DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Flyvbjerg, Henrik K.
2007-01-01
datasets for this substantial measurement error. In contrast to earlier studies, a large number of spectra and raw data have been used in the analysis to define the low-pass filtering characteristic of the EC system. This revealed that the cut-off frequency of the closed-path EC system for water vapour......Turbulent water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy correlation (EC) systems are unintentionally low-pass filtered by the system in a manner that varies with environmental conditions. Why and how is described here. So is the practical method that systematically corrects long-term flux...... concentration measurements decreases exponentially with increasing relative humidity. After correction for this unintended filtering, the fluxes are consistent with CO2 and H2O fluxes that were measured with an open-path sensor at the same time. The correction of water vapour flux measurements over a Beech...
Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters
Thalmann, M.; Pernau, H.-F.; Strunk, C.; Scheer, E.; Pietsch, T.
2017-11-01
Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.
Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters.
Thalmann, M; Pernau, H-F; Strunk, C; Scheer, E; Pietsch, T
2017-11-01
Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.
Evaluating low pass filters on SPECT reconstructed cardiac orientation estimation
Dwivedi, Shekhar
2009-02-01
Low pass filters can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images by smoothing. Appropriate filter and parameter selection leads to optimum smoothing that leads to a better quantification followed by correct diagnosis and accurate interpretation by the physician. This study aims at evaluating the low pass filters on SPECT reconstruction algorithms. Criteria for evaluating the filters are estimating the SPECT reconstructed cardiac azimuth and elevation angle. Low pass filters studied are butterworth, gaussian, hamming, hanning and parzen. Experiments are conducted using three reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered back projection), MLEM (maximum likelihood expectation maximization) and OSEM (ordered subsets expectation maximization), on four gated cardiac patient projections (two patients with stress and rest projections). Each filter is applied with varying cutoff and order for each reconstruction algorithm (only butterworth used for MLEM and OSEM). The azimuth and elevation angles are calculated from the reconstructed volume and the variation observed in the angles with varying filter parameters is reported. Our results demonstrate that behavior of hamming, hanning and parzen filter (used with FBP) with varying cutoff is similar for all the datasets. Butterworth filter (cutoff > 0.4) behaves in a similar fashion for all the datasets using all the algorithms whereas with OSEM for a cutoff < 0.4, it fails to generate cardiac orientation due to oversmoothing, and gives an unstable response with FBP and MLEM. This study on evaluating effect of low pass filter cutoff and order on cardiac orientation using three different reconstruction algorithms provides an interesting insight into optimal selection of filter parameters.
Modelling modulation perception : modulation low-pass filter or modulation filter bank?
Dau, T.; Kollmeier, B.; Kohlrausch, A.G.
1995-01-01
In current models of modulation perception, the stimuli are first filtered and nonlinearly transformed (mostly half-wave rectified). In order to model the low-pass characteristic of measured modulation transfer functions, the next stage in the models is a first-order low-pass filter with a typical
Reversible wavelet filter banks with side informationless spatially adaptive low-pass filters
Abhayaratne, Charith
2011-07-01
Wavelet transforms that have an adaptive low-pass filter are useful in applications that require the signal singularities, sharp transitions, and image edges to be left intact in the low-pass signal. In scalable image coding, the spatial resolution scalability is achieved by reconstructing the low-pass signal subband, which corresponds to the desired resolution level, and discarding other high-frequency wavelet subbands. In such applications, it is vital to have low-pass subbands that are not affected by smoothing artifacts associated with low-pass filtering. We present the mathematical framework for achieving 1-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter (SALP) using the prediction-first lifting scheme. The adaptivity decisions are computed using the wavelet coefficients, and no bookkeeping is required for the perfect reconstruction. Then, 2-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter are designed by extending the 1-D SALP framework. Because the 2-D polyphase decompositions are used in this case, the 2-D adaptivity decisions are made nonseparable as opposed to the separable 2-D realization using 1-D transforms. We present examples using the 2-D 5/3 wavelet transform and their lossless image coding and scalable decoding performances in terms of quality and resolution scalability. The proposed 2-D-SALP scheme results in better performance compared to the existing adaptive update lifting schemes.
Efficient design of FIR filter based low-pass differentiators for biomedical signal processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wulf Michael
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an alternative design of linear phase low-pass differentiators with a finite impulse response (type III FIR filter. To reduce the number of necessary filter coefficients, the differentiator’s transfer function is approximated by a Fourier series of a triangle function. Thereby the filter’s transition steepness towards the stopband is intentionally reduced. It can be shown that the proposed design of low-pass differentiators yields to similar results as other published design recommendations, while the filter order can be significantly reduced.
Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindén, Henrik; Pettersen, Klas H; Einevoll, Gaute T
2010-01-01
of contributions to the LFP from a single layer-5 pyramidal neuron and a single layer-4 stellate neuron receiving synaptic input. An intrinsic dendritic low-pass filtering effect of the LFP signal, previously demonstrated for extracellular signatures of action potentials, is seen to strongly affect the LFP power...... spectra, even for frequencies as low as 10 Hz for the example pyramidal neuron. Further, the LFP signal is found to depend sensitively on both the recording position and the position of the synaptic input: the LFP power spectra recorded close to the active synapse are typically found to be less low......The local field potential (LFP) is among the most important experimental measures when probing neural population activity, but a proper understanding of the link between the underlying neural activity and the LFP signal is still missing. Here we investigate this link by mathematical modeling...
Low-pass parabolic FFT filter for airborne and satellite lidar signal processing.
Jiao, Zhongke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Enhai; Yue, Yongjian
2015-10-14
In order to reduce random errors of the lidar signal inversion, a low-pass parabolic fast Fourier transform filter (PFFTF) was introduced for noise elimination. A compact airborne Raman lidar system was studied, which applied PFFTF to process lidar signals. Mathematics and simulations of PFFTF along with low pass filters, sliding mean filter (SMF), median filter (MF), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were studied, and the practical engineering value of PFFTF for lidar signal processing has been verified. The method has been tested on real lidar signal from Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL). Results show that PFFTF has advantages over the other methods. It keeps the high frequency components well and reduces much of the random noise simultaneously for lidar signal processing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas
2018-01-01
We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....
Removing tidal-period variations from time-series data using low-pass digital filters
Walters, Roy A.; Heston, Cynthia
1982-01-01
Several low-pass, digital filters are examined for their ability to remove tidal Period Variations from a time-series of water surface elevation for San Francisco Bay. The most efficient filter is the one which is applied to the Fourier coefficients of the transformed data, and the filtered data recovered through an inverse transform. The ability of the filters to remove the tidal components increased in the following order: 1) cosine-Lanczos filter, 2) cosine-Lanczos squared filter; 3) Godin filter; and 4) a transform fitter. The Godin fitter is not sufficiently sharp to prevent severe attenuation of 2–3 day variations in surface elevation resulting from weather events.
Instrumentation amplifier implements second-order active low-pass filter with high gain factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomqvist, Kim H; Eskelinen, Pekka; Sepponen, Raimo E
2011-01-01
A single-ended second-order active low-pass filter can simultaneously provide high gain factor and dc voltage subtraction. This makes it possible to reduce the number of components and signal processing stages needed in an application where small voltage changes are measured on the top of large dc voltage masked by a large amplitude oscillating carrier. The filter described in this paper is constructed from a conventional 3-op-amp instrumentation amplifier and five passive circuit elements. (technical design note)
Pseudo-real-time low-pass filter in ECG, self-adjustable to the frequency spectra of the waves.
Christov, Ivaylo; Neycheva, Tatyana; Schmid, Ramun; Stoyanov, Todor; Abächerli, Roger
2017-09-01
The electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition is often accompanied by high-frequency electromyographic (EMG) noise. The noise is difficult to be filtered, due to considerable overlapping of its frequency spectrum to the frequency spectrum of the ECG. Today, filters must conform to the new guidelines (2007) for low-pass filtering in ECG with cutoffs of 150 Hz for adolescents and adults, and to 250 Hz for children. We are suggesting a pseudo-real-time low-pass filter, self-adjustable to the frequency spectra of the ECG waves. The filter is based on the approximation procedure of Savitzky-Golay with dynamic change in the cutoff frequency. The filter is implemented pseudo-real-time (real-time with a certain delay). An additional option is the automatic on/off triggering, depending on the presence/absence of EMG noise. The analysis of the proposed filter shows that the low-frequency components of the ECG (low-power P- and T-waves, PQ-, ST- and TP-segments) are filtered with a cutoff of 14 Hz, the high-power P- and T-waves are filtered with a cutoff frequency in the range of 20-30 Hz, and the high-frequency QRS complexes are filtered with cutoff frequency of higher than 100 Hz. The suggested dynamic filter satisfies the conflicting requirements for a strong suppression of EMG noise and at the same time a maximal preservation of the ECG high-frequency components.
Design and Analysis of a Micromachined LC Low Pass Filter For 2.4GHz Application
Saroj, Samruddhi R.; Rathee, Vishal R.; Pande, Rajesh S.
2018-02-01
This paper reports design and analysis of a passive low pass filter with cut-off frequency of 2.4 GHz using MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology. The passive components such as suspended spiral inductors and metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor are arranged in T network form to implement LC low pass filter design. This design employs a simple approach of suspension thereby reducing parasitic losses to eliminate the performance degrading effects caused by integrating an off-chip inductor in the filter circuit proposed to be developed on a low cost silicon substrate using RF-MEMS components. The filter occupies only 2.1 mm x 0.66 mm die area and is designed using micro-strip transmission line placed on a silicon substrate. The design is implemented in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) software and fabrication flow is proposed for its implementation. The simulated results show that the design has an insertion loss of -4.98 dB and return loss of -2.60dB.
Analysis and Design of a High-Order Discrete-Time Passive IIR Low-Pass Filter
Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a discrete-time IIR low-pass filter that achieves a high-order of filtering through a charge-sharing rotation. Its sampling rate is then multiplied through pipelining. The first stage of the filter can operate in either a voltage-sampling or charge-sampling mode. It uses
Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Said Attamimi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.
Offline estimation of decay time for an optical cavity with a low pass filter cavity model.
Kallapur, Abhijit G; Boyson, Toby K; Petersen, Ian R; Harb, Charles C
2012-08-01
This Letter presents offline estimation results for the decay-time constant for an experimental Fabry-Perot optical cavity for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The cavity dynamics are modeled in terms of a low pass filter (LPF) with unity DC gain. This model is used by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) along with the recorded light intensity at the output of the cavity in order to estimate the decay-time constant. The estimation results using the LPF cavity model are compared to those obtained using the quadrature model for the cavity presented in previous work by Kallapur et al. The estimation process derived using the LPF model comprises two states as opposed to three states in the quadrature model. When considering the EKF, this means propagating two states and a (2×2) covariance matrix using the LPF model, as opposed to propagating three states and a (3×3) covariance matrix using the quadrature model. This gives the former model a computational advantage over the latter and leads to faster execution times for the corresponding EKF. It is shown in this Letter that the LPF model for the cavity with two filter states is computationally more efficient, converges faster, and is hence a more suitable method than the three-state quadrature model presented in previous work for real-time estimation of the decay-time constant for the cavity.
Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful
2014-01-01
A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bijan Rahmani
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.
San, O.
2016-01-01
The idea of spatial filtering is central in approximate deconvolution large-eddy simulation (AD-LES) of turbulent flows. The need for low-pass filters naturally arises in the approximate deconvolution approach which is based solely on mathematical approximations by employing repeated filtering operators. Two families of low-pass spatial filters are studied in this paper: the Butterworth filters and the Padé filters. With a selection of various filtering parameters, variants of the AD-LES are systematically applied to the decaying Burgers turbulence problem, which is a standard prototype for more complex turbulent flows. Comparing with the direct numerical simulations, it is shown that all forms of the AD-LES approaches predict significantly better results than the under-resolved simulations at the same grid resolution. However, the results highly depend on the selection of the filtering procedure and the filter design. It is concluded that a complete attenuation for the smallest scales is crucial to prevent energy accumulation at the grid cut-off.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The research purpose of this paper is to show the limitations of the existing radiometric normalization approaches and their disadvantages in change detection of artificial objects by comparing the existing approaches,on the basis of which a preprocessing approach to radiometric consistency,based on wavelet transform and a spatial low-pass filter,has been devised.This approach first separates the high frequency information and low frequency information by wavelet transform.Then,the processing of relative radiometric consistency based on a low-pass filter is conducted on the low frequency parts.After processing,an inverse wavelet transform is conducted to obtain the results image.The experimental results show that this approach can substantially reduce the influence on change detection of linear or nonlinear radiometric differences in multi-temporal images.
A Compact Via-free Composite Right/Left Handed Low-pass Filter with Improved Selectivity
Kumar, Ashish; Choudhary, Dilip Kumar; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Kumar
2017-07-01
In this paper, a compact via-free low pass filter is designed based on composite right/left handed (CRLH) concept. The structure uses open ended concept. Rectangular slots are etched on signal transmission line (TL) to suppress the spurious band without altering the performance and size of filter. The filter is designed for low pass frequency band with cut-off frequency of 3.5 GHz. The proposed metamaterial structure has several prominent advantages in term of selectivity up to 34 dB/GHz and compactness with average insertion loss less than 0.4 dB. It has multiple applications in wireless communication (such as GSM900, global navigation satellite system (1.559-1.610 GHz), GSM1800, WLAN/WiFi (2.4-2.49 GHz) and WiMAX (2.5-2.69 GHz)). The design parameters have been measured and compared with the simulated results and found excellent agreement. The electrical size of proposed filter is 0.14λ0× 0.11λ0 (where λ0 is free space wavelength at zeroth order resonance (ZOR) frequency 2.7 GHz).
FITTS LAW AS A LOW-PASS FILTER EFFECT OF MUSCLE-STIFFNESS
VANGALEN, GP; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus
It is proposed that the speed of aiming movements is the optimized outcome of a stochastic, oscillatory recruitment signal to the muscles and filtering properties of the effector limb. The filtering characteristic of the limb is seen to be modulated through a stiffness parameter, to be set by the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jatin Narula
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Combinatorial regulation of gene expression is ubiquitous in eukaryotes with multiple inputs converging on regulatory control elements. The dynamic properties of these elements determine the functionality of genetic networks regulating differentiation and development. Here we propose a method to quantitatively characterize the regulatory output of distant enhancers with a biophysical approach that recursively determines free energies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions from experimental analysis of transcriptional reporter libraries. We apply this method to model the Scl-Gata2-Fli1 triad-a network module important for cell fate specification of hematopoietic stem cells. We show that this triad module is inherently bistable with irreversible transitions in response to physiologically relevant signals such as Notch, Bmp4 and Gata1 and we use the model to predict the sensitivity of the network to mutations. We also show that the triad acts as a low-pass filter by switching between steady states only in response to signals that persist for longer than a minimum duration threshold. We have found that the auto-regulation loops connecting the slow-degrading Scl to Gata2 and Fli1 are crucial for this low-pass filtering property. Taken together our analysis not only reveals new insights into hematopoietic stem cell regulatory network functionality but also provides a novel and widely applicable strategy to incorporate experimental measurements into dynamical network models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hallaq, A.; Amin, S.
1998-01-01
This paper introduces a new parallel algorithm and its simulation on a hypercube simulator for the low pass digital image filtering using a systolic array. This new algorithm is faster than the old one (Amin, 1988). This is due to the the fact that the old algorithm carries out the addition operations in a sequential mode. But in our new design these addition operations are divided into tow groups, which can be performed in parallel. One group will be performed on one half of the systolic array and the other on the second half, that is, by folding. This parallelism reduces the time required for the whole process by almost quarter the time of the old algorithm.(authors). 18 refs., 3 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; Li, Yun
2016-01-01
The capacitor-current-feedback active damping method is attractive for high-order-filter-based high power grid-tied inverter when the grid impedance varies within a wide range. In order to improve the system control bandwidth and attenuate the high order grid background harmonics by using the quasi....... In this paper, a low pass filter is proposed to be inserted in the capacitor current feedback loop op LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter together with a digital proportional and differential compensator. The detailed theoretical analysis is given. For verification, simulations on a 2kW/220V/10kHz LLCL...
Ultra-Low Voltage Sixth-Order Low Pass Filter for Sensing the T-Wave Signal in ECGs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panagiotis Bertsias
2014-11-01
Full Text Available An ultra-low voltage sixth-order low pass filter topology, suitable for sensing the T-wave signal in an electrocardiogram (ECG, is presented in this paper. This is realized using a cascade connection of second-order building blocks constructed from a sinh-domain two-integrator loop. The performance of the filter has been evaluated using the Cadence Analog Design Environment and the design kit provided by the Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS 0.35-µm CMOS process. The power consumption of filters was 7.21 nW, while a total harmonic distortion (THD level of 4% was observed for an input signal of 220 pA. The RMS value of the input referred noise was 0.43 pA, and the simulated value of the dynamic range (DR was 51.1 dB. A comparison with already published counterparts shows that the proposed topology offers the benefits of 0.5-V supply voltage operation and significantly improved power efficiency.
DeTemple, B.; Wilcock, P.
2011-12-01
In an alluvial, gravel-bed stream governed by a plane-bed bedload transport regime, the physicochemical properties, size distribution, and granular architecture of the sediment grains that constitute the streambed surface influence many hydrodynamic, geomorphic, chemical, and ecological processes. Consequently, the abilities to accurately characterize the morphology and model the morphodynamics of the streambed surface and its interaction with the bedload above and subsurface below are necessary for a more complete understanding of how sediment, flow, organisms, and biogeochemistry interact. We report on our progress in the bottom-up development of low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream. These balance laws are assembled in a four stage process. First, the stream sediment-water system is conceptually abstracted as a nested, multi-phase, multi-species, structured continuum. Second, the granular surface of an aggregate of sediment grains is mathematically defined. Third, an integral approach to mass balance, founded in the continuum theory of multiphase flow, is used to formulate primordial, differential, instantaneous, local, continuum, mass balance laws applicable at any material point within a gravel-bed stream. Fourth, area averaging and time-after-area averaging, employing planform, low-pass filtering expressed as correlation or convolution integrals and based on the spatial and temporal filtering techniques found in the fields of multiphase flow, porous media flow, and large eddy simulation of turbulent fluid flow, are applied to smooth the primordial equations while maximizing stratigraphic resolution and preserving the definitions of relevant morphodynamic surfaces. Our approach unifies, corrects, contextualizes, and generalizes prior efforts at developing stream sediment continuity equations, including the top-down derivations of the surface layer (or "active layer") approach of Hirano
A fully integrated continuous-time 1Hz low-pass filter with high dynamic range and low distortion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shah, Peter Jivan
1993-01-01
A first order 1Hz integrated filter needing no external components is described. It uses an on-chip capacitor of 100pF and a new differential transconductance amplifier which allows direct implementation of very small transconductances by using MOS transistors in their triode region. This further......A first order 1Hz integrated filter needing no external components is described. It uses an on-chip capacitor of 100pF and a new differential transconductance amplifier which allows direct implementation of very small transconductances by using MOS transistors in their triode region...
