth prevalence in the absence of prenatal screening and selective termination in England and Wales from 1997 to 2004 was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) per 10 000 births for trisomy 13 and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) for trisomy 18. It has increased since 1989-1996, by 13% for trisomy 13 and 25% for trisomy 18. These increases are consistent with those predicted due to increases in maternal age. This study provides the first estimates of maternal age-specific prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 for women aged 16-45. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Impact of maternal undernutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in sheep at different ages postnatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadio, S E; Kotsampasi, B; Papadomichelakis, G; Deligeorgis, S; Kalogiannis, D; Menegatos, I; Zervas, G

    2007-03-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data support the hypothesis of 'fetal programming', which proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status lead to permanent adaptations in fetal homeostatic mechanisms, producing long-term changes in physiology and determine susceptibility to later disease. Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been proposed to play an important role in programming of disease risk. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal nutrient restriction imposed during different periods of gestation on the HPA axis function in sheep, at different ages postnatal. Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from days 0-30 (group R1, n = 7), or from days 31-100 of gestation (group R2, n = 7) or a control 100% diet throughout pregnancy, (Control, n = 8). Blood samples were collected at 10-day intervals from day 40 of gestation to term. Lambs were born naturally and fed to appetite throughout the study period. At 2, 5.5, and 10 months of age lambs were given an i.v. injection of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection. Maternal cortisol levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group R1 compared with the other two groups, whereas maternal insulin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in group R2 compared with control. Birth weight of lambs was not affected by the maternal nutritional manipulation. The area under the curve for ACTH and cortisol response to CRH challenge was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs of group R1 at two months of age, whereas no difference was detected at the ages of 5.5 and 10 months. However, significantly higher (P < 0.01) basal cortisol levels were observed in lambs of R1 group at 5.5 months of age. There was no interaction between treatment and sex for both pituitary and adrenal responses to the challenge. A significant sex effect was evident with females responding with higher ACTH and

  16. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  17. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  18. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  19. Older maternal age and major depressive episodes in the first two years after birth: findings from the Parental Age and Transition to Parenthood Australia (PATPA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Catherine A; Boivin, Jacky; Gibson, Frances L; Hammarberg, Karin; Wynter, Karen; Fisher, Jane R W

    2015-04-01

    This study examines whether (1) older maternal age is associated with increased risk of depressive episodes between four months and two years after first birth and (2) the role of subsequent reproductive, social and child factors in vulnerability to later onset depression. 592 women were recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy in three age-groups (≤ 30 years; 31-36 years,≥37 years); 434 (73%) completed all assessments at four months and two years after birth. Major Depression episodes (MDE) were assessed at four months and two years using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Maternal (age, mode of conception, prior mood symptoms, health), child (temperament, health), reproductive (subsequent fertility treatment, pregnancy, birth, pregnancy loss) and social contextual variables (language background, paid work, practical support, life stresses) were assessed in pregnancy and postnatally using validated questionnaires and structured interview questions. Maternal age was not related to prevalence or timing of MDE. Depression symptoms, poor child health, low practical support at four months and a non-English language background predicted episodes of depression between four months and two years, ps two years after birth. Prevalence for the whole sample was at the lower end of reported community ranges and was comparable early and later in the postpartum period. Screening for depression after childbirth should not be restricted to the early months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Systemic Interleukin-6 During Pregnancy Is Associated With Newborn Amygdala Phenotypes and Subsequent Behavior at 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Heim, Christine M; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Potkin, Steven G; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A; Buss, Claudia

    2018-01-15

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for offspring psychiatric disorders and other adverse long-term health outcomes. The influence of inflammation on the developing fetal brain is hypothesized as one potential mechanism but has not been examined in humans. Participants were adult women (N = 86) who were recruited during early pregnancy and whose offspring were born after 34 weeks' gestation. A biological indicator of maternal inflammation (interleukin-6) that has been shown to influence fetal brain development in animal models was quantified serially in early, mid-, and late pregnancy. Structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in neonates shortly after birth. Infants' amygdalae were individually segmented for measures of volume and as seeds for resting state functional connectivity. At 24 months of age, children completed a snack delay task to assess impulse control. Higher average maternal interleukin-6 concentration during pregnancy was prospectively associated with larger right amygdala volume and stronger bilateral amygdala connectivity to brain regions involved in sensory processing and integration (fusiform, somatosensory cortex, and thalamus), salience detection (anterior insula), and learning and memory (caudate and parahippocampal gyrus). Larger newborn right amygdala volume and stronger left amygdala connectivity were in turn associated with lower impulse control at 24 months of age, and mediated the association between higher maternal interleukin-6 concentrations and lower impulse control. These findings provide new evidence in humans linking maternal inflammation during pregnancy with newborn brain and emerging behavioral phenotypes relevant for psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of intrauterine conditions that influence offspring disease susceptibility is warranted to inform targeted early intervention and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry

  1. Communication about HIV and death: Maternal reports of primary school-aged children's questions after maternal HIV disclosure in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Lubbe, Anina M; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Bland, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    according to maternal report. In sub-Saharan Africa, given exposure to death at young ages, meeting children's informational needs could increase their resilience. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A

    2016-01-22

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  3. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hazart , J.; Le Guennec , D.; Accoceberry , M.; LEMERY , D.; Mulliez , A.; Farigon , N.; Lahaye , C.; Miolanne-Debouit , M.; Boirie , Yves

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements inta...

  4. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be

  5. Periconception maternal smoking and low education are associated with methylation of INSIGF in children at the age of 17 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann-Borst, S A; Heijmans, B T; Eilers, P H C; Tobi, E W; Steegers, E A P; Slagboom, P E; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2012-10-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy and a low socioeconomic status (SES) lead to increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcome. Maternal education is often used as proxy for SES. We explored the programming of the insulin pathway genes IGF2 DMR (insulin growth factor 2 differentially methylated region), IGF2R (insulin growth factor 2 receptor) and INSIGF [the overlapping region of IGF2 and insulin (INS)] in the child through any periconception maternal smoking and education level. In 120 children at 17 months of age, methylation of DNA derived from white blood cells was measured. Periconception smoking and low education were independently associated with INSIGF methylation and showed a relative increase in methylation of +1.3%; P = 0.043 and +1.6%; P = 0.021. Smoking and low education showed an additive effect on INSIGF methylation (+2.8%; P = 0.011). There were no associations with IGF2 DMR and IGF2R methylation. Our data suggest that periconception maternal smoking and low education are associated with epigenetic marks on INSIGF in the very young child, this warrants further study in additional populations.

  6. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  7. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  8. Influence of Second-Trimester Ultrasound Markers for Down Syndrome in Pregnant Women of Advanced Maternal Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Rumi Kataguiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of second-trimester ultrasound markers on the incidence of Down syndrome among pregnant women of advanced maternal age. This was a retrospective cohort study on 889 singleton pregnancies between the 14th and 30th weeks, with maternal age ≥ 35 years, which would undergo genetic amniocentesis. The second-trimester ultrasound assessed the following markers: increased nuchal fold thickness, cardiac hyperechogenic focus, mild ventriculomegaly, choroid plexus cysts, uni- or bilateral renal pyelectasis, intestinal hyperechogenicity, single umbilical artery, short femur and humerus length, hand/foot alterations, structural fetal malformation, and congenital heart disease. To investigate differences between the groups with and without markers, nonparametric tests consisting of the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used. Moreover, odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Out of the 889 pregnant women, 131 (17.3% presented markers and 758 (82.7% did not present markers on the second-trimester ultrasound. Increased nuchal fold (P<0.001 and structural malformation (P<0.001 were the markers most associated with Down syndrome. The presence of one marker increased the relative risk 10.5-fold, while the presence of two or more markers increased the risk 13.5-fold. The presence of markers on the second-trimester ultrasound, especially thickened nuchal fold and structural malformation, increased the risk of Down syndrome among pregnant women with advanced maternal age.

  9. The experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrighi, Juliane Dias; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Souza, Silvana Regina Rossi Kissula; Cancela, Franciane Zabloski Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To identify in the literature how the experiences of women age 35 or above are described in terms of pregnancy. Integrative review based on MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, with no time period constraint. Eighteen studies that dealt with the experiences of pregnant women at an advanced maternal age were selected and analyzed. The studies evidenced four theme categories: the search for information, which pointed to a deficit of information supplied by health care professionals; perceiving the risks, which pointed to women's concerns about their own health and their children's; the ideal moment for motherhood, with different reasons for postponing it; and adjusting to a new routine, showing a concern regarding changes in daily life. From the results, it was possible to understand that other factors, in addition to those that include risks, are present in the experiences of older pregnant women and point to a need to involve such aspects in nursing care to create comprehensive strategies that are aligned with these women's needs. Identificar na literatura como são descritas as experiências das mulheres com idade igual ou superior a 35 anos na gestação. Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e SciELO, sem restrição de período. Foram selecionados e analisados 18 estudos que tratavam das experiências das mulheres na gestação em idade avançada. Os estudos evidenciaram quatro categorias temáticas: A busca por informações, que mostrou aspectos como deficit de informações fornecidas pelos profissionais da saúde;Percebendo os riscos, que apontou uma preocupação da mulher com a própria saúde e a do filho;Momento ideal para a maternidade, com diferentes motivos para o adiamento; e Adaptação à nova rotina, com a preocupação em relação às mudanças no cotidiano. A partir dos resultados, foi possível compreender que outros fatores, além dos que incluem os riscos, permeiam as experi

  10. Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christina E; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Baker, Philip N; Challis, John R G; Jones, Rebecca L

    2012-01-15

    Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P teenagers than in adults (P teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

  11. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Quality of Maternal Parenting of 9-Month-Old Infants Predicts Executive Function Performance at 2 and 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanhua Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.

  13. Maternal prenatal stress and child atopic dermatitis up to age 2 years: The Ulm SPATZ health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, Stefanie; Weiss, Johannes M; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Evidence linking maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy to subsequent child atopic dermatitis (AD) is growing, but the definition of AD is diverse and results are inconsistent. We aimed to analyze the relationship between stress and AD using alternative measurements of stress and AD. In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, chronic stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized self-reported questionnaires in 934 mothers of singletons following delivery in Ulm, Germany, from 04/2012-05/2013. Maternal hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs, n = 626) at childbirth and the cumulative incidences of parent-reported child AD symptoms, parent-, and pediatrician-reported AD diagnoses were assessed until age 2 years (n = 787). Overall, 205 dermatologic examinations were performed in 167 children showing AD symptoms. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR, aRR) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Maternal stress and anxiety were associated with child AD symptoms by trend (RR and aRR: 1.5 (1.0,2.3) for the highest vs. the lowest quarter of chronic stress; aRR: 1.4 (1.0,2.0) for possible anxiety symptoms vs. no symptoms). No relationship was found between stress or related constructs and AD diagnoses nor could we show consistent associations between maternal HCC and child AD. However, a higher RR of child AD was evident in families not yet affected by AD in siblings given maternal depressive symptoms, examined in the crude model. Stress measurements or related constructs are linked to AD symptoms, but association with AD diagnoses is limited. The reason for this divergence still needs further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  15. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  16. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  17. The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the postvaccinal response against swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2011-07-15

    The influence of age and maternal immunity on the development and duration of postvaccinal humoral response against swine influenza viruses (SIV) were investigated under experimental conditions. Piglets born to immune and non-immune sows were vaccinated twice with bivalent inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to 5 different schedules: 1+4, 1+8, 4+8, 8+10 or 8+12 weeks of age. Antibodies to the haemagglutinin type 1 and 3 were determined using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against H1N1 and H3N2 in the serum of unvaccinated piglets born to immune sows were above the positive level until about 13-14 and 9-10 weeks of life, respectively. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. After the second dose of vaccine production of antibodies was observed even before the complete disappearance of maternal antibodies. MDA, however, were associated with reduced antibody response. In MDA-negative piglets, an active humoral postvaccinal response was developed in all vaccinated pigs. The age at which the vaccine was given was associated with the differences in the magnitude of antibody response to SIV. In general those pigs that were vaccinated for the first time at the age of 1 week, developed lower maximum titres after the second vaccination, and become seronegative earlier than pigs that were vaccinated for the first time at 4 or 8 weeks of age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  20. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  1. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  2. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C

    2013-01-01

    the generalizability. STUDY FUNDING/POTENTIAL COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was co-financed by PhD scholarships where funding was covered by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, Copenhagen Graduate School of Health Science (CGSHS) and the Fertility Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital...... this prospective cohort whose mothers' age at natural menopause was known. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS: Participants were recruited from female health care workers aged 20-40 years employed at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, and were enrolled in the study between September 2008 and February...... 2010. The response rate was 52.1%. Endocrine and ovarian parameters related to reproductive ageing (AMH and AFC) were assessed by serum AMH analyses and transvaginal ovarian sonography on cycle Day 2-5. Data on reproductive history, including age at natural maternal menopause, were obtained through...

  3. Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2011-08-01

    The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies.

  4. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional

  5. Association between Pesticide Profiles Used on Agricultural Fields near Maternal Residences during Pregnancy and IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric; Gunier, Robert; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Molitor, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-05-09

    We previously showed that potential prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, yet the effects of joint exposure to multiple pesticides is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate associations between the joint distribution of agricultural use patterns of multiple pesticides (denoted as "pesticide profiles") applied near maternal residences during pregnancy and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) at 7 years of age. Among a cohort of children residing in California's Salinas Valley, we used Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data to characterize potential exposure from use within 1 km of maternal residences during pregnancy for 15 potentially neurotoxic pesticides from five different chemical classes. We used Bayesian profile regression (BPR) to examine associations between clustered pesticide profiles and deficits in childhood FSIQ. BPR identified eight distinct clusters of prenatal pesticide profiles. Two of the pesticide profile clusters exhibited some of the highest cumulative pesticide use levels and were associated with deficits in adjusted FSIQ of -6.9 (95% credible interval: -11.3, -2.2) and -6.4 (95% credible interval: -13.1, 0.49), respectively, when compared with the pesticide profile cluster that showed the lowest level of pesticides use. Although maternal residence during pregnancy near high agricultural use of multiple neurotoxic pesticides was associated with FSIQ deficit, the magnitude of the associations showed potential for sub-additive effects. Epidemiologic analysis of pesticides and their potential health effects can benefit from a multi-pollutant approach to analysis.

  6. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Angquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    body mass index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. Design: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal......ABSTRACT Background: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. Objective: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal...... interviews during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  7. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data...... was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did...

  8. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. AGG interruptions and maternal age affect FMR1 CGG repeat allele stability during transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Martorell, Loreto; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Naudo, Montserrat; Genoves, Jordi; Murgia, Alessandra; Polli, Roberta; Zhou, Lili; Barbouth, Deborah; Rupchock, Abigail; Finucane, Brenda; Latham, Gary J; Hadd, Andrew; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeat locus of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene decreases the instability of the allele during transmission from parent to child, and decreases the risk of expansion of a premutation allele to a full mutation allele (the predominant cause of fragile X syndrome) during maternal transmission. Methods To strengthen recent findings on the utility of AGG interruptions in predicting instability or expansion to a full mutation of...

  10. The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Mørch; Grøn, Randi; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-07-01

    Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR = 1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

  11. Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; de Albuquerque Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício; Alvarado, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2014-03-31

    Early maternal age at first birth and elevated parity may have long-term consequences for the health of women as they age. Both are known risk factors for obstetrical complications with lifelong associated morbidities. They may also be related to diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. We examine the relationship between early maternal age at first birth, defined as ≤18 years of age, multiparity (>2 births), and poor physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery≤8) in community samples of women between 65 and 74 years of age from Canada, Albania, Colombia, and Brazil (N=1040). Data were collected in 2012 to provide a baseline assessment for a longitudinal cohort called the International Mobility in Aging Study. We used logistic regression and general linear models to analyse the data. Early maternal age at first birth is significantly associated with diabetes, chronic lung disease, high blood pressure, and poor physical performance in women at older ages. Parity was not independently associated with chronic conditions and physical performance in older age. After adjustment for study site, age, education, childhood economic adversity and lifetime births, women who gave birth at a young age had 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17-2.64) the odds of poor SPPB compared to women who gave birth>18 years of age. Adjustment for chronic diseases attenuated the association between early first birth and physical performance. Results were weaker in Colombia and Brazil, than Canada and Albania. This study provides evidence that adolescent childbirth may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases and physical limitations in older age. Results likely reflect both the biological and social consequences of early childbearing and if the observed relationship is causal, it reinforces the importance of providing contraception and sex education to young women, as the consequences of early pregnancy may be life-long.

  12. Advanced maternal age: ethical and medical considerations for assisted reproductive technology

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison,Brittany; Hilton,Tara; Rivière,Raphaël; Ferraro,Zachary; Deonandan,Raywat; Walker,Mark

    2017-01-01

    Brittany J Harrison,1 Tara N Hilton,1 Raphaël N Rivière,1 Zachary M Ferraro,1–3 Raywat Deonandan,4 Mark C Walker1–3,51Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 4University of Ottawa Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5...

  13. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child psychosocial development at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Sharma, Andrea J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N

    2015-05-01

    Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children's health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother-child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children's development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80-11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10-8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09-4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33-2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5-24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child's birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. published in the public domain by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    <strong>Background and Objectives: strong>Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.<strong>

     

    >Methods: strong>In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    <strong>Results: strong>In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48<strong>±>6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89<strong>±>3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.<strong>strong>

     

    >Conclusion: strong>The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.<strong>>

  15. The Contribution of Maternal ADHD Symptomatology, Maternal DAT1, and Home Atmosphere to Child ADHD Symptomatology at 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith G; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Berger, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Children of mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. The unique and interactive contributions of a maternal dopamine receptor gene (DAT1), maternal ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive), and home atmosphere to the prediction of ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive) in 7- year-old boys (N = 96) were examined using data from a longitudinal study of familial risk for ADHD. During the first 6 months of the study, mothers and their spouses completed a questionnaire about the mother's ADHD symptoms. Home atmosphere questionnaire data were collected 4 years later. At the 7-year assessment, mothers reported on their child's ADHD symptoms. Negative home atmosphere was significantly associated with child hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms. Maternal inattentive symptoms were significantly correlated with both child symptom dimensions. Regression models, with child genotype and maternal education controlled, showed main effects for maternal inattentive symptoms, maternal DAT1 10/10 genotype, and home atmosphere in the prediction of child inattentive symptoms. Only home atmosphere predicted child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was a significant home atmosphere x maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms interaction in the prediction of child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Boys with higher levels of symptoms came from homes characterized by higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with higher levels of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was also a trend (p = 0.075) for a maternal DAT1 x home atmosphere interaction. Boys with higher levels of inattentive symptoms came from homes with higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with the homozygous 10/10 genotype. The maternal heterozygous 9/10 genotype did not predict child symptoms.

  16. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and Age at First Reproduction in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952

  17. Risks of Overweight and Abdominal Obesity at Age 16 Years Associated With Prenatal Exposures to Maternal Prepregnancy Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkola, Jatta; Pouta, Anneli; Bloigu, Aini; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The associations of prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with offspring overweight are controversial. Research estimating risk for offspring overweight due to these exposures, separately and concomitantly, is limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity at age 16 years and odds ratios (ORs) for prenatal exposures to maternal prepregnancy overweight and GDM were estimated in participants ...

