WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong gravity wave

  1. Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzin, E; Cardoso, V; Raposo, G; Pani, P

    2017-01-01

    The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects. (paper)

  2. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  3. Effects of a strong magnetic field on internal gravity waves: trapping, phase mixing, reflection and dynamical chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of oscillation modes of a star provides information not only about its material properties (e.g. mean density), but also its symmetries. Spherical symmetry can be broken by rotation and/or magnetic fields. It has been postulated that strong magnetic fields in the cores of some red giants are responsible for their anomalously weak dipole mode amplitudes (the "dipole dichotomy" problem), but a detailed understanding of how gravity waves interact with strong fields is thus far lacking. In this work, we attack the problem through a variety of analytical and numerical techniques, applied to a localised region centred on a null line of a confined axisymmetric magnetic field which is approximated as being cylindrically symmetric. We uncover a rich variety of phenomena that manifest when the field strength exceeds a critical value, beyond which the symmetry is drastically broken by the Lorentz force. When this threshold is reached, the spatial structure of the g-modes becomes heavily altered. The dynamics of wave packet propagation transitions from regular to chaotic, which is expected to fundamentally change the organisation of the mode spectrum. In addition, depending on their frequency and the orientation of field lines with respect to the stratification, waves impinging on different parts of the magnetised region are found to undergo either reflection or trapping. Trapping regions provide an avenue for energy loss through Alfvén wave phase mixing. Our results may find application in various astrophysical contexts, including the dipole dichotomy problem, the solar interior, and compact star oscillations.

  4. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  5. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  6. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  7. A Multiscale Nested Modeling Framework to Simulate the Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave

  8. Scattering of internal gravity waves

    OpenAIRE

    Leaman Nye, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Internal gravity waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of stably stratified regions of the atmosphere and ocean. In addition to the radiation of momentum and energy remote from generation sites, internal waves drive vertical transport of heat and mass through the ocean by wave breaking and the mixing subsequently produced. Identifying regions where internal gravity waves contribute to ocean mixing and quantifying this mixing are therefore important for accurate climate ...

  9. Constraining Nonperturbative Strong-Field Effects in Scalar-Tensor Gravity by Combining Pulsar Timing and Laser-Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Shao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF, which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs. First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical scalarization sets in during the early (or late stages of a binary NS (BNS evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.

  10. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  11. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, D.

    1991-01-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang

  12. Relic gravity waves from braneworld inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, Varun; Sami, M.; Souradeep, Tarun

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a scenario in which extra dimensional effects allow a scalar field with a steep potential to play the dual role of the inflaton as well as dark energy (quintessence). The post-inflationary evolution of the universe in this scenario is generically characterized by a 'kinetic regime' during which the kinetic energy of the scalar field greatly exceeds its potential energy resulting in a 'stiff' equation of state for scalar field matter P φ ≅ρ φ . The kinetic regime precedes the radiation dominated epoch and introduces an important new feature into the spectrum of relic gravity waves created quantum mechanically during inflation. The amplitude of the gravity wave spectrum increases with the wave number for wavelengths shorter than the comoving horizon scale at the commencement of the radiative regime. This 'blue tilt' is a generic feature of models with steep potentials and imposes strong constraints on a class of inflationary braneworld models. Prospects for detection of the gravity wave background by terrestrial and space-borne gravity wave observatories such as LIGO II and LISA are discussed

  13. Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...

  14. The stability of the strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted

  15. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  16. Intercomparison of AIRS and HIRDLS stratospheric gravity wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Ern, Manfred; Hoffmann, Lars; Trinh, Quang Thai; Alexander, M. Joan

    2018-01-01

    statistical basis. The complete HIRDLS measurement period from January 2005 to March 2008 is covered. The seasonal and latitudinal distributions of gravity wave activity as observed by AIRS and HIRDLS agree well. A strong annual cycle at mid- and high latitudes is found in time series of gravity wave variances at 42 km, which has its maxima during wintertime and its minima during summertime. The variability is largest during austral wintertime at 60° S. Variations in the zonal winds at 2.5 hPa are associated with large variability in gravity wave variances. Altogether, gravity wave variances of AIRS and HIRDLS are complementary to each other. Large parts of the gravity wave spectrum are covered by joint observations. This opens up fascinating vistas for future gravity wave research.

  17. Intercomparison of AIRS and HIRDLS stratospheric gravity wave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Meyer

    2018-01-01

    compared on a statistical basis. The complete HIRDLS measurement period from January 2005 to March 2008 is covered. The seasonal and latitudinal distributions of gravity wave activity as observed by AIRS and HIRDLS agree well. A strong annual cycle at mid- and high latitudes is found in time series of gravity wave variances at 42 km, which has its maxima during wintertime and its minima during summertime. The variability is largest during austral wintertime at 60° S. Variations in the zonal winds at 2.5 hPa are associated with large variability in gravity wave variances. Altogether, gravity wave variances of AIRS and HIRDLS are complementary to each other. Large parts of the gravity wave spectrum are covered by joint observations. This opens up fascinating vistas for future gravity wave research.

  18. Gravity induced wave function collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.

  19. The sources of atmospheric gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, O.P.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity wave theory has been very successful in the interpretation of various upper atmospheric phenomena. This article offers a review of the present state of knowledge about the various sources of atmospheric gravity waves, particularly those which give rise to different types of travelling ionospheric disturbance. Some specific case studies are discussed. (author)

  20. A class of solutions for the strong gravity equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1976-12-01

    We solve the Einstein equation for strong gravity in the limit that weak gravity is neglected. The class of solutions we find reduces to the Schwarzschild solution (with the weak gravity Newtonian constant replaced by a strong coupling parameter) in the limit M 2 →0 where M is the mass of the strong gravity spin-2 meson. These solutions may be of relevance for the problem of defining temperature in hadronic physics

  1. An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nappo, Carmen J

    2012-01-01

    Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...

  2. Upper atmospheric planetary-wave and gravity-wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily-difference method, and results on the magnitude of atmospheric perturbations interpreted as gravity waves and planetary waves are presented. Traveling planetary-wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. It was found that observed gravity-wave density perturbations and wind are related to one another in the manner predicted by gravity-wave theory. It was determined that, on the average, gravity-wave energy deposition or reflection occurs at all altitudes except the 55-75 km region of the mesosphere.

  3. Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...

  4. Planetary wave-gravity wave interactions during mesospheric inversion layer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Sridharan, S.; Raghunath, K.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Bhavani Kumar, Y.

    2013-07-01

    lidar temperature observations over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) show a few mesospheric inversion layer (MIL) events during 20-25 January 2007. The zonal mean removed SABER temperature shows warm anomalies around 50°E and 275°E indicating the presence of planetary wave of zonal wave number 2. The MIL amplitudes in SABER temperature averaged for 10°N-15°N and 70°E-90°E show a clear 2 day wave modulation during 20-28 January 2007. Prior to 20 January 2007, a strong 2day wave (zonal wave number 2) is observed in the height region of 80-90 km and it gets largely suppressed during 20-26 January 2007 as the condition for vertical propagation is not favorable, though it prevails at lower heights. The 10 day mean zonal wind over Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E) shows deceleration of eastward winds indicating the westward drag due to wave dissipation. The nightly mean MF radar observed zonal winds show the presence of alternating eastward and westward winds during the period of 20-26 January 2007. The two dimensional spectrum of Rayleigh lidar temperature observations available for the nights of 20, 22, and 24 January 2007 shows the presence of gravity wave activity with periods 18 min, 38 min, 38 min, and vertical wavelengths 6.4 km, 4.0 km, 6.4 km respectively. From the dispersion relation of gravity waves, it is inferred that these waves are internal gravity waves rather than inertia gravity waves with the horizontal phase speeds of ~40 m/s, ~37 m/s, and ~50 m/s respectively. Assuming the gravity waves are eastward propagating waves, they get absorbed only in the eastward local wind fields of the planetary wave thereby causing turbulence and eddy diffusion which can be inferred from the estimation of large drag force due to the breaking of gravity wave leading to the formation of large amplitude inversion events in alternate nights. The present study shows that, the mesospheric temperature inversion is caused mainly due to the gravity wave breaking and the inversion

  5. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  6. Gravity wave influence on NLC: experimental results from ALOMAR, 69° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wilms

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gravity waves on noctilucent clouds (NLC at ALOMAR (69° N is analysed by relating gravity wave activity to NLC occurrence from common-volume measurements. Gravity wave kinetic energies are derived from MF-radar wind data and filtered into different period ranges by wavelet transformation. From the dataset covering the years 1999–2011, a direct correlation between gravity wave kinetic energy and NLC occurrence is not found, i.e., NLC appear independently of the simultaneously measured gravity wave kinetic energy. In addition, gravity wave activity is divided into weak and strong activity as compared to a 13 yr mean. The NLC occurrence rates during strong and weak activity are calculated separately for a given wave period and compared to each other. Again, for the full dataset no dependence of NLC occurrence on relative gravity wave activity is found. However, concentrating on 12 h of NLC detections during 2008, we do find an NLC-amplification with strong long-period gravity wave occurrence. Our analysis hence confirms previous findings that in general NLC at ALOMAR are not predominantly driven by gravity waves while exceptions to this rule are at least possible.

  7. Strong winds and waves offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    is on the meteorologi al and o eani onditions related to storm winds and waves over the North Sea. With regard to the o shore wind energy appli ation, the parameters addressed here in lude: extreme wind and extreme waves, storm wind and waves and turbulen e issues for o shore onditions.......This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report...

  8. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  9. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. The physics of orographic gravity wave drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A C Teixeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.

  11. Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region

  12. Sensitivity of Gravity Wave Fluxes to Interannual Variations in Tropical Convection and Zonal Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M Joan; Ortland, David A; Grimsdell, Alison W; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2017-09-01

    Using an idealized model framework with high-frequency tropical latent heating variability derived from global satellite observations of precipitation and clouds, the authors examine the properties and effects of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere, contrasting conditions in an El Niño year and a La Niña year. The model generates a broad spectrum of tropical waves including planetary-scale waves through mesoscale gravity waves. The authors compare modeled monthly mean regional variations in wind and temperature with reanalyses and validate the modeled gravity waves using satellite- and balloon-based estimates of gravity wave momentum flux. Some interesting changes in the gravity spectrum of momentum flux are found in the model, which are discussed in terms of the interannual variations in clouds, precipitation, and large-scale winds. While regional variations in clouds, precipitation, and winds are dramatic, the mean gravity wave zonal momentum fluxes entering the stratosphere differ by only 11%. The modeled intermittency in gravity wave momentum flux is shown to be very realistic compared to observations, and the largest-amplitude waves are related to significant gravity wave drag forces in the lowermost stratosphere. This strong intermittency is generally absent or weak in climate models because of deficiencies in parameterizations of gravity wave intermittency. These results suggest a way forward to improve model representations of the lowermost stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation winds and teleconnections.

  13. Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atom Interferometry (AI) Technology for Gravity Wave Measurements demonstrates new matter wave Interferometric sensor technology for precise detection and...

  14. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  15. Towards strong field tests of beyond Horndeski gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Babichev, Eugeny; Koyama, Kazuya; Langlois, David; Saito, Ryo

    2017-03-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class encompass a wide range of scalar-tensor theories that will be tested on cosmological scales over the coming decade. In this work, we investigate the possibility of testing them in the strong field regime by looking at the properties of compact objects—neutron, hyperon, and quark stars—embedded in an asymptotically de Sitter space-time, for a specific subclass of theories. We extend previous works to include slow rotation and find a relation between the dimensionless moment of inertia (I ¯ =I c2/GNM3 ) and the compactness C =GNM /R c2 (an I ¯-C relation), independent of the equation of state, that is reminiscent of but distinct from the general relativity prediction. Several of our equations of state contain hyperons and free quarks, allowing us to revisit the hyperon puzzle. We find that the maximum mass of hyperon stars can be larger than 2 M⊙ for small values of the beyond Horndeski parameter, thus providing a resolution of the hyperon puzzle based on modified gravity. Moreover, stable quark stars exist when hyperonic stars are unstable, which means that the phase transition from hyperon to quark stars is predicted just as in general relativity (GR), albeit with larger quark star masses. Two important and potentially observable consequences of some of the theories we consider are the existence of neutron stars in a range of masses significantly higher than in GR and I ¯-C relations that differ from their GR counterparts. In the former case, we find objects that, if observed, could not be accounted for in GR because they violate the usual GR causality condition. We end by discussing several difficult technical issues that remain to be addressed in order to reach more realistic predictions that may be tested using gravitational wave searches or neutron star observations.

  16. Gravity's kiss the detection of gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is...

  17. Strong Gravity Effects of Rotating Black Holes: Quasiperiodic Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2012-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: The orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which ...

  18. Wave Tank Studies of Strong Modulation of Wind Ripples Due To Long Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Modulation of wind capillary-gravity ripples due to long waves has been studied in wave tank experiment at low wind speeds using Ka-band radar. The experiments were carried out both for clean water and the water surface covered with surfactant films. It is obtained that the modulation of radar signals is quite strong and can increase with surfactant concentration and fetch. It is shown that the hydrodynamic Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) calculated for free wind ripples and taking into account the kinematic (straining) effect, variations of the wind stress and variations of surfactant concentration strongly underestimates experimental MTF-values. The effect of strong modulation is assumed to be connected with nonlinear harmonics of longer dm-cm- scale waves - bound waves ("parasitic ripples"). The intensity of bound waves depends strongly on the amplitude of decimetre-scale waves, therefore even weak modulation of the dm-scale waves due to long waves results to strong ("cascade") modulation of bound waves. Modulation of the system of "free/bound waves" is estimated using results of wave tank studies of bound waves generation and is shown to be in quali- tative agreement with experiment. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  19. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  20. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  1. Gravity the quest for gravitational wave

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    What force do the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, black holes, and gravitational waves all have in common? This book uncovers gravity as a key to understanding these fascinating phenomena that have so captivated public interest in recent years. Readers will discover the latest findings on how this familiar force in our everyday lives powers the most colossal changes in the Universe. Written by the widely recognized French public scientist and leading astrophysicist Pierre Binetruy, the book also explains the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves.