Malicka, Alicja N; Wilson, Wayne J; Baer, Thomas; Munro, Kevin J; Baker, Richard J; Miluzzi, Deanna; Moore, Brian C J
2018-04-24
Cochlear dead regions (DRs) are regions in the cochlea where the inner hair cells and/or neurons are not functioning. Adults with extensive high-frequency DRs have enhanced abilities in processing sounds with frequencies just below the edge frequency, f edge , of the DR. It was assessed whether the same is true for children. Performance was compared for children aged 8 to 13 years with: DRs (group DR), hearing impairment but without DRs (group NODR), and normal hearing (group NH). Seven ears in each group were tested. Each ear in the DR group was matched in age and low-frequency hearing with an ear in the NODR group, and in age with an ear in the NH group, giving seven "triplets". Within each triplet, the percent correct identification of vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli was measured using stimuli that were low-pass filtered at f edge and 0.67f edge , based on the ear with a DR. For the hearing-impaired ears, stimuli were given frequency-selective amplification as prescribed by DSL 4.1. No significant differences in performance were found between groups for either low-pass cut-off frequency. Unlike adults, the children with DRs did not show enhanced discrimination of speech stimuli with frequencies below f edge .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monzo, Jose M.; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando; Sanchez, Filomeno; Mora, Francisco J.; Benlloch, Jose M.; Sebastia, Angel
2009-01-01
PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monzo, Jose M. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonfer@aaa.upv.es; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, Filomeno [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Mora, Francisco J. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, Jose M. [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Sebastia, Angel [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2009-06-01
PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vlasta Bari
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Entropy-based complexity of cardiovascular variability at short time scales is largely dependent on the noise and/or action of neural circuits operating at high frequencies. This study proposes a technique for canceling fast variations from cardiovascular variability, thus limiting the effect of these overwhelming influences on entropy-based complexity. The low-pass filtering approach is based on the computation of the fastest intrinsic mode function via empirical mode decomposition (EMD and its subtraction from the original variability. Sample entropy was exploited to estimate complexity. The procedure was applied to heart period (HP and QT (interval from Q-wave onset to T-wave end variability derived from 24-hour Holter recordings in 14 non-mutation carriers (NMCs and 34 mutation carriers (MCs subdivided into 11 asymptomatic MCs (AMCs and 23 symptomatic MCs (SMCs. All individuals belonged to the same family developing long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1 via KCNQ1-A341V mutation. We found that complexity indexes computed over EMD-filtered QT variability differentiated AMCs from NMCs and detected the effect of beta-blocker therapy, while complexity indexes calculated over EMD-filtered HP variability separated AMCs from SMCs. The EMD-based filtering method enhanced features of the cardiovascular control that otherwise would have remained hidden by the dominant presence of noise and/or fast physiological variations, thus improving classification in LQT1.
Kawaji, Keigo; Patel, Mita B; Cantrell, Charles G; Tanaka, Akiko; Marino, Marco; Tamura, Satoshi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Carroll, Timothy J; Ota, Takeyoshi; Patel, Amit R
2017-07-01
To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). The mathematical formulation of a noniterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided (i.e., Dynamically Interleaved Streak removal in the Power-spectrum Encoded domain with Low-pass filtering [DISPEL]). Next, an effective radial acquisition for the DISPEL approach that exploits the property of prime numbers is described (i.e., Modulo-Prime Spoke [MoPS]). Both DISPEL and MoPS are examined using numerical simulation of a digital heart phantom to show that high-temporal cine-CMR is feasible without removing physiologic motion vs aperiodic interleaving using Golden Angles. The combined high-temporal cine approach is next examined in 11 healthy subjects for a time-volume curve assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance vs conventional Cartesian cine-CMR reference. The DISPEL method was first shown using simulation under different streak cycles to allow separation of undersampled radial streaking artifacts from physiologic motion with a sufficiently frequent streak-cycle interval. Radial interleaving with MoPS is next shown to allow interleaves with pseudo-Golden-Angle variants, and be more compatible with DISPEL against irrational and nonperiodic rotation angles, including the Golden-Angle-derived rotations. In the in vivo data, the proposed method showed no statistical difference in the systolic performance, while diastolic parameters sensitive to the cine's temporal resolution were statistically significant (P cine). We demonstrate a high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using DISPEL and MoPS, whose streaking artifact was separated from physiologic motion. © 2017 American Association of Physicists
Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie
2007-01-01
To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.
Ensemble-based Kalman Filters in Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhaoxia PU; Joshua HACKER
2009-01-01
This study examines the effectiveness of ensemble Kalman filters in data assimilation with the strongly nonlinear dynamics of the Lorenz-63 model, and in particular their use in predicting the regime transition that occurs when the model jumps from one basin of attraction to the other. Four configurations of the ensemble-based Kalman filtering data assimilation techniques, including the ensemble Kalman filter, ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, ensemble square root filter and ensemble transform Kalman filter, are evaluated with their ability in predicting the regime transition (also called phase transition) and also are compared in terms of their sensitivity to both observational and sampling errors. The sensitivity of each ensemble-based filter to the size of the ensemble is also examined.
Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Strong Tracking Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The paper analyzes the problem of blind source separation (BSS) based on the nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) criterion. An adaptive strong tracking filter (STF) based algorithm was developed, which is immune to system model mismatches. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges quickly and has satisfactory steady-state accuracy. The Kalman filtering algorithm and the recursive leastsquares type algorithm are shown to be special cases of the STF algorithm. Since the forgetting factor is adaptively updated by adjustment of the Kalman gain, the STF scheme provides more powerful tracking capability than the Kalman filtering algorithm and recursive least-squares algorithm.
Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics
Zhu, Yanqui; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo
1999-01-01
The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions. Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz model as well as more realistic models of the means and atmosphere. A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter situations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members. The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to be quite puzzling in that results state estimates are worse than for their filter analogue. In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use the Lorenz model to test and compare the behavior of a variety of implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.
The Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics
Zhu, Yanqiu; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo
1999-01-01
The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known Gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions (e.g., Miller 1994). Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz (1963) model as well as more realistic models of the oceans (Evensen and van Leeuwen 1996) and atmosphere (Houtekamer and Mitchell 1998). A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter equations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members (Burgers 1998). The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to quite puzzling in that results of state estimate are worse than for their filter analogue (Evensen 1997). In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use Lorenz (1963) model to test and compare the behavior of a variety implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.
Chaotic secure communication based on strong tracking filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiongjie; Xu Zhengguo; Zhou Donghua
2008-01-01
A scheme for implementing secure communication based on chaotic maps and strong tracking filter (STF) is presented, and a modified STF algorithm with message estimation is developed for the special requirement of chaotic secure communication. At the emitter, the message symbol is modulated by chaotic mapping and is output through a nonlinear function. At the receiver, the driving signal is received and the message symbol is recovered dynamically by the STF with estimation of message symbol. Simulation results of Holmes map demonstrate that when message symbols are binary codes, STF can effectively recover the codes of the message from the noisy chaotic signals. Compared with the extended Kalman filter (EKF), STF has a lower bit error rate
Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang
2010-01-01
The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Low-pass sequencing for microbial comparative genomics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kennedy Sean
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied four extremely halophilic archaea by low-pass shotgun sequencing: (1 the metabolically versatile Haloarcula marismortui; (2 the non-pigmented Natrialba asiatica; (3 the psychrophile Halorubrum lacusprofundi and (4 the Dead Sea isolate Halobaculum gomorrense. Approximately one thousand single pass genomic sequences per genome were obtained. The data were analyzed by comparative genomic analyses using the completed Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome as a reference. Low-pass shotgun sequencing is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid approach that can readily be performed on any cultured microbe. Results As expected, the four archaeal halophiles analyzed exhibit both bacterial and eukaryotic characteristics as well as uniquely archaeal traits. All five halophiles exhibit greater than sixty percent GC content and low isoelectric points (pI for their predicted proteins. Multiple insertion sequence (IS elements, often involved in genome rearrangements, were identified in H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui. The core biological functions that govern cellular and genetic mechanisms of H. sp. NRC-1 appear to be conserved in these four other halophiles. Multiple TATA box binding protein (TBP and transcription factor IIB (TFB homologs were identified from most of the four shotgunned halophiles. The reconstructed molecular tree of all five halophiles shows a large divergence between these species, but with the closest relationship being between H. sp. NRC-1 and H. lacusprofundi. Conclusion Despite the diverse habitats of these species, all five halophiles share (1 high GC content and (2 low protein isoelectric points, which are characteristics associated with environmental exposure to UV radiation and hypersalinity, respectively. Identification of multiple IS elements in the genome of H. lacusprofundi and H. marismortui suggest that genome structure and dynamic genome reorganization might be similar to that previously observed in the
Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.
Lee, Jhinhwan
2017-08-01
In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.
An Improved Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter for GPS/INS Integrated Navigation Systems.
Feng, Kaiqiang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shen, Chong; Cao, Huiliang; Yang, Yanyu; Liu, Jun
2018-06-12
The cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is widely used in the application of GPS/INS integrated navigation systems. However, its performance may decline in accuracy and even diverge in the presence of process uncertainties. To solve the problem, a new algorithm named improved strong tracking seventh-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IST-7thSSRCKF) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the effect of process uncertainty is mitigated by using the improved strong tracking Kalman filter technique, in which the hypothesis testing method is adopted to identify the process uncertainty and the prior state estimate covariance in the CKF is further modified online according to the change in vehicle dynamics. In addition, a new seventh-degree spherical simplex-radial rule is employed to further improve the estimation accuracy of the strong tracking cubature Kalman filter. In this way, the proposed comprehensive algorithm integrates the advantage of 7thSSRCKF’s high accuracy and strong tracking filter’s strong robustness against process uncertainties. The GPS/INS integrated navigation problem with significant dynamic model errors is utilized to validate the performance of proposed IST-7thSSRCKF. Results demonstrate that the improved strong tracking cubature Kalman filter can achieve higher accuracy than the existing CKF and ST-CKF, and is more robust for the GPS/INS integrated navigation system.
Cryocooled wideband digital channelizing radio-frequency receiver based on low-pass ADC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vernik, Igor V; Kirichenko, Dmitri E; Dotsenko, Vladimir V; Miller, Robert; Webber, Robert J; Shevchenko, Pavel; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Gupta, Deepnarayan; Mukhanov, Oleg A
2007-01-01
We have demonstrated a digital receiver performing direct digitization of radio-frequency signals over a wide frequency range from kilohertz to gigahertz. The complete system, consisting of a cryopackaged superconductor all-digital receiver (ADR) chip followed by room-temperature interface electronics and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based post-processing module, has been developed. The ADR chip comprises a low-pass analog-to-digital converter (ADC) delta modulator with phase modulation-demodulation architecture together with digital in-phase and quadrature mixer and a pair of digital decimation filters. The chip is fabricated using a 4.5 kA cm -2 process and is cryopackaged using a commercial-off-the-shelf cryocooler. Experimental results in HF, VHF, UHF and L bands and their analysis, proving consistent operation of the cryopackaged ADR chip up to 24.32 GHz clock frequency, are presented and discussed
A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu
2009-01-01
Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANGGuo-Sheng; WENCheng-Lin; TANMin
2004-01-01
A new multisensor distributed track fusion algorithm is put forward based on combiningthe feedback integration with the strong tracking Kalman filter. Firstly, an effective tracking gateis constructed by taking the intersection of the tracking gates formed before and after feedback.Secondly, on the basis of the constructed effective tracking gate, probabilistic data association andstrong tracking Kalman filter are combined to form the new multisensor distributed track fusionalgorithm. At last, simulation is performed on the original algorithm and the algorithm presented.
Lechevallier, Joeri Boris; Struiksma, R.E.; Sherry, Hani; Cathelin, Andreia; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2015-01-01
Due to the absence of internal nodes, inverter-based Gm-C filters [1,2] allow achieving bandwidths beyond what is possible with opamp-RC techniques. The class-AB behavior of the inverter, together with the high transconductance for a given quiescent current, results in a high dynamic range for a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Satoh, K; Koizumi, D; Narahashi, S [Research Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc., 3-5 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagwa, 239-8536 (Japan)], E-mail: satokei@nttdocomo.co.jp
2008-02-01
This paper presents a novel compact high temperature superconducting (HTS) bandpass filter (BPF) that employs a newly developed miniaturized coplanar-waveguide (CPW) quarter-wavelength resonators with strongly-coupled open stubs. The proposed resonator has a structure in which the open stubs are aligned close to the center conductor of the resonator. This is because strongly-coupled resonators have widely-split resonant frequencies, and the lowest resonant frequency is employed as the fundamental resonant frequency of the resonator in order to achieve miniaturization. The proposed resonator is 1.7 mm or less in length for use in the 5-GHz band, whereas the conventional straight resonator is approximately 6.4 mm long. A four-pole Chebyshev HTS BPF is designed and fabricated using the proposed CPW resonators. The entire length of the proposed four-pole filter is 15 mm. The frequency response of the fabricated filter agrees well with the electromagnetic simulation results. The proposed filter achieves a size reduction of at least 50% compared to previously reported filters without any degradation in the frequency characteristics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongtao Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, C.
1996-12-31
In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.
Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo
The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small......-signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain...
Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard
2009-01-01
NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....
Fuzzy sliding-mode control with low pass filter to reduce chattering ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Balamurugan
2017-10-13
Oct 13, 2017 ... effect: an experimental validation on Quanser SRIP ... Stabilization of a single rotary inverted pendulum (SRIP) system is a benchmark nonlinear control problem. ..... SMC with sign function still exhibits the chattering phe-.
Tao, Dongwang; Li, Hui; Ma, Qiang
2016-04-01
Complete structure identification of complicate nonlinear system using extend Kalman filter (EKF) or unscented Kalman filter (UKF) may have the problems of divergence, huge computation and low estimation precision due to the large dimension of the extended state space for the system. In this article, a decentralized identification method of hysteretic system based on the joint EKF and UKF is proposed. The complete structure is divided into linear substructures and nonlinear substructures. The substructures are identified from the top to the bottom. For the linear substructure, EKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness and damping coefficients of the substructures, using the limited absolute accelerations and the identified interface force above the substructure. Similarly, for the nonlinear substructure, UKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness, damping coefficients and control parameters for the hysteretic Bouc-Wen model and the force at the interface of substructures. Finally a 10-story shear-type structure with multiple inter-story hysteresis is used for numerical simulation and is identified using the decentralized approach, and the identified results are compared with those using only EKF or UKF for the complete structure identification. The results show that the decentralized approach has the advantage of more stability, relative less computation and higher estimation precision.
Clonal vs leaf-height-seed (LHS) traits: which are filtered more strongly across habitats?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
E.-Vojtkó, A.; Freitag, M.; Bricca, A.; Martello, F.; Compañ, J. M.; Küttim, M.; Kun, R.; de Bello, Francesco; Klimešová, Jitka; Götzenberger, Lars
2017-01-01
Roč. 52, 3-4 (2017), s. 269-281 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15012S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : environmental filtering * functional diversity * clonal traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.
Künzi, R.
2015-06-15
Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.
Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei
2015-01-01
The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bizhong Xia
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Ma
Full Text Available The aircraft environmental control system (ECS is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Akhoondzadeh
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Thermal anomaly is known as a significant precursor of strong earthquakes, therefore Land Surface Temperature (LST time series have been analyzed in this study to locate relevant anomalous variations prior to the Bam (26 December 2003, Zarand (22 February 2005 and Borujerd (31 March 2006 earthquakes. The duration of the three datasets which are comprised of MODIS LST images is 44, 28 and 46 days for the Bam, Zarand and Borujerd earthquakes, respectively. In order to exclude variations of LST from temperature seasonal effects, Air Temperature (AT data derived from the meteorological stations close to the earthquakes epicenters have been taken into account. The detection of thermal anomalies has been assessed using interquartile, wavelet transform and Kalman filter methods, each presenting its own independent property in anomaly detection. The interquartile method has been used to construct the higher and lower bounds in LST data to detect disturbed states outside the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The wavelet transform method has been used to locate local maxima within each time series of LST data for identifying earthquake anomalies by a predefined threshold. Also, the prediction property of the Kalman filter has been used in the detection process of prominent LST anomalies. The results concerning the methodology indicate that the interquartile method is capable of detecting the highest intensity anomaly values, the wavelet transform is sensitive to sudden changes, and the Kalman filter method significantly detects the highest unpredictable variations of LST. The three methods detected anomalous occurrences during 1 to 20 days prior to the earthquakes showing close agreement in results found between the different applied methods on LST data in the detection of pre-seismic anomalies. The proposed method for anomaly detection was also applied on regions irrelevant to earthquakes for which no anomaly was detected
A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.
Haddad, R. A.
1971-01-01
The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.
Strong spin-filtering and spin-valve effects in a molecular V–C60–V contact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Koleini
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the recent achievements in the manipulation of C60 molecules in STM experiments, we study theoretically the structure and electronic properties of a C60 molecule in an STM tunneljunction with a magnetic tip and magnetic adatom on a Cu(111 surface using first-principles calculations. For the case of a vanadium tip/adatom, we demonstrate how spin coupling between the magnetic V atoms, mediated by the C60, can be observed in the electronic transport, which display a strong spin-filtering effect, allowing mainly majority-spin electrons to pass (>95%. Moreover, we find a significant change in the conductance between parallel and anti-parallel spin polarizations in the junction (86% which suggests that STM experiments should be able to characterize the magnetism and spin coupling for these systems.
Strong spin-filtering and spin-valve effects in a molecular V-C-60-V contact
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koleini, Mohammad; Brandbyge, Mads
2012-01-01
Motivated by the recent achievements in the manipulation of C-60 molecules in STM experiments, we study theoretically the structure and electronic properties of a C-60 molecule in an STM tunneljunction with a magnetic tip and magnetic adatom on a Cu(111) surface using first-principles calculations....... For the case of a vanadium tip/adatom, we demonstrate how spin coupling between the magnetic V atoms, mediated by the C-60, can be observed in the electronic transport, which display a strong spin-filtering effect, allowing mainly majority-spin electrons to pass (>95%). Moreover, we find a significant change...... in the conductance between parallel and anti-parallel spin polarizations in the junction (86%) which suggests that STM experiments should be able to characterize the magnetism and spin coupling for these systems....
Feng, Yibo; Li, Xisheng; Zhang, Xiaojuan
2015-05-13
We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF), the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to -2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yibo Feng
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We present an adaptive algorithm for a system integrated with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS gyroscopes and a compass to eliminate the influence from the environment, compensate the temperature drift precisely, and improve the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope. We use a simplified drift model and changing but appropriate model parameters to implement this algorithm. The model of MEMS gyroscope temperature drift is constructed mostly on the basis of the temperature sensitivity of the gyroscope. As the state variables of a strong tracking Kalman filter (STKF, the parameters of the temperature drift model can be calculated to adapt to the environment under the support of the compass. These parameters change intelligently with the environment to maintain the precision of the MEMS gyroscope in the changing temperature. The heading error is less than 0.6° in the static temperature experiment, and also is kept in the range from 5° to −2° in the dynamic outdoor experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed algorithm exhibits strong adaptability to a changing temperature, and performs significantly better than KF and MLR to compensate the temperature drift of a gyroscope and eliminate the influence of temperature variation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen
2016-01-01
The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous...
Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters
ŞENGÜL, Metin
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...
Design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers
Serra, Hugo Alexandre de Andrade
2015-01-01
This book describes the design of switched-capacitor filter circuits using low gain amplifiers and demonstrates some techniques that can minimize the effects of parasitic capacitances during the design phase. Focus is given in the design of low-pass and band-pass SC filters, and how higher order filters can be achieved using cascaded biquadratic filter sections. The authors also describe a low voltage implementation of a low-pass SC filter.
Motion estimation using point cluster method and Kalman filter.