  18. Impulse oscillometry at preschool age is a strong predictor of lung function by flow-volume spirometry in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauhkonen, Eero; Riikonen, Riikka; Törmänen, Sari; Koponen, Petri; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Helminen, Merja; Toikka, Jyri; Korppi, Matti

    2018-05-01

    The transition from early childhood wheezing to persistent asthma is linked to lung function impairment over time. Little is known how the methods used to study lung function at different ages correlate longitudinally. Sixty-four children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis before 6 months of age were prospectively studied with impulse oscillometry (IOS) at the mean age of 6.3 years and these preschool IOS results were compared with flow-volume spirometry (FVS) measurements at mean age of 11.4 years. The baseline respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5) showed a modest statistically significant correlation with all baseline FVS parameters except FVC. The post-bronchodilator (post-BD) Rrs5 showed a modest statistically significant correlation with post-BD FEV 1 and FEV 1 /FVC. The bronchodilator-induced decrease in Rrs5 showed a modest statistically significant correlation with the percent increase in FEV 1 . Baseline and post-BD respiratory reactance at 5 Hz (Xrs5) showed a modest statistically significant correlation with baseline and post-BD FVS parameters except post-BD FEV 1 /FVC, respectively, and post-BD Xrs5 showed a strong correlation with post-BD FVC (ρ = 0.61) and post-BD FEV 1 (ρ = 0.59). In adjusted linear regression, preschool Xrs5 remained as a statistically significant independent predictor of FVS parameters in adolescence; the one-unit decrease in the Z-score of preschool post-BD Xrs5 predicted 9.6% lower post-BD FEV 1 , 9.3% lower post-BD FVC, and 9.7% lower post-BD MEF 50 when expressed as %-predicted parameters. Persistent post-BD small airway impairment in children with a history of bronchiolitis detected with IOS at preschool age predicted FVS results measured in early adolescence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mortality among children under the age of one: analysis of cases after discharge from maternity *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieni Paula dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze infant death after discharge from maternity in the time period between 2000 and 2013. METHOD A cross-sectional retrospective quantitative study in a municipality northward in the state of Paraná. Data were analyzed using the SPSS®, and were subjected to Chi-square test, logistical regression, 95% confidence interval, and a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS Two hundred forty-nine children were born, discharged from maternity and subsequently died; 10.1% in the neonatal period and 89.9% in the post-neonatal period. Pregnancy follow-up, birth, and child monitoring took place mainly in the public health system. There was a statistically significant association between the infant component and place of delivery (p =0.002; RR=1.143; IC95%=1.064-1.229, and a lower number of childcare medical visits (p =0.001; RR=1.294; IC95%=1.039-1.613. The causes of death in the neonatal period were perinatal conditions (40%; external causes (32%; and congenital malformations (20%. In the post-neonatal period, congenital malformations (29.9%, external causes (24.1%; and infectious-parasitic diseases (11.2% were the causes of death. CONCLUSION Virtually all children were born in conditions of good vitality that were worsened due to potentially preventable diseases that led to death.

  20. A randomized controlled study on the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine against enzootic pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) and porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassis, Panagiotis D; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tzika, Eleni D

    2017-04-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) has been suggested as a significant immediate defence factor for newborn piglets and may interfere with piglet's vaccination-induced immunity. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine (consisting of PCV2 subunits and inactivated M. hyo strain J), against PCV2 and M. hyo natural infection [Porcilis ® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands)], in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity (antibody titre averaged 11.08 log 2 ), under field conditions. The study was performed according to a controlled, randomized and blinded design in a Greek swine unit with Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and subclinical PCV2 infection. In total, 600 healthy three-week-old suckling piglets were allocated randomly, either to treatment (vaccinated with the test product) or control group (injected with sterile buffered saline). Vaccination significantly reduced the severity of lung lesions at slaughter (lesions of cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation) (P pigs. Furthermore, 25 g higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) was observed during the finishing phase (P < 0.001) and 18 g greater ADWG overall (P < 0.001). Results of LLS, PCV2 viremia and ADWG support the test product's efficacy in the face of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity.

  1. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (Child obesity prevention interventions may be differentially effective according to maternal education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.

  2. Maternal Western diet age-specifically alters female offspring voluntary physical activity and dopamine- and leptin-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Grigsby, Kolter B; Kelty, Taylor J; Zidon, Terese M; Childs, Thomas E; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Klinkebiel, David L; Matheny, Michael; Scarpace, Phillip J; Booth, Frank W

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal overnutrition affects development into adulthood and influences risk of obesity. We assessed the transgenerational effect of maternal Western diet (WD) consumption on offspring physical activity. Voluntary wheel running was increased in juvenile (4-7 wk of age), but decreased in adult (16-19 wk of age), F 1 female WD offspring In contrast, no wheel-running differences in F 1 male offspring were observed. Increased wheel running in juvenile female WD offspring was associated with up-regulated dopamine receptor (DRD)-1 and -2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and with down-regulated Lepr in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Conversely, decreased wheel running by adult female WD offspring was associated with down-regulated DRD1 in the NAc and with up-regulated Lepr in the VTA. Body fat, leptin, and insulin were increased in male, but not in female, F 1 WD offspring. Recombinant virus (rAAV) leptin antagonism in the VTA decreased wheel running in standard diet but not in WD F 1 female offspring. Analysis of F 2 offspring found no differences in wheel running or adiposity in male or female offspring, suggesting that changes in the F 1 generation were related to in utero somatic reprogramming. Our findings indicate prenatal WD exposure leads to age-specific changes in voluntary physical activity in female offspring that are differentially influenced by VTA leptin antagonism.-Ruegsegger, G. N., Grigsby, K. B., Kelty, T. J., Zidon, T. M., Childs, T. E., Vieira-Potter, V. J., Klinkebiel, D. L., Matheny, M., Scarpace, P. J., Booth, F. W. Maternal Western diet age-specifically alters female offspring voluntary physical activity and dopamine- and leptin-related gene expression. © FASEB.

  3. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-04-01

    Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ≤ 4.1 × 10(-5)) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10(-18)), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

  4. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort...... comprising obese mothers (SKOT II, n=184; SKOT, Danish abbreviation of small children's diet and well-being) with a cohort consisting mainly of nonobese mothers (SKOT I, n=329).Subjects/Methods:Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day records, and dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...

  5. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. CONCLUSIONS: PTB rates increased...

  6. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth. *Baba UA1 .... SD = Standard deviation, CI = Confidence interval, GA = Gestational age, MA = Maternal age, BW = Birth .... In order to eliminate measles in children in our setting,.

  7. HIV self-care practices during pregnancy and maternal health outcomes among HIV-positive postnatal mothers aged 18-35 years at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodzo, Lilian Gertrude; Mahaka, Hilda Tandazani; Mukona, Doreen; Zvinavashe, Mathilda; Haruzivishe, Clara

    2017-06-01

    HIV-related conditions are one of the indirect causes of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe and the prevalence rate was estimated to be 13.63% in 2009. The study utilised a descriptive correlational design on 80 pregnant women who were HIV positive at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants comprised a random sample of 80 postnatal mothers. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the respective review boards. Participants signed an informed consent. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and record review from 1 to 20 March 2012. Interviews were done in a private room and code numbers were used to identify the participants. Completed questionnaires were kept in a lockable cupboard and the researcher had sole access to them. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data on demographics, maternal health outcomes and self-care practices. Inferential statistics (Pearson's correlation and regression analysis) were used to analyse the relationship between self-care practices and maternal health outcomes. Self-care practices were good with a mean score of 8 out of 16. Majority (71.3%) fell within the good category. Maternal outcomes were poor with a mean score of 28 out of 62 and 67.5% falling in the poor category. Pearson's correlation indicated a weak significant positive relationship (r = .317, p = <.01). Regression analysis (R 2 ) was .10 implying that self-care practices explained 10% of the variance observed in maternal health outcomes. More research needs to be carried out to identify other variables affecting maternal outcomes in HIV-positive pregnant women.

  8. Maternal Thyroid Function in Pregnancy may Program Offspring Blood Pressure, but not Adiposity at 20 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30 of gest...... circumference. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function during third trimester of pregnancy may affect long-term blood pressure in the offspring....

  9. Influence of age on the effectiveness of PCV2 vaccination in piglets with high levels of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Michael; Palzer, Andreas; Rist, Beate; Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Fachinger, Vicky; Eggen, Alex; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2014-01-31

    Two field studies were conducted to investigate the influence of age on the efficacy of vaccination against Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD) in animals with high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 416 piglets (Study 1) and 600 piglets (Study 2) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Two groups in each study received a single dose of a PCV2 subunit vaccine, one group at 1 week old and the other at 3 weeks of age. The third group was left untreated. Animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed a significantly higher average daily weight gain and significantly reduced viraemia following PCV2 infection than the respective control groups. This difference was not observed in pigs vaccinated at 1 week of age. Furthermore, only animals vaccinated at 3 weeks of age showed an increased serological response and a higher frequency of IgM-positive animals compared with controls. The data indicated that PCV2 vaccination in the presence of high MDA levels is efficacious when used in 3-week old but not in 1-week old pigs. As the range of MDA titres of pigs vaccinated at both 1 and 3 weeks of age were comparable, the data suggest that PCV2 vaccine efficacy was independent of the level of MDA. It appears that other age-related factors affecting the active and passive transfer of immunity may perhaps have interfered with the efficacy of the vaccine in 1-week old piglets. These findings have implications for future PCV2 vaccine testing and administration strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y: results from a Danish cohort of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Strøm, Marin; Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Hjort, Line; Kampmann, Freja Bach; Madsen, Camilla Møller; Baun Thuesen, A C; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Vaag, Allan A; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2017-08-01

    Background: Recent years have seen strong tendencies toward high-protein diets. However, the implications of higher protein intake, especially during developmentally sensitive periods, are poorly understood. Conversely, evidence on the long-term developmental consequences of low protein intake in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination including fasting blood samples and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (subset of 650) from which metabolic outcomes were derived. Multivariable analyses were conducted applying a 1:1 substitution of carbohydrates for protein. Results: The mean ± SD protein intake in pregnancy was 93 ± 15 g/d (16% ± 3% of energy) in GDM-exposed women and 90 ± 14 g/d (16% ± 2% of energy) in control women. There were overall no associations between maternal protein intake and offspring fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that maternal total protein intake was associated with a tendency for a higher abdominal fat mass percentage (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.40 SD; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.83 SD; P = 0.07) in GDM-exposed offspring and a tendency for a higher total fat mass percentage among male offspring (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: 0.33 SD; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.66 SD; P = 0.06), but a small sample size may have compromised the precision of the effect estimates. GDM-exposed offspring of mothers with a protein intake in the

  11. Maternal aging affects oocyte resilience to carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone -induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kansaku

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quality control is important for maintaining cellular and oocyte viability. In addition, aging affects mitochondrial quality in many cell types. In the present study, we examined how aging affects oocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and degeneration in response to induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Cumulus oocyte complexes were harvested from the ovaries of young (21‒45 months and aged (≥120 months cows and treated for 2 hours with 10 μM carbonyl cyanide-m- chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, or a vehicle control, after which cumulus oocyte complexes were subjected to in vitro fertilization and culture. CCCP treatment reduced ATP content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in the oocytes of both young and aged cows. When CCCP-treated cumulus oocyte complexes were subsequently cultured for 19 hours and/or subjected to fertilization, high ROS levels in oocytes and a low rate of blastocyst development was observed in oocytes derived from aged cows. In addition, we observed differential responses in mitochondrial biogenesis to CCCP treatment between young and aged cows. CCCP treatment enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis concomitant with upregulation of SIRT1 expression in oocytes of young, but not aged, cows. In conclusion, aging affects mitochondrial quality control and recuperation of oocytes following CCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Success Rate of Inseminations Dependent on Maternal Age? An Analysis of 4246 Insemination Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorsch, M.; Gomez, R.; Hahn, T.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Seufert, R.; Skala, C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has latterly become less important in reproductive medicine. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to identify and evaluate the success rates of repeated insemination cycles in women of different ages. All women who underwent intrauterine insemination in the Wiesbaden Fertility Clinic between 1998 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Additional inclusion criteria were: not more than 45 years old, previous FSH stimulation and slight to moderate subfertility of the male partner. A total of 4246 insemination cycles in 1612 patients were included in the analysis. The average number of IUI cycles per patient was 2.24 (1–14). Patient age ranged from 19 to 45 years (mean: 33.9 years). Logistic regression analysis showed a drop in pregnancy rates with increasing age (p = 0.000). However, for the first three cycles the pregnancy rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women aged between 35 and 39 years. Overall pregnancy rates were stable in women up to the age of 40, even after several insemination cycles (7.5 and 10 %). Insemination is therefore still an effective procedure in selected patients. Stable pregnancy rates were recorded even after more than 3 cycles. After 3 cycles, the success rates for women aged 40 and 41 did not differ from those of women below the age of 40. PMID:24771935

  13. Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Paula A.; Hsiao, Elaine Y.; Patterson, Paul H.; McAllister, A. Kimberley

    2012-01-01

    Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the fetal brain, whether MIA leads to long-lasting changes in brain cytokines during postnatal development remains unknown. Here, we tested this possibility by measuring protein levels of 23 cytokines in the blood and three brain regions from offspring of poly(I:C)- and saline-injected mice at five postnatal ages using multiplex arrays. Most cytokines examined are present in sera and brains throughout development. MIA induces changes in the levels of many cytokines in the brains and sera of offspring in a region- and age-specific manner. These MIA-induced changes follow a few, unexpected and distinct patterns. In frontal and cingulate cortices, several, mostly pro-inflammatory, cytokines are elevated at birth, followed by decreases during periods of synaptogenesis and plasticity, and increases again in the adult. Cytokines are also altered in postnatal hippocampus, but in a pattern distinct from the other regions. The MIA-induced changes in brain cytokines do not correlate with changes in serum cytokines from the same animals. Finally, these MIA-induced cytokine changes are not accompanied by breaches in the blood-brain barrier, immune cell infiltration or increases in microglial density. Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring—similar to those reported for ASD and SZ—that may alter CNS development and behavior. PMID:22841693

  14. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  15. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross‐sectional study of Brazilian births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  16. The causal effect of maternal age at marriage on child wellbeing: evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, A V; Heath, Rachel; Maertens, Annemie; Fatima, Freeha

    2017-01-01

    We use nationally representative household data from India to establish the intergenerational effect of early marriage on a broad set of health and educational investments and outcomes, and to explicate the underlying mechanisms. The empirical strategy utilizes variation in age at menarche to obtain exogenous variation in the age at marriage. We find that delayed marriage results in significantly better child health and educational outcomes. We further analyze a subsample of uneducated child ...

  17. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria Dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. Determinar a frequência e os fatores de risco de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional em uma maternidade de alto risco. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e caso-controle, realizado em maternidade pública de nível terciário. Foram levantados dados de 998 recém-nascidos e de suas respectivas mães por meio de entrevista e análise de prontuários e de cartões do pré-natal. Algumas placentas foram submetidas à análise anatomopatológica. As variáveis dos recém-nascidos pequenos e não pequenos para idade gestacional e de suas respectivas mães foram comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste paramétrico t de Student, pelo teste exato de Fisher e por odds ratio. O nível de signific

  18. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Elective cesarean section or not? Maternal age and risk of adverse outcomes at term: a population-based registry study of low-risk primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstad, Lina; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skjærven, Rolv; Tanbo, Tom; Forsén, Lisa; Åbyholm, Thomas; Vangen, Siri

    2016-08-17

    Maternal age at delivery and cesarean section rates are increasing. In older women, the decision on delivery mode may be influenced by a reported increased risk of surgical interventions during labor and complications with increasing maternal age. We examined the association between maternal age and adverse outcomes in low-risk primiparous women, and the risk of adverse outcomes by delivery modes, both planned and performed (elective and emergency cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery, and unassisted vaginal delivery) in women aged ≥ 35 years. A population-based registry study was conducted using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway including 169,583 low-risk primiparas with singleton, cephalic labors at ≥ 37 weeks during 1999 - 2009. Outcomes studied were obstetric blood loss, maternal transfer to intensive care units, 5-min Apgar score, and neonatal complications. We adjusted for potential confounders using relative risk models and multinomial logistic regression. Most adverse outcomes increased with increasing maternal age. However, the increase in absolute risks was low, except for moderate obstetric blood loss and transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Operative deliveries increased with increasing maternal age and in women aged ≥ 35 years, the risk of maternal complications in operative delivery increased. Neonatal adverse outcomes increased mainly in emergency operative deliveries. Moderate blood loss was three times more likely in elective and emergency cesarean section than in unassisted vaginal delivery, and twice as likely in operative vaginal delivery. Low Apgar score and neonatal complications occurred two to three times more often in emergency operative deliveries than in unassisted vaginal delivery. However, comparing outcomes after elective cesarean section and planned vaginal delivery, only moderate blood loss (higher in elective cesarean section), neonatal transfer to

  20. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Perceived sleep deficit is a strong predictor of RLS in multisite pain - A population based study in middle aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Romana; Ulfberg, Jan; Zou, Ding; Hedner, Jan; Grote, Ludger

    2017-10-01

    Chronic pain conditions as well as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) are known to be associated with subjectively and objectively disturbed sleep. RLS has been recently described as highly prevalent in multisite pain and the role of sleep as a modifying factor in this RLS phenotype is unknown. This study aimed to investigate if perceived sleep deficit and other sleep related parameters predict RLS in subjects with multisite pain. We have recently demonstrated a strong association between Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and number of pain locations. In the current analysis we hypothesized that impaired sleep predicts RLS in subjects with multisite pain. Questionnaire-based data from 2727 randomly selected women aged 18-64 years were used to analyze RLS symptoms, self-reported sleep quality, and the degree of daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)) in relation to type, degree and localization of body pain. Potential confounders including anthropometrics, pain localization, co-morbidities, and medication were adjusted for in the Generalized Linear Models (GLM). Perceived sleep deficit ≥90min (OR 2.4 (1.5-3.8), pRLS in subjects with multisite pain. Additional factors include prolonged sleep latency (≥30min, OR 1.8 (1.1-2.8), p=0.01) and daytime symptoms like elevated daytime sleepiness (ESS score ≥9, OR 1.8 (1.2-2.7), p=0.005). Accordingly, RLS diagnosis was associated with impaired sleep quality (TST (Total Sleep Time) -8.2min, sleep latency +8.0min, and number of awakenings from sleep +0.4, pRLS diagnosis (+0.74, pRLS in multisite pain. Potential implication of our results are that clinical management programmes of RLS in subjects with multisite pain need to consider both sleep quality and sleep quantity for individually tailored treatment regimes. RLS, pain, and sleep disorders are highly interrelated. Our study strongly suggests that clinical management of RLS in patients with multisite pain needs to consider sleep quality as an independent risk factor

  2. Estimating maternal genetic effects in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the estimation of direct and maternal genetic (co)variances, accounting for environmental covariances between direct and maternal effects. Estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects presented in the literature have often been strongly negative, and

  3. Maternal Age-Specific Rates for Trisomy 21 and Common Autosomal Trisomies in Fetuses from a Single Diagnostic Center in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanoot Jaruthamsophon

    Full Text Available To provide maternal age-specific rates for trisomy 21 (T21 and common autosomal trisomies (including trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed prenatal cytogenetic results obtained between 1990 and 2009 in Songklanagarind Hospital, a university teaching hospital, in southern Thailand. Maternal age-specific rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were established using different regression models, from which only the fittest models were used for the study. A total of 17,819 records were included in the statistical analysis. The fittest models for predicting rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were regression models with 2 parameters (Age and Age2. The rate of T21 ranged between 2.67 per 1,000 fetuses at the age of 34 and 71.06 per 1,000 at the age of 48. The rate of common autosomal trisomies ranged between 4.54 per 1,000 and 99.65 per 1,000 at the same ages. This report provides the first maternal age-specific rates for T21 and common autosomal trisomies fetuses in a Southeast Asian population and the largest case number of fetuses have ever been reported in Asians.