  2. Seeding and layering of equatorial spread F by gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hysell, D.L.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E.; Woodman, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Studies dating back more than 15 years have presented evidence that atmospheric gravity waves play a role in initiating nighttime equatorial F region instabilities. This paper analyzes a spectabular spread F event that for the first time demonstrates a layering which, the authors argue, is controlled by a gravity wave effect. The 50-km vertical wavelength of a gravity wave which they have found is related theoretically to a plasma layering irregularity that originated at low altitudes and then was convected, intact, to higher altitudes. Gravity waves also seem to have determined bottomside intermediate scale undulations, although this fact is not as clear in the data. The neutral wind dynamo effect yields wave number conditions on the gravity wave's ability to modulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instaiblity process. Finally, after evaluating the gravity wave dispersion relation and spatial resonance conditions, we estimate the properties of the seeding wave

  3. Exact solutions of strong gravity in generalized metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Smailagic, A.

    1981-05-01

    We consider classical solutions for the strong gravity theory of Salam and Strathdee in a wider class of metrics with positive, zero and negative curvature. It turns out that such solutions exist and their relevance for quark confinement is explored. Only metrics with positive curvature (spherical symmetry) give a confining potential in a simple picture of the scalar hadron. This supports the idea of describing the hadron as a closed microuniverse of the strong metric. (author)

  4. A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.

  5. An evaluation of gravity waves and gravity wave sources in the Southern Hemisphere in a 7 km global climate simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, L A; Alexander, M J; Coy, L; Liu, C; Molod, A; Putman, W; Pawson, S

    2017-07-01

    In this study, gravity waves (GWs) in the high-resolution GEOS-5 Nature Run are first evaluated with respect to satellite and other model results. Southern Hemisphere winter sources of non-orographic GWs in the model are then investigated by linking measures of tropospheric non-orographic gravity wave generation tied to precipitation and frontogenesis with absolute gravity wave momentum flux in the lower stratosphere. Finally, non-orographic GW momentum flux is compared to orographic gravity wave momentum flux and compared to previous estimates. The results show that the global patterns in GW amplitude, horizontal wavelength, and propagation direction are realistic compared to observations. However, as in other global models, the amplitudes are weaker and horizontal wavelengths longer than observed. The global patterns in absolute GW momentum flux also agree well with previous model and observational estimates. The evaluation of model non-orographic GW sources in the Southern Hemisphere winter shows that strong intermittent precipitation (greater than 10 mm h -1 ) is associated with GW momentum flux over the South Pacific, whereas frontogenesis and less intermittent, lower precipitation rates (less than 10 mm h -1 ) are associated with GW momentum flux near 60°S. In the model, orographic GWs contribute almost exclusively to a peak in zonal mean momentum flux between 70 and 75°S, while non-orographic waves dominate at 60°S, and non-orographic GWs contribute a third to a peak in zonal mean momentum flux between 25 and 30°S.

  6. Issues concerning gravity waves from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic background of gravitational radiation is a unique and potentially valuable source of information about the early universe. Photons thermally decoupled when the universe was around 100,000 years old; electromagnetic radiation cannot directly provide information about the epoch earlier than this. In contrast, gravitons presumably decoupled around the Planck time, when the universe was only 10 -44 seconds old. Since gravity wave propagate virtually unimpeded, any energetic event in the evolution of the universe will leave an imprint on the gravity wave background. Turner and Wilczek first suggested that first-order phase transitions, and particularly transitions which occur via the nucleation, expansion, and percolation of vacuum bubbles, will be a particularly efficient source of gravitational radiation. Detailed calculations with scalar-field vacuum bubbles confirm this conjecture and show that strongly first-order phase transitions are probably the strongest stochastic gravity-wave source yet conjectured. In this work the author first reviews the vacuum bubble calculations, stressing their physical assumptions. The author then discusses realistic scenarios for first-order phase transitions and describes how the calculations must be modified and extended to produce reliable results. 11 refs

  7. How to turn gravity waves into Alfven waves and other such tricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newington, Marie E; Cally, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of travelling gravity waves at the base of the chromosphere suggest an interplay between gravity wave propagation and magnetic field. Our aims are: to explain the observation that gravity wave flux is suppressed in magnetic regions; to understand why we see travelling waves instead of standing waves; and to see if gravity waves can undergo mode conversion and couple to Alfven waves in regions where the plasma beta is of order unity. We model gravity waves in a VAL C atmosphere, subject to a uniform magnetic field of various orientations, considering both adiabatic and radiatively damped propagation. Results indicate that in the presence of a magnetic field, the gravity wave can propagate as a travelling wave, with the magnetic field orientation playing a crucial role in determining the wave character. For the majority of magnetic field orientations, the gravity wave is reflected at low heights as a slow magneto-acoustic wave, explaining the observation of reduced flux in magnetic regions. In a highly inclined magnetic field, the gravity wave undergoes mode conversion to either field guided acoustic waves or Alfven waves. The primary effect of incorporating radiative damping is a reduction in acoustic and magnetic fluxes measured at the top of the integration region. By demonstrating the mode conversion of gravity waves to Alfven waves, this work identifies a possible pathway for energy transport from the solar surface to the upper atmosphere.

  8. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  9. Temporal variability of tidal and gravity waves during a record long 10-day continuous lidar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Kathrin; Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2018-01-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The propagation of gravity waves is strongly affected by tidal waves as they modulate the mean background wind field and vice versa, which is not yet fully understood and not adequately implemented in many circulation models. The daylight-capable Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at Kühlungsborn (54° N, 12° E) typically provides temperature data to investigate both wave phenomena during one full day or several consecutive days in the middle atmosphere between 30 and 75 km altitude. Outstanding weather conditions in May 2016 allowed for an unprecedented 10-day continuous lidar measurement, which shows a large variability of gravity waves and tides on timescales of days. Using a one-dimensional spectral filtering technique, gravity and tidal waves are separated according to their specific periods or vertical wavelengths, and their temporal evolution is studied. During the measurement period a strong 24 h wave occurs only between 40 and 60 km and vanishes after a few days. The disappearance is related to an enhancement of gravity waves with periods of 4-8 h. Wind data provided by ECMWF are used to analyze the meteorological situation at our site. The local wind structure changes during the observation period, which leads to different propagation conditions for gravity waves in the last days of the measurement period and therefore a strong GW activity. The analysis indicates a further change in wave-wave interaction resulting in a minimum of the 24 h tide. The observed variability of tides and gravity waves on timescales of a few days clearly demonstrates the importance of continuous measurements with high temporal and spatial resolution to detect interaction phenomena, which can help to improve parametrization schemes of GWs in general circulation models.

  10. New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.

  11. Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeesh, G.; Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: vigeesh@leibniz-kis.de [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in the Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high- β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.

  12. Gravity waves from tachyonic preheating after hybrid inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Felder, Gary [Department of Physics, Clark Science Center, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Kofman, Lev [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Navros, Olga, E-mail: jeff.dufaux@uam.es, E-mail: gfelder@email.smith.edu, E-mail: kofman@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: navros@email.unc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, CB3250 Philips Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    We study the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced from preheating in hybrid inflation models. We investigate different dynamical regimes of preheating in these models and we compute the resulting gravity wave spectra using analytical estimates and numerical simulations. We discuss the dependence of the gravity wave frequencies and amplitudes on the various potential parameters. We find that large regions of the parameter space leads to gravity waves that may be observable in upcoming interferometric experiments, including Advanced LIGO, but this generally requires very small coupling constants.

  13. Experimental Observation of Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Jiong; Zi, Jian; Chan, C. T.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The gravity of Earth is responsible for the formation of water waves and usually difficult to change. Although negative effective gravity was recently predicted theoretically in water waves, it has not yet been observed in experiments and remains a mathematical curiosity which is difficult to understand. Here we experimentally demonstrate that close to the resonant frequency of purposely-designed resonating units, negative effective gravity can occur for water waves passing through an array of resonators composing of bottom-mounted split tubes, resulting in the prohibition of water wave propagation. It is found that when negative gravity occurs, the averaged displacement of water surface in a unit cell of the array has a phase difference of π to that along the boundary of the unit cell, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide a mechanism to block water waves and may find applications in wave energy conversion and coastal protection. PMID:23715132

  14. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  15. Seismic diagnosis from gravity modes strongly affected by rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Vincent; Mathis, Stéphane; Lignières, François; Ballot, Jérôme; Culpin, Pierre-Marie

    2017-10-01

    Most of the information we have about the internal rotation of stars comes from modes that are weakly affected by rotation, for example by using rotational splittings. In contrast, we present here a method, based on the asymptotic theory of Prat et al. (2016), which allows us to analyse the signature of rotation where its effect is the most important, that is in low-frequency gravity modes that are strongly affected by rotation. For such modes, we predict two spectral patterns that could be confronted to observed spectra and those computed using fully two-dimensional oscillation codes.

  16. A strong coupling simulation of Euclidean quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.; Hamburg Univ.

    1984-12-01

    Relying on Regge calculus a systematic numerical investigation of models of 4d Euclidean gravity is proposed. The scale a = 1 0 is set by fixing the expectation value of a length. Possible universality of such models is discussed. The strong coupling limit is defined by taking Planck mass msub(p) -> 0 (in units of 1 0 -1 ). The zero order approximation msub(p) = 0 is called 'fluctuating space' and investigated numerically in two 4d models. Canonical dimensions are realized and both models give a negative expectation value for the scalar curvature density. (orig.)

  17. Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

    2010-12-17

    We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).

  18. Strong gravity effects in accreting black-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review current status of studying effects of strong gravity in X-ray astronomy. Matter accreting onto a black hole probes the relativistic region of space-time and the high-energy radiation it produces should contain signatures of strong gravity effects. Current X-ray observations provide the evidence that the observed emission originates, in some cases, at a distance of a few gravitational radii from a black hole. Moreover, certain observations invoke interpretations favouring rapid rotation of the black hole. Some observational properties of black hole systems are supposed to result from the lack of a material surface in these objects. I consider further effects, specific for the black hole environment, which can be studied in X-ray data. Bulk motion Comptonization, which would directly reveal converging flow of matter plunging into a black hole, is unlikely to be important in formation of X-ray spectra. Similarly, Penrose processes are unlikely to give observational effects, although this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far for all plausible radiative mechanisms. (author)

  19. Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves are an important driver for the atmospheric circulation and have substantial impact on weather and climate. Satellite instruments offer excellent opportunities to study gravity waves on a global scale. This study focuses on observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard the European MetOp satellites. The main aim of this study is an intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations of both instruments. In particular, we analyzed AIRS and IASI 4.3 μm brightness temperature measurements, which directly relate to stratospheric temperature. Three case studies showed that AIRS and IASI provide a clear and consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on a 5-year period of measurements (2008–2012 showed similar spatial and temporal patterns of gravity wave activity. However, the statistical comparisons also revealed systematic differences of variances between AIRS and IASI that we attribute to the different spatial measurement characteristics of both instruments. We also found differences between day- and nighttime data that are partly due to the local time variations of the gravity wave sources. While AIRS has been used successfully in many previous gravity wave studies, IASI data are applied here for the first time for that purpose. Our study shows that gravity wave observations from different hyperspectral infrared sounders such as AIRS and IASI can be directly related to each other, if instrument-specific characteristics such as different noise levels and spatial resolution and sampling are carefully considered. The ability to combine observations from different satellites provides an opportunity to create a long-term record, which is an exciting prospect for future climatological studies of stratospheric

  20. A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.

  1. First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.

  2. Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.

  3. Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2011-11-01

    We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.

  4. pp waves of conformal gravity with self-interacting source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Deser, Jackiw and Pi have shown that three-dimensional conformal gravity with a source given by a conformally coupled scalar field admits pp wave solutions. In this paper, we consider this model with a self-interacting potential preserving the conformal structure. A pp wave geometry is also supported by this system and, we show that this model is equivalent to topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant whose value is given in terms of the potential strength

  5. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-11-25

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.

  6. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity

  7. Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaladze, T.D.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.; Kaladze, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves. -- Highlights: ► Existence of electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the ionospheric E-layer is shown. ► Electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is described. ► Appearance of the new dispersive Alfven waves is shown.

  8. Middle Atmosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Interactions in the Numerical Spectral Model: Tides and Planetary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.

    2010-01-01

    As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.