Senesh, M; Wolf, A
2009-05-01
The most frequently used method in a three dimensional human gait analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analyzed segment. This introduces a significant artifact, which strongly influences the bone position and orientation and joint kinematic estimates. In this study, we tested and evaluated the effect of adding a Kalman filter procedure to the previously reported point cluster technique (PCT) in the estimation of a rigid body motion. We demonstrated the procedures by motion analysis of a compound planar pendulum from indirect opto-electronic measurements of markers attached to an elastic appendage that is restrained to slide along the rigid body long axis. The elastic frequency is close to the pendulum frequency, as in the biomechanical problem, where the soft tissue frequency content is similar to the actual movement of the bones. Comparison of the real pendulum angle to that obtained by several estimation procedures--PCT, Kalman filter followed by PCT, and low pass filter followed by PCT--enables evaluation of the accuracy of the procedures. When comparing the maximal amplitude, no effect was noted by adding the Kalman filter; however, a closer look at the signal revealed that the estimated angle based only on the PCT method was very noisy with fluctuation, while the estimated angle based on the Kalman filter followed by the PCT was a smooth signal. It was also noted that the instantaneous frequencies obtained from the estimated angle based on the PCT method is more dispersed than those obtained from the estimated angle based on Kalman filter followed by the PCT method. Addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT method in the estimation procedure of rigid body motion results in a smoother signal that better represents the real motion, with less signal distortion than when using a digital low pass filter. Furthermore, it can be concluded that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT procedure substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen
2016-01-01
The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous......-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal...... rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times...
Design and application of finite impulse response digital filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, K.S.
1982-01-01
The finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter is a spatial domain filter with a frequency domain representation. The theory of the FIR filter is presented and techniques are described for designing FIR filters with known frequency response characteristics. Rational design principles are emphasized based on characterization of the imaging system using the modulation transfer function and physical properties of the imaged objects. Bandpass, Wiener, and low-pass filters were designed and applied to 201 Tl myocardial images. The bandpass filter eliminates low-frequency image components that represent background activity and high-frequency components due to noise. The Wiener, or minimum mean square error filter 'sharpens' the image while also reducing noise. The Wiener filter illustrates the power of the FIR technique to design filters with any desired frequency reponse. The low-pass filter, while of relative limited use, is presented to compare it with a popular elementary 'smoothing' filter. (orig.)
Charge domain filter operating up to 20 MHz clock frequency
Gal, R.A.J.; Wallinga, Hans
1983-01-01
An analog sampled data low pass third order Butterworth filter has been realised in a buried channel CCD technology. This Charge Domain Filter, composed of transversal and recursive CCD filter sections, has been tested at clock frequencies up to 20 MHz.
BESSEL FILTER AND CHAOS: THREE-IN-ONE ACTION
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumeliene, Skaidra
2006-01-01
Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented.......Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented....
Design and construction of electronic filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becerril Z, E.R.; Moreno P, C.; Salinas B, E.
1979-01-01
The design and construction of very low frequencies electronic filters which will be used for carrying out analysis of pile noise at Mexico's Nuclear Center Triga Mark III Reactor, in order to realize measurements of its parameters is presented. NIM norms and active filters with lineal integrated circuits were used: a. Band pass filter from 10 to 500 hertz, band width 50. b. Low pass filter from 0.001 to 10 hertz in 3 steps. c. Kalman Bucy filter, an analogical simulation of this filter was undertaken, obtained from a mathematical model of a Zero power experimental reactor, with the purpose to establish a control searching. (author)
Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry
Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu
2012-10-01
Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.
Optimum filters for narrow-band frequency modulation.
Shelton, R. D.
1972-01-01
The results of a computer search for the optimum type of bandpass filter for low-index angle-modulated signals are reported. The bandpass filters are discussed in terms of their low-pass prototypes. Only filter functions with constant numerators are considered. The pole locations for the optimum filters of several cases are shown in a table. The results are fairly independent of modulation index and bandwidth.
Higher-order chaotic oscillator using active bessel filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelien, Skaidra
2010-01-01
A higher-order oscillator, including a nonlinear unit and an 8th-order low-pass active Bessel filter is described. The Bessel unit plays the role of "three-in-one": a delay line, an amplifier and a filter. Results of hardware experiments and numerical simulation are presented. Depending...
Automated electronic filter design
Banerjee, Amal
2017-01-01
This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.
A third-order active-R filter with feedforward input signal
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
presented. This filter is useful for high frequency operation, monolithic IC imple- mentation and is easy to design. The single circuit gives three filter functions, low pass, high pass and band pass. This filter circuit can be used for different Q and f0 with high passband gain. This gives better stop band attenuation and sharper.
Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian
2018-02-13
In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer. As directional filter is effective in capturing salient information, so SF is applied to the detail-enhanced layer to extract geometrical features and obtain directional coefficients. Visual saliency map-based fusion rule is designed for fusing low-pass layers, and the sum of standard deviation is used as activity level measurement for directional coefficients fusion. The final fusion result is obtained by synthesizing the fused low-pass layers and directional coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method with shift-invariance, directional selectivity, and detail-enhanced property is efficient in preserving and enhancing detail information of multimodality medical images. Graphical abstract The detailed implementation of the proposed medical image fusion algorithm.
A spectrometer filter for semiconductor and scintillation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, O.I.; Brovchenko, V.G.; Evdokimov, S.T.
1995-01-01
The paper describes an integrating low-pass filter which takes signals from a delay line. The filter changes triangular pulses into rectangular ones. The energy resolution of a semiconductor detector whose signal is processed by the filter is 15-20% better than using a common RC-filter. The integrator stores a charge due to the scintillation pulse during the integration time without loss. The energy and time resolution of the device with the spectrometer filter is better than with an RC-filter. The energy resolution of a bismuth-germanate detector in recording radiation from 137 Cs is 9.75%
Kernel-based noise filtering of neutron detector signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Eun Ki
2007-01-01
This paper describes recently developed techniques for effective filtering of neutron detector signal noise. In this paper, three kinds of noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated for the estimation of reactivity. The tested filters are based on the unilateral kernel filter, unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth and bilateral filter to show their effectiveness in edge preservation. Filtering performance is compared with conventional low-pass and wavelet filters. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters. The effectiveness and simplicity of the unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth is also demonstrated by applying it to the reactivity measurement performed during reactor start-up physics tests
Low-sensitivity active filter realization using a complex all-pass filter
Regalia, Phillip A.; Mitra, Sanjit K.
1987-04-01
A wide class of continuous-time transfer functions may be implemented as the parallel combination of two all-pass filters, including Butterworth, Chebyshev, and elliptic low-pass approximations of odd order. Here, the realization of even-order low-pass classical approximations is considered, and it is shown that they may be decomposed in terms of complex all-pass functions. A systematic realization approach, based on scattering domain simulation (i.e., wave active filters), allows for a low-sensitivity active filter implementation. Further insight into the low-sensitivity property is gained by connecting the insertion loss of doubly terminated antimetric networks with the imaginary return loss of complex lossless networks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilic, Tomislav; Milun, Stanko; Petrovic, Goran [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Machine Engineering and Naval Architecture, R. Boskovica bb, 21000, Split (Croatia)
2007-02-15
The shunt active power filters are used to attenuate the harmonic currents in power systems by injecting equal but opposite compensating currents. Successful control of the active filters requires an accurate current reference. In this paper the current reference determination based on predictive filtering structure is presented. Current reference was obtained by taking the difference of load current and its fundamental harmonic. For fundamental harmonic determination with no time delay a combination of digital predictive filter and low pass filter is used. The proposed method was implemented on a laboratory prototype of a three-phase active power filter. The algorithm for current reference determination was adapted and implemented on DSP controller. Simulation and experimental results show that the active power filter with implemented predictive filtering structure gives satisfactory performance in power system harmonic attenuation. (author)
Anti-Aliasing filter for reverse-time migration
Zhan, Ge
2012-01-01
We develop an anti-aliasing filter for reverse-time migration (RTM). It is similar to the traditional anti-aliasing filter used for Kirchhoff migration in that it low-pass filters the migration operator so that the dominant wavelength in the operator is greater than two times the trace sampling interval, except it is applied to both primary and multiple reflection events. Instead of applying this filter to the data in the traditional RTM operation, we apply the anti-aliasing filter to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator. This gives the same migration image as computed by anti-aliased RTM. Download
Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters.
Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K
2018-02-23
The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor ( RC ) low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC) ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (graphene derivative circuits performed as well as the circuits constructed from discrete resistors and capacitors for both low pass filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.
Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dogan Sinar
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor (RC low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (<100 kHz the printed graphene derivative circuits performed as well as the circuits constructed from discrete resistors and capacitors for both low pass filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.
Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing
2015-01-01
A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required...
Implicit LES using adaptive filtering
Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.
2018-04-01
In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.
Discrete-Time Filter Synthesis using Product of Gegenbauer Polynomials
N. Stojanovic; N. Stamenkovic; I. Krstic
2016-01-01
A new approximation to design continuoustime and discrete-time low-pass filters, presented in this paper, based on the product of Gegenbauer polynomials, provides the ability of more flexible adjustment of passband and stopband responses. The design is achieved taking into account a prescribed specification, leading to a better trade-off among the magnitude and group delay responses. Many well-known continuous-time and discrete-time transitional filter based on the classical polynomial approx...
Active damping of LLCL-filter resonance based on LC-trap voltage and capacitor current feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
. In this paper, different feedback coefficients like the proportional, derivative, integral, high pass and low pass feedback coefficients of the filter capacitor current and the LC-trap circuit voltage are investigated for damping the filter resonance. Active damping methods are analyzed by using the concept...
Computer processing of the scintigraphic image using digital filtering techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuo, Michimasa
1976-01-01
The theory of digital filtering was studied as a method for the computer processing of scintigraphic images. The characteristics and design techniques of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters with linear phases were examined using the z-transform. The conventional data processing method, smoothing, could be recognized as one kind of linear phase FIR low-pass digital filtering. Ten representatives of FIR low-pass digital filters with various cut-off frequencies were scrutinized from the frequency domain in one-dimension and two-dimensions. These filters were applied to phantom studies with cold targets, using a Scinticamera-Minicomputer on-line System. These studies revealed that the resultant images had a direct connection with the magnitude response of the filter, that is, they could be estimated fairly well from the frequency response of the digital filter used. The filter, which was estimated from phantom studies as optimal for liver scintigrams using 198 Au-colloid, was successfully applied in clinical use for detecting true cold lesions and, at the same time, for eliminating spurious images. (J.P.N.)
Finite differences with exponential filtering in the calculation of reactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suescun Diaz, Daniel; Senra Martinez, Aquilino
2010-01-01
A formulation for the calculation of reactivity using a recursive process is presented in this paper, as well as the treatment to reduce noise intensity that is found in the nuclear power signal. Using the history of nuclear power considered as the memory of such power and the filter exponentially adjusted with the least squares method, it is possible to reduce the nuclear power fluctuations without causing attenuation for the calculation of reactivity and with a smaller delay than that for low-pass filter of first order delay filter. (orig.)
Finite differences with exponential filtering in the calculation of reactivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suescun Diaz, Daniel; Senra Martinez, Aquilino [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE - Programa de Engenharia Nuclear
2010-08-15
A formulation for the calculation of reactivity using a recursive process is presented in this paper, as well as the treatment to reduce noise intensity that is found in the nuclear power signal. Using the history of nuclear power considered as the memory of such power and the filter exponentially adjusted with the least squares method, it is possible to reduce the nuclear power fluctuations without causing attenuation for the calculation of reactivity and with a smaller delay than that for low-pass filter of first order delay filter. (orig.)
Frequency Domain Image Filtering Using CUDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Awais Rajput
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA?s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture. In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA?s parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butterworth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output image quality on both the processing architectures
Frequency domain image filtering using cuda
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajput, M.A.; Khan, U.A.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the implementation of image filtering in frequency domain using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In contrast to signal and image filtering in spatial domain which uses convolution operations and hence is more compute-intensive for filters having larger spatial extent, the frequency domain filtering uses FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) which is much faster and significantly reduces the computational complexity of the filtering. We implement the frequency domain filtering on CPU and GPU respectively and analyze the speed-up obtained from the CUDA's parallel processing paradigm. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of frequency domain filtering on CUDA, we implement three frequency domain filters, i.e., Butter worth, low-pass and Gaussian for processing different sizes of images on CPU and GPU respectively and perform the GPU vs. CPU benchmarks. The results presented in this paper show that the frequency domain filtering with CUDA achieves significant speed-up over the CPU processing in frequency domain with the same level of (output) image quality on both the processing architectures. (author)
A highly linear baseband Gm—C filter for WLAN application
Lijun, Yang; Zheng, Gong; Yin, Shi; Zhiming, Chen
2011-09-01
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan—C (Gm—C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP3 is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 × 0.17 mm2 die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply.
A highly linear baseband Gm-C filter for WLAN application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming; Gong Zheng; Shi Yin
2011-01-01
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G m -C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP 3 is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm 2 die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
A highly linear baseband G{sub m}-C filter for WLAN application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming [Department of Electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Gong Zheng; Shi Yin, E-mail: ljyang@sci-inc.com.cn [Suzhou-CAS Semiconductors Integrated Technology Research Center, Suzhou 215021 (China)
2011-09-15
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G{sub m}-C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP{sub 3} is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm{sup 2} die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Implementation of linear filters for iterative penalized maximum likelihood SPECT reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Z.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on six low-pass linear filters applied in frequency space implemented for iterative penalized maximum-likelihood (ML) SPECT image reconstruction. The filters implemented were the Shepp-Logan filter, the Butterworth filer, the Gaussian filter, the Hann filter, the Parzen filer, and the Lagrange filter. The low-pass filtering was applied in frequency space to projection data for the initial estimate and to the difference of projection data and reprojected data for higher order approximations. The projection data were acquired experimentally from a chest phantom consisting of non-uniform attenuating media. All the filters could effectively remove the noise and edge artifacts associated with ML approach if the frequency cutoff was properly chosen. The improved performance of the Parzen and Lagrange filters relative to the others was observed. The best image, by viewing its profiles in terms of noise-smoothing, edge-sharpening, and contrast, was the one obtained with the Parzen filter. However, the Lagrange filter has the potential to consider the characteristics of detector response function
Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Santiago, Walter
2004-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.
Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.
2017-08-01
The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.
Supplementary High-Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using DVCCs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitendra Mohan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To further extend the existing knowledge on voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter, in this paper, a new biquadratic filter circuit with single input and multiple outputs is proposed, employing three differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, three resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit realizes all the standard filter functions, that is, high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, notch, and all-pass filters simultaneously. The circuit enjoys the feature of high-input impedance, orthogonal control of resonance angular frequency (o, and quality factor (Q via grounded resistor and the use of grounded capacitors which is ideal for IC implementation.
Discrete-Time Filter Synthesis using Product of Gegenbauer Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Stojanovic
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A new approximation to design continuoustime and discrete-time low-pass filters, presented in this paper, based on the product of Gegenbauer polynomials, provides the ability of more flexible adjustment of passband and stopband responses. The design is achieved taking into account a prescribed specification, leading to a better trade-off among the magnitude and group delay responses. Many well-known continuous-time and discrete-time transitional filter based on the classical polynomial approximations(Chebyshev, Legendre, Butterworth are shown to be a special cases of proposed approximation method.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...
Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer
Teng, Y.; Hu, X.
2013-12-01
The MEMS strong motion seismograph we developed used the modularization method to design its software and hardware.It can fit various needs in different application situation.The hardware of the instrument is composed of a MEMS accelerometer,a control processor system,a data-storage system,a wired real-time data transmission system by IP network,a wireless data transmission module by 3G broadband,a GPS calibration module and power supply system with a large-volumn lithium battery in it. Among it,the seismograph's sensor adopted a three-axis with 14-bit high resolution and digital output MEMS accelerometer.Its noise level just reach about 99μg/√Hz and ×2g to ×8g dynamically selectable full-scale.Its output data rates from 1.56Hz to 800Hz. Its maximum current consumption is merely 165μA,and the device is so small that it is available in a 3mm×3mm×1mm QFN package. Furthermore,there is access to both low pass filtered data as well as high pass filtered data,which minimizes the data analysis required for earthquake signal detection. So,the data post-processing can be simplified. Controlling process system adopts a 32-bit low power consumption embedded ARM9 processor-S3C2440 and is based on the Linux operation system.The processor's operating clock at 400MHz.The controlling system's main memory is a 64MB SDRAM with a 256MB flash-memory.Besides,an external high-capacity SD card data memory can be easily added.So the system can meet the requirements for data acquisition,data processing,data transmission,data storage,and so on. Both wired and wireless network can satisfy remote real-time monitoring, data transmission,system maintenance,status monitoring or updating software.Linux was embedded and multi-layer designed conception was used.The code, including sensor hardware driver,the data acquisition,earthquake setting out and so on,was written on medium layer.The hardware driver consist of IIC-Bus interface driver, IO driver and asynchronous notification driver. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Bladyko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters.
Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan G. Gonzalez
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the ÃŽÂ±-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the Ã¢Â€ÂœnormalÃ¢Â€Â equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.
Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Arslanalp
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.
Conversion and matched filter approximations for serial minimum-shift keyed modulation
Ziemer, R. E.; Ryan, C. R.; Stilwell, J. H.
1982-01-01
Serial minimum-shift keyed (MSK) modulation, a technique for generating and detecting MSK using series filtering, is ideally suited for high data rate applications provided the required conversion and matched filters can be closely approximated. Low-pass implementations of these filters as parallel inphase- and quadrature-mixer structures are characterized in this paper in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation from ideal and envelope deviation. Several hardware implementation techniques utilizing microwave devices or lumped elements are presented. Optimization of parameter values results in realizations whose SNR degradation is less than 0.5 dB at error probabilities of .000001.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butterworth, D.J.
1980-01-01
This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comani, S; Mantini, D; Alleva, G; Luzio, S Di; Romani, G L
2005-01-01
The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanin, V.R.
1990-01-01
The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)
Option pricing from wavelet-filtered financial series
de Almeida, V. T. X.; Moriconi, L.
2012-10-01
We perform wavelet decomposition of high frequency financial time series into large and small time scale components. Taking the FTSE100 index as a case study, and working with the Haar basis, it turns out that the small scale component defined by most (≃99.6%) of the wavelet coefficients can be neglected for the purpose of option premium evaluation. The relevance of the hugely compressed information provided by low-pass wavelet-filtering is related to the fact that the non-gaussian statistical structure of the original financial time series is essentially preserved for expiration times which are larger than just one trading day.
Molecular surface mesh generation by filtering electron density map.
Giard, Joachim; Macq, Benoît
2010-01-01
Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.
Molecular Surface Mesh Generation by Filtering Electron Density Map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joachim Giard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Bioinformatics applied to macromolecules are now widely spread and in continuous expansion. In this context, representing external molecular surface such as the Van der Waals Surface or the Solvent Excluded Surface can be useful for several applications. We propose a fast and parameterizable algorithm giving good visual quality meshes representing molecular surfaces. It is obtained by isosurfacing a filtered electron density map. The density map is the result of the maximum of Gaussian functions placed around atom centers. This map is filtered by an ideal low-pass filter applied on the Fourier Transform of the density map. Applying the marching cubes algorithm on the inverse transform provides a mesh representation of the molecular surface.
A programmable multichannel antialiasing filter for the CUORE experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnaboldi, C. [Sezione INFN and Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Cariello, M. [Sezione INFN di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Sezione INFN di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Giachero, A., E-mail: Andrea.Giachero@mib.infn.i [Sezione INFN and Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Pessina, G. [Sezione INFN and Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)
2010-05-21
The first prototype of antialiasing filter for the CUORE experiment is a board that accommodates 12 independent channels. Each channel is an active six-pole Bessel-Thomson low-pass filter (LPF) with a roll-off of 120 dB/decade. In order to adapt the bandwidth to every detector, the filtering frequency can be selected independently for every channel by a remote control between four possible values (8, 12, 16 or 20 Hz). The board is equipped with an ARM microcontroller which communicates with the on-board peripherals via I2C synchronous serial bus and with the remote control via CAN-bus. Important features are the low-cost, the compact realization and the capability to perform diagnostic routine remotely.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Boudet
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30 Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30 Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings.