  4. The assessment of combined first trimester screening in women of advanced maternal age in an Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sarah Weiling; Barrett, Angela Natalie; Gole, Leena; Tan, Wei Ching; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Hak Koon; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    First trimester screening (FTS) is a validated screening tool that has been shown to achieve detection rates of 84%-90% for trisomies 21, 18 and 13. However, its effectiveness for different maternal ages has not been assessed. The present study aimed to assess the performance of FTS in an Asian population, and to compare its effectiveness in older (≥ 35 years) and younger (NIPT) as a contingent screening test is also examined. Data on cases of FTS performed on singleton pregnancies over a six-year period was collated from two Singapore maternal centres, National University Hospital and Singapore General Hospital. Cases that had a 1:250 risk of trisomy were considered to be screen-positive. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from birth records or karyotype test results. From 10,289 FTS cases, we obtained a sensitivity of 87.8%, a specificity of 97.6%, a false positive rate of 2.4% and a false negative rate of 0.06% for the detection of aneuploidy. The overall detection rate for trisomy 21 was 86.5%-85.7% for older women and 87.5% for younger women. The mean number of invasive tests required per case of trisomy 21 was 9.3 in younger women, 8.6 in older women and 13.5 in women with intermediate risk (1:250-1,000). While the performance of FTS was similar in younger and older women, more invasive procedures were required to diagnose trisomy 21 in women with intermediate risk. It may be advantageous to offer contingent NIPT to this group of women to reduce the risk of iatrogenic fetal loss.

  5. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment. PMID:23035201

  6. Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial

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    Leew Shirley

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS. Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current

  7. Maternal rigidity in infancy and level of intelligence at school age in children born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P.R.; Wijnberg-Williams, B.J; Hegemann, N; Stremmelaar, E.F; Schoemaker, M.M.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Bambang Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four children who had been born preterm and their mothers participated in the follow-up study. At 3 and 14 months (corrected age) cognitive development was assessed using the BOS 2-30, the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The BOS yields measures of mental and motor

  8. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  9. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Kiy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA.

  10. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  11. Maternal thyrotropin is independently related to Small for Gestational Age neonates at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monen, L.; Kuppens, S.M.; Hasaart, T.H.; Oosterbaan, H.P.; Oei, S.G.; Wijnen, H.; Hutton, E.K.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute still a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Overt thyroid disease is a known cause of preterm birth and low birthweight but in its untreated condition it is rare today. In this study, we investigated the possible relation

  12. Young Children's Behavioral Inhibition Mediates the Association between Maternal Negative Affectivity and Internalizing Problems: Observations, Parent-Report, and Moderation of Associations by Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Haolei; Gagne, Jeffrey Robert

    2018-01-01

    Employing a multi-method approach, we investigated observed and parent-rated child behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal reports of their own negative affectivity (NA) as predictors of young children's internalizing problems. Participants were 201 children who were siblings between 2.5 and 5.5 years of age (mean = 3.86, standard deviation =…

  13. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; Kluitenberg-van Hemert, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological

  14. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  15. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Katherine G; Yang, Zhen; DelVecchio, Dominic P; Reeb, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S; Tang, Akaysha C

    2008-06-30

    Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  16. Advancing maternal age and trisomy screening: the practice challenges of facilitating choice and gaining consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies such as Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 (Patau's, Edward's and Down's syndrome respectively) is offered to all pregnant women in the first two trimesters.This article explores the varying considerations of consent for this type of screening, particularly in relation to women of advancing age who are at increased risk of carrying a pregnancy affected by a trisomy. The practical challenges or barriers of gaining valid, meaningful informed consent are discussed.

  17. Comparison of the effect of maternal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism in young and aged male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Faraji, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2013-02-01

    Since thyroid hormones play fundamental roles in somatic growth and metabolism, disturbances of thyroid function affect many organs and systems. Both fetal hypothyroidism and aging can affect carbohydrate metabolism during adult life. This study aims to assess the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion capacity of islets in young and aged male offspring of mothers who were hypothyroid during pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid group received water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (200 ppm) during gestation. After birth, survival and weight of pups from both groups were followed. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, 0.5 g/kg glucose) was carried out in young and aged male offspring (at 3- and 12-months-old). In old, but not in young rats, serum glucose and insulin levels were respectively significantly higher and lower between 5 and 20 min in the fetal hypothyroid (FH) group, compared with the controls (C). Insulin secretion of the isolated islets stimulated with 5.6, 8.3, and 16 mmol/L glucose in the old FH group (240.5 ± 22.0, 457.0 ± 40.1, and 768.0 ± 57.1 respectively) were significantly lower (p = 0.014, p = 0.029 and p = 0.003 respectively), compared to the C group (327.9 ± 25.9, 579.2 ± 36.3, and 1024.0 ± 59.5 pmol/islet/min respectively). Results show that maternal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity, more obvious in older offspring. Hence it can be concluded that the effect of fetal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism may contribute to increased risk of type II diabetes in aged animals.

  18. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

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    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for preterm births, for post-term births (except for primiparous women with schooling ≥12 years, and for low birth weight. When comparing older vs. younger women, higher educational levels ensure similar risks of low Apgar score at 1 min (for primiparous mothers and term births, of low Apgar score at 5 min (for term births, of macrosomia (for non-primiparous women, and of asphyxia. CONCLUSION: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  19. Maternal age modulates the effects of early-pregnancy L-proline supplementation on the birth-weight of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Añover, P; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-06-01

    Previous results obtained in gilts maintained under experimental conditions suggest that amino acid supplementation during pregnancy may be a promising strategy for diminishing the incidence of embryo losses and low birth-weight newborn. The current study evaluated the effects of a short-term supplementation with L-proline, around implantational stages, on litter size and birth-weight of piglets in sows of different parities maintained under commercial farm conditions. There were no significant effects in mature sows with three or more parities, but the supplementation improved the reproductive efficiency of the high-prolific first-parity sows and of all the sows at second-parity. There were numerically higher litter size (of around two more live piglets; n.s.) and higher birth-weights (Psupplemented animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of L-proline supplementation on litter size and birth-weight are strongly modulated by the maternal characteristics; specifically by parity and prolificacy and that supplementation may be cost-efficient for the management of females with compromised energy balance; specifically, sows at second farrowing and highly-prolific primiparous gilts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index...... including fasting blood samples and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (subset of 650) from which metabolic outcomes were derived. Multivariable analyses were conducted applying a 1:1 substitution of carbohydrates for protein. Results: The mean ± SD protein intake in pregnancy was 93 ± 15 g/d (16% ± 3...

  1. Maternal attitudes towards tooth decay in children aged 12-18 months in Pelotas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, E R; Dos Santos Costa, F; Azevedo, M S; Romano, A R; Cenci, M S

    2015-10-01

    This was to assess mothers' attitudes towards dental caries in children aged 12-18 months. This study targeted mothers of children aged 12-18 months. Data about demographic and socioeconomic status were collected by interviews with each mother. In addition, the mother was asked about her attitudes regarding caries in her child's primary teeth. A dental examination of each child was also conducted. Chi-square, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 262 mother-child pairs were included, and 18.7 % of the children had dental caries. If a child presented with dental caries in their primary teeth, 93.5 % of the mothers reported that they would take the child to a dentist. Mothers who had only one child and those who had children with dental caries were more likely to report that they did not expect primary dental caries treatment by the dentist. Most mothers reported that they would take their children to a dentist when they presented with dental caries. Despite this positive result, educational measures should continue to be emphasised, especially among mothers of children at a higher risk of caries and among first-time mothers.

  2. Association of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Birth Weight With Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children Aged 11 or 12 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Li, Xiao Qiang; Olsen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Both maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight have been implicated in impaired development of the retina. Objective: To investigate the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in preadolescent...... children. Design, Setting, Participants: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study is a prospective, population-based, birth cohort study that included all children (n = 6090) born in 2000 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Maternal smoking data were collected through parental interviews. Birth weight, pregnancy...... correction for age, sex, birth weight, height, body weight, Tanner stage of pubertal development, axial length, and spherical equivalent refractive error. In low-birth-weight children (

  3. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  4. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years...... hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure....... When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury...

  5. Cumulative effects of maternal age and unintended pregnancy on offspring aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Julia M; Chavez, Jorge M

    2014-11-01

    Research on physical aggression often points to teen motherhood as being a primary contributor in the development of aggressive tendencies among young children. As a result of poor parenting practices, limited education, and a lack of emotional, physical, and financial resources, children born to young mothers often exhibit high levels of aggression across the life course. Meanwhile, unintentional pregnancy and young motherhood are likely to share many of the same risk factors and negative consequences for offspring, yet there is a dearth of research examining pregnancy intentionality and offspring aggression. Using the Fragile Families and Wellbeing Study, our study examines how mother's age and pregnancy intention status influence aggression among their 5-year-old children. We find that young motherhood and unintended births, despite being likely to co-occur, each provide distinct mechanisms for the formation of aggressive behavior in childhood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Maternal selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in pregnancy associated with small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Young, Scott D; Briley, Annette L; Pipkin, Fiona Broughton; Baker, Philip N; Poston, Lucilla

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, which has been linked to micronutrient deficiencies. Smoking has been shown to be related to lower micronutrient concentrations. Different ethnicities have not been examined. We used a subset from a prospective observational study, the About Teenage Eating study consisting of 126 pregnant adolescents (14-18-year-olds) between 28 and 32 weeks gestation. Micronutrient status was assessed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Smoking was assessed by self-report and plasma cotinine, and SGA was defined as infants born selenium, copper and zinc concentrations in adolescent mothers giving birth to SGA vs. appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants; and (2) comparison of micronutrient concentrations between women of different ethnicities and smoking habits. The plasma selenium {mean ± standard deviation (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)]} concentration was lower in the SGA [n = 19: 49.4 ± 7.3 (CI: 45.9, 52.9) µg L(-1)] compared with the AGA [n = 107: 65.1 ± 12.5 (CI: 62.7, 67.5) µg L(-1); P selenium concentration compared with non-smokers (P = 0.01) and Afro-Caribbean women had higher selenium concentrations compared with White Europeans (P = 0.02). Neither copper nor zinc concentrations varied between groups. Low plasma selenium concentration in adolescent mothers could contribute to the risk of delivering an SGA infant, possibly through lowering placental antioxidant defence, thus directly affecting fetal growth. Differences in plasma selenium between ethnicities may relate to variation in nutritional intake, requiring further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maternal postnatal care utilization and associated factors: A community-based study among women of child-bearing age in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Okafor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and child death rates in the world. Postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended to reduce maternal and newborn deaths globally. The aim of this study is to determine the utilization of postnatal health services and identify the factors which affect this utilization among mothers of under-fives in Lagos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among women of child bearing age in Lagos using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Six hundred women selected by multi stage sampling method were interviewed and data analyzed with EPI-info Version 3.5.1. Results: Two thirds (66.2% of the respondents utilized postnatal health services. Factors which significantly influenced postnatal health services utilization were: number of children (p=0.031, maternal education (p=0.001, religion (Fisher′s exact p= 0.004, number of antenatal care visits (p<0.001 and skilled attendance at birth (p<0.001. Maternal occupation and time taken to the health facility were not significant determinants of utilization. Conclusion: Utilization of postnatal care services was high but not optimal. Interventions to increase family planning use and improve maternal educational status should be undertaken as well as increasing use of focused antenatal care and skilled delivery services.

  8. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  9. Associations of maternal iron intake and hemoglobin in pregnancy with offspring vascular phenotypes and adiposity at age 10: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A Alwan

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

  10. Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.

    1991-01-01

    randomly selected groups of 62 Faroese and 37 Danish women with an assessable gestational age. Average ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid [(3/6) ratio] was 0.73 (SD = 0.11) in Faroese women and 0.61 (SD = 0.12) in Danish women (p ...Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from......-3 fatty acids in the Faroes. A 20% increase in the (3/6) ratio was associated with an increase in pregnancy duration of 5.7 days in Danish women (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 10.1 days; p = 0.02) and 0.7 days in Faroese women (95% confidence interval, -2.0 to 3.3; p = 0.6). The hypothesized...

  11. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guennec, D.; Accoceberry, M.; Lemery, D.; Mulliez, A.; Farigon, N.; Lahaye, C.; Miolanne-Debouit, M.; Boirie, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements intake (periconceptional period: 56.8%, trimester 1 (T1): 77.8%, T2: 96.3%, and T3: 100.0%), nutritional deficiencies involved vitamins A (T1: 36.4%, T2: 21.1%, and T3: 40.0%), D (T1: 33.3%, T2: 26.3%, and T3: 8.3%), C (T1: 66.7%, T2: 41.2%, and T3: 83.3%), B1 (T1: 45.5%, T2: 15.4%, and T3: 20.0%), and B9 (T1: 14.3%, T2: 0%, and T3: 9.1%) and selenium (T1: 77.8%, T2: 22.2%, and T3: 50.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and complications according to surgery procedures and in the prevalence of pregnancy issues according to BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy and time between surgery and pregnancy. Prevalence of micronutritional deficiencies and small-for-gestational-age neonates is high in pregnant women following bariatric surgery. Specific nutritional programmes should be recommended for these women. PMID:29082043

  12. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hazart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements intake (periconceptional period: 56.8%, trimester 1 (T1: 77.8%, T2: 96.3%, and T3: 100.0%, nutritional deficiencies involved vitamins A (T1: 36.4%, T2: 21.1%, and T3: 40.0%, D (T1: 33.3%, T2: 26.3%, and T3: 8.3%, C (T1: 66.7%, T2: 41.2%, and T3: 83.3%, B1 (T1: 45.5%, T2: 15.4%, and T3: 20.0%, and B9 (T1: 14.3%, T2: 0%, and T3: 9.1% and selenium (T1: 77.8%, T2: 22.2%, and T3: 50.0%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and complications according to surgery procedures and in the prevalence of pregnancy issues according to BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy and time between surgery and pregnancy. Prevalence of micronutritional deficiencies and small-for-gestational-age neonates is high in pregnant women following bariatric surgery. Specific nutritional programmes should be recommended for these women.

  13. Maternal Nutritional Deficiencies and Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates at Birth of Women Who Have Undergone Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazart, J; Le Guennec, D; Accoceberry, M; Lemery, D; Mulliez, A; Farigon, N; Lahaye, C; Miolanne-Debouit, M; Boirie, Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to compare the prevalence of maternal deficiencies in micronutrients, the obstetrical and neonatal complications after bariatric surgery according to surgical techniques, the time between surgery and conception, and BMI at the onset of pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study concerned 57 singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2016 of 48 adult women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Small-for-gestational-age neonates were identified in 36.0% of pregnancies. With supplements intake (periconceptional period: 56.8%, trimester 1 (T1): 77.8%, T2: 96.3%, and T3: 100.0%), nutritional deficiencies involved vitamins A (T1: 36.4%, T2: 21.1%, and T3: 40.0%), D (T1: 33.3%, T2: 26.3%, and T3: 8.3%), C (T1: 66.7%, T2: 41.2%, and T3: 83.3%), B1 (T1: 45.5%, T2: 15.4%, and T3: 20.0%), and B9 (T1: 14.3%, T2: 0%, and T3: 9.1%) and selenium (T1: 77.8%, T2: 22.2%, and T3: 50.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies and complications according to surgery procedures and in the prevalence of pregnancy issues according to BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy and time between surgery and pregnancy. Prevalence of micronutritional deficiencies and small-for-gestational-age neonates is high in pregnant women following bariatric surgery. Specific nutritional programmes should be recommended for these women.

  14. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-11-10

    To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Observational cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 1596 mother-child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants' responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social-emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work-life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2 years show promise to positively influence early child development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Dietary diversity at 6 months of age is associated with subsequent growth and mediates the effect of maternal education on infant growth in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A; Filteau, Suzanne; Mullen, Anne; Nieuwelink, Johanna; Chisenga, Molly; Siame, Joshua; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous cross-sectional studies have shown an association between WHO infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators and child anthropometric measures, limited longitudinal evidence exists linking these indicators with subsequent growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether meeting WHO IYCF indicators at 6 and 12 mo of age was associated with growth to 18 mo of age and if dietary diversity mediated the relation between household wealth, maternal education, and child growth. We used longitudinal data on 811 infants in the CIGNIS (Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition, Infection Study), a randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of micronutrient-fortified porridges on infant growth in Lusaka, Zambia. Twenty-four-h diet recalls were conducted at 6 and 12 mo of age, and length and weight measurements at ages 6 and 18 mo were used to produce height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs) and weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZs). Information on household assets was used to generate a household wealth index, and level of maternal education was collected. In fully adjusted analyses, iron-rich food intake at 6 mo and greater household wealth and maternal education were positively associated with HAZ at 18 mo (all P ≤ 0.016). Iron-rich food intake at 6 and 12 mo, achieving a "minimum acceptable diet" at 12 mo, and higher maternal education were associated with greater WHZ at 18 mo (all P ≤ 0.044). Dietary diversity at 6 mo of age was positively associated with both HAZ and WHZ at 18 mo (both P ≤ 0.001) and mediated 13.4% and 25.9% of the total effect of maternal education on HAZ and WHZ, respectively, at 18 mo. Our findings indicate that IYCF programs should be targeted toward the early period of complementary food introduction and that policies aimed at increasing formal maternal education may benefit child growth through improved feeding practices. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN37460449. © 2014 American Society for

  16. Predictors of maternal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Emily E; Humenick, Sharron S; Amankwaa, Linda; Younger, Janet; Roux, Gayle

    2007-01-01

    To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level. A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the variables of maternal responsiveness, feeding patterns, and maternal characteristics in a convenience sample of 177 mothers in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery. The 60-item self-report instrument included scales to measure maternal responsiveness, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life as well as infant feeding questions and sociodemographic items. An online data-collection strategy was used, resulting in participants from 41 U.S. states. Multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and number of children, but not breastfeeding, explained a significant portion of the variance in self-reported maternal responsiveness scores. In this analysis, sociodemographic variables such as age, education, income, and work status showed little or no relationship to maternal responsiveness scores. This study provides additional information about patterns of maternal behavior in the transition to motherhood and some of the variables that influence that transition. Satisfaction with life was a new predictor of maternal responsiveness. However, with only 15% of the variance explained by the predictors in this study, a large portion of the variance in maternal responsiveness remains unexplained. Further research in this area is needed.