  9. VHF radar observations of gravity waves at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dutta

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind observations made at Gadanki (13.5°N by using Indian MST Radar for few days in September, October, December 1995 and January, 1996 have been analyzed to study gravity wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Horizontal wind variances have been computed for gravity waves of period (2-6 h from the power spectral density (PSD spectrum. Exponential curves of the form eZ/H have been fitted by least squares technique to these variance values to obtain height variations of the irregular winds upto the height of about 15 km, where Z is the height in kilometers. The value of H, the scale height, as determined from curve fitting is found to be less than the theoretical value of scale height of neutral atmosphere in this region, implying that the waves are gaining energy during their passage in the troposphere. In other words, it indicates that the sources of gravity waves are present in the troposphere. The energy densities of gravity wave fluctuations have been computed. Polynomial fits to the observed values show that wave energy density increases in the troposphere, its source region, and then decreases in the lower stratosphere.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides

  10. Properties of surface waves in granular media under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng He-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Acoustical waves propagating along the free surface of granular media under gravity are investigated in the framework of elasticity theory. The influence of stress on a surface wave is analyzed. The results have shown that two types of surface waves, namely sagittal and transverse modes exist depending on initial stress states, which may have some influence on the dispersion relations of surface waves, but the influence is not great. Considering that the present experimental accuracy is far from distinguishing this detail, the validity of elasticity theory on the surface waves propagating in granular media can still be maintained. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Electron wind in strong wave guide fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.

  12. Improved analysis of all-sky meteor radar measurements of gravity wave variances and momentum fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Andrioli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using a composite day analysis for all-sky interferometric meteor radars when measuring mean winds and tides are widely known. On the other hand, problems arise if this technique is applied to Hocking's (2005 gravity wave analysis for all-sky meteor radars. In this paper we describe how a simple change in the procedure makes it possible to use a composite day in Hocking's analysis. Also, we explain how a modified composite day can be constructed to test its ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wave fields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the modified composite day allows characterization of monthly mean profiles of the gravity wave momentum fluxes, with good accuracy at least at the altitudes where the meteor counts are large (from 89 to 92.5 km. In the present work we also show that the variances measured with Hocking's method are often contaminated by the tidal fields and suggest a method of empirical correction derived from a simple simulation model. The results presented here greatly increase our confidence because they show that our technique is able to remove the tide-induced false variances from Hocking's analysis.

  13. Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-03-03

    We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4}  s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.

  14. Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.

  15. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-01-01

    black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.

  16. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-09-27

    to the black hole, but in general a non-negligible amount may form an accretion disk around the merger remnant. Depending on the initial eccentricity, we find that a disk of substantial mass is left behind. We give strong evidence that the disk masses for a considerable range of eccentricities are generically large enough to power a short gamma-ray burst. Furthermore we find strong tidal interactions, when the neutron stars orbit close to each other, exerting a strong perturbation on the internal dynamics of the stars. We demonstrate that this effect modifies the gravitational waveform in a characteristic way. Our results emphasize the potential of gravitational waves from eccentric neutron star binaries to constrain models for the unknown equation of state of the neutron star material.

  17. The instability of internal gravity waves to localised disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanneste

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The instability of an internal gravity wave due to nonlinear wave-wave interaction is studied theoretically and numerically. Three different aspects of this phenomenon are examined. 1. The influence of dissipation on both the resonant and the nonresonant interactions is analysed using a normal mode expansion of the basic equations. In particular, the modifications induced in the interaction domain are calculated and as a result some modes are shown to be destabilised by dissipation. 2. The evolution of an initial unstable disturbance of finite vertical extent is described as the growth of two secondary wave packets travelling at the same group velocity. A quasi-linear correction to the basic primary wave is calculated, corresponding to a localised amplitude decrease due to the disturbance growth. 3. Numerical experiments are carried out to study the effect of a basic shear on wave instability. It appears that the growing secondary waves can have a frequency larger than that of the primary wave, provided that the shear is sufficient. The instability of waves with large amplitude and long period, such as tides or planetary waves, could therefore be invoked as a possible mechanism for the generation of gravity waves with shorter period in the middle atmosphere.

  18. A statistical study of gravity waves from radiosonde observations at Wuhan (30° N, 114° E China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Zhang

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Several works concerning the dynamical and thermal structures and inertial gravity wave activities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (TLS from the radiosonde observation have been reported before, but these works were concentrated on either equatorial or polar regions. In this paper, background atmosphere and gravity wave activities in the TLS over Wuhan (30° N, 114° E (a medium latitudinal region were statistically studied by using the data from radiosonde observations on a twice daily basis at 08:00 and 20:00 LT in the period between 2000 and 2002. The monthly-averaged temperature and horizontal winds exhibit the essential dynamic and thermal structures of the background atmosphere. For avoiding the extreme values of background winds and temperature in the height range of 11-18km, we studied gravity waves, respectively, in two separate height regions, one is from ground surface to 10km (lower part, and the other is within 18-25km (upper part. In total, 791 and 1165 quasi-monochromatic inertial gravity waves were extracted from our data set for the lower and upper parts, respectively. The gravity wave parameters (intrinsic frequencies, amplitudes, wavelengths, intrinsic phase velocities and wave energies are calculated and statistically studied. The statistical results revealed that in the lower part, there were 49.4% of gravity waves propagating upward, and the percentage was 76.4% in the upper part. Moreover, the average wave amplitudes and energies are less than those at the lower latitudinal regions, which indicates that the gravity wave parameters have a latitudinal dependence. The correlated temporal evolution of the monthly-averaged wave energies in the lower and upper parts and a subsequent quantitative analysis strongly suggested that at the observation site, dynamical instability (strong wind shear induced by the tropospheric jet is the main excitation source of inertial gravity waves in the TLS.

  19. Nonperturbative Dynamics of Strong Interactions from Gauge/Gravity Duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, Hovhannes [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This thesis studies important dynamical observables of strong interactions such as form factors. It is known that Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory which describes strong interactions. For large energies, one can apply perturbative techniques to solve some of the QCD problems. However, for low energies QCD enters into the nonperturbative regime, where di erent analytical or numerical tools have to be applied to solve problems of strong interactions. The holographic dual model of QCD is such an analytical tool that allows one to solve some nonperturbative QCD problems by translating them into a dual ve-dimensional theory de ned on some warped Anti de Sitter (AdS) background. Working within the framework of the holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism to calculate form factors and wave functions of vector mesons and pions. As a result, we provide predictions of the electric radius, the magnetic and quadrupole moments which can be directly veri ed in lattice calculations or even experimentally. To nd the anomalous pion form factor, we propose an extension of the holographic model by including the Chern-Simons term required to reproduce the chiral anomaly of QCD. This allows us to nd the slope of the form factor with one real and one slightly o -shell photon which appeared to be close to the experimental ndings. We also analyze the limit of large virtualities (when the photon is far o -shell) and establish that predictions of the holographic model analytically coincide with those of perturbative QCD with asymptotic pion distribution amplitude. We also study the e ects of higher dimensional terms in the AdS/QCD model and show that these terms improve the holographic description towards a more realistic scenario. We show this by calculating corrections to the vector meson form factors and corrections to the observables such as electric radii, magnetic and quadrupole moments.

  20. Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi

    1993-01-01

    The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed

  1. Dynamics of Nearshore Sand Bars and Infra-gravity Waves: The Optimal Theory Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchette, F.; Mohammadi, B.

    2016-12-01

    promising results for the generation of near-shore sand bar from scratch and their growth when forced by fair-weather waves. Here, we use it to explore the coupling between a very simple infra-gravity content and the nucleation of near-shore sand-bars. It is shown that even a very poor infra-gravity content strongly improves the generation of sand bars.

  2. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for the thermally forced gravity waves in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziliang

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a new transformation, a new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system, which extends Fan's direct algebraic method to the case when r > 4. The solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a higher degree nonlinear term and Fan's direct algebraic method of obtaining exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations are applied to the combined KdV-mKdV-GKdV equation, which is derived from a simple incompressible non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equation with the influence of thermal forcing and is applied to investigate internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. As a result, by taking advantage of the new first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a fifth-degree nonlinear term and an eighth-degree nonlinear term, periodic wave solutions associated with the Jacobin elliptic function and the bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions are obtained under the effect of thermal forcing. Most importantly, the mechanism of propagation and generation of the periodic waves and the solitary waves is analysed in detail according to the values of the heating parameter, which show that the effect of heating in atmosphere helps to excite westerly or easterly propagating periodic internal gravity waves and internal solitary waves in atmosphere, which are affected by the local excitation structures in atmosphere. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the solitary wave solution and Jacobin periodic solution are shown by some figures under the consideration of heating interaction

  3. Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.

    2008-01-01

    If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision

  4. An axisymmetric inertia-gravity wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, P.; Ghaemsaidi, S. J.; Joubaud, S.; Peacock, T.; Odier, P.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a rich interplay between laboratory experimental studies of internal waves and advancing understanding of their role in the ocean and atmosphere. In this study, we present and demonstrate the concept for a new form of laboratory internal wave generator that can excite axisymmetric wave fields of arbitrary radial structure. The construction and operation of the generator are detailed, and its capabilities are demonstrated through a pair of experiments using a Bessel function and a bourrelet (i.e., ring-shaped) configuration. The results of the experiments are compared with the predictions of an accompanying analytical model.

  5. Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity to be presc...... to be prescribed at the boundary. By numerical examples it is shown that well designed filters can reduce the wave reflection to a few per cent over a frequency range corresponding to a Jonswap spectrum....

  6. Gravity waves, Tides and Planetary wave characteristics revealed by network of MLT radars over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.

    2016-07-01

    Pa. The presence of these waves and oscillations right from upper troposphere to lower thermosphere simultaneously is noticed. Though these waves are expected to have higher wave number (higher horizontal wave lengths) few important differences are noticed between Tirupati and Thumba, that are separated by only 500 km. The implication of these waves and oscillations on the background atmosphere and vice versa are discussed. Thus, installation of SVU meteor radar made good complementary observations that can be effectively used to investigate vertical and lateral coupling. Role of these tides in modulating the mesopause altitude is further investigated using the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on-board Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. It is found that mesopause altitude is always close to 100 km and is strongly affected by gravity waves, tides and planetary waves.

  7. A Plant's Response to Gravity as a Wave Guide Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Orvin

    1997-11-01

    Plant experimental data provides a unifying wave theory (W-wave theory) for the growth and development of plants. A plant's response to gravity is an important aspect of this theory. It appears that a plant part is tuned to the angle with which it initially grew with respect to the gravitational field and changes produce correction responses. This is true because the velocity of W-waves (whose standing waves determine plant structure) within plant tissue is found to be different in different directions (angle a) with respect to the gravitational field. I found that there are preferred values of a, namely integral multiples of near 5 degrees for some plants. Conifers apparently are more sensitive to the gravitational field than deciduous trees, in the cases studied, so their structure is determined in more detail by the gravitational field. A plant's response to gravity appears to be a fundamental phenomenon and may provide a new model for gravity that can be experimentally verified in the laboratory. Along these same lines accelerometers placed in plant tissue indicate that plants produce gravity related forces that facilitate sap flow. See the

  8. Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of

  9. Atmospheric gravity waves in the Red Sea: a new hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Magalhaes, J. M.; Araú jo, I. B.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Grimshaw, R. H. J.; Davis, K.; Pineda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The region of the Middle East around the Red Sea (between 32° E and 44° E longitude and 12° N and 28° N latitude) is a currently undocumented hotspot for atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Satellite imagery shows evidence that this region is prone

  10. Atmospheric gravity waves due to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami observed in the thermosphere by GOCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, R.F.; Doornbos, E.N.; Bruinsma, S.; Hebert, H.

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic tsunami waves couple with atmospheric gravity waves, as previously observed through ionospheric and airglow perturbations. Aerodynamic velocities and density variations are computed from Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) accelerometer and thruster data during

  11. Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.

  12. Dynamics of flexural gravity waves: from sea ice to Hawking radiation and analogue gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Sahoo, T; Meylan, M H

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of flexural gravity waves, routinely used to model wave interaction with sea ice, is studied, including the effect of compression and current. A number of significant and surprising properties are shown to exist. The occurrence of blocking above a critical value of compression is illustrated. This is analogous to propagation of surface gravity waves in the presence of opposing current and light wave propagation in the curved space-time near a black hole, therefore providing a novel system for studying analogue gravity. Between the blocking and buckling limit of the compressive force, the dispersion relation possesses three positive real roots, contrary to an earlier observation of having a single positive real root. Negative energy waves, in which the phase and group velocity point in opposite directions, are also shown to exist. In the presence of an opposing current and certain critical ranges of compressive force, the second blocking point shifts from the positive to the negative branch of the dispersion relation. Such a shift is known as the Hawking effect from the analogous behaviour in the theory of relativity which leads to Hawking radiation. The theory we develop is illustrated with simulations of linear waves in the time domain.

  13. Cosmic Tsunamis in Modified Gravity: Disruption of Screening Mechanisms from Scalar Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagala, R; Llinares, C; Mota, D F

    2017-03-10

    Extending general relativity by adding extra degrees of freedom is a popular approach for explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe and to build high energy completions of the theory of gravity. The presence of such new degrees of freedom is, however, tightly constrained from several observations and experiments that aim to test general relativity in a wide range of scales. The viability of a given modified theory of gravity, therefore, strongly depends on the existence of a screening mechanism that suppresses the extra degrees of freedom. We perform simulations, and find that waves propagating in the new degrees of freedom can significantly impact the efficiency of some screening mechanisms, thereby threatening the viability of these modified gravity theories. Specifically, we show that the waves produced in the symmetron model can increase the amplitude of the fifth force and the parametrized post Newtonian parameters by several orders of magnitude.