OTRA-Based Multi-Function Inverse Filter Configuration
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Abdhesh Kumar Singh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new OTRA-based multifunction Inverse filter configuration is presented which is capable of realizing low pass, high pass and band pass filters using only two OTRAs and five to six passive elements. To the best knowledge of the authors, any inverse filter configuration using OTRAs has not been reported in the literature earlier. The effect of the major parasitics of the OTRAs and their effect on the performance filter have been investigated and measured through simulation results and Monte-Carlo analysis. The workability of the proposed circuits has been confirmed by SPICE simulations using CMOS-based-OTRA realizable in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The proposed circuits are the only ones which provide simultaneously the following features: use of reasonable number of active elements (only 2, realizability of all the three basic filter functions, employment of all virtually grounded resistors and capacitors and tunability of all filter parameters (except gain factor, H_0 for inverse high pass. The centre/cut-off frequency of the various filter circuits lying in the vicinity of 1 MHz have been found to be realizable, which has been verified through SPICE simulation results and have been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Karthikeyan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A compact (0.16 λg x 0.08 λg and wide stop¬band lowpass filter design using open complementary split ring resonator (OCSRR and defected ground structure (DGS is presented in this paper. Low pass filter is con-structed using two cascaded stages of OCSRR. Since the rejection bandwidth of the OCSRR is narrow, tapered dumbbell shaped DGS section is placed under the OCSRR to enhance the bandwidth. The cutoff frequency (fc of the proposed lowpass filter is 1.09 GHz. The rejection band¬width of the filter covers the entire ultra wideband spec¬trum. Hence the spurious passband suppression is achieved up to 10 fc. The designed filter has been fabri¬cated and validated by experimental results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Friston
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Audrey Barbakoff
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...
Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee
2018-03-01
Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters
Hoteit, Ibrahim
2010-09-19
Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.
Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders
2017-08-29
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.
Wang, M D; Reed, C M; Bilger, R C
1978-03-01
It has been found that listeners with sensorineural hearing loss who show similar patterns of consonant confusions also tend to have similar audiometric profiles. The present study determined whether normal listeners, presented with filtered speech, would produce consonant confusions similar to those previously reported for the hearing-impaired listener. Consonant confusion matrices were obtained from eight normal-hearing subjects for four sets of CV and VC nonsense syllables presented under six high-pass and six-low pass filtering conditions. Patterns of consonant confusion for each condition were described using phonological features in sequential information analysis. Severe low-pass filtering produced consonant confusions comparable to those of listeners with high-frequency hearing loss. Severe high-pass filtering gave a result comparable to that of patients with flat or rising audiograms. And, mild filtering resulted in confusion patterns comparable to those of listeners with essentially normal hearing. An explanation in terms of the spectrum, the level of speech, and the configuration of this individual listener's audiogram is given.
Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.
2015-12-01
The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.
A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor network application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing
2011-01-01
A G m -C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Yang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of high frequency noise interference in the ECT data acquisition system，on the basis of analysis of the ECT system data acquisition and control principles，we designed an improved distributed algorithm FIR low-pass digital filter combined with FPGA technology and digital filtering principle. The sampling frequency of the filter is 1 .5 MHz，the pass band cutoff frequency is 20MHz，and the design method is window function. We used the FDATooI toolbox in Matlab to extract and quantify the filter coefficients and the Quarters to simulate the simulation. Experimental results showed that the FIR digital filter can achieve the filtering function of the high frequency signal in the data acquisition system. Compared with the traditional DA algorithm，it has the advantages of small resource consumption and high acquisition speed and some other characteristics.
Development of a noise filter for radiation thickness gagemeter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jee, C. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, H. H.
1995-01-01
The objective of this study is to develop a filter which attenuates sensor noises of radiation thickness gagemeters of the fifth stand of TCM No. 1 in Pohang steel works. The thickness control loop for the fifth stand is modelled as a system for filter design, where the system input is the speed control input and the system output is the gagemeter output. In the design of a filter, the system is described by an ARMAX(AutoRegressive Moving-Average with auXiliary input) model. The parameters of this model are then estimated by using a recursive least square method. Secondly, the ARMAX model, the estimated system, is transformed into an observer canonical state space form. Thirdly, Kalman filtering is applied to obtain optimal estimates of the state and hence those of thickness measurements of steel strips. In addition, a separate low pass filter is designed, which is directly applicable to the gagemeter outputs. Finally, the designed filter algorithms are implemented and tested on a VMEbus board computer under VxWorks real-time operating system. (author)
Ion exchange nonwoven fabric chemical filter. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekiguchi, Hideaki
2000-01-01
This report outlined the characteristics of EPIX filter and its complex with activated carbon to eliminate organic compounds from solvent. Elimination performance of this filter was determined using an ion chromatographic analyzer. EPIX filter showed high performance to eliminate trace amount of ionic compounds. The rate of elimination was both 99% or more for NH 3 and SO 2 in an early phase of filtration. Release of dust as well as impurities was significantly reduced by the use of EPIX filter. Gases once adsorbed on the filter were not released even at an elevated temperature of atmosphere. Combined use of non-woven fabrics was possible. For EPIX filter, there are three kinds; strong acid cation exchange filter and strong/weak basic anion filters. The weak basic anion filter has been applied to the conventional apparatus in wafer makers because the filter was very effective for selective boron trapping. When polyethyleneterephthalate was used as the base polymer, radical groups produced on the polymer were co-polymerized with monomer substances. The lifetime of filter was estimated on a base of gas concentration and wind velocity to determine the time to replace with a new one. Furthermore, the loss of pressure became less than a half when EPIX filter was used. (M.N.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K
1982-01-01
Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.
Hamming, Richard W
1997-01-01
Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s
Moving Average Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.
2014-01-01
this challenge, incorporating moving average filter(s) (MAF) into the PLL structure has been proposed in some recent literature. A MAF is a linear-phase finite impulse response filter which can act as an ideal low-pass filter, if certain conditions hold. The main aim of this paper is to present the control...... design guidelines for a typical MAF-based PLL. The paper starts with the general description of MAFs. The main challenge associated with using the MAFs is then explained, and its possible solutions are discussed. The paper then proceeds with a brief overview of the different MAF-based PLLs. In each case......, the PLL block diagram description is shown, the advantages and limitations are briefly discussed, and the tuning approach (if available) is evaluated. The paper then presents two systematic methods to design the control parameters of a typical MAF-based PLL: one for the case of using a proportional...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaichana Amornchai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.
A new greedy search method for the design of digital IIR filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjit Kaur
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A new greedy search method is applied in this paper to design the optimal digital infinite impulse response (IIR filter. The greedy search method is based on binary successive approximation (BSA and evolutionary search (ES. The suggested greedy search method optimizes the magnitude response and the phase response simultaneously and also finds the lowest order of the filter. The order of the filter is controlled by a control gene whose value is also optimized along with the filter coefficients to obtain optimum order of designed IIR filter. The stability constraints of IIR filter are taken care of during the design procedure. To determine the trade-off relationship between conflicting objectives in the non-inferior domain, the weighting method is exploited. The proposed approach is effectively applied to solve the multiobjective optimization problems of designing the digital low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, bandpass (BP, and bandstop (BS filters. It has been demonstrated that this technique not only fulfills all types of filter performance requirements, but also the lowest order of the filter can be found. The computational experiments show that the proposed approach gives better digital IIR filters than the existing evolutionary algorithm (EA based methods.
A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il
2003-01-01
Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Hung Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new adaptive filter for wind generators that combines instantaneous reactive power compensation technology and current prediction controller, and therefore this system is characterized by low harmonic distortion, high power factor, and small DC-link voltage variations during load disturbances. The performance of the system was first simulated using MATLAB/Simulink, and the possibility of an adaptive digital low-pass filter eliminating current harmonics was confirmed in steady and transient states. Subsequently, a digital signal processor was used to implement an active power filter. The experimental results indicate, that for the rated operation of 2 kVA, the system has a total harmonic distortion of current less than 5.0% and a power factor of 1.0 on the utility side. Thus, the transient performance of the adaptive filter is superior to the traditional digital low-pass filter and is more economical because of its short computation time compared with other types of adaptive filters.
Chen, Ming-Hung
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a new adaptive filter for wind generators that combines instantaneous reactive power compensation technology and current prediction controller, and therefore this system is characterized by low harmonic distortion, high power factor, and small DC-link voltage variations during load disturbances. The performance of the system was first simulated using MATLAB/Simulink, and the possibility of an adaptive digital low-pass filter eliminating current harmonics was confirmed in steady and transient states. Subsequently, a digital signal processor was used to implement an active power filter. The experimental results indicate, that for the rated operation of 2 kVA, the system has a total harmonic distortion of current less than 5.0% and a power factor of 1.0 on the utility side. Thus, the transient performance of the adaptive filter is superior to the traditional digital low-pass filter and is more economical because of its short computation time compared with other types of adaptive filters.
Filtering of a Markov Jump Process with Counting Observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceci, C.; Gerardi, A.
2000-01-01
This paper concerns the filtering of an R d -valued Markov pure jump process when only the total number of jumps are observed. Strong and weak uniqueness for the solutions of the filtering equations are discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supachai Klungtong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.
Houts, R. C.; Burlage, D. W.
1972-01-01
A time domain technique is developed to design finite-duration impulse response digital filters using linear programming. Two related applications of this technique in data transmission systems are considered. The first is the design of pulse shaping digital filters to generate or detect signaling waveforms transmitted over bandlimited channels that are assumed to have ideal low pass or bandpass characteristics. The second is the design of digital filters to be used as preset equalizers in cascade with channels that have known impulse response characteristics. Example designs are presented which illustrate that excellent waveforms can be generated with frequency-sampling filters and the ease with which digital transversal filters can be designed for preset equalization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Ming; Ren, Jian; Mikkelsen, Jan Hvolgaard
2016-01-01
structures into the ring resonator. This is different from conventional designs using cascaded bandstop/low-pass filters for stop-band response suppression, which usually leads to big circuit sizes. And hence the proposed approach can reduce the circuit size significantly. A prototype filter with a compact...... size (13.6 mm×6.75 mm) has been implemented for experimental validation. The measured results show a −3 dB frequency band from 3.4 GHz to 11.7 GHz and > 20 dB upper stop-band suppression from 12.5 GHz to 20GHz....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters*
Hoteit, Ibrahim
2012-02-01
This paper investigates an approximation scheme of the optimal nonlinear Bayesian filter based on the Gaussian mixture representation of the state probability distribution function. The resulting filter is similar to the particle filter, but is different from it in that the standard weight-type correction in the particle filter is complemented by the Kalman-type correction with the associated covariance matrices in the Gaussian mixture. The authors show that this filter is an algorithm in between the Kalman filter and the particle filter, and therefore is referred to as the particle Kalman filter (PKF). In the PKF, the solution of a nonlinear filtering problem is expressed as the weighted average of an “ensemble of Kalman filters” operating in parallel. Running an ensemble of Kalman filters is, however, computationally prohibitive for realistic atmospheric and oceanic data assimilation problems. For this reason, the authors consider the construction of the PKF through an “ensemble” of ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs) instead, and call the implementation the particle EnKF (PEnKF). It is shown that different types of the EnKFs can be considered as special cases of the PEnKF. Similar to the situation in the particle filter, the authors also introduce a resampling step to the PEnKF in order to reduce the risk of weights collapse and improve the performance of the filter. Numerical experiments with the strongly nonlinear Lorenz-96 model are presented and discussed.
Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters
Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC
2016-01-01
Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing, E-mail: zhiqunli@seu.edu.cn [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2011-05-15
A G{sub m}-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Operating regimes of signaling cycles: statics, dynamics, and noise filtering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Gomez-Uribe
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A ubiquitous building block of signaling pathways is a cycle of covalent modification (e.g., phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in MAPK cascades. Our paper explores the kind of information processing and filtering that can be accomplished by this simple biochemical circuit. Signaling cycles are particularly known for exhibiting a highly sigmoidal (ultrasensitive input-output characteristic in a certain steady-state regime. Here, we systematically study the cycle's steady-state behavior and its response to time-varying stimuli. We demonstrate that the cycle can actually operate in four different regimes, each with its specific input-output characteristics. These results are obtained using the total quasi-steady-state approximation, which is more generally valid than the typically used Michaelis-Menten approximation for enzymatic reactions. We invoke experimental data that suggest the possibility of signaling cycles operating in one of the new regimes. We then consider the cycle's dynamic behavior, which has so far been relatively neglected. We demonstrate that the intrinsic architecture of the cycles makes them act--in all four regimes--as tunable low-pass filters, filtering out high-frequency fluctuations or noise in signals and environmental cues. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be adjusted by the cell. Numerical simulations show that our analytical results hold well even for noise of large amplitude. We suggest that noise filtering and tunability make signaling cycles versatile components of more elaborate cell-signaling pathways.
Gravitation search algorithm: Application to the optimal IIR filter design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suman Kumar Saha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a global heuristic search optimization technique known as Gravitation Search Algorithm (GSA for the design of 8th order Infinite Impulse Response (IIR, low pass (LP, high pass (HP, band pass (BP and band stop (BS filters considering various non-linear characteristics of the filter design problems. This paper also adopts a novel fitness function in order to improve the stop band attenuation to a great extent. In GSA, law of gravity and mass interactions among different particles are adopted for handling the non-linear IIR filter design optimization problem. In this optimization technique, searcher agents are the collection of masses and interactions among them are governed by the Newtonian gravity and the laws of motion. The performances of the GSA based IIR filter designs have proven to be superior as compared to those obtained by real coded genetic algorithm (RGA and standard Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. Extensive simulation results affirm that the proposed approach using GSA outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output, i.e., sharpness at cut-off, smaller pass band ripple, higher stop band attenuation, but also the fastest convergence speed with assured stability.
MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Jaikla
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.
The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla
2006-01-01
In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy
Selection vector filter framework
Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.
2003-10-01
We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.
Multilayer mirrors as power filters in insertion device beamlines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kortright, J.B.; DiGennaro, R.S.
1988-08-01
The power-filtering capabilities of multilayer band-pass x-ray mirrors relative to total reflection low-pass mirrors is presented. Results are based on calculations assuming proposed wiggler sources on the upcoming generation of low energy (1.5 GeV) and high energy (7.0 GeV) synchrotron radiation sources. Results show that multilayers out-perform total reflection mirrors in terms of reduction in reflected power by roughly an order of magnitude, with relatively small increases in total absorbed power and power density over total reflection mirrors, and with comparable reflected flux values. Various aspects of this potential application of multilayer x-ray optics are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Image pre-filtering for measurement error reduction in digital image correlation
Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Song, Yuntao; Chen, Jubing
2015-02-01
In digital image correlation, the sub-pixel intensity interpolation causes a systematic error in the measured displacements. The error increases toward high-frequency component of the speckle pattern. In practice, a captured image is usually corrupted by additive white noise. The noise introduces additional energy in the high frequencies and therefore raises the systematic error. Meanwhile, the noise also elevates the random error which increases with the noise power. In order to reduce the systematic error and the random error of the measurements, we apply a pre-filtering to the images prior to the correlation so that the high-frequency contents are suppressed. Two spatial-domain filters (binomial and Gaussian) and two frequency-domain filters (Butterworth and Wiener) are tested on speckle images undergoing both simulated and real-world translations. By evaluating the errors of the various combinations of speckle patterns, interpolators, noise levels, and filter configurations, we come to the following conclusions. All the four filters are able to reduce the systematic error. Meanwhile, the random error can also be reduced if the signal power is mainly distributed around DC. For high-frequency speckle patterns, the low-pass filters (binomial, Gaussian and Butterworth) slightly increase the random error and Butterworth filter produces the lowest random error among them. By using Wiener filter with over-estimated noise power, the random error can be reduced but the resultant systematic error is higher than that of low-pass filters. In general, Butterworth filter is recommended for error reduction due to its flexibility of passband selection and maximal preservation of the allowed frequencies. Binomial filter enables efficient implementation and thus becomes a good option if computational cost is a critical issue. While used together with pre-filtering, B-spline interpolator produces lower systematic error than bicubic interpolator and similar level of the random
Recirculating electric air filter
Bergman, W.
1985-01-09
An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.
Filter replacement lifetime prediction
Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.
2017-10-25
Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.
A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2003-06-15
Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.
Optimization of filter loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)
1985-01-01
The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized
Kuznetsova, T. A.
2018-05-01
The methods for increasing gas-turbine aircraft engines' (GTE) adaptive properties to interference based on empowerment of automatic control systems (ACS) are analyzed. The flow pulsation in suction and a discharge line of the compressor, which may cause the stall, are considered as the interference. The algorithmic solution to the problem of GTE pre-stall modes’ control adapted to stability boundary is proposed. The aim of the study is to develop the band-pass filtering algorithms to provide the detection functions of the compressor pre-stall modes for ACS GTE. The characteristic feature of pre-stall effect is the increase of pressure pulsation amplitude over the impeller at the multiples of the rotor’ frequencies. The used method is based on a band-pass filter combining low-pass and high-pass digital filters. The impulse response of the high-pass filter is determined through a known low-pass filter impulse response by spectral inversion. The resulting transfer function of the second order band-pass filter (BPF) corresponds to a stable system. The two circuit implementations of BPF are synthesized. Designed band-pass filtering algorithms were tested in MATLAB environment. Comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency response of proposed implementation allows choosing the BPF scheme providing the best quality of filtration. The BPF reaction to the periodic sinusoidal signal, simulating the experimentally obtained pressure pulsation function in the pre-stall mode, was considered. The results of model experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of applying band-pass filtering algorithms as part of ACS to identify the pre-stall mode of the compressor for detection of pressure fluctuations’ peaks, characterizing the compressor’s approach to the stability boundary.
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters
Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Pham, Dinh-Tuan; Moroz, Irene M.
2010-01-01
In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.
Capacitor current feedback for output filter damping in switched-mode magnet power supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paven Kumar, M.R.; Kim, J.M.S.
1994-01-01
In magnet power supplies for a particle accelerator system, a second-order low-pass filter is used to reduce the output current ripple content within specifications. The output filter must be properly damped in order to avoid any large amplification at the resonant frequency and large transient responses of voltages and currents at the step change of the line voltage. Conventionally, a series combination of resistance and capacitance is added in parallel with the filter capacitor to provide the required damping. This approach, however, requires a large dc-blocking capacitor which has to be several times larger than the filter capacitor. In this paper, a filter damping technique using capacitor current feedback is presented. The basic concept of the capacitor current feedback is established using a linear model of the converter involved, and then a sampled-data model of the converter is used to analyze the filter damping technique. The filter damping effect of the capacitor current feedback is verified experimentally
Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Bayesian Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters*
Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Pham, Dinh-Tuan
2012-01-01
introduce a resampling step to the PEnKF in order to reduce the risk of weights collapse and improve the performance of the filter. Numerical experiments with the strongly nonlinear Lorenz-96 model are presented and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paluch, W.
1987-07-01
Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LU Yongle
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a method and system for north finding with a low-cost piezoelectricity accelerometer based on the Coriolis acceleration principle. The proposed setup is based on the choice of an accelerometer with residual noise of 35 ng•Hz-1/2. The plane of the north finding system is aligned parallel to the local level, which helps to eliminate the effect of plane error. The Coriolis acceleration caused by the earth’s rotation and the acceleration’s instantaneous velocity is much weaker than the g-sensitivity acceleration. To get a high accuracy and a shorter time for north finding system, in this paper, the Filtering Circuit and the wavelet packet de-nosing algorithm are used as the following. First, the hardware is designed as the alternating currents across by filtering circuit, so the DC will be isolated and the weak AC signal will be amplified. The DC is interfering signal generated by the earth's gravity. Then, we have used a wavelet packet to filter the signal which has been done through the filtering circuit. Finally, compare the north finding results measured by wavelet packet filtering with those measured by a low-pass filter. Wavelet filter de-noise data shows that wavelet packet filtering and wavelet filter measurement have high accuracy. Wavelet Packet filtering has stronger ability to remove burst noise and higher engineering environment adaptability than that of Wavelet filtering. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and project implementation of the accelerometer north finding method based on wavelet packet de-noising algorithm.
Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.
2008-01-01
by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...
HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GUSTAVSON, R.D.
2000-01-01
This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection
Ilić, Aleksandar D.; Pavlović, Vlastimir D.
2011-01-01
A new original formulation of all pole low-pass filter functions is proposed in this article. The starting point in solving the approximation problem is a direct application of the Christoffel-Darboux formula for the set of orthogonal polynomials, including Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials in the finite interval [-1, +1] with the application of a weighting function with a single free parameter. A general solution for the filter functions is obtained in a compact explicit form, which is shown to enable generation of the Gegenbauer filter functions in a simple way by choosing the value of the free parameter. Moreover, the proposed solution with the same criterion of approximation could be used to generate Legendre and Chebyshev filter functions of the first and second kind as well. The examples of proposed filter functions of even (10th) and odd (11th) order are illustrated. The approximation is shown to yield a good compromise solution with respect to the filter frequency characteristics (magnitude as well as phase characteristics). The influence of tolerance of the filter critical component (inductor) on the proposed magnitude and group delay characteristics of a resistively terminated LC lossless ladder filter is analysed as well. The proposed filter functions are superior in terms of the excellent magnitude characteristic, which approximates an ideal filter almost perfectly over the entire pass-band range and exhibits the summed sensitivity function better than that of a Butterworth filter. In the article, we present the filter function solution that exhibits optimum amplitude as well as optimum group delay characteristics that are of crucial importance for implementation of digital processing as well as RF analogue parts of communication networks. Derivation of the other band range filter functions, which could be realised either by continuous or digital filters, is also generally possible with the procedure proposed in this article.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan
2006-01-01
This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-12
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO_{2}, and NaNO_{3}) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.
Research on signal processing of shock absorber test bench based on zero-phase filter
Wu, Yi; Ding, Guoqing
2017-10-01
The quality of force-displacement diagram is significant to help evaluate the performance of shock absorbers. Damping force sampling data is often interfered by Gauss white noise, 50Hz power interference and its harmonic wave during the process of testing; data de-noising has become the core problem of drawing true, accurate and real-time indicator diagram. The noise and interference can be filtered out through generic IIR or FIR low-pass filter, but addition phase lag of useful signal will be caused due to the inherent attribute of IIR and FIR filter. The paper uses FRR method to realize zero-phase digital filtering in a software way based on mutual cancellation of phase lag between the forward and reverse sequences after through the filter. High-frequency interference above 40Hz are filtered out completely and noise attenuation is more than -40dB, with no additional phase lag. The method is able to restore the true signal as far as possible. Theoretical simulation and practical test indicate high-frequency noises have been effectively inhibited in multiple typical speed cases, signal-to-noise ratio being greatly improved; the curve in indicator diagram has better smoothness and fidelity. The FRR algorithm has low computational complexity, fast running time, and can be easily transplanted in multiple platforms.
Comparative performance analysis of shunt and series passive filter for LED lamp
Sarwono, Edi; Facta, Mochammad; Handoko, Susatyo
2018-03-01
Light Emitting Diode lamp or LED lamp nowadays is widely used by consumers as a new innovation in the lighting technologies due to its energy saving for low power consumption lamps for brighter light intensity. How ever, the LED lamp produce an electric pollutant known as harmonics. The harmonics is generated by rectifier as part of LED lamp circuit. The present of harmonics in current or voltage has made the source waveform from the grid is distorted. This distortion may cause inacurrate measurement, mall function, and excessive heating for any element at the grid. This paper present an analysis work of shunt and series filters to suppress the harmonics generated by the LED lamp circuit. The work was initiated by conducting several tests to investigate the harmonic content of voltage and currents. The measurements in this work were carried out by using HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer 3197. The measurement results showed that the harmonics current of tested LED lamps were above the limit of IEEE standard 519-2014. Based on the measurement results shunt and series filters were constructed as low pass filters. The bode analysis were appled during construction and prediction of the filters performance. Based on experimental results, the application of shunt filter at input side of LED lamp has reduced THD current up to 88%. On the other hand, the series filter has significantly reduced THD current up to 92%.
Realisation of low-voltage square-root-domain all-pass filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farooq A. Khanday
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Novel l ow-voltage first-order and second-order square-root-domain all-pass filters derived systematically by means of transfer function decomposition and state -space synthesis techniques are proposed. The employment of only a few geometric-mean cells and grounded capacitors permits the circuits to absorb shunt parasitic capacitances, which is desirable for production in monolithic form . The circuits enjoy the features of electronic adjustment of frequency characteristics, wider dynamic range and low-voltage environment operation. The filters are employed to design high-order all-pass filters using cascade approach. First-order low-pass and second-order band-pass filters, being the inherited building blocks of the proposed low-order all-pass filters are also discussed. The behaviour of the filters is evaluated through simulations using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.25 μm level-3 complementary metal oxide semiconductor process parameters, where the most important performance factors are considered.
Summer Student Report 2014: Schottky component qualification and RF filter characterization
Egidos Plaja, Nuria
2014-01-01
This Summer Student project has been developed in BE-BI-QP department under the supervision of Manfred Wendt. Main goals of the task to be performed are the following: 1)\tFilter characterization: the student will get familiar with the Vector Network Analizer (VNA), S-parameter measurement and PSPICE modelling of low-pass filters. 2)\tFilter response matching: an algorithm to compare and classify filter responses into best-matching pairs will be developed. 3)\tSchottky monitor filter qualification: S-parameter and time domain measurements will be carried out with filters related to Schottky monitor and results will be benchmarked. 4)\tSchottky monitor amplifier measurement: noise figure and gain at a given frequency will be measured for a set of Low Noise Amplifiers related to Schottky monitor. -1dB compression point and 3rd order interception point will be measured too for education purposes. For the development of this project, the student will get familiar with RF measure devices (VNA, VSA), theoretical concep...
Strong seismic ground motion propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.
1988-10-01
At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials
Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry
Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali
Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a
Rotationally invariant correlation filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired
Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien
2018-07-01
This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.
1959-01-01
This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackney, S.
1980-01-01
A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)
Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran
2018-01-01
This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshiaki Kitamura
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.
Recovery of CTF beam signals from a strong wakefield background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yin, Y [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Schulte, E [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ekeloef, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
1995-06-01
The beam monitor for the CERN Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) has to work not only with very short pulses (350 ps FWHM) at a spacing of 330 ps, but also in a strong wakefield background. A cone-shaped button pickup electrode has been designed and constructed for use with CTF beams and tests have been made using a real time analogue Gaussian filter to recover the beam signals from the strong wakefield signals. As a comparison to the analogue filter, a study has been made to process the data off-line and extract the beam signals using digital filtering based on the wavelet concept. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs.
Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.
1977-01-01
A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing
Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.
Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary
2012-01-01
Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.
1988-01-01
Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter
2014-01-01
The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...
Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants
2009-01-01
With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.
1985-01-01
The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.
1978-01-01
Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)
Design optimisation of powers-of-two FIR filter using self-organising random immigrants GA
Chandra, Abhijit; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
2015-01-01
In this communication, we propose a novel design strategy of multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of a recent evolutionary optimisation technique, known as the self-organising random immigrants genetic algorithm. Individual impulse response coefficients of the proposed filter have been encoded as sum of signed powers-of-two. During the formulation of the cost function for the optimisation algorithm, both the frequency response characteristic and the hardware cost of the discrete coefficient FIR filter have been considered. The role of crossover probability of the optimisation technique has been evaluated on the overall performance of the proposed strategy. For this purpose, the convergence characteristic of the optimisation technique has been included in the simulation results. In our analysis, two design examples of different specifications have been taken into account. In order to substantiate the efficiency of our proposed structure, a number of state-of-the-art design strategies of multiplier-less FIR filter have also been included in this article for the purpose of comparison. Critical analysis of the result unambiguously establishes the usefulness of our proposed approach for the hardware efficient design of digital filter.
A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM micrographs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Hongchu
2015-01-01
Noise reduction of micrographs is often an essential task in high resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (HR(S)TEM) either for a higher visual quality or for a more accurate quantification. Since HR(S)TEM studies are often aimed at resolving periodic atomistic columns and their non-periodic deviation at defects, it is important to develop a noise reduction algorithm that can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is developed based on widely used techniques of low-pass filter and Wiener filter, which can efficiently reduce noise without noticeable artifacts even in HR(S)TEM micrographs with contrast of variation of background and defects. The developed nonlinear filtering algorithm is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy, and is also of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM. - Highlights: • A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM images is developed. • It can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. • It is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy. • It is of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Guo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Determining the attitude of satellite at the time of imaging then establishing the mathematical relationship between image points and ground points is essential in high-resolution remote sensing image mapping. Star tracker is insensitive to the high frequency attitude variation due to the measure noise and satellite jitter, but the low frequency attitude motion can be determined with high accuracy. Gyro, as a short-term reference to the satellite’s attitude, is sensitive to high frequency attitude change, but due to the existence of gyro drift and integral error, the attitude determination error increases with time. Based on the opposite noise frequency characteristics of two kinds of attitude sensors, this paper proposes an on-orbit attitude estimation method of star sensors and gyro based on Complementary Filter (CF and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF. In this study, the principle and implementation of the proposed method are described. First, gyro attitude quaternions are acquired based on the attitude kinematics equation. An attitude information fusion method is then introduced, which applies high-pass filtering and low-pass filtering to the gyro and star tracker, respectively. Second, the attitude fusion data based on CF are introduced as the observed values of UKF system in the process of measurement updating. The accuracy and effectiveness of the method are validated based on the simulated sensors attitude data. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method can suppress the gyro drift and measure noise of attitude sensors, improving the accuracy of the attitude determination significantly, comparing with the simulated on-orbit attitude and the attitude estimation results of the UKF defined by the same simulation parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keresnyei, Róbert; Hejjel, László; Megyeri, Péter; Zidarics, Zoltán
2015-01-01
The availability of microcomputer-based portable devices facilitates the high-volume multichannel biosignal acquisition and the analysis of their instantaneous oscillations and inter-signal temporal correlations. These new, non-invasively obtained parameters can have considerable prognostic or diagnostic roles. The present study investigates the inherent signal delay of the obligatory anti-aliasing filters. One cycle of each of the 8 electrocardiogram (ECG) and 4 photoplethysmogram signals from healthy volunteers or artificially synthesised series were passed through 100–80–60–40–20 Hz 2–4–6–8th order Bessel and Butterworth filters digitally synthesized by bilinear transformation, that resulted in a negligible error in signal delay compared to the mathematical model of the impulse- and step responses of the filters. The investigated filters have as diverse a signal delay as 2–46 ms depending on the filter parameters and the signal slew rate, which is difficult to predict in biological systems and thus difficult to compensate for. Its magnitude can be comparable to the examined phase shifts, deteriorating the accuracy of the measurement. As a conclusion, identical or very similar anti-aliasing filters with lower orders and higher corner frequencies, oversampling, and digital low pass filtering are recommended for biosignal acquisition intended for inter-signal phase shift analysis. (note)
An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Fangxiong; Ma Heping; Jia Hailong; Shi Yin; Lin Min; Dai, Forster
2009-01-01
An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 Ω as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 μV rms . The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm 2 and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter with on-chip charge pump auto-tuning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Fangxiong; Ma Heping; Jia Hailong; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Min [Suzhou-CAS Semiconductors Integrated Technology Research Center, Suzhou 215021 (China); Dai, Forster, E-mail: fxchen@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)
2009-08-15
An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 {Omega} as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 {mu}V{sub rms}. The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm{sup 2} and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Low-pass whole-genome sequencing in clinical cytogenetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Zirui; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ping
2016-01-01
Purpose: Chromosomal microarray analysis is the gold standard for copy-number variant (CNV) detection in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. We aimed to determine whether next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology could be an alternative method for CNV detection in routine clinical application. Me...
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter
Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adib, M.
2011-01-01
The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, K.E.
1981-01-01
A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter
Chernov, Alexey
2016-01-06
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.
Fristedt, B; Krylov, N
2007-01-01
Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)
2004-07-01
Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)
Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL
2009-10-13
Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.
Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters
Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY
2014-01-01
Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
2015-01-01
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
Ceramic fiber reinforced filter
Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.
1991-01-01
A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.
Chen, Wai-Kai
2003-01-01
A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi
Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee
2011-01-01
With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised
Randomized Filtering Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal
2008-01-01
of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...
A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin
2010-01-01
A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm 2 die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin, E-mail: slliu@semi.ac.c [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)
2010-06-15
A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm{sup 2} die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seng-Chi Chen
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Active magnetic bearing (AMB systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested.
Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.
Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum
2014-07-15
Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested.
Evaluation of Accelerometer Mechanical Filters on Submerged Cylinders Near an Underwater Explosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Yiannakopoulos
1998-01-01
Full Text Available An accelerometer, mounted to a structure near an explosion to measure elasto-plastic deformation, can be excited at its resonant frequency by impulsive stresses transmitted within the structure. This results in spurious high peak acceleration levels that can be much higher than acceleration levels from the explosion itself. The spurious signals also have higher frequencies than the underlying signal from the explosion and can be removed by a low pass filter. This report assesses the performance of four accelerometer and filter assemblies. The assessment involves measurements of the response of a mild steel cylinder to an underwater explosion, in which each assembly is mounted onto the interior surface of the cylinder. Three assemblies utilise a piezoresistive accelerometer in which isolation is provided mechanically. In the fourth assembly, a piezoelectric accelerometer, with a built-in filter, incorporates both mechanical and electronic filtering. This assembly is found to be more suitable because of its secure mounting arrangement, ease of use, robustness and noise free results.
Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauren Poole; Lee Recca
1999-01-01
A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology
Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering
Law, Kody
2015-01-01
The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).
... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...
2000-01-01
28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.
Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering
Law, Kody
2015-01-07
The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).
Cope, Davis; Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E
2013-05-01
The difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) filter is a widely used model for the receptive field of neurons in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and is a potential model in general for responses modulated by an excitatory center with an inhibitory surrounding region. A DOG filter is defined by three standard parameters: the center and surround sigmas (which define the variance of the radially symmetric Gaussians) and the balance (which defines the linear combination of the two Gaussians). These parameters are not directly observable and are typically determined by nonlinear parameter estimation methods applied to the frequency response function. DOG filters show both low-pass (optimal response at zero frequency) and bandpass (optimal response at a nonzero frequency) behavior. This paper reformulates the DOG filter in terms of a directly observable parameter, the zero-crossing radius, and two new (but not directly observable) parameters. In the two-dimensional parameter space, the exact region corresponding to bandpass behavior is determined. A detailed description of the frequency response characteristics of the DOG filter is obtained. It is also found that the directly observable optimal frequency and optimal gain (the ratio of the response at optimal frequency to the response at zero frequency) provide an alternate coordinate system for the bandpass region. Altogether, the DOG filter and its three standard implicit parameters can be determined by three directly observable values. The two-dimensional bandpass region is a potential tool for the analysis of populations of DOG filters (for example, populations of neurons in the retina or LGN), because the clustering of points in this parameter space may indicate an underlying organizational principle. This paper concentrates on circular Gaussians, but the results generalize to multidimensional radially symmetric Gaussians and are given as an appendix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.
1996-01-01
Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters
Microwave Resonators and Filters
2015-12-22
1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glaze, J.
1974-01-01
It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloísa Berbel Manaia
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.
Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence
Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya
2018-04-01
Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.
Strongly interacting Fermi gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakr W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Mechanical low-frequency filter via modes separation in 3D periodic structures
D'Alessandro, L.; Belloni, E.; Ardito, R.; Braghin, F.; Corigliano, A.
2017-12-01
This work presents a strategy to design three-dimensional elastic periodic structures endowed with complete bandgaps, the first of which is ultra-wide, where the top limits of the first two bandgaps are overstepped in terms of wave transmission in the finite structure. Thus, subsequent bandgaps are merged, approaching the behaviour of a three-dimensional low-pass mechanical filter. This result relies on a proper organization of the modal characteristics, and it is validated by performing numerical and analytical calculations over the unit cell. A prototype of the analysed layout, made of Nylon by means of additive manufacturing, is experimentally tested to assess the transmission spectrum of the finite structure, obtaining good agreement with numerical predictions. The presented strategy paves the way for the development of a class of periodic structures to be used in robust and reliable wave attenuation over a wide frequency band.
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
Rajab, Maher I
2011-11-01
Since the introduction of epiluminescence microscopy (ELM), image analysis tools have been extended to the field of dermatology, in an attempt to algorithmically reproduce clinical evaluation. Accurate image segmentation of skin lesions is one of the key steps for useful, early and non-invasive diagnosis of coetaneous melanomas. This paper proposes two image segmentation algorithms based on frequency domain processing and k-means clustering/fuzzy k-means clustering. The two methods are capable of segmenting and extracting the true border that reveals the global structure irregularity (indentations and protrusions), which may suggest excessive cell growth or regression of a melanoma. As a pre-processing step, Fourier low-pass filtering is applied to reduce the surrounding noise in a skin lesion image. A quantitative comparison of the techniques is enabled by the use of synthetic skin lesion images that model lesions covered with hair to which Gaussian noise is added. The proposed techniques are also compared with an established optimal-based thresholding skin-segmentation method. It is demonstrated that for lesions with a range of different border irregularity properties, the k-means clustering and fuzzy k-means clustering segmentation methods provide the best performance over a range of signal to noise ratios. The proposed segmentation techniques are also demonstrated to have similar performance when tested on real skin lesions representing high-resolution ELM images. This study suggests that the segmentation results obtained using a combination of low-pass frequency filtering and k-means or fuzzy k-means clustering are superior to the result that would be obtained by using k-means or fuzzy k-means clustering segmentation methods alone. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Choosing and using astronomical filters
Griffiths, Martin
2014-01-01
As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take
Brown, Erik P.
2015-05-19
An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Haakon
2016-01-08
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maehana, W [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yokohama National University, Yokohama, kanagawa (Japan); Nagao, T [Yokohama National University, Yokohama, kanagawa (Japan)
2016-06-15
Purpose: For the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), the shadows caused by the construction of the treatment couch top adversely affect the visual evaluation. Therefore, we developed the new imaging filter in order to remove the shadows. The performance of the new filter was evaluated using the clinical images. Methods: The new filter was composed of the band-pass filter (BPF) weighted by the k factor and the low-pass filter (LPF). In the frequency region, the stop bandwidth were 8.3×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on u direction and 11.1×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on v direction for the BPF, and the pass bandwidth were 8.3×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on u direction and 11.1×10{sup 3} mm{sup −1} on v direction for the LPF. After adding the filter, the shadows from the carbon fiber grid table top (CFGTT, Varian) on the kV-image was removed. To check the filter effect, we compared the clinical images, which are thorax and thoracoabdominal region, with to without the filter. The subjective evaluation tests was performed by adapting a three-point scale (agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree) about the 15 persons in the department of radiation oncology. Results: We succeeded in removing all shadows of CFGTT using the new filter. This filter is very useful shown by the results of the subjective evaluation having the 23/30 persons agreed to the filtered clinical images. Conclusion: We concluded that the proposed method was useful tool for the IGRT and the new filter leads to improvement of the accuracy of radiation therapy.
Henneken, H.; Vogel, M.; Karst, U.
2006-01-01
Diffusive sampling of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on 4-nitro-7-piperazinobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDPZ)-coated glass fibre (GF) filters is strongly affected by high relative humidity (RH) conditions. It is shown that the humidity interference is a physical phenomenon, based on displacement of reagent
Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan
2013-01-01
“Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms. The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudder, Stan
2010-01-01
An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.
2011-01-01
Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Filters in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bourdin, Blaise
1999-01-01
In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...