  17. Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Momoko; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice. After 28 consecutive days of immobilization stress, behavioral tests were conducted and tissue sampling was performed. The results showed that the body weight of middle-aged mice was severely lowered by stress, but emotional behaviors were hardly influenced by either aging or stress. Aging influenced changes in amino acid metabolism in the brain and increased various amino acid levels in the uterus and ovary. In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as ‘adaptation’. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth (n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy. PMID:29423225

  19. Trajectories of maternal stress and anxiety from pregnancy to three years and child development at 3 years of age: Findings from the All Our Families (AOF) pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Giallo, Rebecca; Arnold, Paul; Benzies, Karen; Kehler, Heather; Bright, Katherine; Kingston, Dawn

    2018-07-01

    Existing literature on maternal distress has focused on stress and anxiety during the pregnancy or postnatally and their relationship with child development. However, few studies have investigated the association between maternal stress and anxiety symptoms over time and child development in preschool children. The aim of this study was to examine the association between trajectories of maternal stress and anxiety symptoms from mid-pregnancy to three years postpartum and child development at age three years. Data were analyzed from 1983 mother-child dyads who participated in the three year follow-up of the All Our Families (AOF) study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify trajectories of women's stress and anxiety across from mid-pregnancy to three years postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between the stress and anxiety trajectories and child developmental delays while adjusting for the covariates. LCA identified three distinct trajectories of maternal stress and anxiety symptoms over time. Multivariate analysis showed mothers assigned to the high anxiety symptoms class had an increased risk (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 2.80 (1.42 ─ 5.51), p = 0.003) of having a child with developmental delays at 3 years. The use of self-reported maternal mental health symptoms and no data on fathers' mental health are our study's limitations. The findings from a population-based Canadian sample provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal anxiety overtime and risk of child developmental delays. Identifying and supporting mothers experiencing high anxiety symptoms in the perinatal period may mitigate the risk of these delays in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal obesity increases insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and osteochondrosis lesions in foals and yearlings until 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, M; Nouveau, E; Gautier, C; Mendoza, L; Dubois, C; Dahirel, M; Lagofun, B; Aubrière, M-C; Lejeune, J-P; Caudron, I; Guenon, I; Viguié, C; Wimel, L; Bouraima-Lelong, H; Serteyn, D; Couturier-Tarrade, A; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a growing concern in horses. The effects of maternal obesity on maternal metabolism and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, as well as offspring growth, metabolism, low-grade inflammation, testicular maturation and osteochondrotic lesions until 18 months of age were investigated. Twenty-four mares were used and separated into two groups at insemination according to body condition score (BCS): Normal (N, n = 10, BCS ≤4) and Obese (O, n = 14, BCS ≥4.25). BCS and plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, urea, non-esterified fatty acid, serum amyloid A (SAA), leptin and adiponectin concentrations were monitored throughout gestation. At 300 days of gestation, a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGT) was performed. After parturition, foals' weight and size were monitored until 18 months of age with plasma SAA, leptin, adiponectin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cortisol concentrations measured at regular intervals. At 6, 12 and 18 months of age, FSIGT and osteoarticular examinations were performed. Males were gelded at one year and expression of genes involved in testicular maturation analysed by RT-qPCR. Throughout the experiment, maternal BCS was higher in O versus N mares. During gestation, plasma urea and adiponectin were decreased and SAA and leptin increased in O versus N mares. O mares were also more insulin resistant than N mares with a higher glucose effectiveness. Postnatally, there was no difference in offspring growth between groups. Nevertheless, plasma SAA concentrations were increased in O versus N foals until 6 months, with O foals being consistently more insulin resistant with a higher glucose effectiveness. At 12 months of age, O foals were significantly more affected by osteochondrosis than N foals. All other parameters were not different between groups. In conclusion, maternal obesity altered metabolism and increased low-grade inflammation in both dams and foals. The risk of developing

  1. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  2. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  3. O Impacto da Idade Materna Avançada sobre os Resultados da Gravidez Impact of Advanced Maternal Age on the Outcome of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Cecatti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar o efeito da idade sobre os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestações ocorridas em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais. Métodos: comparamos 494 gestantes com mais de 40 anos, com 988 gestantes com idade entre 20 e 29 anos, pareando-as por paridade. Após controlar possíveis variáveis confundidoras pela análise multivariada, a idade materna avançada manteve associação com a maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, parto por cesária, hemorragia puerperal, índice de Apgar baixo, morte perinatal, natimortalidade e sofrimento fetal intraparto. Resultados: a idade materna avançada esteve isoladamente associada à hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, diagnóstico de sofrimento fetal intraparto, parto por cesária e hemorragia puerperal. Com relação aos resultados neonatais, a idade materna avançada estava associada independentemente apenas ao baixo índice de Apgar, morte perinatal e óbito fetal. Conclusões: esses achados mostram a necessidade de assistência obstétrica adequada com atenção especial a esses fatores para procurar melhorar os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestantes com idade avançada.Most authors agree on the negative impact of pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age on maternal and perinatal outcome. However, it is not usual to evaluate if some considered risk factors are only confounders because they are present in women over forty years. In order to identify the isolated effect of age on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women over forty, 494 pregnancies from this age group were compared to 988 pregnancies among women aged 20 to 29 years, matched by parity. After controlling possible confounding variables through multivariate analysis, advanced maternal age maintained its association with a higher prevalence of hypertension, malpresentation, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, low Apgar score, perinatal death, late fetal

  4. Utilization of roughages and concentrates relative to that of milk replacer increases strongly with age in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the feeding values of milk replacer (MR), roughage, and concentrates for veal calves in a paired-gain setting, thus avoiding any prior assumptions in feeding values and major differences in nutrient intakes. One hundred sixty male Holstein-Friesian calves at 2 wk of age and

  5. Altered Maternal Plasma Glycogen Phosphorylase Isoenzyme BB as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Doyle, Aisling; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether maternal plasma glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) levels were altered in early pregnancy and/or at the time of diagnosis of disease in preeclampsia (term and preterm preeclampsia or SGA were analyzed both from the time of disease presentation and at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation. These were compared with control samples obtained from SCOPE women with healthy uncomplicated pregnancies matched for age, ethnicity, parity, body mass index, and gestational age. Glycogen phosphorylase BB levels were measured using the Diacordon GPBB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Diagenics, Germany). Glycogen phosphorylase BB levels were higher in women with preeclampsia compared with controls at the time of disease (term preeclampsia median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 22.2 [15.1-39.8] ng/mL vs 16.9 [10.4-19.1] ng/mL; P = .04; N = 14 and preterm preeclampsia median [IQR]: 23.1 [11.2-30.9] ng/mL vs 17.2 [9.8-19.1] ng/mL; P = .04; N = 11) and at 20 weeks' gestation (median [IQR]: 23.0 [15.6-31.4] ng/mL vs 17.0 [13.4-23.6] ng/mL; N = 39; P = .04). Glycogen phosphorylase BB levels were also significantly higher in women with SGA compared with normal controls at the time of disease detection (median [IQR]: 22.7 [12.6-25.5] ng/mL vs 17.0 [9.8-18.0] ng/mL; N = 23; P = .03) but significantly less than controls at 15 weeks' gestation prior to disease detection (median [IQR]: 16.0 [12.1-23.2] ng/mL vs 22.2 [17.0-28.9] ng/mL; N = 25; P = .02). Glycogen phosphorylase BB alone has modest predictive abilities for the development of preeclampsia or SGA. Further research may examine its use in combination with other markers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Reappraising the relationship between maternal age and postpartum depression according to the evolutionary theory: Empirical evidence from a survey in primary health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marcela N; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Moraes, Claudia L; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2012-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a widespread worldwide phenomenon, but its etiology remains unclear. This study reappraised how evolutionary theory could explain PPD as an adaptation through investigating the relationship between maternal age and PPD, and if this relationship is modified according to the number of children at home. A cross-sectional study carried out in five primary health care units included 811 participants randomly selected among mothers of children up to five postpartum months in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Postpartum depression was defined by scores above 11 on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and statistical analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression models. One hundred and ninety-seven (24.3%, CI 95% 21.3-27.2) participants were classified as PPD positives. Maternal age was significantly associated to PPD (OR=0.96, p-value=0.019) independently of socioeconomic and reproductive characteristics, conjugal status or substance consumption by the couple. Thus, for each additional year, a reduction of 4% in the chance of developing PPD could be anticipated, effect which was not modified by the number of children at home (p-value=0.602). Information on social support was not included in this analysis since its relationship with maternal mental health would be better evaluated in a prospective fashion. These findings suggest that adaptive mechanisms shaped through human generations persist contributing to the development of PPD in contemporary societies. According to this evolutionary approach, as maternal age advances the reproductive potential diminishes and, consequently, mothers are less prone to develop PPD and reduce investment in new offspring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived fussy eating in Australian children at 14 months of age and subsequent use of maternal feeding practices at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Rebecca; Jansen, Elena; Daniels, Lynne

    2017-09-11

    Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire at child age 14 months, describing perception of their child as fussy/not fussy and child behaviour. Intake was assessed using a single 24-h recall and weight was measured by research staff. At child age 2 years mothers completed the validated 28-item Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28). Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was derived from WHO standards. Gram daily intake of fruit, vegetables and meat/alternative and a dietary diversity score were determined. Maternal/child characteristics independently associated (p ≤ 0.05) with perception of child as a fussy eater were determined using logistic regression. Variables were combined in a structural equation model assessing the longitudinal relationship between child/maternal characteristics, perception of child as a fussy eater and eight FPSQ factors. Mothers' (n = 330) perception of her child as a fussy eater at age 14 months, was associated with higher frequency of food refusal and lower WAZ (R 2  = 0.41) but not dietary intake. Maternal perception as fussy (age 14 months) was associated with four FPSQ factors at 2 years (n = 279) - Reward for Eating, Reward for Behaviour, Persuasive Feeding and Overt Restriction, x 2 /df = 1.42, TLI = 0.95, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04(0.03-0.05), PCLOSE = 0.99. Lower relative child weight and food refusal prompted

  8. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All...

  9. The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children's psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Fischer, Cristina; Cierpka, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Moderating effects of maternal distress and maternal depressive symptoms were tested as well. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, a sample of 185 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was investigated at 6 months with SFS (infants' regulatory problems) and at 3 years with CBCL (children's behavioural problems), EAS (children's temperament), ADS (maternal depressive symptoms) and PSI-SF (maternal stress). A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant association between infants' regulatory problems and both externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems at age 3 (accounting for 16% and 14% variance), with both externalizing and internalizing problems being linked to current maternal depressive symptoms (12 and 9% of the variance). Externalizing and internalizing problems were found to be related also to children's temperamental difficulty (18 and 13% of variance) and their negative emotionality. With temperamental traits having been taken into account, only feeding problems at 6 months contributed near-significant to internalizing problems at 3 years. Our results underscore the crucial role of temperament in the path between early regulatory problems and subsequent behavioural difficulties. Children's unfavourable temperamental predispositions such as negative emotionality and generally "difficult temperament" contributed substantially to both externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in the high-risk sample. The decreased predictive power of regulatory problems following the inclusion of

  10. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  11. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p......BACKGROUND: Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods...... are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. METHODS: Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking...

  12. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alba

    Full Text Available Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  13. Chemical and mechanical defenses vary among maternal lines and leaf ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and reduce palatability to a generalist insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores.

  14. Highly-translucent, strong and aging-resistant 3Y-TZP ceramics for dental restoration by grain boundary segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Vanmeensel, Kim; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Inokoshi, Masanao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Vleugels, Jef

    2015-04-01

    Latest trends in dental restorative ceramics involve the development of full-contour 3Y-TZP ceramics which can avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. Among the challenges are the low translucency and the hydrothermal stability of 3Y-TZP ceramics. In this work, different trivalent oxides (Al2O3, Sc2O3, Nd2O3 and La2O3) were selected to dope 3Y-TZP ceramics. Results show that dopant segregation was a key factor to design hydrothermally stable and high-translucent 3Y-TZP ceramics and the cation dopant radius could be used as a controlling parameter. A large trivalent dopant, oversized as compared to Zr(4+), exhibiting strong segregation at the ZrO2 grain boundary was preferred. The introduction of 0.2 mol% La2O3 in conventional 0.1-0.25 wt.% Al2O3-doped 3Y-TZP resulted in an excellent combination of high translucency and superior hydrothermal stability, while retaining excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Status and Effect of Maternal Employment among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Hiwot; Abebe, Yewelsew; Loha, Eskindir; Gebru, Teklemichael; Tesheme, Tesfalem

    2017-03-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in many parts of the world; the magnitude of worldwide stunting, underweight and wasting in children under five years of age were 24.7 %, 15.1 % and 7.8 %, respectively. More than 150 million children under the age of five years in the developing world are malnourished. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, 44.4% and 9.7% of children under-five years old were stunted and wasted, respectively. This study was aimed to assess nutritional status and effect of maternal employment among children aged 6-59 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding and healthcare seeking practice of mothers, and child's anthropometric status were assessed. Probability proportional to size sampling approach was used to select a sample of 316 mothers having children aged 6-59 months. The study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Health Science College, Hawasa University. The overall result revealed that the prevalence of stunting was 22.2%, of which 21.8% and 22.6% were in children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. Low-weight-for age was 10.8% for children of employed mothers and 13.4% for children of unemployed mothers. Wasting was 8.8% and 10.8% for children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between maternal employment and nutritional status of their children. However, chronic malnutrition (stunting) was influenced by being educated mother (OR: 0.37) child age group of 24-59 months (OR: 0.36) and households' fifth wealth quintile (OR: 0.28). Low prevalence of stunting was observed. Stunting is a public health concern in the study area. Furthermore, stunting is significantly influenced by mothers' education, household wealth and child age. However, maternal employment was not statistically

  16. Neonatal antibody titers against varicella-zoster virus in relation to gestational age, birth weight, and maternal titer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwet, Wil C.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Cranendonk, Anneke; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can cause severe disease in premature neonates. The fetus receives protective maternal VZV-immunoglobulin G (IgG) mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, premature neonates are considered at risk for VZV infection. Administration of

  17. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  18. Impact of adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices on eating in the absence of hunger and caloric compensation in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E; Issanchou, S; Chabanet, C; Boggio, V; Nicklaus, S

    2015-06-01

    Between the ages of 3 and 5 years, children may become less responsive to internal cues of satiation and more responsive to external cues, which may induce overeating and lead to weight gain. This study aimed to compare eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and caloric compensation in 3- to 6-year-old children, and to relate the measurements with children's adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices. According to a within-subject three sequential condition design, food intake in children (n=236) was measured at lunch during three sessions, once a week. The same meal (565 kcal) was offered at each session. The first session (control) was only composed of the meal. Thirty minutes before the second meal, children were offered an energy preload (137 kcal; caloric compensation condition). Ten minutes after the third meal, children were exposed to a post-meal snack (430 kcal; EAH condition). Individual caloric compensation score (COMPX) and EAH score were calculated. Maternal characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Child anthropometrics were measured by a medical doctor. On average, children compensated 52±4% of the energy preload and ate 24±1% of the energy provided by their meal in the absence of hunger. COMPX and EAH score were not correlated and did not vary with children's adiposity or age. EAH score was higher in boys (P=0.006). Maternal use of food as reward was associated with higher EAH score (P=0.01) but greater COMPX (P=0.005). As early as the age of 3 years children did not fully compensate the energy brought by a snack and ate in the absence of hunger. Parents should be advised to avoid these situations where overeating may occur and to limit the use of food as reward.

  19. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal

  20. Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Associated with Small-for-Gestational Age Births in White Women1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Catov, Janet M.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Parrott, Meredith S.; Roberts, James M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, but its association with fetal growth restriction remains uncertain. We sought to elucidate the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk of small-for-gestational age birth (SGA) and explore the association between maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the risk of SGA. We conducted a nested case-control study of nulliparous pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who delivered SGA infants (n = 77 white and n = 34 black) or non-SGA infants (n = 196 white and n = 105 black). Women were followed from Women's banked sera at 75 nmol/L were 7.5 (1.8, 31.9) and 2.1 (1.2, 3.8), respectively. There was no relation between 25(OH)D and SGA risk among black mothers. One SNP in the VDR gene among white women and 3 SNP in black women were significantly associated with SGA. Our results suggest that vitamin D has a complex relation with fetal growth that may vary by race. PMID:20200114

  1. Age, pathogen exposure, but not maternal care shape offspring immunity in an insect with facultative family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Körner, Maximilian; Foitzik, Susanne; Meunier, Joël

    2017-03-07

    To optimize their resistance against pathogen infection, individuals are expected to find the right balance between investing into the immune system and other life history traits. In vertebrates, several factors were shown to critically affect the direction of this balance, such as the developmental stage of an individual, its current risk of infection and/or its access to external help such as parental care. However, the independent and/or interactive effects of these factors on immunity remain poorly studied in insects. Here, we manipulated maternal presence and pathogen exposure in families of the European earwig Forficula auricularia to measure whether and how the survival rate and investment into two key immune parameters changed during offspring development. The pathogen was the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum and the immune parameters were hemocyte concentration and phenol/pro-phenoloxidase enzyme activity (total-PO). Our results surprisingly showed that maternal presence had no effect on offspring immunity, but reduced offspring survival. Pathogen exposure also lowered the survival of offspring during their early development. The concentration of hemocytes and the total-PO activity increased during development, to be eventually higher in adult females compared to adult males. Finally, pathogen exposure overall increased the concentration of hemocytes-but not the total-PO activity-in adults, while it had no effect on these measures in offspring. Our results show that, independent of their infection risk and developmental stage, maternal presence does not shape immune defense in young earwigs. This reveals that pathogen pressure is not a universal evolutionary driver of the emergence and maintenance of post-hatching maternal care in insects.

  2. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  3. Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: cognitive aspects and maternal influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmeister, Johanna; Demirakça, Süha; Zohsel, Katrin; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that school-aged (9-14 yr) preterm and fullterm children with neonatal pain exposure exhibit elevated heat pain thresholds and heightened perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat when tested under standard conditions [Hermann C, Hohmeister J, Demirakca S, Zohsel K, Flor H. Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain 2006;125:278-85]. Here, changes in the psychosocial context of pain responses in these children, who had been hospitalized >or=7 days after birth including >or=3 days of treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), are reported. Nineteen preterm (or=37 weeks gestational age) with NICU experience, recruited retrospectively and selected based on strict exclusion criteria, and 20 fullterm control children participated. Preterm NICU children endorsed more pain catastrophizing as compared to controls. Mothers of preterm children, who had been more severely ill and had been hospitalized longer than fullterm NICU children, were more likely to engage in solicitous pain-related behavior. Maternal influence was also assessed by comparing heat pain thresholds and perceptual sensitization to tonic painful heat obtained in the presence versus absence (i.e. standard testing conditions) of the mother. In all three groups, maternal presence was associated with increased heat pain thresholds. Control children habituated significantly more to tonic heat when their mother was present. The NICU children showed overall significantly less habituation than the controls; there was no modulating effect of maternal presence. Especially in highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal pain exposure and prolonged hospitalization may, aside from neuronal plasticity, promote maladaptive pain-related cognitions and foster parental behavior that reinforces the child's pain response.