  14. Gravity's shadow the search for gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scie

  15. The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)

  16. A perturbative solution for gravitational waves in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Edgard C de Rey; Aguiar, Odylio D; Araujo, Jose C N de

    2003-01-01

    We find a gravitational wave solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity by adding successive perturbations to Einstein's linearized field equations. We show that only the Ricci-squared quadratic invariant contributes to give a different solution to those found in Einstein's general relativity. The perturbative solution is written as a power series in the β parameter, the coefficient of the Ricci-squared term in the quadratic gravitational action. We also show that, for monochromatic waves of a given angular frequency ω, the perturbative solution can be summed out to give an exact solution to the linearized version of quadratic gravity, for 0 1/2 . This result may lead to implications for the predictions for gravitational wave backgrounds of cosmological origin

  17. Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William C.; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M.; Alexander, M. Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004

  18. Experimental investigation of gravity wave turbulence and of non-linear four wave interactions..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Using the large basins of the Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France), non-linear interactions of gravity surface waves are experimentally investigated. In a first part we study statistical properties of a random wave field regarding the insights from the Wave Turbulence Theory. In particular freely decaying gravity wave turbulence is generated in a closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonl-inear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, non-linear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated. In a second part, resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin are studied. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory. L. Deike, B. Miquel, P. Gutiérrez, T. Jamin, B. Semin, M. Berhanu, E. Falcon and F. Bonnefoy, Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 781, 196 (2015) F. Bonnefoy, F. Haudin, G. Michel, B. Semin, T. Humbert, S. Aumaître, M. Berhanu and E. Falcon, Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (Rapids) 805, R3 (2016)

  19. Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-04-25

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  20. Strong Binary Pulsar Constraints on Lorentz Violation in Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  1. Propagation of inertial-gravity waves on an island shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of inertial-gravity waves (IGV) at the boundary of the Pacific shelf near the island of Oahu (Hawaii), whose generation was studied in the first part of this work [1], is analyzed. It is shown that a significant role there is played by the plane oblique waves; whose characteristics were identified by the method of estimating 3D wave parameters for the cases when the measurements are available only for two verticals. It is established that along with the descending propagation of energy that is typical of IGVs, wave packets ascend from the bottom to the upper layers, which is caused by the emission of waves from intense jets of discharged waters flowing out of a diffusor located at the bottom.

  2. A coupling modulation model of capillary waves from gravity waves: Theoretical analysis and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong

    2016-06-01

    According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.

  3. Interaction between ionization and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcioglu, O.

    1982-10-01

    It is known that travelling ionospheric disturbances are produced by gravity waves. During their movement from the F region downwards to the E region, gravity waves can produce thin layers called transients on ionograms and, if the wave motion persists, 'h-type Esub(S) can be produced. To investigate the problem, the continuity equations for both the E and F regions are solved for a perturbation, the motion of which is taken to be a gravity wave. Hitherto, N'/N 0 , the ratio of the disturbed to the undisturbed electron density, has been calculated by using only the Hall conductivity and ignoring the diffusion term for the F region. In the present calculations we have used Pedersan and Hall conductivities and calculated the N'/N 0 ratio for both the E and F regions. Using CIRA standard atmosphere data we find for the F region that N' can exceed N 0 by up to 4 percent, depending on the horizontal wind velocity. In the E region, N' reaches much higher values than in the F region. Thus at 120 km if we take a typical horizontal wind velocity of 80 m/sec (wavelength 150 km), N' is about twice as large as N 0 . From these results we see that the diffusion term is important for the E region. (author)

  4. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  5. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Wickert, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  6. Acoustic-gravity waves in atmospheric and oceanic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2012-08-01

    A theory of guided propagation of sound in layered, moving fluids is extended to include acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) in waveguides with piecewise continuous parameters. The orthogonality of AGW normal modes is established in moving and motionless media. A perturbation theory is developed to quantify the relative significance of the gravity and fluid compressibility as well as sensitivity of the normal modes to variations in sound speed, flow velocity, and density profiles and in boundary conditions. Phase and group speeds of the normal modes are found to have certain universal properties which are valid for waveguides with arbitrary stratification. The Lamb wave is shown to be the only AGW normal mode that can propagate without dispersion in a layered medium.

  7. Observation of mesospheric gravity waves at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An airglow all-sky imager was operated at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62.1° S, 58.4° W, between April and October of 2007. Mesospheric gravity waves were observed using the OH airglow layer during 43 nights with good weather conditions. The waves presented horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 60 km and observed periods mainly distributed between 5 and 20 min. The observed phase speeds range between 5 m/s and 115 m/s; the majority of the wave velocities were between 10 and 60 m/s. The waves showed a preferential propagation direction towards the southwest in winter (May to July, while during spring (August to October there was an anisotropy with a preferential propagation direction towards the northwest. Unusual mesospheric fronts were also observed. The most probable wave source could be associated to orographic forcing, cold fronts or strong cyclonic activity in the Antarctica Peninsula.

  8. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  9. The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)

  10. On the unstable mode merging of gravity-inertial waves with Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We recapitulate the results of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. The system is shown to exhibit a "local" (JWKB instability whenever the phase speed of the low-frequency-long wavelength westward propagating Rossby wave exceeds the phase speed ("Kelvin" speed of the high frequency-short wavelength gravity-inertial wave. This condition ensures that mode merging, leading to instability, takes place in some intermediate band of frequencies and wave numbers. The contention that such an instability is "spurious" is not convincing. The energy source of the instability resides in the background enthalpy which can be released by the action of the gravitational buoyancy force, through the combined wave modes.

  11. Gravitational waves from quasicircular black-hole binaries in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-12-21

    Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity cannot be strongly constrained with current experiments because it reduces to general relativity in the weak-field limit. This theory, however, introduces modifications in the nonlinear, dynamical regime, and thus it could be greatly constrained with gravitational waves from the late inspiral of black-hole binaries. We complete the first self-consistent calculation of such gravitational waves in this theory. For favorable spin orientations, advanced ground-based detectors may improve existing solar system constraints by 6 orders of magnitude.

  12. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  13. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  14. Statistical comparisons of gravity wave features derived from OH airglow and SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Aerospace Corporation's near-IR camera (ANI), deployed at Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Cerro Pachon Chile (30S,70W) since 2010, images the bright OH Meinel (4,2) airglow band. The imager provides detailed observations of gravity waves and instability dynamics, as described by Hecht et al. (2014). The camera employs a wide-angle lens that views a 73 by 73 degree region of the sky, approximately 120 km x 120 km at 85 km altitude. Image cadence of 30s allows for detailed spectral analysis of the horizontal components of wave features, including the evolution and decay of instability features. The SABER instrument on NASA's TIMED spacecraft provides remote soundings of kinetic temperature profiles from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. Horizontal and vertical filtering techniques allow SABER temperatures to be analyzed for gravity wave variances [Walterscheid and Christensen, 2016]. Here we compare the statistical characteristics of horizontal wave spectra, derived from airglow imagery, with vertical wave variances derived from SABER temperature profiles. The analysis is performed for a period of strong mountain wave activity over the Andes spanning the period between June and September 2012. Hecht, J. H., et al. (2014), The life cycle of instability features measured from the Andes Lidar Observatory over Cerro Pachon on March 24, 2012, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 8872-8898, doi:10.1002/2014JD021726. Walterscheid, R. L., and A. B. Christensen (2016), Low-latitude gravity wave variances in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER temperature observation and compared with model simulation of waves generated by deep tropical convection, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 11,900-11,912, doi:10.1002/2016JD024843.

  15. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349

  16. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-12-02

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km.

  17. Sediment gravity flows triggered by remotely generated earthquake waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hautala, Susan L.; Salmi, Marie S.

    2017-06-01

    Recent great earthquakes and tsunamis around the world have heightened awareness of the inevitability of similar events occurring within the Cascadia Subduction Zone of the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed seafloor temperature, pressure, and seismic signals, and video stills of sediment-enveloped instruments recorded during the 2011-2015 Cascadia Initiative experiment, and seafloor morphology. Our results led us to suggest that thick accretionary prism sediments amplified and extended seismic wave durations from the 11 April 2012 Mw8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake, located more than 13,500 km away. These waves triggered a sequence of small slope failures on the Cascadia margin that led to sediment gravity flows culminating in turbidity currents. Previous studies have related the triggering of sediment-laden gravity flows and turbidite deposition to local earthquakes, but this is the first study in which the originating seismic event is extremely distant (> 10,000 km). The possibility of remotely triggered slope failures that generate sediment-laden gravity flows should be considered in inferences of recurrence intervals of past great Cascadia earthquakes from turbidite sequences. Future similar studies may provide new understanding of submarine slope failures and turbidity currents and the hazards they pose to seafloor infrastructure and tsunami generation in regions both with and without local earthquakes.

  18. On the Chemical Mixing Induced by Internal Gravity Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T. M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); McElwaine, J. N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Detailed modeling of stellar evolution requires a better understanding of the (magneto)hydrodynamic processes that mix chemical elements and transport angular momentum. Understanding these processes is crucial if we are to accurately interpret observations of chemical abundance anomalies, surface rotation measurements, and asteroseismic data. Here, we use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the generation and propagation of internal gravity waves in an intermediate-mass star to measure the chemical mixing induced by these waves. We show that such mixing can generally be treated as a diffusive process. We then show that the local diffusion coefficient does not depend on the local fluid velocity, but rather on the wave amplitude. We then use these findings to provide a simple parameterization for this diffusion, which can be incorporated into stellar evolution codes and tested against observations.

  19. Atmospheric gravity waves in the Red Sea: a new hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Magalhaes, J. M.

    2011-02-03

    The region of the Middle East around the Red Sea (between 32° E and 44° E longitude and 12° N and 28° N latitude) is a currently undocumented hotspot for atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Satellite imagery shows evidence that this region is prone to relatively high occurrence of AGWs compared to other areas in the world, and reveals the spatial characteristics of these waves. The favorable conditions for wave propagation in this region are illustrated with three typical cases of AGWs propagating in the lower troposphere over the sea. Using weakly nonlinear long wave theory and the observed characteristic wavelengths we obtain phase speeds which are consistent with those observed and typical for AGWs, with the Korteweg-de Vries theory performing slightly better than Benjamin-Davis-Acrivos-Ono theory as far as phase speeds are concerned. ERS-SAR and Envisat-ASAR satellite data analysis between 1993 and 2008 reveals signatures consistent with horizontally propagating large-scale internal waves. These signatures cover the entire Red Sea and are more frequently observed between April and September, although they also occur during the rest of the year. The region\\'s (seasonal) propagation conditions for AGWs, based upon average vertical atmospheric stratification profiles suggest that many of the signatures identified in the satellite images are atmospheric internal waves. © Author(s) 2011.

  20. Seasonal and height variation of gravity wave activities observed by a meteor radar at King Sejong Station (62°S, 57°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.; Choi, J.; Jee, G.

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed wind data from individual meteor echoes detected by a meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica to measure gravity wave activity in the mesopause region. Wind data in the meteor altitudes has been obtained routinely by the meteor radar since its installation in March 2007. The mean variances in the wind data that were filtered for large scale motions (mean winds and tides) can be regarded as the gravity wave activity. Monthly mean gravity wave activities show strong seasonal and height dependences in the altitude range of 80 to 100 km. The gravity wave activities except summer monotonically increase with altitude, which is expected since decreasing atmospheric densities cause wave amplitudes to increase. During summer (Dec. - Feb.) the height profiles of gravity wave activities show a minimum near 90 - 95 km, which may be due to different zonal wind and strong wind shear near 80 - 95 km. Our gravity wave activities are generally stronger than those of the Rothera station, implying sensitive dependency on location. The difference may be related to gravity wave sources in the lower atmosphere near Antarctic vortex.

  1. The gravitational wave stress–energy (pseudo)-tensor in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Alexander; Yunes, Nicolás; Yagi, Kent

    2018-03-01

    The recent detections of gravitational waves by the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors open up new tests of modified gravity theories in the strong-field and dynamical, extreme gravity regime. Such tests rely sensitively on the phase evolution of the gravitational waves, which is controlled by the energy–momentum carried by such waves out of the system. We here study four different methods for finding the gravitational wave stress–energy pseudo-tensor in gravity theories with any combination of scalar, vector, or tensor degrees of freedom. These methods rely on the second variation of the action under short-wavelength averaging, the second perturbation of the field equations in the short-wavelength approximation, the construction of an energy complex leading to a Landau–Lifshitz tensor, and the use of Noether’s theorem in field theories about a flat background. We apply these methods in general relativity, Jordan–Fierz–Brans–Dicky theoy, and Einstein-Æther theory to find the gravitational wave stress–energy pseudo-tensor and calculate the rate at which energy and linear momentum is carried away from the system. The stress–energy tensor and the rate of linear momentum loss in Einstein-Æther theory are presented here for the first time. We find that all methods yield the same rate of energy loss, although the stress–energy pseudo-tensor can be functionally different. We also find that the Noether method yields a stress–energy tensor that is not symmetric or gauge-invariant, and symmetrization via the Belinfante procedure does not fix these problems because this procedure relies on Lorentz invariance, which is spontaneously broken in Einstein-Æther theory. The methods and results found here will be useful for the calculation of predictions in modified gravity theories that can then be contrasted with observations.

  2. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  3. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed ν e /c increases and as the temperature ratio T i /T e of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on ν e /c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T i /T e . The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of ν e /c. For ν e /c e /c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all ν e /c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as ν e /c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  4. On The Implications of Atmospheric Gravity Waves on Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Luke

    2011-01-01

    In view of the rapidly rising cost of fossil fuels and concerns over climate change, there can be little doubt that renewable energy is to play a large role in the future of our economic development. The impact of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) on wind power is, at best, unclear. In this research, AGWs are successfully modelled both in theoretical and real world environments using the WindSim software package which has revealed a potential 7.4% drop in annual power output as a direct ...