Alarm filtering and presentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, M.A.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)
Fangxiong, Chen; Min, Lin; Heping, Ma; Hailong, Jia; Yin, Shi; Forster, Dai
2009-08-01
An asymmetric MOSFET-C band-pass filter (BPF) with on chip charge pump auto-tuning is presented. It is implemented in UMC (United Manufacturing Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS process technology. The filter system with auto-tuning uses a master-slave technique for continuous tuning in which the charge pump outputs 2.663 V, much higher than the power supply voltage, to improve the linearity of the filter. The main filter with third order low-pass and second order high-pass properties is an asymmetric band-pass filter with bandwidth of 2.730-5.340 MHz. The in-band third order harmonic input intercept point (IIP3) is 16.621 dBm, with 50 Ω as the source impedance. The input referred noise is about 47.455 μVrms. The main filter dissipates 3.528 mW while the auto-tuning system dissipates 2.412 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The filter with the auto-tuning system occupies 0.592 mm2 and it can be utilized in GPS (global positioning system) and Bluetooth systems.
Strongly disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muttalib, K.A.
1982-01-01
We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Practical feasibility of Kalman filters for the state estimation of lithium-ion batteries
Campestrini, Christian
2018-01-01
This work investigates the feasibility of the Kalman filter for the state estimation of lithium-ion cells and modules under real conditions. Therefore, the dependencies of the cells during ageing are shown and various Kalman filter types are compared. The strongly varying model parameters, as well as the temperature and ageing dependent open circuit voltage, require an empirical adaptation of the inconstant and non-linear filter tuning parameters. The performance of the Kalman filter in a rea...
Antonella Del Rosso
2016-01-01
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Strongly interacting Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.
1980-01-01
The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed
Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V
1999-01-01
An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).
Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel
2014-01-01
Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology
A Novel Sliding Mode Control Technique for Indirect Current Controlled Active Power Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juntao Fei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel sliding mode control (SMC method for indirect current controlled three-phase parallel active power filter is presented in this paper. There are two designed closed loops in the system: one is the DC voltage controlling loop and the other is the reference current tracking loop. The first loop with a PI regulator is used to control the DC voltage approximating to the given voltage of capacitor, and the output of PI regulator through a low-pass filter is applied as the input of the power supply reference currents. The second loop implements the tracking of the reference currents using integral sliding mode controller, which can improve the harmonic treating performance. Compared with the direct current control technique, it is convenient to be implemented with digital signal processing system because of simpler system structure and better harmonic treating property. Simulation results verify that the generated reference currents have the same amplitude with the load currents, demonstrating the superior harmonic compensating effects with the proposed shunt active power filter compared with the hysteresis method.
Single-Chip FPGA Azimuth Pre-Filter for SAR
Gudim, Mimi; Cheng, Tsan-Huei; Madsen, Soren; Johnson, Robert; Le, Charles T-C; Moghaddam, Mahta; Marina, Miguel
2005-01-01
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) on a single lightweight, low-power integrated-circuit chip has been developed to implement an azimuth pre-filter (AzPF) for a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system. The AzPF is needed to enable more efficient use of data-transmission and data-processing resources: In broad terms, the AzPF reduces the volume of SAR data by effectively reducing the azimuth resolution, without loss of range resolution, during times when end users are willing to accept lower azimuth resolution as the price of rapid access to SAR imagery. The data-reduction factor is selectable at a decimation factor, M, of 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 so that users can trade resolution against processing and transmission delays. In principle, azimuth filtering could be performed in the frequency domain by use of fast-Fourier-transform processors. However, in the AzPF, azimuth filtering is performed in the time domain by use of finite-impulse-response filters. The reason for choosing the time-domain approach over the frequency-domain approach is that the time-domain approach demands less memory and a lower memory-access rate. The AzPF operates on the raw digitized SAR data. The AzPF includes a digital in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) demodulator. In general, an I/Q demodulator effects a complex down-conversion of its input signal followed by low-pass filtering, which eliminates undesired sidebands. In the AzPF case, the I/Q demodulator takes offset video range echo data to the complex baseband domain, ensuring preservation of signal phase through the azimuth pre-filtering process. In general, in an SAR I/Q demodulator, the intermediate frequency (fI) is chosen to be a quarter of the range-sampling frequency and the pulse-repetition frequency (fPR) is chosen to be a multiple of fI. The AzPF also includes a polyphase spatial-domain pre-filter comprising four weighted integrate-and-dump filters with programmable decimation factors and overlapping phases. To prevent aliasing of signals
DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.
The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...
Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters
Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.
2001-01-01
A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.
Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V
1998-01-01
Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.
Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleem, M.
2009-01-01
Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)
Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations
Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.
2017-09-01
Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.
Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastislav Lukac
2004-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.
A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter
Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is
Strong-interaction nonuniversality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
1989-01-01
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Wickens, F
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Analog filters in nanometer CMOS
Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst
2014-01-01
Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2011-09-15
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
Stochastic stacking without filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.
1982-12-01
The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth
Law, Kody
2016-01-06
This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.
1994-01-01
A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures
The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlsson Rickard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.
Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering
Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan
2010-01-01
A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.
Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.
1995-01-01
A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.
Filter Effectiveness Evaluation
2013-08-01
synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nima Tabatabaei
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.
Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.
2004-09-01
Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.
Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.
1979-03-01
Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2011-11-15
Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold
Filter's importance in nuclear cardiology imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesus, Maria C. de; Lima, Ana L.S.; Santos, Joyra A. dos; Megueriam, Berdj A.
2008-01-01
Full text: Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality which employs tomography procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. One of the most commonly used apparatus is the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). To perform exams, a very small amount of a radiopharmaceutical must be given to the patient. Then, a gamma camera is placed in convenient positions to perform the photon counting, which is used to reconstruct a full 3 dimensional distribution of the radionuclide inside the body or organ. This reconstruction provides a 3-dimensional image in spatial coordinates, of the body or organ under study, allowing the physician to give the diagnostic. Image reconstruction is usually worked in the frequency domain, due to a great simplification introduced by the Fourier decomposition of image spectra. After the reconstruction, an inverse Fourier transform must be applied to trace back the image into spatial coordinates. To optimize this reconstruction procedure, digital filters are used to remove undesirable components of frequency, which can 'shadow' relevant physical signatures of diseases. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the applied filter is strongly dependent on its own mathematical parameters. In this work we demonstrate how filters interfere on image quality in cardiology examinations with SPECT, concerning perfusion and myocardial viability and the importance of the medical physicist in the choice of the right filters avoiding some serious problems that could occur in the inadequate processing of an image damaging the medical diagnosis. (author)
Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon-Gul
2018-04-01
We fabricated low-pass metal powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire-turn densities, metalpowder shapes, and preparation methods at frequencies up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30-μmsized stainless-steel 304L powder and mixed it with low-temperature binders. The low-temperature binders used were Stycast 2850FT (Emerson and Cumming) with catalyst 23LV and GE-7031 varnish. A 0.1-mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture bobbins in the shape of a circular rod and was encapsulated in metal tubes with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. For filters of the same wire length, a lower wiring density showed a larger attenuation, which implies that the amount of powder in close contact with the wire determines the attenuation. Filters made of a powder/varnish mixture showed significantly larger attenuations than those of a powder/stycast mixture, and the attenuation improved with increasing powder ratio in the mixture. The low-temperature thermal conductivities of a 2 : 1 powder/Stycast mixture and a 5 : 1 powder/varnish mixture showed similar values at temperatures up to 4.2 K.
The history of ceramic filters.
Fujishima, S
2000-01-01
The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNabb, J.
2001-01-01
The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended
OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert
1998-04-30
Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench
An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa
2017-12-11
This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters\\' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters\\' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters\\' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles\\' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.
An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2017-01-01
This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.
Advances in Collaborative Filtering
Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert
The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikusar, N.D.
1993-01-01
The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Hakon
2016-06-14
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Du Plessis, WP
2009-10-01
Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...
Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering
Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
1997-08-01
In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.
Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per
2001-01-01
Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...
High flow ceramic pot filters.
van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J
2017-11-01
Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randen, Trygve
1997-12-31
The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.
Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neelofer Afzal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.
MODEL-ORIENTED METHOD OF DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION WHEN CREATING DIGITAL FILTERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Levinskyi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the example of model-oriented method of design and development of digital low-pass filters (LPF for automatic control systems (ACS. Typically, high frequency noise and disturbance attenuation is carried out by analogue LPF. However, technical implementation of analogue filters higher than the second order arouse certain difficulties related with the need of precise passive components ratings selection (resistors, capacitors. If the noise and disturbances spectral composition is known, it is possible to build digital LPF with the Nyquist frequency greater than the maximum frequency in the noise spectrum. Such possibility has appeared because of cheap, energy-efficient, high-speed 32-bit microcontrollers market entry. They have analogue signals sampling rate of 30 kHz and above. The traditional approach using the “manual” method of filter parameters calculation, obtaining their recurrence expressions and further program implementation requires high qualification and a lot of time consumption from the developer. An alternative to this approach is the model-oriented method of design (MOMD in MatLab environment when in the one environment the design of digital LPF, verificaton of its performance as a part of the ACS, generation and compilation of program codes for selected microcontroller family take place. MOMD can also be used in the designs of bandpass and bandstop filters for adaptive control systems or systems of technical diagnostics. If during the commissioning or the operation of ACS there is a need in digital LPF parameters change then this operation can be performed within half an hour. MOMD technology allows to significantly reduce the time for developing a specific product without loss of quality in its design ‘cause of extensive possibilities of MatLab development environment.
OBIST methodology incorporating modified sensitivity of pulses for active analogue filter components
Khade, R. H.; Chaudhari, D. S.
2018-03-01
In this paper, oscillation-based built-in self-test method is used to diagnose catastrophic and parametric faults in integrated circuits. Sallen-Key low pass filter and high pass filter circuits with different gains are used to investigate defects. Variation in seven parameters of operational amplifier (OP-AMP) like gain, input impedance, output impedance, slew rate, input bias current, input offset current, input offset voltage and catastrophic as well as parametric defects in components outside OP-AMP are introduced in the circuit and simulation results are analysed. Oscillator output signal is converted to pulses which are used to generate a signature of the circuit. The signature and pulse count changes with the type of fault present in the circuit under test (CUT). The change in oscillation frequency is observed for fault detection. Designer has flexibility to predefine tolerance band of cut-off frequency and range of pulses for which circuit should be accepted. The fault coverage depends upon the required tolerance band of the CUT. We propose a modification of sensitivity of parameter (pulses) to avoid test escape and enhance yield. Result shows that the method provides 100% fault coverage for catastrophic faults.
Optimal IIR filter design using Gravitational Search Algorithm with Wavelet Mutation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.K. Saha
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a global heuristic search optimization technique, which is a hybridized version of the Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Wavelet Mutation (WM strategy. Thus, the Gravitational Search Algorithm with Wavelet Mutation (GSAWM was adopted for the design of an 8th-order infinite impulse response (IIR filter. GSA is based on the interaction of masses situated in a small isolated world guided by the approximation of Newtonian’s laws of gravity and motion. Each mass is represented by four parameters, namely, position, active, passive and inertia mass. The position of the heaviest mass gives the near optimal solution. For better exploitation in multidimensional search spaces, the WM strategy is applied to randomly selected particles that enhance the capability of GSA for finding better near optimal solutions. An extensive simulation study of low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, band-pass (BP and band-stop (BS IIR filters unleashes the potential of GSAWM in achieving better cut-off frequency sharpness, smaller pass band and stop band ripples, smaller transition width and higher stop band attenuation with assured stability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romit Maulik
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Solving two-dimensional compressible turbulence problems up to a resolution of 16, 384^2, this paper investigates the characteristics of two promising computational approaches: (i an implicit or numerical large eddy simulation (ILES framework using an upwind-biased fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO reconstruction algorithm equipped with several Riemann solvers, and (ii a central sixth-order reconstruction framework combined with various linear and nonlinear explicit low-pass spatial filtering processes. Our primary aim is to quantify the dissipative behavior, resolution characteristics, shock capturing ability and computational expenditure for each approach utilizing a systematic analysis with respect to its modeling parameters or parameterizations. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are addressed for solving a stratified Kelvin-Helmholtz instability shear layer problem as well as a canonical Riemann problem with the interaction of four shocks. The comparisons are both qualitative and quantitative, using visualizations of the spatial structure of the flow and energy spectra, respectively. We observe that the central scheme, with relaxation filtering, offers a competitive approach to ILES and is much more computationally efficient than WENO-based schemes.
DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.
2005-01-01
Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....
Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations
Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul
1993-01-01
To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.
Digital filtering in nuclear medicine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.
1982-01-01
Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine
Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy
2012-01-01
This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...
Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering
Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert
2016-01-01
One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.
Intelligent medical information filtering.
Quintana, Y
1998-01-01
This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles
Device for filtering gaseous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzel, M.
1978-01-01
The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de
Spatial filtering with photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)
2015-03-15
Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.
Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed
2002-01-01
... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...
Adaptive filtering and change detection
Gustafsson, Fredrik
2003-01-01
Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi
The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.
Harris, Bradford
2011-05-01
When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate
From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalby, Arne Brejning
1989-01-01
A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...
Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.
2007-05-01
Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).
Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering
Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.
Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Wenlong
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.
Solution to the spectral filter problem of residual terrain modelling (RTM)
Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian; Bucha, Blažej; Holmes, Simon
2018-06-01
In physical geodesy, the residual terrain modelling (RTM) technique is frequently used for high-frequency gravity forward modelling. In the RTM technique, a detailed elevation model is high-pass-filtered in the topography domain, which is not equivalent to filtering in the gravity domain. This in-equivalence, denoted as spectral filter problem of the RTM technique, gives rise to two imperfections (errors). The first imperfection is unwanted low-frequency (LF) gravity signals, and the second imperfection is missing high-frequency (HF) signals in the forward-modelled RTM gravity signal. This paper presents new solutions to the RTM spectral filter problem. Our solutions are based on explicit modelling of the two imperfections via corrections. The HF correction is computed using spectral domain gravity forward modelling that delivers the HF gravity signal generated by the long-wavelength RTM reference topography. The LF correction is obtained from pre-computed global RTM gravity grids that are low-pass-filtered using surface or solid spherical harmonics. A numerical case study reveals maximum absolute signal strengths of ˜ 44 mGal (0.5 mGal RMS) for the HF correction and ˜ 33 mGal (0.6 mGal RMS) for the LF correction w.r.t. a degree-2160 reference topography within the data coverage of the SRTM topography model (56°S ≤ φ ≤ 60°N). Application of the LF and HF corrections to pre-computed global gravity models (here the GGMplus gravity maps) demonstrates the efficiency of the new corrections over topographically rugged terrain. Over Switzerland, consideration of the HF and LF corrections reduced the RMS of the residuals between GGMplus and ground-truth gravity from 4.41 to 3.27 mGal, which translates into ˜ 26% improvement. Over a second test area (Canada), our corrections reduced the RMS of the residuals between GGMplus and ground-truth gravity from 5.65 to 5.30 mGal (˜ 6% improvement). Particularly over Switzerland, geophysical signals (associated, e.g. with
Plasmonic band-stop filter with asymmetric rectangular ring for WDM networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nezhad, Vahid Foroughi; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh; Abaslou, Siamak
2013-01-01
We proposed a simple asymmetric rectangular band-stop filter based on metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguides. It is shown that the performance of the structure as a filter strongly depends on the asymmetry of the rectangular structure. An analytical model based on the analogy between MDM waveguides and the microwave transmission line is used to calculate the resonance wavelengths and explain the behavior of the filter. The bandwidth of spectra can be easily manipulated by adjusting the topological parameters of the filter. It is also demonstrated that by adjusting the bandwidth, the filter can be used for CWDM standard channels. The filter behavior is verified using the numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The filter is compact and has a footprint of 1 μm × 0.5 μm, which is suitable for integrated optical circuits. (paper)
Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawabata, Shiro; Vasenko, Andrey S.; Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian F.; Hekking, Frank W.J.
2015-01-01
We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits
Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Vasenko, Andrey S. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ozaeta, Asier [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bergeret, Sebastian F. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Hekking, Frank W.J. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2015-06-01
We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kroupa, Tomáš
2008-01-01
Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008
Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole
2010-01-01
In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...
Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, J.
1980-12-01
Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt
Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering
Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.
2016-01-01
Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or
Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters
Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.
1981-01-01
A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.
Properties of auxiliary filtering materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.
1981-01-01
The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.
van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.
2017-01-01
Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more
Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters
Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.
2014-01-01
Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class
Mobile filters in nuclear engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuter, R.
1979-01-01
The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de
Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mable P. Fok
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia
2017-01-01
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...
Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gischel, E.H.
1975-01-01
Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)
Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms
Schiess, J. R.
1977-01-01
Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.
Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Donghui Li; Li Guo
2006-01-01
@@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.
Noise and resolution with digital filtering for nuclear spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakatos, T.
1991-01-01
Digital noise filtering looks very promising for semiconductor spectrometry. The resolution and conversion speed of the analog to digital converter (ADC) used at the input of a digital signal processor and analyzer can strongly influence the signal to noise ratio, the peak position and shape. The article leads with the investigation of these effects using computer modelling. (orig.)
Development of the code for filter calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.
2012-01-01
This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters
Simulation of RF data with tissue motion for optimizing stationary echo canceling filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlaikjer, Malene; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Blood velocity estimation is complicated by the strong echoes received from tissue surrounding the vessel under investigation. Proper blood velocity estimation necessitates use of a filter for separation of the different signal components. Development of these filters and new estimators requires ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verkerk, C.
1978-01-01
Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeSantis, G.N.
1995-01-01
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch
Regenerative-filter-incinerator device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosebrock, T.L.
1977-10-18
A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.
Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.
2009-01-01
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size
Filters for radioactive liquid wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio
1980-01-01
In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters
... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...
Simplified design of filter circuits
Lenk, John
1999-01-01
Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets
van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.
2017-01-01
Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...
Face Recognition using Gabor Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajjad MOHSIN
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.
Remotely operated top loading filter housing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.
1989-01-01
A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment
Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.
Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho
2011-01-07
We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.
Nondestructive quality assurance of ceramic filters using noncontact dynamic characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yue, P.; Chen, S.E.; Nishihama, Y. [University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
2005-06-01
Ceramic candle filters are stiff cylindrical structures arranged in rosettes in a hot gas vessel. Custom-made with strong composite materials, these filters are designed to withstand heating and cooling cycles of very high temperature gradients during coal energy production processes. To ensure consistency in the manufactured filters, noncontact dynamic characterization using laser vibrometry is proposed as a factory quality control technique. To evaluate the proposed technique, a sensitivity study using both contact and noncontact vibration measurements is first conducted. The shift in natural vibration frequencies is used as a quality indicator for likely manufacturing variables. Six candle filters are tested using dynamic impact tests. Contact and noncontact results are compared with theoretical natural frequency values, which show that laser results were 'noisier' due to dropout from speckle noises. The results are used to establish the sensitivity of the technique, which indicates that dynamic characterization is a valid nondestructive testing technique for quality assurance of the ceramic filters, provided that the manufactured filters have a quality variation greater than 3.21%.
Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.
Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T
2015-08-25
The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.B. Chopade
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents image super-resolution scheme based on sub-pixel image registration by the design of a specific class of dyadic-integer-coefficient based wavelet filters derived from the construction of a half-band polynomial. First, the integer-coefficient based half-band polynomial is designed by the splitting approach. Next, this designed half-band polynomial is factorized and assigned specific number of vanishing moments and roots to obtain the dyadic-integer coefficients low-pass analysis and synthesis filters. The possibility of these dyadic-integer coefficients based wavelet filters is explored in the field of image super-resolution using sub-pixel image registration. The two-resolution frames are registered at a specific shift from one another to restore the resolution lost by CCD array of camera. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT obtained from the designed coefficients is applied on these two low-resolution images to obtain the high resolution image. The developed approach is validated by comparing the quality metrics with existing filter banks.