  4. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and intelligence quotients in the offspring at 8 years of age: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Pearson, Rebecca M; Emmett, Pauline; Heron, Jon; Smith, Andrew D A C; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2018-01-01

    Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee." The offspring's IQ at 8 years of age was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Models, using variables correlated to IQ data, were performed to impute missing values. Linear regression models were employed to investigate associations between the maternal clusters and IQ in childhood. Children of women who were classified in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster during pregnancy had lower average verbal (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -3.05; p < .001), performance (β = -1.26; p = .011 and β = -1.75; p < .001), and full-scale IQ (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -2.79; p < .001) at 8 years of age when compared to children of mothers in the fruit and vegetables cluster in imputed models of IQ and all confounders, after adjustment for a wide range of known confounders including maternal education. The pregnant women who were classified in the fruit and vegetables cluster had offspring with higher average IQ compared with offspring of mothers in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of trace element concentration distribution in human placenta by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence: Effect of neonate weight and maternal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Yueksel; Boerekci, Buenyamin; Levet, Aytac; Kurudirek, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Trace element status in human placenta is dependent on maternal-neonatal characteristics. This work was undertaken to investigate the correlation between essential trace element concentrations in the placenta and maternal-neonatal characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from total 61 healthy mothers at gestation between 37 and 41 weeks. These samples were investigated with the restriction that the mother's age was 20-40 years old and the neonate's weight was 1-4 kg. Percent concentrations of trace elements were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The placenta samples were prepared and analyzed without exposure to any chemical treatment. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in placenta tissues were found statistically to vary corresponding to the age of the mother and weight of the neonate. In the subjects, the concentration of Fe and Cu were increased in heavier neonates (p<0.05) and the concentration of Zn was increased with increasing mother age (p<0.05). Consequently, the Fe, Cu and Zn elements appear to have interactive connections in human placenta.

  6. The maternal age-related first trimester risks for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 based on Danish first trimester data from 2005 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjær; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most currently used age-related risks of T21, T18 and T13 are based on estimates of the live-birth prevalence, and describe an exponential increase of risk by increased maternal age. We investigated the first trimester prevalence of T21, T18 and T13 in a large population of Danish women....... METHODS: From the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry we got the information of all pre- and postnatally diagnosed fetuses with T21, T18 or T13 between 2005 and 2014 in Denmark. Information on the total number of births and maternal age at birth were gathered from StatBank Denmark. RESULTS: The total...... number of included women was 605 853. The total number of T21 cases was 1564, T18 cases was 401 and T13 cases was 157. The overall first trimester prevalence per 10 000 pregnancies was 25.8 for T21, 6.6 for T18 and 2.6 for T13. Boltzmann sigmoidal model (Y = Bottom + (top-bottom / (1 - exp (V50 - X...

  7. Increased maternal Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) associated with older age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, N J; O'Sullivan, J; Avery, P; Howey, C; Burling, K; Iyer, S; Pascoe, L; Walker, M; Cheetham, T

    2010-12-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to rising incidence and earlier onset of Type 1 diabetes. Inherited differences in insulin action might also influence the evolution of Type 1 diabetes.Our aim was to determine whether parental BMI and insulin resistance influences age of onset of Type 1 diabetes in their offspring. BMI standard deviation score and age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes was examined in 227 children, and in 206 of these was compared with local matched control subjects. Non-diabetic parents of a subgroup of 80 children with Type 1 diabetes were recruited. Parental BMI was compared with local adult control subjects. The relationship between parental BMI, waist-hip ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and adiponectin levels and age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in offspring was examined. We found no relationship between age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in children and BMI standard deviation score (P = 0.5). Children with Type 1 diabetes and their parents were heavier than matched control subjects (mean BMI standard deviation score sd in children = 0.66 1.06 vs. 0.32 1.16 in control subjects, P = 0.002; mean parental BMI sd 27.7 0.4 vs. 25.5 0.4 kg ⁄m2 in control subjects; P HOMA-IR accounted for 20% of variation in age at diagnosis (P < 0.001) with increasing maternal insulin resistance associated with later age at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes. Childrenwith Type 1 diabetes and their parents have an increased BMI at diagnosis.Maternal insulin resistance is associated with later onset of Type 1 diabetes in children.

  8. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Irene; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Cleathero, Lesley A; Janssen, Patricia A; Lanphear, Bruce P; Hayes, Michael V; Mattman, Andre; Pampalon, Robert; Venners, Scott A

    2012-06-13

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction

  9. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  10. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  11. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. THE UPTAKE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE ATTENDING MATERNAL CHILD HEALTH AND FAMILY PLANNING (MCH/FP) CLINICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukthar, V K; Maranga, A K; Kulei, S J; Chemoiwa, R K

    2014-12-01

    To determine the uptake ana factors associated with the uptake of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) attending Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Clinics/Units in Rift Valley Provincial Hospital in Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Rift Valley Provincial hospital which is a level five health facility situated in Nakuru County, Kenya. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were attending Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Clinics at the Rift Valley Provincial Hospital. The respondents were identified by systematic random sampling Modern contraceptive uptake is over ninety percent (90.4, n = 218). The factors that are significantly associated with uptake of modern contraceptives are perceived convenience to use modern contraceptives (OR 0.39, CI: 0.16 - 0.93, p value- 0.04), experience of unmet needs of contraception (OR 0.08, CI: 0.03 - 0.2, p value- 0.001), history of a modern contraception discontinuation (OR 5.5, CI: 1.7 - 9.2, p value- 0.036) and knowledge of modern contraceptives (OR 19.1, CI: 12.3 - 27.5, p value-0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that uptake of modern contraceptive is relatively high in Nakuru, Kenya and there is need for programmes to focus more on the client of modern contraceptive and the attributes of the modern contraceptives in up-scaling the uptake of modern contraceptives.

  13. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  14. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

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    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline M; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S; Platt, Robert W; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970-2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous observational studies measuring antioxidant levels

  16. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Cohen

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies.To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA.We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970-2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression.We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58 and SGA (n = 9, 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely.Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous observational studies measuring antioxidant

  17. Association between maternal nonresponsive feeding practice and child's eating behavior and weight status: children aged 1 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunmei; Li, Nan; Dong, Jing; Wang, Li; Li, Xiling; Ji, Chenbo; Wang, Xingyun; Chi, Xia; Guo, Xirong; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate the prevalence of nonresponsive feeding practice (NRFP) and child's eating behavior (CEB) and to explore the hypothetical association between child's weight status, NRFP and CEB for 1- to 6-year-old children. In this study, 2423 caregivers of 1- to 6-year-old children are from the Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital who completed the self-report questionnaires about their NRFP and CEB as well as their children's sociodemographic data. Chi-square test and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the correlation between child's weight status and NRFP and CEB. The total prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.2 and 7.3%, respectively. High prevalence of CEB problems and NRFP was detected at 2- and 5-year-old children. Moreover, maternal NRFP was significantly positively associated with CEB. The regression and correlation analysis revealed CEB and maternal NRFP are closely associated with BMI. For instance, refusing new food (OR = 3.57, 95%CI, 1.37-9.33, 1.5-year-old) and restriction (OR = 3.01, 95%CI, 1.34-6.76) are likely to be associated with underweight. Preferring junk food (OR = 4.892, 95%CI, 1.71-14.01, 1-year-old) and inattention (OR = 2.24, 95%CI, 1.16-4.35, 1-year-old) are prone to be overweight and obese, and pressure (OR = 0.23, 95%CI, 0.06-0.91, 1-year-old) is less likely to be associated with underweight. The findings provide strong evidence for the correlation between NRFR and CEB, and this indicates that prevention and intervention of unhealthy weight should start in early life. However, further research is necessary to gain an understanding of the impact of NRFP on CEB and weight. What is known: • Responsive feeding practice is crucial to the formation of eating behavior, and poor practice is associated with the current epidemics of childhood obesity and underweight. What is new: • The findings provide a strong evidence for the correlation between NRFR and CEB. • This

  18. Maternal body mass index is a better indicator of large-for-gestational-age infants compared with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in early pregnancy: The JAGS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Noriyuki; Sugiyama, Takashi; Metoki, Hirohito; Kusaka, Hideto; Maki, Jota; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Sagawa, Norimasa; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Toyoda, Nagayasu

    2017-10-01

    There is no previous study comparing the predictive ability of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) versus a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in early pregnancy for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. This multi-institutional prospective cohort study included 966 pregnant Japanese women. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to compare the effect size of pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting plasma glucose (PG), and 1- and 2-h PG levels after a 75-g OGTT performed before 22weeks gestation for LGA. After these variables were included separately into the model as per continuous variables 1 standard deviation (SD) increase, they were included simultaneously. When pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting PG, and 1- and 2-h PG after a 75-g OGTT were separately included in the model, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for LGA per 1 SD increase in pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting, and 1- and 2-h PG were 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-1.91), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.54), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.78-1.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.93-1.49), respectively. When these variables were included simultaneously, the adjusted ORs per 1 SD increase in pre-pregnancy BMI, fasting, and 1- and 2-h PG were 1.52 (95% CI: 1.23-1.88), 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96-1.46), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57-1.03), and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.96-1.76), respectively. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was more strongly associated with LGA compared with a 75-g OGTT in early pregnancy. Health-care providers should recognize that women with a higher pre-pregnancy BMI carry a higher risk for having LGA infants regardless of the results of a 75-g OGTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal age, social changes, and pregnancy outcome in Ribeirão Preto, southeast Brazil, in 1978-79 and 1994

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    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on changes in demographic, social, and health-care patterns and pregnancy outcome related to maternal age from 1978-79 to 1994 in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from two cohorts of singleton live births, 6,681 births in 1978/79 and 2,839 births in 1994. A standardized questionnaire was submitted to mothers after delivery, and demographic information was collected from official records. There was a significant increase in teenage pregnancies (from 5.1% to 7.4% and a decrease in infant mortality (36/1,000 to 17/1,000. There were significant decreases in the proportion of mothers with low schooling (24.5% to 14.4%, smoking (28.9% to 21.%, and multiparity (14.7% to 9.0%. Prenatal coverage improved (from 23.4% to 9.0% of patients with fewer than 4 prenatal visits, while cesareans increased (from 30.6% to 50.8%, as did preterm delivery (7.2% to 13.6% and low birthweight (7.2% to 10.6%. Despite significant improvements in some maternal characteristics, the proportion of teenage pregnancies, preterm deliveries, low birthweight, and cesareans increased, raising concerns about the health costs and consequences for mothers and infants.

  20. Maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size: Implications for growth plasticity in early life as adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Figueiroa, José N; Alves, Joao G

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of fetal growth predict non-communicable disease risk in adult life, but fetal growth variability appears to have a relatively weak association with maternal nutritional dynamics during pregnancy. This challenges the interpretation of fetal growth variability as 'adaptation'. We hypothesized that associations of maternal size and nutritional status with neonatal size are mediated by the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. We analysed data on maternal height, body mass index (BMI) and pelvic dimensions (conjugate, inter-spinous and inter-cristal diameters) and neonatal gestational age, weight, length, thorax girth and head girth ( n = 224). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify independent maternal predictors of neonatal size, and the mediating role of neonatal head girth in these associations. Pelvic dimensions displaced maternal BMI as a predictor of birth weight, explaining 11.6% of the variance. Maternal conjugate and inter-spinous diameters predicted neonatal length, thorax girth and head girth, whereas inter-cristal diameter only predicted neonatal length. Associations of pelvic dimensions with birth length, but not birth weight, were mediated by neonatal head girth. Pelvic dimensions predicted neonatal size better than maternal BMI, and these associations were mostly independent of maternal height. Sensitivity of fetal growth to pelvic dimensions reduces the risk of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, potentially a strong selective pressure during secular trends in height. Selection on fetal adaptation to relatively inflexible components of maternal phenotype, rather than directly to external ecological conditions, may help explain high levels of growth plasticity during late fetal life and early infancy.

  1. Age and Influenza-Specific Pre-Vaccination Antibodies Strongly Affect Influenza Vaccine Responses in the Icelandic Population whereas Disease and Medication Have Small Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Thorunn A.; Alexandersson, Kristjan F.; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Lapini, Giulia; Palladino, Laura; Montomoli, Emanuele; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2018-01-01

    Influenza vaccination remains the best strategy for the prevention of influenza virus-related disease and reduction of disease severity and mortality. However, there is large individual variation in influenza vaccine responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of gender, age, underlying diseases, and medication on vaccine responses in 1,852 Icelanders of broad age range who received trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccination in 2012, 2013, or 2015. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) titers were measured in pre- and post-vaccination sera. Of the variables tested, the strongest association was with level of pre-vaccination titer that explained a major part of the variance observed in post-vaccination titers, ranging from 19 to 29%, and from 7 to 21% in fold change (FC), depending on the strain and serological (HAI or MN) analysis performed. Thus, increasing pre-vaccination titer associated with decreasing FC (P = 1.1 × 10−99–8.6 × 10−30) and increasing post-vaccination titer (P = 2.1 × 10−159–1.1 × 10−123). Questionnaires completed by 87% of the participants revealed that post-vaccination HAI titer showed association with repeated previous influenza vaccinations. Gender had no effect on vaccine response whereas age had a strong effect and explained 1.6–3.1% of HAI post-vaccination titer variance and 3.1% of H1N1 MN titer variance. Vaccine response, both fold increase and seroprotection rate (percentage of individuals reaching HAI ≥ 40 or MN ≥ 20), was higher in vaccinees ≤37 years of age (YoA) than all other age groups. Furthermore, a reduction was observed in the H1N1 MN titer in people ≥63 YoA, demonstrating a decreased neutralizing functionality of vaccine-induced antibodies at older age. We tested the effects of underlying autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergic diseases and did not observe significant associations with vaccine responses. Intake of immune

  2. Age and Influenza-Specific Pre-Vaccination Antibodies Strongly Affect Influenza Vaccine Responses in the Icelandic Population whereas Disease and Medication Have Small Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorunn A. Olafsdottir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination remains the best strategy for the prevention of influenza virus-related disease and reduction of disease severity and mortality. However, there is large individual variation in influenza vaccine responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of gender, age, underlying diseases, and medication on vaccine responses in 1,852 Icelanders of broad age range who received trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccination in 2012, 2013, or 2015. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI and microneutralization (MN titers were measured in pre- and post-vaccination sera. Of the variables tested, the strongest association was with level of pre-vaccination titer that explained a major part of the variance observed in post-vaccination titers, ranging from 19 to 29%, and from 7 to 21% in fold change (FC, depending on the strain and serological (HAI or MN analysis performed. Thus, increasing pre-vaccination titer associated with decreasing FC (P = 1.1 × 10−99–8.6 × 10−30 and increasing post-vaccination titer (P = 2.1 × 10−159–1.1 × 10−123. Questionnaires completed by 87% of the participants revealed that post-vaccination HAI titer showed association with repeated previous influenza vaccinations. Gender had no effect on vaccine response whereas age had a strong effect and explained 1.6–3.1% of HAI post-vaccination titer variance and 3.1% of H1N1 MN titer variance. Vaccine response, both fold increase and seroprotection rate (percentage of individuals reaching HAI ≥ 40 or MN ≥ 20, was higher in vaccinees ≤37 years of age (YoA than all other age groups. Furthermore, a reduction was observed in the H1N1 MN titer in people ≥63 YoA, demonstrating a decreased neutralizing functionality of vaccine-induced antibodies at older age. We tested the effects of underlying autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergic diseases and did not observe significant associations with vaccine responses. Intake

  3. Depressão materna e a saúde mental de escolares Maternal depression and school-age mental health

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    Ana Vilela Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A depressão materna tem sido apontada como uma condição pouco favorecedora ao desenvolvimento infantil, mostrando-se associada a dificuldades emocionais e comportamentais. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e analisar na literatura indexada artigos que abordem o impacto da depressão materna para as crianças em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se à pesquisa nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, Psyc Info, considerando a produção dos últimos cinco anos (2002-2007. Foram identificados e analisados 30 artigos empíricos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se distribuição semelhante quanto aos delineamentos longitudinais e transversais, características das amostras e formas de avaliação. As coletas de dados foram realizadas em contextos diversos com uma variedade de recursos e informantes. Depressão materna associou-se a dificuldades apresentadas pelas crianças, tais como problemas comportamentais, sintomas depressivos, prejuízos cognitivos e sociais, independentemente do momento de primeira exposição à depressão materna e dos delineamentos adotados, sendo o prejuízo potencializado na presença de comorbidades psiquiátricas. CONCLUSÕES: A depressão materna configurou-se como fator de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil, com impacto negativo para as crianças em idade escolar. Do ponto de vista da saúde mental, considera-se relevante maior atenção às crianças que convivem com tal condição, visando à detecção precoce das eventuais dificuldades como forma de instrumentar práticas preventivas.BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has been identified as a possibly harmful condition for child development, showing to be associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze articles in the indexed literature addressing the impact of maternal depression for school-age children. METHODS: The procedure was made via the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, and Psyc Info

  4. Links between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, maternal distress, infant gender and sensitivity in a high-risk population

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    Eickhorst Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal postpartum depression has an impact on mother-infant interaction. Mothers with depression display less positive affect and sensitivity in interaction with their infants compared to non-depressed mothers. Depressed women also show more signs of distress and difficulties adjusting to their role as mothers than non-depressed women. In addition, depressive mothers are reported to be affectively more negative with their sons than with daughters. Methods A non-clinical sample of 106 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk (poverty, alcohol or drug abuse, lack of social support, teenage mothers and maternal psychic disorder was investigated with EPDS (maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, the CARE-Index (maternal sensitivity in a dyadic context and PSI-SF (maternal distress. The baseline data were collected when the babies had reached 19 weeks of age. Results A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a highly significant relation between the PSI-SF subscale "parental distress" and the EPDS total score, accounting for 55% of the variance in the EPDS. The other variables did not significantly predict the severity of depressive symptoms. A two-way ANOVA with "infant gender" and "maternal postpartum depressive symptoms" showed no interaction effect on maternal sensitivity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity were not linked. It is likely that we could not find any relation between both variables due to different measuring methods (self-reporting and observation. Maternal distress was strongly related to maternal depressive symptoms, probably due to the generally increased burden in the sample, and contributed to 55% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  5. Characteristics of RSV-Specific Maternal Antibodies in Plasma of Hospitalized, Acute RSV Patients under Three Months of Age.