  5. Can gravity waves significantly impact PSC occurrence in the Antarctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Woollands

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of POAM III aerosol extinction and CHAMP RO temperature measurements are used to examine the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the formation of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs. POAM III aerosol extinction observations and quality flag information are used to identify Polar Stratospheric Clouds using an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

    A PSC proxy, derived by thresholding Met Office temperature analyses with the PSC Type Ia formation temperature (TNAT, shows general agreement with the results of the POAM III analysis. However, in June the POAM III observations of PSC are more abundant than expected from temperature threshold crossings in five out of the eight years examined. In addition, September and October PSC identified using temperature thresholding is often significantly higher than that derived from POAM III; this observation probably being due to dehydration and denitrification. Comparison of the Met Office temperature analyses with corresponding CHAMP observations also suggests a small warm bias in the Met Office data in June. However, this bias cannot fully explain the differences observed.

    Analysis of CHAMP data indicates that temperature perturbations associated with gravity waves may partially explain the enhanced PSC incidence observed in June (relative to the Met Office analyses. For this month, approximately 40% of the temperature threshold crossings observed using CHAMP RO data are associated with small-scale perturbations. Examination of the distribution of temperatures relative to TNAT shows a large proportion of June data to be close to this threshold, potentially enhancing the importance of gravity wave induced temperature perturbations. Inspection of the longitudinal structure of PSC occurrence in June 2005 also shows that regions of enhancement are geographically associated with the Antarctic Peninsula; a known mountain wave "hotspot". The

  6. A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.

  7. LINKING TESTS OF GRAVITY ON ALL SCALES: FROM THE STRONG-FIELD REGIME TO COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Tessa [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Skordis, Constantinos, E-mail: tessa.baker@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    The current effort to test general relativity (GR) employs multiple disparate formalisms for different observables, obscuring the relations between laboratory, astrophysical, and cosmological constraints. To remedy this situation, we develop a parameter space for comparing tests of gravity on all scales in the universe. In particular, we present new methods for linking cosmological large-scale structure, the cosmic microwave background, and gravitational waves with classic PPN tests of gravity. Diagrams of this gravitational parameter space reveal a noticeable untested regime. The untested window, which separates small-scale systems from the troubled cosmological regime, could potentially hide the onset of corrections to GR.

  8. Strong Constraints on Cosmological Gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P. G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, I.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology.

  9. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  10. Atmosphere-ionosphere coupling from convectively generated gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Irfan; Barlage, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Ionospheric variability impacts operational performances of a variety of technological systems, such as HF communication, Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and radar surveillance. The ionosphere is not only perturbed by geomagnetic inputs but is also influenced by atmospheric tides and other wave disturbances propagating from the troposphere to high altitudes. Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) excited by meteorological sources are one of the largest sources of mesoscale variability in the ionosphere. In this paper, Total Electron Content (TEC) data from networks of GPS receivers in the United States are analyzed to investigate AGWs in the ionosphere generated by convective thunderstorms. Two case studies of convectively generated gravity waves are presented. On April 4, 2014 two distinct large convective systems in Texas and Arkansas generated two sets of concentric AGWs that were observed in the ionosphere as Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The period of the observed TIDs was 20.8 min, the horizontal wavelength was 182.4 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 146.4 m/s. The second case study shows TIDs generated from an extended squall line on December 23, 2015 stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes in North America. Unlike the concentric wave features seen in the first case study, the extended squall line generated TIDs, which exhibited almost plane-parallel phase fronts. The TID period was 20.1 min, its horizontal wavelength was 209.6 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 180.1 m/s. The AGWs generated by both of these meteorological events have large vertical wavelength (>100 km), which are larger than the F2 layer thickness, thus allowing them to be discernible in the TEC dataset.

  11. Spectral energy transfer of atmospheric gravity waves through sum and difference nonlinear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)

  12. Gravitational wave echoes from macroscopic quantum gravity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barceló, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [The Cosmology & Gravity Group and the Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-10

    New theoretical approaches developed in the last years predict that macroscopic quantum gravity effects in black holes should lead to modifications of the gravitational wave signals expected in the framework of classical general relativity, with these modifications being characterized in certain scenarios by the existence of dampened repetitions of the primary signal. Here we use the fact that non-perturbative corrections to the near-horizon external geometry of black holes are necessary for these modifications to exist, in order to classify different proposals and paradigms with respect to this criterion and study in a neat and systematic way their phenomenology. Proposals that lead naturally to the existence of echoes in the late-time ringdown of gravitational wave signals from black hole mergers must share the replacement of black holes by horizonless configurations with a physical surface showing reflective properties in the relevant range of frequencies. On the other hand, proposals or paradigms that restrict quantum gravity effects on the external geometry to be perturbative, such as black hole complementarity or the closely related firewall proposal, do not display echoes. For the sake of completeness we exploit the interplay between the timescales associated with the formation of firewalls and the mechanism behind the existence of echoes in order to conclude that even unconventional distortions of the firewall concept (such as naked firewalls) do not lead to this phenomenon.

  13. The response of superpressure balloons to gravity wave motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Superpressure balloons (SPB, which float on constant density (isopycnic surfaces, provide a unique way of measuring the properties of atmospheric gravity waves (GW as a function of wave intrinsic frequency. Here we devise a quasi-analytic method of investigating the SPB response to GW motions. It is shown that the results agree well with more rigorous numerical simulations of balloon motions and provide a better understanding of the response of SPB to GW, especially at high frequencies. The methodology is applied to ascertain the accuracy of GW studies using 12 m diameter SPB deployed in the 2010 Concordiasi campaign in the Antarctic. In comparison with the situation in earlier campaigns, the vertical displacements of the SPB were measured directly using GPS. It is shown using a large number of Monte Carlo-type simulations with realistic instrumental noise that important wave parameters, such as momentum flux, phase speed and wavelengths, can be retrieved with good accuracy from SPB observations for intrinsic wave periods greater than ca. 10 min. The noise floor for momentum flux is estimated to be ca. 10−4 mPa.

  14. Scalings, spectra, and statistics of strong wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    A two-component model of strongly nonlinear wave turbulence is developed for a broad class of systems in which high-frequency electrostatic waves interact with low-frequency sound-like waves. In this model coherent nonlinear wave packets form and collapse amid a sea of incoherent background waves. It is shown that three classes of turbulence exist, typified by Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid turbulence. Balance between power input to incoherent waves, and dissipation at the end of collapse determines power-law scalings of turbulent electrostatic energy density, density fluctuations, length and time scales. Knowledge of the evolution of collapsing packets enables probability distributions of the magnitudes of electric fields and density fluctuations to be calculated, yielding power-law dependences. Wavenumber spectra of collapsing waves and associated density fluctuations are also calculated and shown to have power-law forms. Applications to Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid waves are discussed. In the Langmuir case the results agree with earlier theory and simulations, with one exception, which is consistent only with earlier simulations. In the lower-hybrid and upper-hybrid cases, the results are consistent with the few simulations to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Characteristics of equatorial gravity waves derived from mesospheric airglow imaging observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suzuki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the characteristics of small-scale (<100 km gravity waves in the equatorial mesopause region derived from OH airglow imaging observations at Kototabang (100.3° E, 0.2° S, Indonesia, from 2002 to 2005. We adopted a method that could automatically detect gravity waves in the airglow images using two-dimensional cross power spectra of gravity waves. The propagation directions of the waves were likely controlled by zonal filtering due to stratospheric mean winds that show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and the presence of many wave sources in the troposphere.

  16. Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes

  17. Spectral contents of electron waves under strong Langmuir turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Maria Virginia; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Prado, Fabio do [Centro Universitario UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Karfidov, Dmitry Mikhailovich [General Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results of electron plasma waves excited in a beam plasma system are presented. Based on our experimental results we determine the transition from the quasi-linear to non-linear regime. We present the space evolution of the electron beam distribution function for both regimes. The spectrum of the electron plasma wave in the non-linear regime shows a component with frequency larger than the plasma frequency besides the plasma frequency itself. We show that the higher frequency component is strongly affected by Landau damping, indicating a dissipation region. The measured experimental power spectrum of this wave shows a dependence on wave number k given by W{sub k} {proportional_to} k{sup -7/2} as theoretically predicted. (author)

  18. On the nonlinear shaping mechanism for gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Chunchuzov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of shaping of a high vertical wave number spectral tail in the field of a few discrete internal gravity waves in the atmosphere is studied in this paper. The effects of advection of fluid parcels by interacting gravity waves are taken strictly into account by calculating wave field in Lagrangian variables, and performing a variable transformation from Lagrangian to Eulerian frame. The vertical profiles and vertical wave number spectra of the Eulerian displacement field are obtained for both the case of resonant and non-resonant wave-wave interactions. The evolution of these spectra with growing parameter of nonlinearity of the internal wave field is studied and compared to that of a broad band spectrum of gravity waves with randomly independent amplitudes and phases. The calculated vertical wave number spectra of the vertical displacements or relative temperature fluctuations are found to be consistent with the observed spectra in the middle atmosphere.

  19. Gravitational waves from a very strong electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (UNMdP-CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider extensions of the Standard Model which can give very strongly first-order phase transitions, such that the transition fronts either propagate as detonations or run away. To compute the bubble wall velocity, we estimate the friction with the plasma and take into account the hydrodynamics. We track the development of the phase transition up to the percolation time, and we calculate the gravitational wave spectrum generated by bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves. For the kinds of models we consider, we find parameter regions for which the gravitational waves are potentially observable at the planned space-based interferometer eLISA. In such cases, the signal from sound waves is generally dominant, while that from bubble collisions is the least significant of them. Since the sound waves and turbulence mechanisms are diminished for runaway walls, the models with the best prospects of detection at eLISA are those which do not have such solutions. In particular, we find that heavy extra bosons provide stronger gravitational wave signals than tree-level terms.

  20. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  1. The measurement of the total electron content applied to the observation of medium scale gravity wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, L.; Bertin, F.; Testud, J.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of the measurements of the integrated electron content in terms of gravity wave requires (1) a gravity wave model at thermospheric altitudes; (2) a gravity wave-ionization interaction model in the F-region of the ionosphere; and (3) a computing program for the resulting perturbation on the integrated electron content between the satellite and the earth station used. The gravity wave model considered in this paper takes into account the dissipative effects (viscosity, thermal conduction) which become very importanr above 250 km altitude and the effect of the base wind which is capable of affecting deeply the propagation of the waves of medium scale. Starting with this model, the domains of frequencies and the wavelength of atmospheric waves which may exist in the upper atmosphere are considered. The interaction of such waves and the ionization is examined. The theoretical results give information particularly on the selectivity of the ionospheric response to the wave passage. The deduced selectivity of the models appears to be smaller than that given by other authors who used simplified gravity wave models. The method for computing the perturbation of the of the integrated electron content introduced by the wave passage is given for a geostationary satellite. Computational results are presented for application to the case of medium scale gravity waves. (author)

  2. Propagation of internal gravity waves in the inhomogeneous atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminov, M.G.; Ponomareva, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Equations for disturbances of the density, temperature and speed of large-scale horizontally propagating internal gravity wave (IGM) wind are presented with regard to non-linearity, dispersion, molecular viscosity, thermal conductivity and background horizontal density and wind speed gradients. It is shown that values of wind speed and background atmosphere density decrease, typical of night conditions, provide for IGV amplitude increase near 250 km above the equator about 1.5 times, which with regard to the both hemispheres, fully compensates the effect of viscosity and thermal conductivity under increased solar activity. Speed and density decrease along IGW propagation can be provided both by background distribution of thermosphere parameters and by the front of a large-scale IGW on the background of which isolated IGW amplitude can grow

  3. Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shancheng; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang

    2017-01-01

    We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss–Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg–Landau prediction.

  4. Holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shancheng [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2017-02-10

    We construct the holographic p-wave superfluid in Gauss–Bonnet gravity via a Maxwell complex vector field model and investigate the effect of the curvature correction on the superfluid phase transition in the probe limit. We obtain the rich phase structure and find that the higher curvature correction hinders the condensate of the vector field but makes it easier for the appearance of translating point from the second-order transition to the first-order one or for the emergence of the Cave of Winds. Moreover, for the supercurrents versus the superfluid velocity, we observe that our results near the critical temperature are independent of the Gauss–Bonnet parameter and agree well with the Ginzburg–Landau prediction.

  5. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ern

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs and chemistry climate models (CCMs usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE. GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER. Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  6. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Preusse, Peter; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Riese, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE). GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps) of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments) and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  7. The effect of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemistry of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (invited review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemical composition of the 60 to 110 km region is investigated with a two dimensional model that includes a parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition and diffusion. The dynamical model is described by Garcia and Solomon (1983) and Solomon and Garcia (1983) and includes a complete chemical scheme for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The parameterization of Lindzen (1981) is used to calculate the momentum deposited and the turbulent diffusion produced by the gravity waves. It is found that wave momentum deposition drives a very vigorous mean meridional circulation, produces a very cold summer mesopause and reverse the zonal wind jets above about 85 km. The seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient is consistent with the behavior of mesospheric turbulences inferred from MST radar echoes. The large degree of consistency between model results and various types of dynamical and chemical data supports very strongly the hypothesis that breaking gravity waves play a major role in determining the zonally-averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the 60 to 110 km region of the atmosphere.