A Sub-µW Tuneable Switched-Capacitor Amplifier-Filter for Neural Recording Using a Class-C Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Ghorbani-Nejad
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A two stage sub-µW Inverter-based switched-capacitor amplifier-filter is presented which is capable of amplifying both spikes and local field potentials (LFP signals. Here we employ a switched capacitor technique for frequency tuning and reducing of 1/f noise of two stages. The reduction of power consumption is very necessary for neural recording devices however, in switched capacitor (SC circuits OTA is a major building block that consumes most of the power. Therefore an OTA-less technique utilizing a class-C inverter is employed that significantly reduces the power consumption. A detailed analysis of noise performance for the inverter-based SC circuits is presented. A mathematical model useful for analysis of such SC integrators is derived and a good comparison is obtained between simulation and analytical technique. With a supply voltage of 0.7V and using 0.18 µm CMOS technology, this design can achieves a power consumption of about 538 nW. The designed amplifier-filter has the gains 18.6 dB and 28.2 dB for low pass only and cascaded filter, respectively. By applying different sampling frequencies, the filter attains a reconfigurable bandwidth.
Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....
Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.
Buffers and vegetative filter strips
Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney
2008-01-01
This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.
Magnetic filter field for ELISE––Concepts and design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fröschle, M.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► ELISE is an important intermediate step toward the full size ITER injector ion source ► It is one of the first ion sources equipped with a magnetic filter field formed by a PG current. ► The magnetic filter field is responsible for the performance of the source ► It controls the currents of extracted negative ions and co-extracted electrons ► The ELISE magnetic filter field meets all actual scientific findings ► It has a vast variability for future investigations and optimizations. -- Abstract: Negative ion neutral beam injection heating systems as planned for ITER need efficient precautions in the plasma source to minimize the co-extraction of electrons and destruction of negative ions. One solution is to apply a magnetic filter field of several mT, which reduces the electron temperature and the amount of electrons in the extraction region in front of the plasma grid. For the small IPP prototype sources it has been found, that both, the absolute value of the magnetic flux density in the extraction region as well as its integral along the distance from plasma driver to plasma grid has an important influence on the performance of the source. In the ITER ion sources, a strong current of several kA driven through the plasma grid is used to create the transversal magnetic field. The test bed ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) at IPP Garching houses the first negative ion source with the full width of the ITER source, with a similar aperture arrangement of the extraction system and with a magnetic filter field formed by a plasma grid current. One issue of the research at this test facility will be to explore and optimize the magnetic filter field. The paper summarizes experiences and results of previous filter field test campaigns and presents the magnetic filter field design for ELISE
Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.
1994-01-01
The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs
Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.
1982-01-01
A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackbee, B.A.
1977-10-01
To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)
Stochastic processes and filtering theory
Jazwinski, Andrew H
1970-01-01
This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab
A passive inverse filter for Green's function retrieval.
Gallot, Thomas; Catheline, Stefan; Roux, Philippe; Campillo, Michel
2012-01-01
Passive methods for the recovery of Green's functions from ambient noise require strong hypotheses, including isotropic distribution of the noise sources. Very often, this distribution is nonisotropic, which introduces bias in the Green's function reconstruction. To minimize this bias, a spatiotemporal inverse filter is proposed. The method is tested on a directive noise field computed from an experimental active seismic data set. The results indicate that the passive inverse filter allows the manipulation of the spatiotemporal degrees of freedom of a complex wave field, and it can efficiently compensate for the noise wavefield directivity. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.
Digital filters in spectrometry; Filtros digitales en espectrometria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barron B, J. I.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: israel_176@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)
2013-10-15
In this work is presented the development and application of the digital signal processing for different multichannel analysis spectra. The use of the smoothing classic methods in applications of signal processing is illustrated by a filters discussion; autoregressive, mobile average and the ARMA filters. Generally, simple routines of lineal smoothing do not provide appropriate smoothing of the data that show the local ruggedness as the strong discontinuities; however the indicated development algorithms have been enough to leave adapting to this task. Four algorithms were proven: autoregressive, mobile average, ARMA and binomial methods for 5, 7, and 9 of data, everything in the domain of the time and programmed in Mat lab. (Author)
Depolarisation effects in resonance absorption neutron polarising filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J.
1982-06-01
The depolarisation of a neutron beam passing through a system of magnetically misaligned single domain particles is examined and simulated using a Monte-Carlo programme. The results of the simulations are in excellent agreement with those of analytic calculations within the regimes where such calculations are applicable. The simulations have been used in the estimation of the polarising efficiency and transmittance of a resonance absorption filter containing partially aligned particles of SmCo 5 . It is shown that the application of strong magnetic fields (approximately equal to 2T) should significantly improve the filter performance. A method of measuring this improvement is suggested. (author)
A quantum extended Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R
2017-01-01
In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)
A quantum extended Kalman filter
Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.
2017-06-01
In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.
Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.
1987-01-01
Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo
2009-01-01
filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...
Model-Based Water Wall Fault Detection and Diagnosis of FBC Boiler Using Strong Tracking Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Fluidized bed combustion (FBC boilers have received increasing attention in recent decades. The erosion issue on the water wall is one of the most common and serious faults for FBC boilers. Unlike direct measurement of tube thickness used by ultrasonic methods, the wastage of water wall is reconsidered equally as the variation of the overall heat transfer coefficient in the furnace. In this paper, a model-based approach is presented to estimate internal states and heat transfer coefficient dually from the noisy measurable outputs. The estimated parameter is compared with the normal value. Then the modified Bayesian algorithm is adopted for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD. The simulation results demonstrate that the approach is feasible and effective.
Identification of phase characteristics of strong ground motion using homomorophic filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Tadanobu; Toki, Kenzo; Ishizuka, Ken
1988-01-01
The cepstrum analysis was applied to deconvolute a seismic wave into a system response function and a train of impulses. Based on several criteria to minimize error, we propose a method to identify the source mechanism using identified trains of impulses. Simulated waves were analyzed in order to examine the validity of the proposed decomvolution method. It was found that arrival time of an impulse was estimated within the error of two sampling intervals and intensity of impulse was proportional to the difference between the exact and estimated arrival time of the impulse. The accelerograms recorded at fourteen stations in El Centro Array are used to identify the fault mechanism of the 1979 Imperial Valley, California earthquake. The rupture velocity, the starting point of rupture, the direction of the rupture propagation and the rise time can be estimated by minimizing the error between deconvoluted trains of impulses and theoretically calculated ones by selecting proper values of fault parameters in the rupture process. The multiple rupture process was confirmed by the fact that five major small events were identified on the fault surface. The identified distribution of seismic moment on the fault surface compares well with that investigated from different approach. The analytical algorithm led to the nonlinear system inversion and non-uniqueness of identified parameters. To overcome these problems, we applied Bayes' rule which provided a quantitative error measure taking into account the effect of prior information for identifying parameters. (author)
Stratification of nitrification activity in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Musovic, Sanin
2013-01-01
Rapid sand filters used in groundwater treatment remove ammonium, iron and manganese from the water. Ammonium is removed biologically by nitrifying microorganisms attached on the sand surface. Nitrification kinetics and activity is strongly affected by filter design and operation, which are the key...... and maximum nitrification capacity are derived and used to quantify nitrification activity. Nitrification activity was concentrated at the top 10 cm of filter depth, and maximum nitrification capacity was 7 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h compared with 0.8-0.4 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h in the middle and bottom layers. A water...... of this study is to investigate nitrification activity in a rapid sand filter, with focus on its homogeneity and how it relates to filter performance. Two groundwater treatment plants in Denmark were selected for the experimental investigations. Plant 1 operates a single line of pre and after filters and has...
Progress on the development of NbZr Radio frequency band reject filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudak, J.J.; Alper, M.; Cotte, D.; Gardner, C.G.; Harvey, A.
1983-01-01
This chapter reports on the design and testing of a tunable superconducting filter element fabricated from Nb25%Zr having a transition temperature of 11 K. The filter element will serve as a component in a multielement filter bank to be cooled to less than 10 K by a two stage Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. A radio frequency (RF) interference rejection system composed of a set of tunable superconducting filter elements is being developed to supplement conventional interference rejection tehcniques. The thermal loading performance of the 8.5 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator is found to exceed 2 watts at 10 K on the second stage with a 10 watt loading on the first stage. A superconducting filter bank consisting of tunable narrow band RF filters applied to strong interfering signals can be used to match the dynamic range of the RF signal environment to that of the receiving system
Permanently magnetized high gradient magnetic air filters for the nuclear industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, J.H.P.
1995-01-01
This paper describes the structure and testing of two novel permanently magnetized magnetic filters for fine radioactive material. In the first filter the holes in the filter are left open as capture proceeds which means the pressure drop builds up only slowly. This filter is not suitable for composite particles which can be broken by mechanical forces. The second filter has been changed so as to strongly capture particles composed of fine particles weakly bound together which tend to break when captured. This uses a principle of assisted capture in which coarse particles aid the capture of the fine fragments. These filters have the following characteristics: (1) no external magnet is required, (2) no external power is required, (3) small in size and portable, (4) easily interchangeable, and (5) can be cleaned without demagnetizing by using a magnetic fluid which matches the susceptibility of the captured particles
Suzuki, T; Hirabayashi, M; Kobayashi, K
1984-01-01
Effects of analog high pass (HP) filtering were compared with those of zero phase-shift digital filtering on the auditory middle latency responses (MLR) from nine adults and 16 young children with normal hearing. Analog HP filtering exerted several prominent effects on the MLR waveforms in both adults and young children, such as suppression of Po (ABR), enhancement of Nb, enhancement or emergence of Pb, and latency decrements for Pa and the later components. Analog HP filtering at 20 Hz produced more pronounced waveform distortions in the responses from young children than from adults. Much greater latency decrements for Pa and Nb were observed for young children than for adults in the analog HP-filtered responses at 20 Hz. A large positive peak (Pb) emerged at about 65 ms after the stimulus onset. From these results, the use of digital HP filtering at 20 Hz is strongly recommended for obtaining unbiased and stable MLR in young children.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)
Strong interactions at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.
1995-01-01
Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Strong-field dissociation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.
1993-01-01
The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs
Filter-adsorber aging assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)
1995-02-01
An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...
Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust
Olsson, Tomas
1998-01-01
This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.
Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin
2015-01-01
. In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....
Epithermal neutron activation analysis using a boron carbide irradiation filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehmann, W.D.; Brueckner, J.
1980-01-01
The use of boron carbide as a thermal neutron filter in epithermal neutron activation (ENAA) analysis has been investigated. As compared to the use of a cadmium filter, boron provides a greater reduction of activities from elements relatively abundant in terrestrial rocks and fossil fuels, such as Na, La, Sc and Fe. These elements have excitation functions which follow the 1/v law in the 1 to 10 eV lower epithermal region. This enhances the sensitivity of ENAA for elements such as U, Th, Ba and etc. which have strong resonances in the higher epithermal region above 10 eV. In addition, a boron carbide filter has the advantages over cadmium of acquiring a relatively low level of induced activity which poses minimal radiation safety problems, when used for ENAA. (author)
Adaptive particle filter for localization problem in service robotics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heilig Alexander
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a statistical approach to the likelihood computation and adaptive resampling algorithm for particle filters using low cost ultrasonic sensors in the context of service robotics. This increases the efficiency of the particle filter in the Monte Carlo Localization problem by means of preventing sample impoverishment and ensuring it converges towards the most likely particle and simultaneously keeping less likely ones by systematic resampling. Proposed algorithms were developed in the ROS framework, simulation was done in Gazebo environment. Experiments using a differential drive mobile platform with 4 ultrasonic sensors in the office environment show that our approach provides strong improvement over particle filters with fixed sample sizes.
Weighted ensemble transform Kalman filter for image assimilation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastien Beyou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes an extension of the Weighted Ensemble Kalman filter (WEnKF proposed by Papadakis et al. (2010 for the assimilation of image observations. The main focus of this study is on a novel formulation of the Weighted filter with the Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF, incorporating directly as a measurement model a non-linear image reconstruction criterion. This technique has been compared to the original WEnKF on numerical and real world data of 2-D turbulence observed through the transport of a passive scalar. In particular, it has been applied for the reconstruction of oceanic surface current vorticity fields from sea surface temperature (SST satellite data. This latter technique enables a consistent recovery along time of oceanic surface currents and vorticity maps in presence of large missing data areas and strong noise.
Progress towards the use of disposable filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macphail, I.
1979-08-01
Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)
Risk Sensitive Filtering with Poisson Process Observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malcolm, W. P.; James, M. R.; Elliott, R. J.
2000-01-01
In this paper we consider risk sensitive filtering for Poisson process observations. Risk sensitive filtering is a type of robust filtering which offers performance benefits in the presence of uncertainties. We derive a risk sensitive filter for a stochastic system where the signal variable has dynamics described by a diffusion equation and determines the rate function for an observation process. The filtering equations are stochastic integral equations. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance gain for the risk sensitive filter compared with the risk neutral filter
Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao
2008-01-01
In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
The colours of strong interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)
Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolak, A.
1987-01-01
Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis
Iodine filters in nuclear installations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelm, J.G.
1982-01-01
The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined
A biological oil adsorption filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology
2005-12-01
A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)
A biological oil adsorption filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasila, A.
2005-01-01
A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)
GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter
Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong
2011-01-01
Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .
Spectral filtering for plant production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.
1994-12-31
Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.
The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’
Harris, Bradford
2011-01-01
Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...
Optimal Nonlinear Filter for INS Alignment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵瑞; 顾启泰
2002-01-01
All the methods to handle the inertial navigation system (INS) alignment were sub-optimal in the past. In this paper, particle filtering (PF) as an optimal method is used for solving the problem of INS alignment. A sub-optimal two-step filtering algorithm is presented to improve the real-time performance of PF. The approach combines particle filtering with Kalman filtering (KF). Simulation results illustrate the superior performance of these approaches when compared with extended Kalman filtering (EKF).
Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz
2001-01-01
This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....
Zheng, Shiqiang; Feng, Rui
2016-03-01
This paper introduces a feedforward control strategy combined with a novel adaptive notch filter to solve the problem of rotor imbalance in high-speed Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Compressors (MSCCs). Unbalance vibration force of rotor in MSCC is mainly composed of current stiffness force and displacement stiffness force. In this paper, the mathematical model of the unbalance vibration with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control laws is presented. In order to reduce the unbalance vibration, a novel adaptive notch filter is proposed to identify the synchronous frequency displacement of the rotor as a compensation signal to eliminate the current stiffness force. In addition, a feedforward channel from position component to control output is introduced to compensate displacement stiffness force to achieve a better performance. A simplified inverse model of power amplifier is included in the feedforward channel to reject the degrade performance caused by its low-pass characteristic. Simulation and experimental results on a MSCC demonstrate a significant effect on the synchronous vibration suppression of the magnetically suspended rotor at a high speed.
Radiant zone heated particulate filter
Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI
2011-12-27
A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.
Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J
2011-01-01
In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.
Filtered containment venting in Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.
1989-01-01
After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components
HEPA filter concerns - an overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
1995-02-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.
Filtering reducer of flushing fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F
1981-02-28
This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.
Adaptive filtering primer with Matlab
Poularikas, Alexander D
2006-01-01
INTRODUCTIONSignal ProcessingAn ExampleOutline of the TextDISCRETE-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSINGDiscrete Time SignalsTransform-Domain Representation of Discrete-Time SignalsThe Z-TransformDiscrete-Time SystemsProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsRANDOM VARIABLES, SEQUENCES, AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSESRandom Signals and DistributionsAveragesStationary ProcessesSpecial Random Signals and Probability Density FunctionsWiener-Khinchin RelationsFiltering Random ProcessesSpecial Types of Random ProcessesNonparametric Spectra EstimationParametric Methods of power Spectral EstimationProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsWIENER FILTERSThe Mean-Square ErrorThe FIR Wiener FilterThe Wiener SolutionWiener Filtering ExamplesProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsEIGENVALUES OF RX - PROPERTIES OF THE ERROR SURFACEThe Eigenvalues of the Correlation MatrixGeometrical Properties of the Error SurfaceProblemsHints-Solutions-SuggestionsNEWTON AND STEEPEST-DESCENT METHODOne-Dimensional Gradient Search MethodSteepest-Descent AlgorithmProblemsHints-Sol...
Data assimilation the ensemble Kalman filter
Evensen, Geir
2007-01-01
Data Assimilation comprehensively covers data assimilation and inverse methods, including both traditional state estimation and parameter estimation. This text and reference focuses on various popular data assimilation methods, such as weak and strong constraint variational methods and ensemble filters and smoothers. It is demonstrated how the different methods can be derived from a common theoretical basis, as well as how they differ and/or are related to each other, and which properties characterize them, using several examples. Rather than emphasize a particular discipline such as oceanography or meteorology, it presents the mathematical framework and derivations in a way which is common for any discipline where dynamics is merged with measurements. The mathematics level is modest, although it requires knowledge of basic spatial statistics, Bayesian statistics, and calculus of variations. Readers will also appreciate the introduction to the mathematical methods used and detailed derivations, which should b...
Evaluation of residential furnace filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowser, D. [Bowser Technical Inc. (Canada)
1999-07-01
Various filters rotated through six houses in southern Ontario during the heating season were evaluated for their filtration efficiency, including their ability to trap respirable particulate matter. Particulate levels were continuously monitored in the outside air, before and after the filter in the ducting system; also in the air in two rooms in each house. Results show that the filters performed according to their respective efficiency ratings. The integrated breathing zone exposure reading were not considered as significant as the reductions in the ducting system, dur to the fact that the integrated breathing zone exposure reflects both dust generation and dust removal mechanisms. Electronic air filters were found to produce ozone inside the home when the air-handling system was in operation. There was no evidence of any particular relationship between cleanliness and ozone production. Indoor ozone levels were always lower than outdoor levels. Continuous blower operation was found to improve filtration efficiency , however, it could result in an increase of about $250 in annual energy expenses. Bypass filters recorded significantly higher electrical energy consumption than full-flow systems. Continuous low-speed air handler fan operation appeared to be the most effective strategy. Portable air cleaners were shown to be highly effective in removing particulates in a single room. Removing footwear on entering the house, keeping major dust generators out of the house, frequent vacuuming, improving the air tightness of the house, and installing an air intake filter on the air supply may all be all be helpful in controlling exposure to particulates. 21 refs., 8 tabs., 32 figs.
Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods
Avella, Adolfo
2012-01-01
The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...
Strongly correlated systems numerical methods
Mancini, Ferdinando
2013-01-01
This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...
Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques
Mancini, Ferdinando
2015-01-01
The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...
Improving Filtered Backprojection Reconstruction by Data-Dependent Filtering
D.M. Pelt (Daniël); K.J. Batenburg (Joost)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractFiltered backprojection, one of the most widely used reconstruction methods in tomography, requires a large number of low-noise projections to yield accurate reconstructions. In many applications of tomography, complete projection data of high quality cannot be obtained, because of
Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song
2010-01-01
A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems
Filter-extruded liposomes revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan
2016-01-01
(pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...... is suggested to prepare large (300 nm) liposomes with rather narrow size distribution, based on the filter extrusion at defined flow-rates in combination with freeze-/ thaw-cycling and bench-top centrifugation....
Process for washing electromagnetic filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.
1980-01-01
This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr
Quantized, piecewise linear filter network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
1993-01-01
A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...