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    Jop Jans

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause for respiratory illness that requires hospitalization in infancy. High levels of maternal antibodies can protect against RSV infection. However, RSV-infected infants can suffer from severe disease symptoms even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific antibodies. This study analyzes several serological characteristics to explore potential deficiencies or surpluses of antibodies that could relate to severe disease symptoms. We compare serum antibodies from hospitalized patients who suffered severe symptoms as well as uninfected infants. Disease severity markers were oxygen therapy, tachypnea, oxygen saturation, admission to the intensive care unit and duration of hospitalization. Antibodies against RSV G protein and a prefusion F epitope correlated with in vitro neutralization. Avidity of RSV-specific IgG antibodies was lower in RSV-infected infants compared to uninfected controls. Severe disease symptoms were unrelated to RSV-specific IgG antibody titers, avidity of RSV-IgG, virus neutralization capacity or titers against pre- and postfusion F or G protein ectodomains and the prefusion F antigenic site Ø. In conclusion, the detailed serological characterization did not indicate dysfunctional or epitope-skewed composition of serum antibodies in hospitalized RSV-infected infants suffering from severe disease symptoms. It remains unclear, whether specific antibody fractions could diminish disease symptoms.

  6. Caesarean section in nulliparous women of advanced maternal age has been reduced in Sweden and Norway since the 1970s: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, U; Gottvall, K; Rasmussen, S

    2012-12-01

    To investigate rates of caesarean delivery in Sweden and Norway from 1973 to 2008 in relation to advanced and very advanced maternal age. Register study. Sweden and Norway. All nulliparous women aged over 30 years with a singleton pregnancy, with the fetus in a cephalic presentation, and delivering at term between 1973 and 2008 were evaluated. The study population comprised 329 824 women in Sweden and 127 810 women in Norway. Data from the national Medical Birth Registers were used to describe caesarean section rates in three age groups: 30-34 years (reference group); 35-39 years (advanced age group); and ≥ 40 years (very advanced age group). Logistic regression analyses estimated the risk in each age group over four decades, in each of the two national samples. Caesarean delivery decreased from 1973-1979 to 2000-2008 in the two oldest age groups in Sweden (35-39 years, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.50-0.58; ≥ 40 years, OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.30-0.43) and Norway (35-39 years, OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.54-0.68; ≥ 40 years, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34-0.58), but increased in women aged 30-34 years. The caesarean delivery rate in the two oldest groups peaked in the second half of the 1970s. Regardless of time point, the caesarean delivery rate was always highest in women aged ≥ 40 years, followed by women aged 35-39 years and lowest in women aged 30-34 years. Caesarean delivery in nulliparous women of advanced and very advanced age peaked by end of the 1970s in Sweden and Norway. The subsequent reduction was contemporaneous with the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring and a more consistent use of the partogram, suggesting that more effective surveillance of labour increased the chance of a vaginal birth in these high-risk women. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  7. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ibanez

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10-20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children's health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children's early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development.We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children's cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children's cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%.The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed.

  8. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    , the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  9. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  10. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  11. A Retrospective Study on Advanced Maternal Age and Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Medico-Legal Advice, "Food for Thought".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Foldes-Papp, Zeno; Panici, Pierluigi B; Brunelli, Roberto; Zaami, Simona; Busardò, Francesco P; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in advanced reproductive age is nowadays part of the social and welfare scenario. The effects and assessment of the risks and complications in women over the age of 43 must still be more specifically defined. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes between spontaneous pregnancies with those induced by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in women ≥ 43 years. This retrospective observational study enrolled 114 women with an age of ≥ 43 divided as follows: 74 with spontaneous pregnancies and 40 with ART-induced pregnancy. For statistical analysis, a t-test was used to compare the parameters analyzed for quantitative variables and χ2 was used for qualitative variables. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Analysis was performed using the program SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The statistically significant differences between IVF and spontaneous pregnancy groups were respectively: gestational hypertension (30% vs 6.8%), preeclampsia (17.5% vs 2.7%), preterm delivery (47.5% vs 13.5%), IUGR (17.5% vs 4.1%), caesarian section (95% vs 70.3%), length of recovery (8.6±7.2 vs 5.9±3) and mean birth weight (2641± 695 g vs 3207±496 g). Women in advanced reproductive age (≥ 43 years) who undergo assisted fertilization procedures are at a higher risk of complications compared to women of the same age with spontaneous pregnancies.

  12. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  13. The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10-11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aimée E; Dawe, Karen; Deanfield, John; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10-11 years (n = 4,318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10-12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Thinking or feeling? An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding, child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired and typically developing school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah

    2017-10-06

    Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Maternal BMI as a predictor of methylation of obesity-related genes in saliva samples from preschool-age Hispanic children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Kathryn Tully; Guo, Yan; To, Sophie Bao-Chieu; Non, Amy L; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-01-09

    The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was conducted on 92 saliva samples collected from Hispanic preschool children using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA), which interrogates >484,000 CpG sites associated with ~24,000 genes. The analysis was limited to 936 genes that have been associated with obesity in a prior GWAS Study. Child DNA methylation at 17 CpG sites was found to be significantly associated with maternal BMI, with increased methylation at 12 CpG sites and decreased methylation at 5 CpG sites. Pathway analysis revealed methylation at these sites related to homocysteine and methionine degradation as well as cysteine biosynthesis and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, eight of the 17 CpG sites reside in genes (FSTL1, SORCS2, NRF1, DLC1, PPARGC1B, CHN2, NXPH1) that have prior known associations with obesity, diabetes, and the insulin pathway. Our study confirms that saliva is a practical human tissue to obtain in community settings and in pediatric populations. These salivary findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Hispanic preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. Identifying early biomarkers and understanding pathways that are epigenetically regulated during this critical stage of child development may present an opportunity for prevention or early intervention for addressing childhood obesity. The clinical trial protocol is available at Clinical

  16. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health.

  17. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Positive predictive values for detection of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and termination of pregnancy rates after referral for advanced maternal age, first trimester combined test or ultrasound abnormalities in a national screening programme (2007-2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee, Jacqueline E.; Knegt, Alida C.; Knapen, Maarten F. C. M.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the positive predictive value (PPV) of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 after referral for advanced maternal age (AMA), first trimester combined test or ultrasound findings to suggest improvements for clinical practice. Data (48 457 combined tests, 134 000 fetal

  19. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is necessary to improve the quality of emergency obstetric service as well as reduce the cost and to educate women of reproductive age in Ibadan on the importance of booking for antenatal care and family planning. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 11: 267 - 273). Key words: Maternal mortality, case-control study, maternal death, ...

  20. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  1. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA.

  2. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  3. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth★

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Blackmore, Heather L.; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Giussani, Dino A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weani...

  4. Quality of early maternal-child relationship and risk of adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Gooze, Rachel A; Lemeshow, Stanley; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity in adolescence is related to the quality of the early maternal-child relationship. We analyzed data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child attachment security and maternal sensitivity were assessed by observing mother-child interaction at 15, 24, and 36 months of age. A maternal-child relationship quality score was constructed as the number of times across the 3 ages that the child was either insecurely attached or experienced low maternal sensitivity. Adolescent obesity was defined as a measured BMI ≥95th percentile at age 15 years. Poor-quality maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) were experienced by 24.7% of children compared with 22.0% who, at all 3 ages, were neither insecurely attached nor exposed to low maternal sensitivity (score: 0). The prevalence of adolescent obesity was 26.1%, 15.5%, 12.1%, and 13.0% for those with risk scores of ≥3, 2, 1, and 0, respectively. After adjustment for gender and birth weight, the odds (95% confidence interval) of adolescent obesity was 2.45 (1.49-4.04) times higher in those with the poorest quality early maternal-child relationships (score: ≥3) compared with those with the highest quality (score: 0). Low maternal sensitivity was more strongly associated with obesity than insecure attachment. Poor quality of the early maternal-child relationship was associated with a higher prevalence of adolescent obesity. Interventions aimed at improving the quality of maternal-child interactions should consider assessing effects on children's weight and examining potential mechanisms involving stress response and emotion regulation.

  5. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  6. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were....... This change was substantial in three countries (P mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... and consequently affect maternal mortality rates. Differences in classification of death must be taken into account when comparing maternal mortality rates, as well as differences in obstetric care, underreporting of maternal deaths and other factors such as the age distribution of mothers....

  7. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  8. Effect of dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on maternal and fetal fatty acid profile and its relation to offspring growth and body composition at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, D; Brunner, S; Vollhardt, C; Schmid, D; Sedlmeier, E-M; Brüderl, M; Heimberg, E; Bartke, N; Boehm, G; Bader, B L; Amann-Gassner, U; Hauner, H

    2013-03-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) are associated with offspring growth and body composition. We investigated the relationship between LCPUFAs in red blood cells (RBCs) of pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers and umbilical cord RBCs of their neonates with infant growth and body composition ≤ 1 year of age. In an open-label randomized, controlled trial, 208 healthy pregnant women received a dietary intervention (daily supplementation with 1200 mg n-3 LCPUFAs and dietary counseling to reduce arachidonic acid (AA) intake) from the 15th week of gestation until 4 months of lactation or followed their habitual diet. Fatty acids of plasma phospholipids (PLs) and RBCs from maternal and cord blood were determined and associated with infant body weight, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass and fat mass assessed by skinfold thickness measurements and ultrasonography. Dietary intervention significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio in maternal and cord-blood plasma PLs and RBCs. Maternal RBCs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs at the 32nd week of gestation were positively related to birth weight. Maternal n-3 LCPUFAs, n-6 LCPUFAs and AA were positively associated with birth length. Maternal RBCs AA and n-6 LCPUFAs were significantly negatively related to BMI and Ponderal Index at 1 year postpartum, but not to fat mass. Maternal DHA, AA, total n-3 LCPUFAs and n-6 LCPUFAs might serve as prenatal growth factors, while n-6 LCPUFAs also seems to regulate postnatal growth. The maternal n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio does not appear to have a role in adipose tissue development during early postnatal life.

  9. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  10. Maternal Mortality in Nepal: Unraveling the Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwal, Juhee V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMaternal mortality has been recognised as a public health problem in the developing countries. The situation concerning maternal mortality in Nepal remained unexplored and vague until the early 1990s. By using 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey, this study discusses the maternal mortality situation in Nepal and analyses the differentials in maternal mortality by place of residence,region, ethnic and religious groups, age at death, and parity. Almost 28 percent of deaths of women in reproductive age was accountable to maternal causes.Logistic regression analysis shows ‘ethnicity,’ ‘age of women,’ and ‘number of births’ as strong predictors of maternal mortality. A number of policy recommendations are suggested to help lower maternal mortality.FrenchLa mortalité liée à la maternité est un des phénomènes de santé qui a étéidentifié dans les pays en voie de développement. La situation de la mortalitéliée à la maternité au Népal est restée inexplorée et assez vague jusqu’au débutdes années 1990. En utilisant les données du Nepal Family Health Survey de1996, cet article examine la situation de la mortalité liée à la maternité au Népalet analyse les différentiels des taux de mortalité par lieu de résidence, région,groupe ethnique et religieux, âge au décès, et parité. Presque 28 pourcent desdécès de femmes en âge de procréer sont liés à la maternité. L’analyse derégression logique démontre que « l’ethnicité », « l’âge des femmes », et le« nombre de naissances » sont de forts prédicteurs du taux des mortalités liées àla maternité.

  11. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Maternal parenting style and adjustment in adolescents with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jorie M; Skinner, Michelle; Gelfand, Donna; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M = 14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological control were associated with greater depressed mood regardless of age and gender. Firm control was strongly associated with greater depressed mood and poorer self-efficacy among older adolescents, less strongly among younger adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal acceptance were associated with less depressed mood, particularly for girls and with better self-efficacy for diabetes management, particularly for older adolescents and girls. Maternal reports of acceptance were associated only with adherence. Maternal parenting style is associated with well-being in adolescents with diabetes, but this association is complex and moderated by age and gender.

  13. Risk for maternal harsh parenting in high-risk families from birth to age three: does ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K

    2012-02-01

    Child maltreatment prevention programs typically identify at-risk families by screening for risk with limited consideration of how risk might vary by ethnicity. In this study, longitudinal data from mothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a home-visitation, child maltreatment prevention program (N = 262) were examined to determine whether risk for harsh parenting differed among mothers who identified themselves as Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 64), English-speaking Latinas (n = 102), or non-Latina Caucasians (n = 96). The majority of the participants were first-time mothers (58.4%), and the average age of all participants was 23.55 years (SD = 6.04). At the time of their infants' births, the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers demonstrated higher SES risk, whereas the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers demonstrated higher psychosocial risk. Three years later, the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers reported harsher parenting behaviors than the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. The need for prevention programs to consider how risk and protective factors differ by ethnic group membership when identifying at-risk mothers is discussed.

  14. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smit, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. POPULATION: All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more

  15. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA, and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4% were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.. Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22–17.6, as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P<.025. These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.

  16. Maternal mental health, substance use, and domestic violence in the year after delivery and subsequent behavior problems in children at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C; Orzol, Sean M; Kahn, Robert S

    2006-05-01

    Mental health disorders, substance use, and domestic violence often occur together. However, studies examining the impact of these conditions in mothers on the well-being of their children have focused only on isolated conditions. To examine the cumulative effect of maternal mental health disorders, substance use, and domestic violence on the risk of behavior problems in young children. A birth cohort (1998-2000) followed up to age 3 years. Eighteen large US cities. At 3 years, 2756 (65%) were followed up from the population-based birth cohort of 4242. Thirty-six percent had annual incomes below the poverty threshold. One year after delivery, mothers were asked questions about conditions in 3 categories: (1) mental health (major depressive episode and generalized anxiety disorder), (2) substance use (smoking, binge drinking, and illicit drug use), and (3) domestic violence (emotional and physical). At 3 years, mothers completed questions from the Child Behavior Checklist. Fifty percent of mothers had a condition in at least 1 of the 3 categories. The prevalence of child behavior problems increased with the number of categories (0, 1, 2, or 3) in which the mother reported a condition: respectively, 7%, 12%, 17%, and 19% for aggression (Pbehavior problems increased with the number of areas--mental health, substance use, or domestic violence--in which the mother reported difficulties. Preventing behavior problems in young children requires family-oriented strategies that address the needs of both parents and their children.

  17. How hot are drosophila hotspots? examining recombination rate variation and associations with nucleotide diversity, divergence, and maternal age in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Manzano-Winkler

    Full Text Available Fine scale meiotic recombination maps have uncovered a large amount of variation in crossover rate across the genomes of many species, and such variation in mammalian and yeast genomes is concentrated to <5kb regions of highly elevated recombination rates (10-100x the background rate called "hotspots." Drosophila exhibit substantial recombination rate heterogeneity across their genome, but evidence for these highly-localized hotspots is lacking. We assayed recombination across a 40Kb region of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosome 2, with one 20kb interval assayed every 5Kb and the adjacent 20kb interval bisected into 10kb pieces. We found that recombination events across the 40kb stretch were relatively evenly distributed across each of the 5kb and 10kb intervals, rather than concentrated in a single 5kb region. This, in combination with other recent work, indicates that the recombination landscape of Drosophila may differ from the punctate recombination pattern observed in many mammals and yeast. Additionally, we found no correlation of average pairwise nucleotide diversity and divergence with recombination rate across the 20kb intervals, nor any effect of maternal age in weeks on recombination rate in our sample.

  18. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-07-01

    Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)-a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02-1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03-1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25-1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18-1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20-24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained associated with increased risk of preterm birth (OR 1

  19. Maternal glycated haemoglobin, pre-gestational weight, pregnancy weight gain and risk of large-for-gestational-age babies: a Danish cohort study of 209 singleton Type 1 diabetic pregnacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.L.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and relative risk of delivering an LGA baby was quantified based on logistic regression models and stratified analysis controlling for the five covariates. Results We included 209 singleton pregnancies with assessable HbA1c values of which 59% [95% confidence interval...... habits. Methods We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County, Denmark from 1985 to 2003. Data on HbA1c values from the 20th gestational week to term were collected from medical records and the babies were classified as large, normal or small for gestational age. The association...

  20. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Tarry-Adkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’ in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1 in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria, and increased xanthine oxidase (XO, p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB. Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  1. Impact of maternally derived immunity on piglets' immune response and protection against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) after vaccination against PCV2 at different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Paolo; Saleri, Roberta; Ferrarini, Giulia; De Angelis, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Benetti, Michele; Ferrari, Luca; Canelli, Elena; Bonilauri, Paolo; Arioli, Elena; Caleffi, Antonio; Nathues, Heiko; Borghetti, Paolo

    2016-05-11

    This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical protection, the level of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) viremia and the immune response (antibodies and IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)) in piglets derived from PCV2 vaccinated sows and themselves vaccinated against PCV2 at different age, namely at 4, 6 and 8 weeks. The cohort study has been carried out over three subsequent production cycles (replicates). At the start/enrolment, 46 gilts were considered at first mating, bled and vaccinated. At the first, second and third farrowing, dams were bled and re-vaccinated at the subsequent mating after weaning piglets. Overall 400 piglets at each farrowing (first, second and third) were randomly allocated in three different groups (100 piglets/group) based on the timing of vaccination (4, 6 or 8 weeks of age). A fourth group was kept non-vaccinated (controls). Piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly with one dose (2 mL) of a commercial PCV2a-based subunit vaccine (Porcilis® PCV). Twenty animals per group were bled at weaning and from vaccination to slaughter every 4 weeks for the detection of PCV2 viremia, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Clinical signs and individual treatments (morbidity), mortality, and body weight of all piglets were recorded. All vaccination schemes (4, 6 and 8 weeks of age) were able to induce an antibody response and IFN-γ SC. The highest clinical and virological protection sustained by immune reactivity was observed in pigs vaccinated at 6 weeks of age. Overall, repeated PCV2 vaccination in sows at mating and the subsequent higher levels of maternally derived antibodies did not significantly interfere with the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in their piglets after vaccination. The combination of vaccination in sows at mating and in piglets at 6 weeks of age was more effective for controlling PCV2 natural infection, than other vaccination schemas, thus sustaining that some interference of MDA with the induction of an

  2. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  3. Maternal age, education level and migration: socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Tanik, Feride A; Aslan, Gokce

    2010-06-09

    Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC) in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256). The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with chi2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the chi2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1%) were daily smokers. Young mothers (educated women and migrants were at increased risk for smoking during pregnancy. Low education and being a migrant were risk factors for daily consumption (p educated women and migrants are important groups to focus on.

  4. The utility of an obesity-specific small for gestational age standard for pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruofan; Foster, Sarah E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2018-06-01

    An obesity-specific standard for small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies may help identify additional at risk pregnancies. This was a retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous singleton neonates born in Texas from 2006-2011. Analysis was limited to births between 34 and 42 weeks gestation. Two SGA birth weight standards (birth weight ≤10th centile) were generated, one using the entire population (SGA pop ) and another using obese pregnancies (SGA cust ). The outcomes of interest included: risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, 5-minute Apgar score below 7, NICU admission, and assisted ventilation >6 h. Using the population standard, the prevalence of SGA complicated by obesity was 8.1%, compared with 10.3% using the obesity-specific standard. 10,457 additional pregnancies were identified as SGA. Compared to obese AGA pregnancies, the aHR for stillbirth was 5.45 [4.28, 6.94] for SGA pop, and 1.21 [0.54, 2.74] for SGA cust-pop. The risks for the following neonatal complications were slightly higher for SGA cust-pop group compared to AGA group: neonatal death aOR 1.40 [1.05, 1.87], low 5-minute Apgar 1.31 [1.09, 1.57], and NICU admission 1.13 [1.03, 1.25]. These risks were lower than SGA pop . Using an obesity-specific SGA standard, a subgroup of pregnancies with marginally increased risk for neonatal complications was identified.