  8. A case study of typhoon-induced gravity waves and the orographic impacts related to Typhoon Mindulle (2004) over Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. F.; Xue, X. H.; Hoffmann, L.; Dou, X. K.; Li, H. M.; Chen, T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) significantly influence global circulation. Deep convection, particularly that associated with typhoons, is believed to be an important source of gravity waves. Stratospheric gravity waves induced by Typhoon Mindulle (2004) were detected by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Semicircular GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 100–400 km were found over Taiwan through an inspection of AIRS radiances at 4.3 μm. Characteristics of the stratospheric gravity waves...

  9. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  10. Induced photoassociation in the field of a strong electomagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaretskij, D.F.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Lyul'ka, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical problem of the stimulated transition of a system in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave from the continuous spectrum to a bound state possessing a finite lifetime is considered. The expressions obtained are employed to calculate stimulated production of mesic atoms and mesic molecules (ddμ). It is demonstrated that in an external electromagnetic field the probability for production of this type may considerably increase

  11. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  12. Smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics modeling of dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; Antuono, Matteo; Marrone, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to study the evolution of free-surface Newtonian viscous flows specifically focusing on dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves. The numerical results have been compared with an analytical solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for Reynolds numbers in the range 50-5000. We found that a correct choice of the number of neighboring particles is of fundamental importance in order to obtain convergence towards the analytical solution. This number has to increase with higher Reynolds numbers in order to prevent the onset of spurious vorticity inside the bulk of the fluid, leading to an unphysical overdamping of the wave amplitude. This generation of spurious vorticity strongly depends on the specific kernel function used in the SPH model.

  13. Solving the strongly coupled 2D gravity III. String suspectibility and topological N-point functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.-L.; Roussel, J.-F.

    1996-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol 426, p.140-86, 1994. We spell out the derivation of novel features, put forward earlier in a letter, of two-dimensional gravity in the strong coupling regime, at C L =7, 13, 19. Within the operator approach previously developed, they neatly follow from the appearance of a new cosmological term/marginal operator, different from the standard weak-coupling one, that determines the world-sheet interaction. The corresponding string susceptibility is obtained and found real contrary to the continuation of the KPZ formula. Strongly coupled (topological like) models - only involving zero-mode degrees of freedom - are solved up to sixth order, using the Ward identities which follow from the dependence upon the new cosmological constant. They are technically similar to the weakly coupled ones, which reproduce the matrix model results, but gravity and matter quantum numbers are entangled differently. (orig.)

  14. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign. Part II. Radar investigations and modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafimovich, A.; Zuelicke, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Peters, D.; Singer, W. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHP radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes (69.3 N, 16 E) in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR fifth-generation mesoscale model (MM5) data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of {proportional_to}4.5-5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity. (orig.)

  15. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  16. Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the

  17. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.

  18. Gravity wave life cycle (GW-LCYCLE): Initial results from a coordinated field program to trace gravity waves from the troposphere to the MLT-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus

    Gravity waves (GW) play an important role in the coupling between the troposphere and the middle atmosphere (˜10 - 120 km). GWs couple different atmospheric regions both in the vertical as well as in the horizontal directions by means of momentum and energy transport. Notably, this coupling is effective both from the troposphere upwards, and also in the opposite direction by indirect effects on circulation patterns. While the importance of GW for understanding atmospheric structure, dynamics and climate is now widely recognized, surprisingly little is still known about the details of the GW life cycle, i.e., the processes of GW excitation, propagation and dissipation. To address this issue a coordinated field program - named GW-LCYCLE - has been established in which ground based observations with radars, lidars and airglow imagers are combined with airborne observations, balloon soundings, and modelling to trace GWs from their source in the troposphere to their area of dissipation in the middle atmosphere. Within GW-LCYCLE an initial field campaign was conducted in December 2013 in Northern Scandinavia. The research aircraft DLR-FALCON was deployed to Kiruna, Sweden, from where several flights (with a total of 25 flight hours) were conducted to study mountain wave generation by flow over the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The FALCON was equipped with a downward looking wind lidar operating at a wavelength of 2 mum as well as with an in-flight system to measure winds, temperatures and pressures and with several in-situ instruments to detect wave signatures in trace gases like H _{2}O, CO _{2}, CO, CH _{4}, N _{2}O, HNO _{3} and SO _{2}. Ground based observations of winds and temperatures from the troposphere to the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT-) region were conducted from Kiruna as well as from Andenes, Norway. These measurements were augmented by balloon soundings from the same places as well as from Sodankylä in Finland. Coordinated observations were

  19. Testing the Speed of Gravitational Waves over Cosmological Distances with Strong Gravitational Lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E; Bacon, David

    2017-03-03

    Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys.10 (2014) 080JCAPBP1475-751610.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/080] forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on c_{GW}/c_{γ} at the 10^{-7} level, if a high-energy EM counterpart is observed within the field of view of an observing γ-ray burst monitor.

  20. Modulation of Precipitation in the Olympic Mountains by Trapped Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.; Grecu, M.; McLinden, M.; Li, L.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation over the Olympic Mountains was studied intensely with multiple aircraft and ground-based measurements during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) during the fall-winter season 2015-2016 as part of validation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) (Houze et al. 2017) and the Radar Definition Experiment (RADEX) supported by the Aerosol Chemistry, Ecosystem (ACE) NASA Decadal Mission. This presentation focuses on observations of a broad frontal cloud system with strong flow over the mountains on 5 December 2015. Unique observations of trapped waves were obtained with in the three Goddard Space Flight Center nadir-looking, X- through W-band, Doppler radars on the NASA high-altitude ER-2: the High-altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) at Ku and Ka-band, the W-band Cloud Radar System (CRS), and the ER-2 X-band Radar (EXRAD). Analysis of the aircraft measurements showed the presence of deep, trapped gravity waves on a scale ranging from 10-25 km in the nadir-looking Doppler and reflectivity observations. These waves cause localized vertical up/down motions on the order of 1-2 ms-1 and they are superimposed on the widespread south-southwest flow over the Olympic Mountains. While much of this widespread flow over the mountains produces copious amounts of snowfall, the gravity waves play an important role in modulating this precipitation indirectly through microphysical processes in the ice region. We will describe analyses of the interactions between the air motions and precipitation structure for this case and other cases we observed similar waves. We will present preliminary results from precipitation retrievals based on optimal estimation (Grecu et al. 2011).

  1. Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere of Mars as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Gravity waves are atmospheric waves whose restoring force is the buoyancy. They are known to play an essential role in the redistribution of energy, momentum and atmospheric constituents in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres. Possible excitation mechanisms comprise convection in an adjacent atmospheric layer, other atmospheric instabilities like wind shear instabilities, or air flow over orographic obstacles especially in combination with the strong winter jets on Mars. Gravity waves on Mars were observed in the lower atmosphere [1,2] but are also expected to play a major role in the cooling of the thermosphere [3] and the polar warming [4]. A fundamental understanding of the possible source mechanisms is required to reveal the influence of small scale gravity waves on the global atmospheric circulation. Radio occultation profiles from the MaRS experiment on Mars Express [5] with their exceptionally high vertical resolution can be used to study small-scale vertical gravity waves and their global distribution in the lower atmosphere from the planetary boundary layer up to 40 km altitude. Atmospheric instabilities, which are clearly identified in the data, are used to gain further insight into possible atmospheric processes contributing to the excitation of gravity waves. [1] Creasey, J. E., et al.,(2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01803, doi:10.1029/2005GL024037. [2]Tellmann, S., et al.(2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 306-320, doi:10.1002/jgre.20058. [3]Medvedev, A. S., et al.(2015), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 120, 913-927. doi:10.1002/2015JE004802.[4] Barnes, J. R. (1990), J. Geophys. Res., 95, B2, 1401-1421. [5] Pätzold, M., et al. (2016), Planet. Space Sci., 127, 44 - 90.

  2. Strong constraints on cosmological gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P.G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 25 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 251301. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000437 Grant - others:OP VVV - CoGraDS(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000437 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alternative gravity theories, * dark energy * graviational waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  3. Prospects for Probing Strong Gravity with a Pulsar-Black Hole System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, N.; Liu, K.; Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a pulsar (PSR) in orbit around a black hole (BH) is expected to provide a superb new probe of relativistic gravity and BH properties. Apart from a precise mass measurement for the BH, one could expect a clean verification of the dragging of space-time caused by the BH spin. In order to measure the quadrupole moment of the BH for testing the no-hair theorem of general relativity (GR), one has to hope for a sufficiently massive BH. In this respect, a PSR orbiting the super-massive BH in the center of our Galaxy would be the ultimate laboratory for gravity tests with PSRs. But even for gravity theories that predict the same properties for BHs as GR, a PSR-BH system would constitute an excellent test system, due to the high grade of asymmetry in the strong field properties of these two components. Here we highlight some of the potential gravity tests that one could expect from different PSR-BH systems.

  4. Comparison of Global Distributions of Zonal-Mean Gravity Wave Variance Inferred from Different Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  5. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-01-01

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  6. Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Spargo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesospheric gravity wave (GW momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998 are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions. The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998, principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997, later re-introduced by Hocking (2005 and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010 of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.

  7. Mesospheric gravity wave momentum flux estimation using hybrid Doppler interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spargo, Andrew J.; Reid, Iain M.; MacKinnon, Andrew D.; Holdsworth, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Mesospheric gravity wave (GW) momentum flux estimates using data from multibeam Buckland Park MF radar (34.6° S, 138.5° E) experiments (conducted from July 1997 to June 1998) are presented. On transmission, five Doppler beams were symmetrically steered about the zenith (one zenith beam and four off-zenith beams in the cardinal directions). The received beams were analysed with hybrid Doppler interferometry (HDI) (Holdsworth and Reid, 1998), principally to determine the radial velocities of the effective scattering centres illuminated by the radar. The methodology of Thorsen et al. (1997), later re-introduced by Hocking (2005) and since extensively applied to meteor radar returns, was used to estimate components of Reynolds stress due to propagating GWs and/or turbulence in the radar resolution volume. Physically reasonable momentum flux estimates are derived from the Reynolds stress components, which are also verified using a simple radar model incorporating GW-induced wind perturbations. On the basis of these results, we recommend the intercomparison of momentum flux estimates between co-located meteor radars and vertical-beam interferometric MF radars. It is envisaged that such intercomparisons will assist with the clarification of recent concerns (e.g. Vincent et al., 2010) of the accuracy of the meteor radar technique.

  8. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  9. Simulation of non-hydrostatic gravity wave propagation in the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high-frequency and small horizontal scale gravity waves may be reflected and ducted in non-hydrostatic simulations, but usually propagate vertically in hydrostatic models. To examine gravity wave propagation, a preliminary study has been conducted with a global ionosphere–thermosphere model (GITM, which is a non-hydrostatic general circulation model for the upper atmosphere. GITM has been run regionally with a horizontal resolution of 0.2° long × 0.2° lat to resolve the gravity wave with wavelength of 250 km. A cosine wave oscillation with amplitude of 30 m s−1 has been applied to the zonal wind at the low boundary, and both high-frequency and low-frequency waves have been tested. In the high-frequency case, the gravity wave stays below 200 km, which indicates that the wave is reflected or ducted in propagation. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis from the dispersion relationship when the wavelength is larger than the cutoff wavelength for the non-hydrostatic situation. However, the low-frequency wave propagates to the high altitudes during the whole simulation period, and the amplitude increases with height. This study shows that the non-hydrostatic model successfully reproduces the high-frequency gravity wave dissipation.

  10. A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D

    2003-08-28

    Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.

  11. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  12. Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the influence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the.

  13. Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the influence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the half-space is ...

  14. On the Importance of High Frequency Gravity Waves for Ice Nucleation in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations of the influence of atmospheric waves on ice nucleation in cirrus have identified a number of key processes and sensitivities: (1) ice concentrations produced by homogeneous freezing are strongly dependent on cooling rates, with gravity waves dominating upper tropospheric cooling rates; (2) rapid cooling driven by high-frequency waves are likely responsible for the rare occurrences of very high ice concentrations in cirrus; (3) sedimentation and entrainment tend to decrease ice concentrations as cirrus age; and (4) in some situations, changes in temperature tendency driven by high-frequency waves can quench ice nucleation events and limit ice concentrations. Here we use parcel-model simulations of ice nucleation driven by long-duration, constant-pressure balloon temperature time series, along with an extensive dataset of cold cirrus microphysical properties from the recent ATTREX high-altitude aircraft campaign, to statistically examine the importance of high-frequency waves as well as the consistency between our theoretical understanding of ice nucleation and observed ice concentrations. The parcel-model simulations indicate common occurrence of peak ice concentrations exceeding several hundred per liter. Sedimentation and entrainment would reduce ice concentrations as clouds age, but 1-D simulations using a wave parameterization (which underestimates rapid cooling events) still produce ice concentrations higher than indicated by observations. We find that quenching of nucleation events by high-frequency waves occurs infrequently and does not prevent occurrences of large ice concentrations in parcel simulations of homogeneous freezing. In fact, the high-frequency variability in the balloon temperature data is entirely responsible for production of these high ice concentrations in the simulations.

  15. Numerical Simulation of a Breaking Gravity Wave Event Over Greenland Observed During Fastex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, James

    1997-01-01

    Measurements from the NOAA G4 research aircraft and high-resolution numerical simulations are used to study the evolution and dynamics of a large-amplitude gravity wave event over Greenland that took...

  16. Ultra-Low Noise Quad Photoreceiver for Space Based Laser Interferometric Gravity Wave Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravity wave detection using space-based long-baseline laser interferometric sensors imposes stringent noise requirements on the system components, including the...

  17. Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.