Adaptive filtering prediction and control
Goodwin, Graham C
2009-01-01
Preface1. Introduction to Adaptive TechniquesPart 1. Deterministic Systems2. Models for Deterministic Dynamical Systems3. Parameter Estimation for Deterministic Systems4. Deterministic Adaptive Prediction5. Control of Linear Deterministic Systems6. Adaptive Control of Linear Deterministic SystemsPart 2. Stochastic Systems7. Optimal Filtering and Prediction8. Parameter Estimation for Stochastic Dynamic Systems9. Adaptive Filtering and Prediction10. Control of Stochastic Systems11. Adaptive Control of Stochastic SystemsAppendicesA. A Brief Review of Some Results from Systems TheoryB. A Summary o
Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification
Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven
1998-01-01
We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.
String dynamics at strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)
Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.
1981-01-01
The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line
Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications
Chui, Charles K
2009-01-01
Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.
In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.
2002-01-01
The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of
Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2011-01-01
A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used
PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.
2012-07-01
This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which
Filtering Undesirable Flows in Networks
Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; Grosso, P.; de Laat, C.; Gao, X.; Du, H.; Han, M.
2017-01-01
We study the problem of fully mitigating the effects of denial of service by filtering the minimum necessary set of the undesirable flows. First, we model this problem and then we concentrate on a subproblem where every good flow has a bottleneck. We prove that unless P=NP, this subproblem is
Pressure transients across HEPA filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.
1977-01-01
Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described
Service discovery using Bloom filters
Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.
A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the
Relevance Models for Collaborative Filtering
J. Wang (Jun)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractCollaborative filtering is the common technique of predicting the interests of a user by collecting preference information from many users. Although it is generally regarded as a key information retrieval technique, its relation to the existing information retrieval theory is unclear.
Radioactive liquid waste filtering device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.
1988-01-01
Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)
Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin
2015-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, A.
2002-01-01
When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Strong versions of Bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1994-01-01
Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption
Strongly interacting light dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-07-01
In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.
Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Robles
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))
1992-07-09
We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Estimation of strong ground motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Makoto
1993-01-01
Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event
Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)
2011-10-29
We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.
A rigid porous filter and filtration method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.
1998-12-01
The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.
PSpice for filters and transmission lines
Tobin, Paul
2007-01-01
In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact
Performance comparison of various time variant filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuwata, M [JEOL Engineering Co. Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Husimi, K
1996-07-01
This paper describes the advantage of the trapezoidal filter used in semiconductor detector system comparing with the other time variant filters. The trapezoidal filter is the compose of a rectangular pre-filter and a gated integrator. We indicate that the best performance is obtained by the differential-integral summing type rectangular pre-filter. This filter is not only superior in performance, but also has the useful feature that the rising edge of the output waveform is linear. We introduce an example of this feature used in a high-energy experiment. (author)
Bottom loaded filter for radioactive liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendland, W.G.
1983-01-01
This invention relates to equipment for filtering liquids and more particularly to filter assemblies for use with radioactive by-products of nuclear power plants. The invention provides a compact, bottom-loaded filter assembly that can be quickly and safely loaded and unloaded without the use of complex remote equipment. The assembly is integrally shielded and does not require external shielding. The closure hatch may be automatically aligned to facilitate quick sealing attachment after replacement of the filter cartridge, and the filter cartridge may be automatically positioned within the filter housing during the replacement operation
High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger
1969-01-01
This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr
Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, W.L.
1981-01-01
This session, following the precedents of earlier meetings, related the operating requirements placed on the high efficiency filter and the capacity of industry to meet them. To this end, the collected talents of the assembled body were unified toward the problems of the particulate filter, its components, and its methods of test. The following seven subjects were discussed: round robin paper test program; DOP (di-octyl phthalate) carcinogenicity; DOP substitute (thermal); DOP substitute (air); filter materials in corrosive environments; fire retardant filter frames; and filter unit leakage. Highlights of the session are: results of the round robin filter exchange test program to ascertain the accuracy and reproducibility of the Q127 filter media tester indicated that the overall agreement between the widely dispersed instruments were much better than expected and previously determined; the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expected to issue in the near future an intelligence bulletin, pointing out that some carcinogenic effect was noted of DOP from bioassay data; it was recommended that polyethylene glycol 400 be accepted as a substitute for DOP in thermal generators; for the Laskin-type air-operated generators, dioctyl sebacate appeared to give the most promising results; a strong recommendation was made that all polyurethane foams be excluded from specifications and use where the filter unit will be exposed to acid environments; filter unit leakage was attributed to a lack of or insufficient adhasive and/or improper application of adhesie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.
2009-10-01
In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watson, J.H.P. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
1995-02-01
This paper describes the structure and properties of a novel permanently magnetised magnetic filter for fine friable radioactive material. Previously a filter was described and tested. This filter was designed so that the holes in the filter are left open as capture proceeds which means the pressure drop builds up only slowly. This filter is not suitable for friable composite particles which can be broken by mechanical forces. The structure of magnetic part of the second filter has been changed so as to strongly capture particles composed of fine particles weakly bound together which tend to break when captured. This uses a principle of assisted-capture in which coarse particles aid the capture of the fine fragments. The technique has the unfortunate consequence that the pressure drop across the filter rises faster as capture capture proceeds than the filter described previously. These filters have the following characteristics: (1) No external magnet is required. (2) No external power is required. (3) Small is size and portable. (4) Easily interchangeable. (5) Can be cleaned without demagnetising.
Effective lagrangian for strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.
1988-01-01
We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model
EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian
2011-03-01
Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed
Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.
Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael
2015-06-09
A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the
Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin
2017-10-01
Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary
CF4CF: Recommending Collaborative Filtering algorithms using Collaborative Filtering
Cunha, Tiago; Soares, Carlos; de Carvalho, André C. P. L. F.
2018-01-01
Automatic solutions which enable the selection of the best algorithms for a new problem are commonly found in the literature. One research area which has recently received considerable efforts is Collaborative Filtering. Existing work includes several approaches using Metalearning, which relate the characteristics of datasets with the performance of the algorithms. This work explores an alternative approach to tackle this problem. Since, in essence, both are recommendation problems, this work...
Marginalized Particle Filtering Framework for Tuning of Ensemble Filters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek
2011-01-01
Roč. 139, č. 11 (2011), s. 3589-3599 ISSN 0027-0644 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018; GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ensemble finter * marginalized particle filter * data assimilation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.688, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/smidl-0367533.pdf
Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.
Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A
2018-01-30
Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a
Advanced data assimilation in strongly nonlinear dynamical systems
Miller, Robert N.; Ghil, Michael; Gauthiez, Francois
1994-01-01
Advanced data assimilation methods are applied to simple but highly nonlinear problems. The dynamical systems studied here are the stochastically forced double well and the Lorenz model. In both systems, linear approximation of the dynamics about the critical points near which regime transitions occur is not always sufficient to track their occurrence or nonoccurrence. Straightforward application of the extended Kalman filter yields mixed results. The ability of the extended Kalman filter to track transitions of the double-well system from one stable critical point to the other depends on the frequency and accuracy of the observations relative to the mean-square amplitude of the stochastic forcing. The ability of the filter to track the chaotic trajectories of the Lorenz model is limited to short times, as is the ability of strong-constraint variational methods. Examples are given to illustrate the difficulties involved, and qualitative explanations for these difficulties are provided. Three generalizations of the extended Kalman filter are described. The first is based on inspection of the innovation sequence, that is, the successive differences between observations and forecasts; it works very well for the double-well problem. The second, an extension to fourth-order moments, yields excellent results for the Lorenz model but will be unwieldy when applied to models with high-dimensional state spaces. A third, more practical method--based on an empirical statistical model derived from a Monte Carlo simulation--is formulated, and shown to work very well. Weak-constraint methods can be made to perform satisfactorily in the context of these simple models, but such methods do not seem to generalize easily to practical models of the atmosphere and ocean. In particular, it is shown that the equations derived in the weak variational formulation are difficult to solve conveniently for large systems.
Delgado-Pinar, M; Mora, J; Díez, A; Andrés, M V; Ortega, B; Capmany, J
2005-01-01
We present an all-optical novel configuration for implementing multitap transversal filters by use of a broadband source sliced by fiber Bragg grating arrays generated by propagating an acoustic wave along a strong uniform fiber Bragg grating. The tunability and reconfigurability of the microwave filter are demonstrated.
A Study of Parallel Operation of an active Filter and passive Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim
2002-01-01
This paper reports investigations of the parallel operations of a current controlled active filter and passive filters in a system with current harmonic sources. The task of reactive power and harmonic compensation is shared by the active filter and passive filters. The passive filters are used...... arrangements of the active and passive filters can operate relatively independently, also the compensation flexibility of the active filter can be fully exploited, such as one active filter for several harmonic sources.The simulation studies on various systems have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness...... of the systems. The results show that the power factor is corrected by the passive filters, harmonics are minimized by both active and passive filters and overloading of the filter system can be avoided....
Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane
Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward
2012-01-01
A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.
Strong growth for Queensland mining
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-10-01
The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
Strongly interacting W's and Z's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1984-01-01
The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data
Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XIU-LAN
2012-01-01
A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.
Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.
Barany, Sandor
2009-01-01
Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a
An adaptive deep-coupled GNSS/INS navigation system with hybrid pre-filter processing
Wu, Mouyan; Ding, Jicheng; Zhao, Lin; Kang, Yingyao; Luo, Zhibin
2018-02-01
The deep-coupling of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) with an inertial navigation system (INS) can provide accurate and reliable navigation information. There are several kinds of deeply-coupled structures. These can be divided mainly into coherent and non-coherent pre-filter based structures, which have their own strong advantages and disadvantages, especially in accuracy and robustness. In this paper, the existing pre-filters of the deeply-coupled structures are analyzed and modified to improve them firstly. Then, an adaptive GNSS/INS deeply-coupled algorithm with hybrid pre-filters processing is proposed to combine the advantages of coherent and non-coherent structures. An adaptive hysteresis controller is designed to implement the hybrid pre-filters processing strategy. The simulation and vehicle test results show that the adaptive deeply-coupled algorithm with hybrid pre-filters processing can effectively improve navigation accuracy and robustness, especially in a GNSS-challenged environment.
Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider enhancement of multichannel speech recordings. Linear filtering and subspace approaches have been considered previously for solving the problem. The current linear filtering methods, although many variants exist, have limited control of noise reduction and speech...
On filter boundary conditions in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik
2017-01-01
Most research papers on topology optimization involve filters for regularization. Typically, boundary effects from the filters are ignored. Despite significant drawbacks the inappropriate homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used, probably because they are trivial to implement. In this paper...
Neutrosophic filters in BE-algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akbar Rezaei
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Inthispaper, weintroducethenotionof(implicativeneutrosophicfilters in BE-algebras. The relation between implicative neutrosophic filters and neutrosophic filters is investigated and we show that in self distributive BE-algebras these notions are equivalent.
Filter device for high density aerozol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Masao; Utamura, Motoaki; Tozuka, Fumio; Tate, Hitoshi.
1991-01-01
In a reactor, filters for capturing aerozol particles at high concentration have such a structure that a great number of fine pores are formed. Aerozols are introduced to a filter portion from the place remote from a first inlet. Cloggings are caused successively from the places remote from the inlet. Even if the clogging should occur, since there are many pores, the performance of filters is not deteriorated. Further, the filter has a multi-layered structure. With such a constitution, if the filter at a first stage is clogged to increase the pressure, a partitioning plate is opened and fluids are introduced into a second filter. This is conducted successively to suppress the deterioration of the performance of the filter. In view of the above, even if cloggings should occur, the filter performance is not deteriorated and, accordingly, reactor container ventilation can be conducted at high reliability upon occurrence of accidents. (T.M.)
Noise reduction with complex bilateral filter.
Matsumoto, Mitsuharu
2017-12-01
This study introduces a noise reduction technique that uses a complex bilateral filter. A bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter originally developed for images that can reduce noise while preserving edge information. It is an attractive filter and has been used in many applications in image processing. When it is applied to an acoustical signal, small-amplitude noise is reduced while the speech signal is preserved. However, a bilateral filter cannot handle noise with relatively large amplitudes owing to its innate characteristics. In this study, the noisy signal is transformed into the time-frequency domain and the filter is improved to handle complex spectra. The high-amplitude noise is reduced in the time-frequency domain via the proposed filter. The features and the potential of the proposed filter are also confirmed through experiments.
Target Response Adaptation for Correlation Filter Tracking
Bibi, Adel Aamer; Mueller, Matthias; Ghanem, Bernard
2016-01-01
Most correlation filter (CF) based trackers utilize the circulant structure of the training data to learn a linear filter that best regresses this data to a hand-crafted target response. These circularly shifted patches are only approximations
Learning Rotation for Kernel Correlation Filter
Hamdi, Abdullah; Ghanem, Bernard
2017-01-01
. This paper tries to tackle the problem of rotation by reformulating the optimization problem for learning the correlation filter. This modification (RKCF) includes learning rotation filter that utilizes circulant structure of HOG feature to guesstimate
Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of...
Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Bing; Tong Yunxian
1989-12-01
The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given
Kalman filtering with real-time applications
Chui, Charles K
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...
Real-time Java simulations of multiple interference dielectric filters
Kireev, Alexandre N.; Martin, Olivier J. F.
2008-12-01
An interactive Java applet for real-time simulation and visualization of the transmittance properties of multiple interference dielectric filters is presented. The most commonly used interference filters as well as the state-of-the-art ones are embedded in this platform-independent applet which can serve research and education purposes. The Transmittance applet can be freely downloaded from the site http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk. Program summaryProgram title: Transmittance Catalogue identifier: AEBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 90 474 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Developed on PC-Pentium platform Operating system: Any Java-enabled OS. Applet was tested on Windows ME, XP, Sun Solaris, Mac OS RAM: Variable Classification: 18 Nature of problem: Sophisticated wavelength selective multiple interference filters can include some tens or even hundreds of dielectric layers. The spectral response of such a stack is not obvious. On the other hand, there is a strong demand from application designers and students to get a quick insight into the properties of a given filter. Solution method: A Java applet was developed for the computation and the visualization of the transmittance of multilayer interference filters. It is simple to use and the embedded filter library can serve educational purposes. Also, its ability to handle complex structures will be appreciated as a useful research and development tool. Running time: Real-time simulations
Potential-controlled filtering in quantum star graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turek, Ondřej; Cheon, Taksu
2013-01-01
We study the scattering in a quantum star graph with a Fülöp–Tsutsui coupling in its vertex and with external potentials on the lines. We find certain special couplings for which the probability of the transmission between two given lines of the graph is strongly influenced by the potential applied on another line. On the basis of this phenomenon we design a tunable quantum band-pass spectral filter. The transmission from the input to the output line is governed by a potential added on the controlling line. The strength of the potential directly determines the passband position, which allows to control the filter in a macroscopic manner. Generalization of this concept to quantum devices with multiple controlling lines proves possible. It enables the construction of spectral filters with more controllable parameters or with more operation modes. In particular, we design a band-pass filter with independently adjustable multiple passbands. We also address the problem of the physical realization of Fülöp–Tsutsui couplings and demonstrate that the couplings needed for the construction of the proposed quantum devices can be approximated by simple graphs carrying only δ potentials. - Highlights: ► Spectral filtering devices based on quantum graphs are designed theoretically. ► The passband is controlled by the application of macroscopic potentials on lines. ► The filters are built upon special Fulop–Tsutsui type couplings at graph vertices. ► A method of construction of Fulop–Tsutsui vertices from delta potentials is devised.
Heterogeneous counting on filter support media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, E.; Kohler, V.; Kelly, M.J.
1976-01-01
Many investigators in the biomedical research area have used filter paper as the support for radioactive samples. This means that a heterogeneous counting of sample sometimes results. The count rate of a sample on a filter will be affected by positioning, degree of dryness, sample application procedure, the type of filter, and the type of cocktail used. Positioning of the filter (up or down) in the counting vial can cause a variation of 35% or more when counting tritiated samples on filter paper. Samples of varying degrees of dryness when added to the counting cocktail can cause nonreproducible counts if handled improperly. Count rates starting at 2400 CPM initially can become 10,000 CPM in 24 hours for 3 H-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples dried on standard cellulose acetate membrane filters. Data on cellulose nitrate filters show a similar trend. Sample application procedures in which the sample is applied to the filter in a small spot or on a large amount of the surface area can cause nonreproducible or very low counting rates. A tritiated DNA sample, when applied topically, gives a count rate of 4,000 CPM. When the sample is spread over the whole filter, 13,400 CPM are obtained with a much better coefficient of variation (5% versus 20%). Adding protein carrier (bovine serum albumin-BSA) to the sample to trap more of the tritiated DNA on the filter during the filtration process causes a serious beta absorption problem. Count rates which are one-fourth the count rate applied to the filter are obtained on calibrated runs. Many of the problems encountered can be alleviated by a proper choice of filter and the use of a liquid scintillation cocktail which dissolves the filter. Filter-Solv has been used to dissolve cellulose nitrate filters and filters which are a combination of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate. Count rates obtained for these dissolved samples are very reproducible and highly efficient
Bayesian target tracking based on particle filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
For being able to deal with the nonlinear or non-Gaussian problems, particle filters have been studied by many researchers. Based on particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) proposal function is applied to Bayesian target tracking. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, the resampling step, etc novel techniques are also introduced into Bayesian target tracking. And the simulation results confirm the improved particle filter with these techniques outperforms the basic one.
Aerosol filtration with metallic fibrous filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.
1983-01-01
The filtration efficiency of stainless steel fibrous filters (BEKIPOR porous mats and sintered webs) is determined using submicronic monodisperse polystyrene aerosols. Lasers spectrometers are used for the aerosol measurements. The parameters varied are the fiber diameter, the number of layers, the aerosol diameter and the superficial velocity. Two selected types of filters are tested with polydisperse methylene blue aerosols to determine the effect of bed loading on the filter performance and to test washing techniques for the regeneration of the filter
Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters
Kim, Hyoungmoon
2014-01-01
Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Spectral filtering for CW searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Antonio, S; Frasca, S; Palomba, C
2009-01-01
In the hierarchical all-sky search method for periodic sources developed in the Virgo Collaboration, after the first incoherent step based on the Hough transform we have a number of candidates that must be analyzed using a much longer time baseline periodogram. In this step, we correct the signal power spread due to the Earth rotation, which becomes relevant for observation times greater than ∼1 sidereal day, using a bank of matched filters on the power spectrum. Describing the wave as the combination of a linearly polarized and a circularly polarized component, the spread depends on two parameters: the polarization angle of the linearly polarized wave component and the percentage of linear polarization. Here we discuss in detail the issue of how many filters must be built to properly cover the parameter space and give some implementation details of the procedure.
Nonlinear image filtering within IDP++
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehman, S.K.; Wieting, M.G.; Brase, J.M.
1995-02-09
IDP++, image and data processing in C++, is a set of a signal processing libraries written in C++. It is a multi-dimension (up to four dimensions), multi-data type (implemented through templates) signal processing extension to C++. IDP++ takes advantage of the object-oriented compiler technology to provide ``information hiding.`` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals or data sets are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions. We here some examples of the nonlinear filter library within IDP++. Specifically, the results of MIN, MAX median, {alpha}-trimmed mean, and edge-trimmed mean filters as applied to a real aperture radar (RR) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set.
Particle Filter Tracking without Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaime Ortegon-Aguilar
2007-01-01
Full Text Available People tracking is an interesting topic in computer vision. It has applications in industrial areas such as surveillance or human-machine interaction. Particle Filters is a common algorithm for people tracking; challenging situations occur when the target's motion is poorly modelled or with unexpected motions. In this paper, an alternative to address people tracking is presented. The proposed algorithm is based in particle filters, but instead of using a dynamical model, it uses background subtraction to predict future locations of particles. The algorithm is able to track people in omnidirectional sequences with a low frame rate (one or two frames per second. Our approach can tackle unexpected discontinuities and changes in the direction of the motion. The main goal of the paper is to track people from laboratories, but it has applications in surveillance, mainly in controlled environments.