  5. Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, J A; Simmer, K; Dixon, G; Prescott, S L

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Perth, Western Australia, Australia. 98 pregnant women received the supplementation from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. Their infants (n = 72) were assessed at age 2(1/2) years. Fish oil (2.2 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 1.1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/day) or olive oil from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. Effects on infant growth and developmental quotients (Griffiths Mental Development Scales), receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist). Children in the fish oil-supplemented group (n = 33) attained a significantly higher score for eye and hand coordination (mean ((SD) score 114 (10.2)) than those in the placebo group (n = 39, mean score 108 (SD 11.3); p = 0.021, adjusted p = 0.008). Eye and hand coordination scores correlated with n-3 PUFA levels in cord blood erythrocytes (EPA: r = 0.320, p = 0.007; DHA: r = 0.308, p = 0.009) and inversely correlated with n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid 20:4n-6: r = -0.331, p = 0.005). Growth measurements in the two groups were similar at age 2(1/2) years. Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy is safe for the fetus and infant, and may have potentially beneficial effects on the child's eye and hand coordination. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of this finding.

  6. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  7. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Archaeogenetics of Late Iron Age Çemialo Sırtı, Batman: Investigating maternal genetic continuity in north Mesopotamia since the Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaka, Reyhan; Birand, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Yasemin; Caner, Ceren; Açan, Sinan Can; Gündüzalp, Sidar; Parvizi, Poorya; Erim Özdoğan, Aslı; Togan, İnci; Somel, Mehmet

    2018-02-05

    North Mesopotamia has witnessed dramatic social change during the Holocene, but the impact of these events on its demographic history is poorly understood. Here, we study this question by analysing genetic data from the recently excavated Late Iron Age settlement of Çemialo Sırtı in Batman, southeast Turkey. Archaeological and radiocarbon evidence indicate that the site was inhabited during the second and first millennia BCE. Çemialo Sırtı reveals nomadic items of the Early Iron Age, as well as items associated with the Late Achaemenid and subsequent Hellenistic Periods. We compare Çemialo Sırtı mitochondrial DNA profiles with earlier and later populations from west Eurasia to describe genetic continuity patterns in the region. A total of 16 Çemialo Sırtı individuals' remains were studied. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to obtain mitochondrial DNA HVRI-HVRII sequences. We studied haplotype diversity and pairwise genetic distances using F ST , comparing the Çemialo Sırtı population with ancient and modern-day populations from west Eurasia. Coalescent simulations were carried out to test continuity for specific population comparisons. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes from 12 Çemialo Sırtı individuals reveal high haplotype diversity in this population, conspicuously higher than early Holocene west Eurasian populations, which supports the notion of increasing population admixture in west Eurasia through the Holocene. In its mtDNA composition, Çemialo Sırtı shows highest affinity to Neolithic north Syria and Neolithic Anatolia among ancient populations studied, and to modern-day southwest Asian populations. Based on population genetic simulations we cannot reject continuity between Neolithic and Iron Age, or between Iron Age and present-day populations of the region. Despite the region's complex sociopolitical history and indication for increased genetic diversity over time, we find no evidence for sharp shifts in north Mesopotamian

  9. Association of maternal and child nutritional status in Brazil: a population based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Villamor, Eduardo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children nutritional indexes of children, height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for age (BAZ) z-scores, by categories of maternal height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Adjusted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from linear regression, taking into account the complex survey design. We also examined the associations of maternal anthropometry with the prevalence of child stunting (HAZ2). HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height wasmaternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WCmaternal height (maternal BMI and WC. We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.

  10. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...

  11. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  12. Maternal age, alcohol abuse history, and quality of parenting as moderators of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on 7.5-year intellectual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Sokol, Robert J; Chiodo, Lisa M; Corobana, Raluca

    2004-11-01

    In contrast to the extensive literature documenting IQ deficits in patients with fetal alcohol syndrome, effects on IQ have not generally been reported for children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). This study examined the role of maternal age, MAST, and quality of parenting in moderating the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the WISC-III IQ test in moderate-to-heavily exposed children. A total of 337 inner-city African American children whose mothers were recruited prenatally were administered the WISC-III at 7.5 years. Alcohol exposure was assesed with a timeline follow-back interview administered at every prenatal clinic visit. Moderating effects of the three risk factors were examined by adding interaction terms to regression analyses and dichotomizing the moderators and performing separate regressions on the two groups. Prenatal alcohol exposure was related to WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility but not to Full Scale IQ for the sample as a whole. However, among children born to older mothers, an alcohol effect emerged on Full Scale IQ and five of seven composite IQ scores. Similarly, adverse effects were seen among children of MAST-positive mothers and children whose parents provided less optimal cognitive stimulation. Each additional ounce of absolute alcohol consumed per day during pregnancy was associated with a 2.9-point decrease in Full Scale IQ and a 5.6-point decrement on Freedom from Distractibility. This study is the first to demonstrate IQ effects among children with ARND born to older and MAST-positive mothers, particularly in relation to first-trimester drinking. These findings suggest that there are subgroups of more vulnerable and severely affected children whose intellectual performance is compromised. A moderate- to heavy-drinking mother who has given birth to an unaffected child when she was younger needs to be warned that her risk of having an adversely affected child increases as she grows older.

  13. Advanced maternal age as an indication for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)--the need for more judicious application in clinically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2006-11-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is often recommended for routine screening of chromosomal aneuploidy in older women undergoing clinical assisted reproduction, even though its prognostic value on this group of patients is rather ambiguous. What is needed is a clear set of ethical guidelines in the marketing of this technically complex and expensive procedure to patients who are neither suffers nor carriers of serious genetic diseases. Professional counseling would be required to enable an informed decision from the patient. Differences in the prognostic value of PGD for different medical indications must be clearly presented to the patient and they must also be told that PGD is not a completely 'fool-proof' means of preventing birth defects. What may be detected are some genetic syndromes and conditions associated with cytogenetic abnormalities. The patient must be made aware that the results of previous studies have demonstrated that the overwhelming majority of chromosomally abnormal oocytes and embryos either fail to fertilize or implant, and therefore have a relatively low chance of resulting in a live birth with chromosomal defects. Statistical data, particularly the concept of relative risk must clearly be presented to the patient without exaggerating the risk of birth defects. The patient must also be rightfully informed that PGD carries a small risk of damaging the embryo, which could compromise chances of conception. PGD should be judiciously indicated for advanced maternal age in clinically assisted reproduction. Other diagnostic options that may be cheaper, and which also possess a high level of accuracy should be presented first to the patient i.e. amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy and ultrasonargraphy.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children aged 0-2 years: the role of foetal haemoglobin and maternal antibodies to two asexual malaria vaccine candidates (MSP3 and GLURP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tiga Kangoye

    Full Text Available Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3 and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP, in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria.A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2 on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography.A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2 did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria.We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore worthy further investigation.

  15. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health as determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in a mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Bagkeris, Manolis; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-08-01

    A growing body of evidence links poor maternal mental health with negative outcomes on early child development. We examined the effect of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health on infant neurodevelopment at age 18 months in a population-based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of women during pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum (n = 223). An additional sample of 247 mothers also completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum (n = 470). Neurodevelopment at 18 months was assessed with the use of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for confounders revealed that antenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13) were associated with decrease in cognitive development independently of postnatal depression. High trait anxiety and extraversion were associated with decrease and increase, respectively, in social-emotional development. Also, high trait anxiety and neuroticism had a positive effect on infants' expressive communication. Finally, postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13) were associated with decrease in cognitive and fine motor development independently of antenatal depression. These findings suggest that antenatal and postnatal maternal psychological well-being has important consequences on early child neurodevelopment.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is a Strong Predictor of the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Kawakami, Ryoko; Oshima, Satomi; Gando, Yuko; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with arterial stiffening, evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), independent of visceral fat (VF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. We also examined whether the relationship between CRF and the CAVI is modified by age and/or hypertension. The CAVI was determined in 157 Japanese men (age range, 30-79 years), including 96 hypertensive subjects (61.1%). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The subjects were divided into low- and high-CRF groups, and the VF area was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. The VO2peak correlated with the CAVI following adjustment for age and body mass index in the middle-aged and elderly groups (all the subjects: r=-0.285, p<0.001; middle-aged: r=-0.240, p=0.040; elderly: r=-0.225, p=0.049). VF also correlated with the CAVI (r=0.230, p=0.004). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β=0.406, p<0.001) and the VO2peak (β=-0.186, p=0.015) were associated with the CAVI independently of VF and the mean blood pressure. Two way ANCOVA adjusted for age demonstrated that the hypertensive individuals had higher CAVI values than the normotensive individuals in the low-CRF group, whereas no significant differences in the CAVI were observed in the high-CRF group (p for interaction <0.05). In the present study, CRF was found to be associated with the CAVI, independent of age and VF, in hypertensive middle-aged and elderly Japanese men.

  17. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  18. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  19. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis and Population Attributable Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne C C; Vogel, Joshua P; Silveira, Mariangela F; Sania, Ayesha; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cousens, Simon; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Adair, Linda S; Barros, Fernando C; Cowan, Melanie; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kolsteren, Patrick; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Saville, Naomi; Victora, Cesar G; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth alone, or both, and to calculate the population attributable fraction of SGA and preterm birth associated with short maternal stature. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis with the use of data sets from 12 population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each of these studies, we individually calculated RRs between height exposure categories of < 145 cm, 145 to < 150 cm, and 150 to < 155 cm (reference: ≥ 155 cm) and outcomes of SGA, preterm birth, and their combination categories. SGA was defined with the use of both the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) birth weight standard and the 1991 US birth weight reference. The associations were then meta-analyzed. All short stature categories were statistically significantly associated with term SGA, preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), and preterm SGA births (reference: term AGA). When using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to define SGA, women < 145 cm had the highest adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) (term SGA-aRR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.35; preterm AGA-aRR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.66; preterm SGA-aRR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.21). Similar associations were seen for SGA defined by the US reference. Annually, 5.5 million term SGA (18.6% of the global total), 550,800 preterm AGA (5.0% of the global total), and 458,000 preterm SGA (16.5% of the global total) births may be associated

  20. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014 and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations. Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  2. Predicting the Risk to Develop Preeclampsia in the First Trimester Combining Promoter Variant -98A/C of LGALS13 (Placental Protein 13), Black Ethnicity, Previous Preeclampsia, Obesity, and Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Karady, Ido; Trahtenherts, Alla; Syngelaki, Argryo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Liona; Cohen, Ruth; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Juhasz, Kata; Than, Nandor Gabor; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Meiri, Hamutal

    2017-07-21

    LGALS13 (placental protein 13 [PP13]) promoter DNA polymorphisms was evaluated in predicting preeclampsia (PE), given PP13's effects on hypotension, angiogenesis, and immune tolerance. First-trimester plasma samples (49 term and 18 intermediate) of PE cases matched with 196 controls were collected from King's College Hospital, London, repository. Cell-free DNA was extracted and the LGALS13 exons were sequenced after PCR amplification. Expression of LGALS13 promoter reporter constructs was determined in BeWo trophoblast-like cells with luciferase assays. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the A/A genotype combined with maternal risk factors. The A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes in the -98 promoter position were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control but not in the PE group (p 35, black ethnicity, and maternal age >40 were 15.6 and 11.0, respectively (p promoter variant had lower expression than the "-98C" variant in non-differentiated (-13%, p = 0.04) and differentiated (-26%, p promoter region position (compared to "C") and high OR calculated for the A/A genotype in the -98A/C promoter region position, history of previous PE, BMI >35, advanced maternal age >40, and black ethnicity could serve to aid in PE prediction in the first trimester. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina

    2014-01-01

    cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND.......6 × 10(-6)) in the FHS cohorts. Major human diseases including CVD, ND, and cancer, whose risks can be sensitive to the e4 allele, do not mediate the association of this allele with lifespan in large FHS samples. Non-skin cancer non-additively increases mortality of the FHS women with moderate lifespans...

  4. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  5. When New Media Meet the Strong Web of Connected Learning Environments: A New Vision of Progressive Education in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chaebong

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the legacy of Jane Addams' socialized education can live on in today's progressive education, especially in the digital age. Discussion is drawn from a case study of an anti-underage drinking campaign conducted by urban youth of color in an afterschool program. The media ecology environment in the campaign--the integrated…

  6. Anticipatory guidance to prevent infant sleep problems within a randomised controlled trial: infant, maternal and partner outcomes at 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Barbara C; Sayers, Rachel M; Cameron, Sonya L; Gray, Andrew R; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie A; Newlands, Alana; Taylor, Barry J; Taylor, Rachael W

    2017-06-02

    To evaluate the effectiveness of sleep education delivered antenatally and at 3 weeks postpartum to prevent infant sleep problems at 6 months of age. Sleep intervention within a randomised controlled trial for the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study. 802 families were randomly allocated to one of four groups: usual care (control), sleep intervention (sleep), food, activity and breastfeeding intervention (FAB), and combined group receiving both interventions (combination). All groups received standard Well Child care. The sleep intervention groups (sleep and combination) received an antenatal group education session (all mothers and most partners) emphasising infant self-settling and safe sleeping, and a home visit at 3 weeks reinforcing the antenatal sleep education. FAB and combination groups received four contacts providing education and support on breast feeding, food and activity up to 4 months postpartum. Here we report secondary sleep outcomes from the POI study: the prevalence of parent-reported infant sleep problems and night waking, and differences in sleep duration. Additional outcomes reported include differences in infant self-settling, safe sleep practices, and maternal and partner reports of their own sleep, fatigue and depression symptoms. Linear or mixed linear regression models found no significant intervention effects on sleep outcomes, with 19.1% of mothers and 16.6% of partners reporting their infant's sleep a problem at 6 months. Actigraphy estimated the number of night wakings to be significantly reduced (8%) and the duration of daytime sleep increased (6 min) in those groups receiving the sleep intervention compared with those who did not. However, these small differences were not clinically significant and not observed in 24 hours infant sleep diary data. No other differences were observed. A strategy delivering infant sleep education antenatally and at 3 weeks postpartum was not effective in preventing the development

  7. Estudo da morbidade e da mortalidade perinatal em maternidades: II - mortalidade perinatal segundo peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e hábito de fumar da mãe A study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in maternity hospitals: II - perinatal mortality according to birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and maternal smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a influência de variáveis como peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e tabagismo materno. Do estudo dos 12.999 nascimentos (vivos e mortos ocorridos em nove maternidades no período de um ano, verificou-se que a mortalidade perinatal é muito maior para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso (665,3 ‰ para peso até 1.500 g, diminuindo à medida que aumenta o peso ao nascer. Também nos casos de mães jovens (menores de 15 anos ou mães com idade superior a 35 anos esse coeficiente foi mais elevado (45,5 ‰ para mães com menos de 15 anos e 47,0 ‰ para mães entre 35 a 39 anos. A faixa imediatamente superior - 40 a 44 anos - apresentou a mais alta mortalidade perinatal: 61,3 ‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. O número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal tem importância para a diminuição da gestação de alto risco. Mães que fizeram 7 ou mais consultas no pré-natal tiveram a menor mortalidade no período (17,7‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. Já o hábito materno de fumar influencia a mortalidade quando a quantidade é de mais de 10 cigarros por dia. A mortalidade perinatal dos produtos de mães que fumavam menos de 10 cigarros por dia não diferiu das taxas de mortalidade para as mães não-fumantes.The influence of birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy are analysed. Of 12,999 births (live and stillbirths ocurring in nine maternity hospitals during one year, the greatest perinatal mortality rate (PM was that of low birth weight babies (665.3 ‰ for those weighing less than 1,500 g. The PM decreases with increasing weight. Young mothers (less than 15 years of age and women aged 35 or more also had higher Perinatal Mortality rates - 45.5 ‰ for the former and 47.0 ‰ for the latter. Prenatal care is important for the decrease of high risk in pregnancy. Mothers who had made 7 or more consultations during pregnancy had the lowest PM (17.7 ‰ live and stillbirths

  8. Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Forns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education. Methods: We prospectively studied a population-based birth cohort, which forms part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood Project. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Cattell and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire-12 respectively. Results: We observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included. The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile. In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. Conclusions: The association between maternal intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual occupational social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.Objetivos: Este estudio exploró la relación entre inteligencia y salud mental materna y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad en población normal, teniendo en cuenta la clase social basada en la ocupación y el nivel educativo maternos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de cohortes de nacimiento englobado dentro del proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. El

  9. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring at age 3 years: A follow-up analysis of the project viva cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); K.P. Kleinman (Ken); S.E. Lipshultz (Steven); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA previous analysis of the Project Viva cohort (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 recruitment) found an association between higher second-trimester supplemental maternal calcium intake and lower systolic blood pressure in offspring at 6 months. The authors analyzed 5,527 systolic blood

  10. Exploring a causal role of DNA methylation in the relationship between maternal vitamin B12 during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8, cognitive performance and educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caramaschi, Doretta; Sharp, Gemma C; Nohr, Ellen A

    2017-01-01

    An adequate intake of vitamin B12 during pregnancy plays an important role in offspring neurodevelopment, potentially via epigenetic processes. We used a two-step Mendelian randomization approach to assess whether DNA methylation plays a mediating and causal role in associations between maternal...