  18. Seasonal variation and sources of atmospheric gravity waves in the Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last recent ten years, our knowledge of gravity waves in the Antarctic has been significantly improved through numerous studies using balloon and satellite observations and high-resolution model simulations. In this report, we introduce results from two studies which were performed as a part of the NIPR project "Integrated analysis of the material circulation in the Antarctic atmosphere-cryosphere-ocean" (2004-2009, i.e., Yoshiki et al. (2004 and Sato and Yoshiki (2008. These two studies focused on the seasonal variation and sources of the gravity waves in the Antarctic, because horizontal wavelengths and phase velocities depend largely on the wave sources. The former study used original high-resolution data from operational radiosonde observations at Syowa Station. In the lowermost stratosphere, gravity waves do not exhibit characteristic seasonal variation; instead, the wave energy is intensified when lower latitude air intrudes into the area near Syowa Station in the upper troposphere. This intrusion is associated with blocking events or developed synoptic-scale waves. In the lower and middle stratosphere, the gravity wave energy is maximized in spring and particularly intensified when the axis of the polar night jet approaches Syowa Station. The latter study is based on intensive radiosonde observation campaigns that were performed in 2002 at Syowa Station as an activity of JARE-43. Gravity wave propagation was statistically examined using two dimensional (i.e., vertical wavenumber versus frequency spectra in each season. It was shown that the gravity waves are radiated upward and downward from an unbalanced region of the polar night jet. This feature is consistent with the gravity-wave resolving GCM simulation.

  19. Long-term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Jackman, C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This quarter was largely devoted to a detailed study of temperature data acquired by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS. Our analysis used the same sequence of methods that have been developed, tested and refined on a more limited subset of temperature data acquired by the CRISTA instrument. We focused on a limited subset of our reasoning that geographical and vertical trends in the small-scale temperature variability could be compared with similar trends observed in November 1994 by the CRISTA-SPAS satellite. Results, backed up with hindcasts from the Mountain Wave Forecast Model (MWFM), reveal strong evidence of mountain waves, most persuasively in the Himalayas on 16-17 November, 1992. These CLAES results are coherent over the 30-50 km range and compare well with MWFM hindcasts for the same period. This constitutes, we believe, the first clear evidence that CLAES explicitly resolved long wavelength gravity waves in its CO2 temperature channel. A series of other tasks, related to mesoscale modeling of mountain waves in CRISTA data and fitting of ground-based and HRDI data on global scales, were seen through to publication stage in peer-reviewed journals.

  20. A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.

  1. F region manifestation of atmospheric gravity waves at a high magnetic dip station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, K.C.; Dubroff, R.E.; Nagpal, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    An average power spectrum of the observed fluctuations in electron content at Urbana has been computed. Several features of the experimental results can be explained in terms of theoretical models of the ionospheric response to internal gravity waves. An extension of an earlier theory to include the effect of dissipation provides additional justification for the relation between the observed electron content fluctuations and internal gravity waves

  2. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yungui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  3. Sensitivity of Middle Atmospheric Temperature and Circulation in the UIUC Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere GCM to the Treatment of Subgrid-Scale Gravity-Wave Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fanglin; Schlesinger, Michael E.; Andranova, Natasha; Zubov, Vladimir A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Callis, Lin B.

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of the middle atmospheric temperature and circulation to the treatment of mean- flow forcing due to breaking gravity waves was investigated using the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 40-layer Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere General Circulation Model (MST-GCM). Three GCM experiments were performed. The gravity-wave forcing was represented first by Rayleigh friction, and then by the Alexander and Dunkerton (AD) parameterization with weak and strong breaking effects of gravity waves. In all experiments, the Palmer et al. parameterization was included to treat the breaking of topographic gravity waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Overall, the experiment with the strong breaking effect simulates best the middle atmospheric temperature and circulation. With Rayleigh friction and the weak breaking effect, a large warm bias of up to 60 C was found in the summer upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. This warm bias was linked to the inability of the GCM to simulate the reversal of the zonal winds from easterly to westerly crossing the mesopause in the summer hemisphere. With the strong breaking effect, the GCM was able to simulate this reversal, and essentially eliminated the warm bias. This improvement was the result of a much stronger meridional transport circulation that possesses a strong vertical ascending branch in the summer upper mesosphere, and hence large adiabatic cooling. Budget analysis indicates that 'in the middle atmosphere the forces that act to maintain a steady zonal-mean zonal wind are primarily those associated with the meridional transport circulation and breaking gravity waves. Contributions from the interaction of the model-resolved eddies with the mean flow are small. To obtain a transport circulation in the mesosphere of the UIUC MST-GCM that is strong enough to produce the observed cold summer mesopause, gravity-wave forcing larger than 100 m/s/day in magnitude is required near the summer mesopause. In

  4. Gravity wave propagation through a large semidiurnal tide and instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the winter 2003 MaCWAVE rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Williams

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The winter MaCWAVE (Mountain and convective waves ascending vertically rocket campaign took place in January 2003 at Esrange, Sweden and the ALOMAR observatory in Andenes, Norway. The campaign combined balloon, lidar, radar, and rocket measurements to produce full temperature and wind profiles from the ground to 105 km. This paper will investigate gravity wave propagation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using data from the Weber sodium lidar on 28–29 January 2003. A very large semidiurnal tide was present in the zonal wind above 80 km that grew to a 90 m/s amplitude at 100 km. The superposition of smaller-scale gravity waves and the tide caused small regions of possible convective or shear instabilities to form along the downward progressing phase fronts of the tide. The gravity waves had periods ranging from the Nyquist period of 30 min up to 4 h, vertical wavelengths ranging from 7 km to more than 20 km, and the frequency spectra had the expected –5/3 slope. The dominant gravity waves had long vertical wavelengths and experienced rapid downward phase progression. The gravity wave variance grew exponentially with height up from 86 to 94 km, consistent with the measured scale height, suggesting that the waves were not dissipated strongly by the tidal gradients and resulting unstable regions in this altitude range.

  5. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  6. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  7. Stochastic Background of Relic Scalar Gravitational Waves tuned by Extended Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic background of relic gravitational waves is achieved by the so called adiabatically-amplified zero-point fluctuations process derived from early inflation. It provides a distinctive spectrum of relic gravitational waves. In the framework of scalar-tensor gravity, we discuss the scalar modes of gravitational waves and the primordial production of this scalar component which is generated beside tensorial one. Then analyze seven different viable f(R)-gravities towards the Solar System tests and stochastic gravitational waves background. It is demonstrated that seven viable f(R)-gravities under consideration not only satisfy the local tests, but additionally, pass the above PPN-and stochastic gravitational waves bounds for large classes of parameters.

  8. Atmospheric gravity waves observed by an international network of micro-barographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) manages an international network of forty-two operational infra-sound stations recording the pressure fluctuations produced at the ground surface by infrasonic waves. This thesis demonstrates that most of these stations also accurately detect the pressure fluctuations in the entire gravity wave band. This work includes carrying out and analyzing several metrological laboratory experiments and a field campaign (M2008) in Mongolia in 2008. The layout of the experiments as well as the interpretation of their results gave rise to the development of a new linear spectral numerical model able to simulate the generation and propagation of gravity waves. This model was used to quantify the gravity waves produced by the atmospheric cooling that occurs during solar eclipses. The pressure fluctuations expected at ground level were estimated and compared to the data recorded during the 1 August 2008 solar eclipse by the CTBTO and M2008 stations. A detailed data analysis reveals two waves with similar time-frequency characteristics to those simulated for a stratospheric and tropospheric cooling. This constitutes, to our knowledge, a unique result. The validation of worldwide and pluri-annual pressure measurements in the entire gravity wave band allowed the statistical study of gravity wave spectra and atmospheric tides. The work presented throughout this thesis has led to the publication of two articles. A third one is in the drafting process. (author)

  9. On weakly singular and fully nonlinear travelling shallow capillary–gravity waves in the critical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-25

    In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.

  10. Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method

  11. Strong gravitational lensing in f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campigotto, M.C.; Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Fatibene, L., E-mail: martacostanza.campigotto@to.infn.it, E-mail: antonaldo.diaferio@unito.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Torino, Via C. Alberto 10, 10123, Torino (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of gravitational lensing in the purely metric f (χ) gravity, an f ( R ) gravity where the action of the gravitational field depends on the source mass. We focus on the strong lensing regime in galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in clusters of galaxies. By adopting point-like lenses and using an approximate metric solution accurate to second order of the velocity field v / c , we show how, in the f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity, the same light deflection can be produced by lenses with masses smaller than in General Relativity (GR); this mass difference increases with increasing impact parameter and decreasing lens mass. However, for sufficiently massive point-like lenses and small impact parameters, f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} and GR yield indistinguishable light deflection angles: this regime occurs both in observed galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in the central regions of galaxy clusters. In the former systems, the GR and f (χ) masses are compatible with the mass of standard stellar populations and little or no dark matter, whereas, on the scales of the core of galaxy clusters, the presence of substantial dark matter is required by our point-like lenses both in GR and in our approximate f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} solution. We thus conclude that our approximate metric solution of f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} is unable to describe the observed phenomenology of the strong lensing regime without the aid of dark matter.

  12. First 3D measurements of temperature fluctuations induced by gravity wave with the infrared limb imager GLORIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are one of the most important coupling mechanisms in the atmosphere. They couple different compartments of the atmosphere. The GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle) project aims on studying the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of gravity waves. An aircraft campaign has been performed in winter 2015/2016, during which the first 3D tomographic measurements of GWs were performed with the infrared limb imager GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere). GLORIA combines a classical Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a 2D detector array. The capability to image the atmosphere and thereby take several thousand spectra simultaneously improves the spatial sampling compared to conventional limb sounders by an order of magnitude. Furthermore GLORIA is able to pan the horizontal viewing direction and therefore measure the same volume of air under different angles. Due to these properties tomographic methods can be used to derive 3D temperature and tracer fields with spatial resolutions of better than 30km x 30km x 250m from measurements taken during circular flight patterns. Temperature distributions measured during a strong GW event on the 25.01.2016 during the GW-LCycle campaign over Iceland will be presented and analyzed for gravity waves. The three dimensional nature of the GLORIA measurements allows for the determination of the gravity wave momentum flux, including its horizontal direction. The calculated momentum fluxes rank this event under one of the strongest 1% observed in that latitude range in January 2016. The three dimensional wave vectors determined from the GLORIA measurements can be used for a ray tracing study with the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT). Here 1D ray tracing, meaning solely vertical column propagation, as used by standard parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models is compared to 4D ray tracing (spatially three dimensional with time varying

  13. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  14. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  15. Persistent gravity wave coupling from the stratosphere to the MLT versus secondary wave generation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Geraghty, I.; Chu, X.; Vadas, S.; Becker, E.; Harvey, V. L.; Jones, R. M.; Chen, C.; Lu, X.

    2017-12-01

    After Antarctic persistent gravity waves (GWs) in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) were discovered from lidar observations [Chen et al., 2013, 2016], secondary wave generation theory was proposed to explain the source. Here we perform a source investigation of such persistent GWs through analyzing both stratospheric and MLT GWs at McMurdo using temperature measurements (30 - 50 km, year 2011 - 2015) obtained by Fe Boltzmann lidar. In the stratosphere, GW vertical wavelengths (λ) and periods exhibit seasonal cycles with winter maxima and summer minima, which linearly correlated with mean zonal wind velocities. GWs dissipate more in winter than in summer due to larger wave amplitudes. The potential energy density (Ep) are anti-correlated with wind rotation angles but positively correlated with surface and stratospheric winds. Critical level filtering, in-situ generation of GWs, and wave saturation changes play roles in Ep seasonal variations (winter maxima and summer minima). The large increase of Ep from summer to winter possibly results from the decrease in critical level filtering. The gradual variations of Ep from Mar to Oct are likely related both to the increased λ towards winter, allowing larger wave amplitudes before saturation, and to in-situ GW generation via geostrophic adjustment, secondary GW generation. Large Ep occur when McMurdo is inside the jet stream core 5-24º poleward from vortex edge. In winter MLT, the persistent GWs cause larger temperature perturbations (± 30 K, compared to ± 10 K in the stratosphere) with longer λ (23.5 km) and larger vertical phase speeds (1.8 m/s). More waves (95.4%) show downward phase progression compared to the stratospheric GWs (70.4%). Since the inferred horizontal wavelength of stratospheric GWs (350 - 450 km) are much shorter than those of the persistent GWs in the MLT (1000 - 2000 km), the dominant stratospheric GWs are not the direct source of the MLT persistent GWs. Secondary wave generation

  16. Observation of gravity waves during the extreme tornado outbreak of 3 April 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Phan, T.; Smith, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous wave-spectrum high-frequency radiowave Doppler sounder array was used to observe upper-atmospheric disturbances during an extreme tornado outbreak. The observations indicated that gravity waves with two harmonic wave periods were detected at the F-region ionospheric height. Using a group ray path computational technique, the observed gravity waves were traced in order to locate potential sources. The signals were apparently excited 1-3 hours before tornado touchdown. Reverse ray tracing indicated that the wave source was located at the aurora zone with a Kp index of 6 at the time of wave excitation. The summation of the 24-hour Kp index for the day was 36. The results agree with existing theories (Testud, 1970; Titheridge, 1971; Kato, 1976) for the excitation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances associated with geomagnetic activity in the aurora zone.

  17. Study of gravity waves propagation in the thermosphere of Mars based on MAVEN/NGIMS density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vals, M.