  11. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  12. Socioeconomic Disparities in Maternity Care among Indian Adolescents, 1990–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    Background India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15–19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)–5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15–19) in India during 1990–2006. Methods and Findings Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990–2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Conclusion Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive ‘adolescent scheme’ along the lines of ‘Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in maternity care among Indian adolescents, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2013-01-01

    India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15-19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19) in India during 1990-2006. Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child health Care' to address the unmet need of reproductive and

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in maternity care among Indian adolescents, 1990-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010; and adolescent (aged 15-19 mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 in India during 1990-2006. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990-2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. CONCLUSION: Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive 'adolescent scheme' along the lines of 'Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child

  15. Quantitative assessment of breastfeeding practices and determination of the quantity of maternal milk consumed by infants aged up to 6 months using isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haloui, Noureddine; El Manchawy, Imane; Zahrou, Fatima-Ezzahra; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Aguenaou, Hassan; Rjimati, El Arbi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Aims: 1- Determination of the quantity of maternal milk consumed using isotope dilution technique. 2-Determination of zinc content of maternal milk and blood. Methods: This study was carried out in Hôpital d’Enfant in Rabat on 32 women of whom 12 were paired to small birth weight infants. The method used is based on the administration of deuterium and the collection of samples of saliva from the mother and the baby during the following 14 days. The FTIR is used to determine the amount of milk consumed by the baby and the maternal body composition. The zinc status in the maternal blood and milk is analysed using the ICP-SM. Results: The use, for the first time in Morocco, of isotopic techniques based on deuterium enrichment of saliva reveals a regression of exclusive breastfeeding in the country. In fact, the prevalence of babies exclusively breastfed is 33,3% for the first month, 26,7% at 3 months and only 12,5% at 6 months. As for the maternal milk intake, the amount of milk consumed during the 1st and 3rd months of life by the babies exclusively breastfed (respectively 690,3 ± 163,1 g/d and 891,8 ± 206,8 g/d) is significantly high compared to babies not exclusively breastfed (respectively 466,2 ± 189,1 g/d and 442,0 ± 117,5 g/d). The amount of milk consumed by the babies exclusively breastfed covers their energy requirements for the first 6 months. However, the body composition shows that babies born to mothers with percentage of body fat > 27% present a superior daily milk intake compared to babies born to mothers with percentage of body fat < 27%. The zinc content of maternal milk decreases between the first and sixth month of life. It is slightly lower in the milk of women paired to low birth weight babies. As for zinc content of maternal blood, results show low levels in the two study groups. Discussion: This study, the first one to be conducted in North of Africa, gives a better idea about the amount of milk consumed by babies less than 6

  16. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  17. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  18. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  19. Impact of change in maternal age composition on the incidence of Caesarean section and low birth weight: analysis of delivery records at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, 1999–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact on annual Caesarean section (CS and low birth weight deliveries (LBWT at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Methods We conducted data analysis of 91,699 singleton deliveries that took place in the hospital between 1999 and 2005. The data were extracted from the obstetric data base. Annual proportions of individual age groups were calculated and their trends over the years studied. Multiple logistic analyses were conducted to ascertain trends in the risks of CS and LBWT. The impact of age composition changes on CS and LBWT was estimated by calculating annual numbers of these outcomes with and without the major changes in age composition, all others remaining equal. In all statistics, a p value Results The proportion of teenage mothers (12–19 years progressively decreased over time while that of 30–34 years age group increased. From 1999, the risk of Caesarean delivery increased steadily to a maximum in 2005 [adjusted OR = 1.7; 95%CI (1.6–1.8] whereas that of LBWT declined to a minimum in 2005 (adjusted OR = 0.76; 95% CI (0.71–0.82. The current major changes in age trend were responsible for shifts in the number of CS of up to206 cases per year. Likewise, the shift in LBWT was up to 158 cases per year, but the 30–34 years age group had no impact on this. Conclusion The population of mothers giving birth at MNH is progressively becoming older with substantial impact on the incidence of CS and LBWT. Further research is needed to estimate the health cost implications of this change.

  20. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong Gradients in Forest Sensitivity to Climate Change Revealed by Dynamics of Forest Fire Cycles in the Post Little Ice Age Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Igor; Bergeron, Yves; Girardin, Martin P.; Gauthier, Sylvie; Ols, Clémentine; Ojal, John

    2017-10-01

    The length of the fire cycle is a critical factor affecting the vegetation cover in boreal and temperate regions. However, its responses to climate change remain poorly understood. We reanalyzed data from earlier studies of forest age structures at the landscape level, in order to map the evolution of regional fire cycles across Eastern North American boreal and temperate forests, following the termination of the Little Ice Age (LIA). We demonstrated a well-defined spatial pattern of post-LIA changes in the length of fire cycles toward lower fire activity during the 1800s and 1900s. The western section of Eastern North America (west of 77°W) experienced a decline in fire activity as early as the first half of the 1800s. By contrast, the eastern section showed these declines as late as the early 1900s. During a regionally fire-prone period of the 1910s-1920s, forests in the western section of Eastern boreal North America burned more than forests in the eastern section. The climate appeared to dominate over vegetation composition and human impacts in shaping the geographical pattern of the post-LIA change in fire activity. Changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns following the termination of the LIA, specifically changes in Arctic Oscillation and the strengthening of the Continental Polar Trough, were likely drivers of the regional fire dynamics.

  2. Adolescent Adrenocortical Activity and Adiposity: Differences by Sex and Exposure to Early Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. PMID:25001956

  3. Maternal Mortality In Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The tragedy of maternal death continues unabated. Most deaths were avoidable. The government needs to show strong commitment to reducing maternal mortality. Measures suggested include free maternity services, legalisation of abortion, training of midwives, improved family planning services and strategic ...

  4. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 27(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks' gestation: maternal and perinatal outcomes according to gestational age by weeks at onset of expectant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrys, Annette E; Barton, John R; Habli, Mounira; Sibai, Baha M

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine perinatal outcome and maternal morbidities based on gestational age (GA) at onset of expectant management in severe preeclampsia (PE) between 27(0/7) and 33 (6/7) weeks. In this retrospective analysis of outcome in patients with severe preeclampsia, we studied 66 patients (71 fetuses) with severe PE at 27 (0)/ (7) to 33(6/ 7). All patients received corticosteroids. Perinatal and maternal complications were analyzed. Five patients had twin gestations. Median for days of prolongation was 5 days (range, 3 to 35). Birth weights of 19 (27%) were or= grade ?). Rate of abruption was significantly higher at 27 to 28 weeks as compared with > 28 weeks (25% vs 6%, p = 0.05). There was no eclampsia, and two had transient renal insufficiency at 27 weeks. Four of 11 (36%) patients with expectant management at >or= 32 weeks had pulmonary edema or hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. During expectant management, rate of respiratory distress syndrome and other serious neonatal complications decrease with increasing GA, supporting a role for such management in early severe preeclampsia. Because there is significant maternal morbidity at >or= 32 weeks with minimal neonatal benefit, consideration should be given for delivery of these pregnancies following corticosteroid administration.

  5. Effect of maternal age on facility-based delivery: analysis of first-order births in 34 countries of sub-Saharan Africa using demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Catherine L; Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona

    2018-04-13

    Increasing access to skilled birth attendance, usually via childbirth in health facilities, is a key intervention to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Yet, in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the uptake is Health Surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries were used to assess women's delivery locations. 72 772 women having their first birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys were included in the analysis. Proportions and 95% CIs of facility-based deliveries were estimated overall and by country. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of facility-based delivery for different maternal age groups (15-19, 20-24 and ≥25 years) for a pooled sample of all countries. 59.9% of women had a facility-based delivery for their first birth (95% CI 58.6 to 61.2), ranging from 19.4% in Chad to 96.6% in Rwanda. Compared with women aged 15-19 years, the adjusted odds of having a facility-based delivery for those aged 20-24 was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5, psub-Saharan Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Associations of Maternal Antidepressant Use During the First Trimester of Pregnancy With Preterm Birth, Small for Gestational Age, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Ayesha C; Rickert, Martin E; Öberg, A Sara; Quinn, Patrick D; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-04-18

    Prenatal antidepressant exposure has been associated with adverse outcomes. Previous studies, however, may not have adequately accounted for confounding. To evaluate alternative hypotheses for associations between first-trimester antidepressant exposure and birth and neurodevelopmental problems. This retrospective cohort study included Swedish offspring born between 1996 and 2012 and followed up through 2013 or censored by death or emigration. Analyses controlling for pregnancy, maternal and paternal covariates, as well as sibling comparisons, timing of exposure comparisons, and paternal comparisons, were used to examine the associations. Maternal self-reported first-trimester antidepressant use and first-trimester antidepressant dispensations. Preterm birth (disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Among 1 580 629 offspring (mean gestational age, 279 days; 48.6% female; 1.4% [n = 22 544] with maternal first-trimester self-reported antidepressant use) born to 943 776 mothers (mean age at childbirth, 30 years), 6.98% of exposed vs 4.78% of unexposed offspring were preterm, 2.54% of exposed vs 2.19% of unexposed were small for gestational age, 5.28% of exposed vs 2.14% of unexposed were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder by age 15 years, and 12.63% of exposed vs 5.46% of unexposed were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by age 15 years. At the population level, first-trimester exposure was associated with all outcomes compared with unexposed offspring (preterm birth odds ratio [OR], 1.47 [95% CI, 1.40-1.55]; small for gestational age OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.25]; autism spectrum disorder hazard ratio [HR], 2.02 [95% CI, 1.80-2.26]; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder HR, 2.21 [95% CI, 2.04-2.39]). However, in models that compared siblings while adjusting for pregnancy, maternal, and paternal traits, first-trimester antidepressant exposure was associated with preterm birth (OR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1

  7. [Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth's age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health.

  8. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield Mark A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Methods Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004 who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS, we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Results Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates, and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 μg respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary

  9. Maternal deaths in Bloemfontein, South Africa -1986

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality in women aged 35 years or older: United States. JAMA 1986; 255: 53-57. 13. Okafor CB. Availability and use of services for maternal and child health care in rural Nigeria. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1991; 34: 331-346. Accepted 13 Feb 1995. SA. Identificatio in a rural g. P. R. Stra. K. J. de W. Major dep practition.

  10. Maternal health care utilisation in Teso District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bolivia and Egypt children of such mothers were also at increased risk of not receiving prenatal care. Maternal age and parity have also been examined as determinants of maternal health use, although the relationships demonstrated have not always been consistent [29, 30, 31]. For example,. Stewart and Sommerfelt found ...

  11. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  12. Maternal Buprenorphine Maintenance and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Spencer, Nancy; McConnell, Krystle; Velez, Martha; Tuten, Michelle; Harrow, Cheryl A; Jones, Hendrée E; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Barnes, Allan J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the well-known benefits of human milk and breastfeeding for the mother and infant, breastfeeding may mitigate neonatal abstinence syndrome severity in prenatally opioid-exposed infants. However, lack of conclusive data regarding the extent of the presence of buprenorphine and active metabolites in human milk makes the recommendation of breastfeeding for buprenorphine-maintained women difficult for many providers. This study seeks to determine the concentrations of buprenorphine and its active metabolites (norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide) in human milk, maternal plasma, and infant plasma of buprenorphine-maintained women and their infants. Up to 10 buprenorphine-maintained women provided paired breast milk and plasma samples at 2, 3, 4, 14, and 30 days postdelivery, and 9 infants provided plasma samples on day 14 of life. All samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine concentrations of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide by a fully validated method. Concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites are low in human milk and maternal plasma. Breastfed infant plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were low or undetectable and metabolite concentrations undetectable at 14 days of infant age. There were significant correlations between maternal buprenorphine dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations. These data find low concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites in human milk and lend support to the recommendation for lactation among stable buprenorphine-maintained women. However, the correlation between maternal dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations bears further study.

  13. Association between low maternal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the second trimester and delivery of small for gestational age infants at term: a case-control study of the national center for child health and development birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Kana; Ogawa, Kohei; Arata, Naoko; Ogihara, Atsushi; Horikawa, Reiko; Sakamoto, Naoko

    2017-06-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy can lead to a small for gestational age (SGA) status among infants. In the present study, we compared the lipid levels during the second trimester in women who delivered SGA infants at term with those in women who delivered appropriate for gestational age infants at term, to examine whether abnormalities in maternal lipid levels could be a risk factor for the delivery of an SGA infant. We enrolled pregnant women who gave birth at the National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), their infants, and who volunteered in a Birth cohort study at the NCCHD. We analyzed a total of 843 blood samples obtained from the women during the second trimester. Moreover, we used multi-regression analysis to assess the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels during the second trimester and the risk of delivering an SGA infant. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for LDL-C levels was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-0.99). These results indicate that a low LDL-C level during the second trimester was associated with an increased risk of delivering an SGA infant at term. The finding would not only help predict future SGA infant birth, but can also help prevent SGA infant birth.

  14. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toothbrushing frequency among 4-6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 4-6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother-child (aged 4-6 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P toothbrushing was observed at a relative frequency of 12.8% in children and 18.4% in mothers. About 43.7% of children brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53-2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08-1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77). The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children.

  16. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  17. Markers of maternal and infant metabolism are associated with ventricular dysfunction in infants of obese women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W Todd; Levy, Philip T; Tinius, Rachel A; Patel, Mehgna D; Choudhry, Swati; Holland, Mark R; Singh, Gautam K; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-11-01

    BackgroundTo test the hypothesis that infants born to obese women with pre-gestational type 2 diabetes mellitus (IBDMs) have ventricular dysfunction at 1 month that is associated with markers of maternal lipid and glucose metabolism.MethodsIn a prospective observational study of IBDMs (OB+DM, n=25), echocardiographic measures of septal, left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function, and structure were compared at 1 month of age with those in infants born to OB mothers without DM (OB, n=24) and to infants born to non-OB mothers without DM (Lean, n=23). Basal maternal lipid and glucose kinetics and maternal plasma and infant (cord) plasma were collected for hormone and cytokine analyses.ResultsRV, LV, and septal strain measures were lower in the OB+DM infants compared with those in other groups, without evidence of septal hypertrophy. Maternal hepatic insulin sensitivity, maternal plasma free-fatty-acid concentration, and cord plasma insulin and leptin most strongly predicted decreased septal strain in OB+DM infants.ConclusionIBDMs have reduced septal function at 1 month in the absence of septal hypertrophy, which is associated with altered maternal and infant lipid and glucose metabolism. These findings suggest that maternal obesity and DM may have a prolonged impact on the cardiovascular health of their offspring, despite the resolution of cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. Choice in maternity care: associations with unit supply, geographic accessibility and user characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite national policies to promote user choice for health services in many European countries, current trends in maternity unit closures create a context in which user choice may be reduced, not expanded. Little attention has been paid to the potential impact of closures on pregnant women’s choice of maternity unit. We study here how pregnant women’s choices interact with the distance they must travel to give birth, individual socioeconomic characteristics and the supply of maternity units in France in 2003. Results Overall, about one-third of women chose their maternity units based on proximity. This proportion increased steeply as supply was constrained. Greater distances between the first and second closest maternity unit were strongly associated with increasing preferences for proximity; when these distances were ≥ 30 km, over 85% of women selected the closest unit (revealed preference) and over 70% reported that proximity was the reason for their choice (expressed preference). Women living at a short distance to the closest maternity unit appeared to be more sensitive to increases in distance between their first and second closest available maternity units. The preference for proximity, expressed and revealed, was related to demographic and social characteristics: women from households in the manual worker class chose a maternity unit based on its proximity more often and also went to the nearest unit when compared with women from professional and managerial households. These sociodemographic associations held true after adjusting for supply factors, maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Choice seems to be arbitrated in both absolute and relative terms. Taking changes in supply into consideration and how these affect choice is an important element for assessing the real impact of maternity unit closures on pregnant women’s experiences. An indicator measuring the proportion of women for whom the distance between the first

  19. Impacto da idade materna sobre os resultados perinatais e via de parto Impact of maternal age on perinatal outcomes and mode of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Helena Nascimento dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    ício tardio e menor número de consultas no pré-natal, uso de abortivo no início da gestação, baixa escolaridade, ausência de companheiro, baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade e menor incidência de desproporção céfalo-pélvica e pré-eclâmpsia. No grupo de gestantes com idade avançada houve maior freqüência de diabetes, pré-eclâmpsia, ruptura prematura das membranas, índice de Apgar no quinto minuto menor que sete e maior frequência de parto operatório cesáreo.PURPOSE: to analyze the association of the mother's age, the perinatal outcome and the delivery route. METHODS: information about all the patients attended at the Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a tertiary university hospital in Maranhão, from July to December 2006, was analyzed. Patients have been allocated in three groups: adolescents (10 to 19 years old, adults (20 to 34 years old, and aged women (>35 years old. Variables studied were: skin color, schooling, marital status, family income, parity, number of appointments during pre-natal care, gestational age at the onset of pre-natal care, delivery route, Apgar index at the fifth minute and birth weight. Data were processed by the Epi-info program, version 3.4.1, and the association among the variables was analyzed by the Odds Ratio (OR or the cross product ratio, with confidence intervals (CI of 95%. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: among 2,196 patients, 25% of deliveries occurred in adolescents, 69% in adults and 6% in aged women. Among the adolescents, there was higher risk of prematurity (OR=1.46; CI95%=1.14-1.88, and low birth weight (OR=1.47; CI95%=1.13- 1.90, higher incidence of normal delivery as compared to the other groups (65.2%, besides the association with late onset of pre-natal care (OR=1.86; CI95%=1.43-2.43, lower number of appointments (OR=2.03; CI95%=1.57-2.63, and use of abortive procedures at the onset of gestation (OR=2.34; CI95%=1.38-3.98. Among aged women, there was strong association with diabetes mellitus

  20. Fetal and maternal factors associated with neonatal adiposity as measured by air displacement plethysmography: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheryl P; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E; Jeffery, Heather

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments play a role in determining the risk of lifetime obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Neonatal body composition, as a surrogate marker of the in-utero environment, can be reliably and accurately measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Our primary objective was to identify preconception, fetal and maternal factors affecting neonatal body composition. This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born between September and October 2010 at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using ADP. Maternal demographic, anthropometric and medical data as well as neonatal gestational age and sex were used to develop a regression model that predicted body composition and birthweight. The mean (SD) neonatal BF% in our whole population was 9.2(4.4)%. Significant variables in the model for neonatal BF% were neonatal sex, gestational age, maternal ethnicity, gestational weight gain (GWG), pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and maternal hypertension (pNeonatal female sex, maternal Caucasian ethnicity and increased gestational weight gain explained the most variation and were most strongly associated with increased BF%. This study highlights maternal obesity and increased gestational weight gain as two factors that are amenable to intervention as risk factors for newborn adiposity, which is important in the future study of the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. © 2013.

  1. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  2. Maternal risk factors in young Egyptian mothers of Down syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For all cases, history was taken laying stress on: Parental ages at conception, maternal grandparent's ages at conception of mother, DS birth order, history of oral ... mothers ≥ 35 years. on the other hand, parental consanguinity, maternal grandparents' ages, the presence of genital infection and birth order did not show a ...

  3. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Nunes-Freitas, André Luis; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Sichieri, Rosely

    2014-04-10

    There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. We evaluated 2405 children in 1999-2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: -0.32, p maternal smoking not only during pregnancy, but also at early childhood, showed long-term negative effect on

  4. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  5. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  6. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are modestly associated with umbilical cord DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct t...

  7. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body...

  8. Sex and age-dependent effects of a maternal junk food diet on the mu-opioid receptor in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Bae, Sung Eun; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2016-03-15

    Perinatal junk food exposure increases the preference for palatable diets in juvenile and adult rat offspring. Previous studies have implicated reduced sensitivity of the opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences; however it is not known when during development these changes in opioid signalling first emerge. This study aimed to determine the impact of a maternal junk food (JF) diet on mu-opioid receptor (MuR) expression and ligand binding in two key regions of the reward pathway, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats during the early suckling (postnatal day (PND) 1 and 7) and late suckling/early post-weaning (PND 21 and 28) periods. Female rats were fed either a JF or a control diet for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. MuR expression in the VTA was significantly reduced in female JF offspring on PND 21 and 28 (by 32% and 57% respectively, Pjunk food exposure on MuR mRNA expression or binding were detected at these time points in male offspring. These findings provide evidence that the opioid signalling system is a target of developmental programming by the end of the third postnatal week in females, but not in males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  10. Forecasting Epidemiological Consequences of Matern