    2017-09-01

    We use MAVEN/NGIMS CO2 density measurements to analyse gravity waves in the thermosphere of Mars. In particular the seasonal/latitudinal variability of their amplitude is studied and interpreted. Key background parameters controlling the activity of gravity waves are analysed with the help of the Mars Climate Database (MCD). Gravity waves activity presents a good anti-correlation to the temperature variability retrieved from the MCD. An analysis at pressure levels is ongoing.

  18. Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2013-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)

  19. Gravity Waves and Wind-Farm Efficiency in Neutral and Stable Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2018-02-01

    We use large-eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the impact of stable stratification on gravity-wave excitation and energy extraction in a large wind farm. To this end, the development of an equilibrium conventionally neutral boundary layer into a stable boundary layer over a period of 8 h is considered, using two different cooling rates. We find that turbulence decay has considerable influence on the energy extraction at the beginning of the boundary-layer transition, but afterwards, energy extraction is dominated by geometrical and jet effects induced by an inertial oscillation. It is further shown that the inertial oscillation enhances gravity-wave excitation. By comparing LES results with a simple one-dimensional model, we show that this is related to an interplay between wind-farm drag, variations in the Froude number and the dispersive effects of vertically-propagating gravity waves. We further find that the pressure gradients induced by gravity waves lead to significant upstream flow deceleration, reducing the average turbine output compared to a turbine in isolated operation. This leads us to the definition of a non-local wind-farm efficiency, next to a more standard wind-farm wake efficiency, and we show that both can be of the same order of magnitude. Finally, an energy flux analysis is performed to further elucidate the effect of gravity waves on the flow in the wind farm.

  20. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    between nonlinear and dispersion effects can result in the formation of symmetrical solitary waves. Also shock ... et al have studied the effect of nonadiabatic dust charge variation on the nonlinear dust acoustic wave with ..... Figure 5 presents the border between oscillatory- and monotonic-type shock waves as functions of ...

  1. Dynamical influence of gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains in Antarctica: radar observations, fine-scale modelling and kinetic energy budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Arnault

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains (in western Droning Maud Land, Antarctica, southwest of the Finnish/Swedish Aboa/Wasa station have been observed with the Moveable atmospheric radar for Antarctica (MARA during the SWEDish Antarctic Research Programme (SWEDARP in December 2007/January 2008. These radar observations are compared with a 2-month Weather Research Forecast (WRF model experiment operated at 2 km horizontal resolution. A control simulation without orography is also operated in order to separate unambiguously the contribution of the mountain waves on the simulated atmospheric flow. This contribution is then quantified with a kinetic energy budget analysis computed in the two simulations. The results of this study confirm that mountain waves reaching lower-stratospheric heights break through convective overturning and generate inertia gravity waves with a smaller vertical wavelength, in association with a brief depletion of kinetic energy through frictional dissipation and negative vertical advection. The kinetic energy budget also shows that gravity waves have a strong influence on the other terms of the budget, i.e. horizontal advection and horizontal work of pressure forces, so evaluating the influence of gravity waves on the mean-flow with the vertical advection term alone is not sufficient, at least in this case. We finally obtain that gravity waves generated by the Vestfjella Mountains reaching lower stratospheric heights generally deplete (create kinetic energy in the lower troposphere (upper troposphere–lower stratosphere, in contradiction with the usual decelerating effect attributed to gravity waves on the zonal circulation in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere.

  2. Experimental study of the propgation and dispersion of internal atmospheric gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's) appear as large-scale transverse waves in the F-region (150 to 1000 km altitude), with frequencies on the order of 0.005 to 0.005 cycles per minute, which propagate horizontally over hundreds or even thousands of kilometers. These disturbances have been observed by various radiowave techniques over the past thirty-five years and are now generally accepted as being the manifestation, in the ionized medium, of internal atmospheric gravity waves. A model describing the propagation of gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere is presented here. The dispersion relation is derived from fundamental principles, and the relation between phase velocity and group velocity is examined. The effects of the Coriolis force and horizontally stratified winds on wave propagation are also analyzed. Conservation of energy in the gravity wave requires increasing amplitude with increasing altitude, inasmuch as the atmospheric density decreases with height. However, this is counteracted by dissipation of wave energy by ion drag, thermal conductivity, and viscous damping. The production of TID's (in the ionized medium) by gravity waves (in the neutral medium) is discussed in quantitative terms, and the vertical predictive function is derived. Dartmouth College has operated a three-station ionosonde network in northern New Hampshire and Vermont on an intermittent basis since 1968. Seven large TID's, found in the 1969 data, are reexamined here in an exhaustive and successful comparison with the gravity wave model. Iso-true-height contours of electron density are used to determine several pertinent TID wave parameters as a function of height

  3. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  4. Some Expressions for Gravity without the Big G and their Possible Wave-Theoretical-Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg and meters; but if we measure “mass” as a fraction of “total-mass of the universe” M 0 and measure distances as a fraction of “radius-of-the- universe” R 0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G . However, large uncertainties in the M 0 and R 0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii This understanding of G leads to an insight that Plancks-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass hH 0 = c 2 . (iv There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius 2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.

  5. The Role of Gravity Waves in the Formation and Organization of Clouds during TWPICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, Michael J. [Monash University; Lane, Todd P. [University of Melbourne; Hankinson, Mai Chi Nguyen [Monash University

    2013-09-27

    All convective clouds emit gravity waves. While it is certain that convectively-generated waves play important parts in determining the climate, their precise roles remain uncertain and their effects are not (generally) represented in climate models. The work described here focuses mostly on observations and modeling of convectively-generated gravity waves, using the intensive observations from the DoE-sponsored Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which took place in Darwin, from 17 January to 13 February 2006. Among other things, the research has implications the part played by convectively-generated gravity waves in the formation of cirrus, in the initiation and organization of further convection, and in the subgrid-scale momentum transport and associated large-scale stresses imposed on the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis shows two groups of inertia-gravity waves are detected: group L in the middle stratosphere during the suppressed monsoon period, and group S in the lower stratosphere during the monsoon break period. Waves belonging to group L propagate to the south-east with a mean intrinsic period of 35 h, and have vertical and horizontal wavelengths of about 5-6 km and 3000-6000 km, respectively. Ray tracing calculations indicate that these waves originate from a deep convective region near Indonesia. Waves belonging to group S propagate to the south-south-east with an intrinsic period, vertical wavelength and horizontal wavelength of about 45 h, 2 km and 2000-4000 km, respectively. These waves are shown to be associated with shallow convection in the oceanic area within about 1000 km of Darwin. The intrinsic periods of high-frequency waves are estimated to be between 20-40 minutes. The high-frequency wave activity in the stratosphere, defined by mass-weighted variance of the vertical motion of the sonde, has a maximum following the afternoon local convection indicating that these waves are generated by local convection

  6. Relic gravitational wave spectrum, the trans-Planckian physics and Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of the relic gravitational wave due to the trans-Planckian effect in which the standard linear dispersion relations may be modified. Of the modified dispersion relations suggested in the literature which has investigated the trans-Planckian effect, we especially use the Corley-Jacobson dispersion relations. The Corley-Jacobson-type modified dispersion relations can be obtained from Horava-Lifshitz gravity which is non-relativistic and UV complete. Although it is not clear how the transitions from Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the UV regime to Einstein gravity in the IR limit occur, we assume that the Horava-Lifshitz gravity regime is followed by the inflationary phase in Einstein gravity.

  7. Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of a gravity field. The frequency equation obtained, in the form of a sixth-order determinantal expression, is in agreement with the corresponding result when both media are elastic. The frequency equation when the gravity field is neglected has been deduced as a particular case.

  8. Effects of gravity and planetary waves on the lower ionosphere as obtained from radio wave absorption measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, 6, Part C (2001), s. 381-386 ISSN 1464-1917 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3012007; GA AV ČR IAA3042102; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : planetary wave * gravity wave * lower ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  9. The Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE): Quantifying the Impact of Gravity Waves on the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Forbes, J. M.; Fritts, D. C.; Eckermann, S. D.; Snively, J. B.; Liu, H.; Janches, D.; Syrstad, E. A.; Esplin, R. W.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Pendleton, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    New theory and modeling now indicate that upward-propagating gravity waves (GWs) originating in the lower atmosphere have profound effects on the variability and mean state of the ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system. A major unknown is the spectrum of small-scale ( 30-300 km) GWs entering this system from below. Yet, this part of the spectrum contains most of the waves that will produce the greatest ITM effects. To address this knowledge gap, the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) plans to deploy a high-resolution imager (based on the successful Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper) on the International Space Station (ISS) to gain a transformative set of GW-resolving temperature measurements using the OH nightglow emission (altitude 87 km). The ISS provides the ideal combination of altitude, geographic and local time coverage to accomplish our proposed science objectives, which seeks not only near-global measurements of GW characteristics in the mesopause region, but also quantification of GW momentum and energy fluxes driving the IT from below. Combined with state-of-the-art high-resolution models, the AWE mission will also assess the relative importance of sources versus propagation conditions in explaining the observed spatial and temporal variability of the GWs. The AWE mission was recently selected for a "Phase A" study as part of the NASA 2016 Heliophysics Explorers Mission of Opportunity (MO) Program. In this presentation, we describe the primary goals of this program and introduce our proposed research methods using proven IR instrument technology. AWE's exceptional capabilities are illustrated with recent discoveries in observing GWs from the ground and from aircraft during the NSF DEEPWAVE campaign, promising a major step forward in understanding how troposphere weather translates to space weather.

  10. Quintessential inflation on the brane and the relic gravity wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, M.; Sahni, V.

    2004-01-01

    Quintessential inflation describes a scenario in which both inflation and dark energy (quintessence) are described by the same scalar field. In conventional braneworld models of quintessential inflation gravitational particle-production is used to reheat the universe. This reheating mechanism is very inefficient and results in an excessive production of gravity waves which violate nucleosynthesis constraints and invalidate the model. We describe a new method of realizing quintessential inflation on the brane in which inflation is followed by 'instant preheating' (Felder, Kofman and Linde 1999). The larger reheating temperature in this model results in a smaller amplitude of relic gravity waves which is consistent with nucleosynthesis bounds. The relic gravity wave background has a 'blue' spectrum at high frequencies and is a generic byproduct of successful quintessential inflation on the brane

  11. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  12. Gravity waves observed from the Equatorial Wave Studies (EWS campaign during 1999 and 2000 and their role in the generation of stratospheric semiannual oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Deepa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The altitude profiles of temperature fluctuations in the stratosphere and mesosphere observed with the Rayleigh Lidar at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E on 30 nights during January to March 1999 and 21 nights during February to April 2000 were analysed to bring out the temporal and vertical propagation characteristics of gravity wave perturbations. The gravity wave perturbations showed periodicities in the 0.5–3-h range and attained large amplitudes (4–5 K in the mesosphere. The phase propagation characteristics of gravity waves with different periods showed upward wave propagation with a vertical wavelength of 5–7 km. The mean flow acceleration computed from the divergence of momentum flux of gravity waves is compared with that calculated from monthly values of zonal wind obtained from RH-200 rockets flights. Thus, the contribution of gravity waves towards the generation of Stratospheric Semi Annual Oscillation (SSAO is estimated.

  13. The Effect of Aerosol on Gravity Wave Characteristics above the Boundary Layer over a Tropical Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, G.; Jana, S.; Maitra, A.

    2017-12-01

    The perturbations of temperature profile over a location give an estimate of the potential energy of gravity waves propagating through the atmosphere. Disturbances in the lower atmosphere due to tropical deep convection, orographic effects and various atmospheric disturbances generates of gravity waves. The present study investigates the gravity wave energy estimated from fluctuations in temperature profiles over the tropical location Kolkata (22°34' N, 88°22' E). Gravity waves are most intense during the pre-monsoon period (March-June) at the present location, the potential energy having high values above the boundary layer (2-4 km) as observed from radiosonde profiles. An increase in temperature perturbation, due to high ambient temperature in the presence of heat absorbing aerosols, causes an enhancement in potential energy. As the present study location is an urban metropolitan city experiencing high level of pollution, pollutant aerosols can go much above the normal boundary layer during daytime due to convection causing an extended boundary layer. The Aerosol Index (AAI) obtained from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on MetOp-A platform at 340 nm and 380 nm confirms the presence of absorbing aerosol particles over the present location. The Hysplit back trajectory analysis shows that the aerosol particles at those heights are of local origin and are responsible for depleting liquid water content due to cloud burning. The aerosol extinction coefficient obtained from CALIPSO data exhibits an increasing trend during 2006-2016 accompanied by a similar pattern of gravity wave energy. Thus the absorbing aerosols have a significant role in increasing the potential energy of gravity wave at an urban location in the tropical region.

  14. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign – Part II: Radar investigations and modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serafimovich

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHF radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes (69.3° N, 16° E in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5 data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of ~4.5–5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity.

  15. Atmospheric gravity wave detection following the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes combining COSMIC occultation and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Tao, Y.; Xia, C.; Qi, Y.; Zuo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have reported the earthquake-induced atmospheric gravity waves detected by some new technologies such as airglow (Makela et al., 2011), GOCE (Garcia et al., 2013), GRACE (Yang et al., 2014), F3/C radio occultation sounding (Coïsson et al., 2015). In this work, we collected all occultation events on 11 March, and selected four events to analyze at last. The original and filtered podTEC is represented as function of the altitude of the impact parameter and UT of the four events. Then, the travel time diagrams of filtered podTEC derived from the events were analyzed. The occultation signal from one event (marked as No.73) is consistent with the previous results reported by Coïsson. 2015, which is corresponds to the ionospheric signal induced from tsunami gravity wave. What is noticeable, in this work, is that three occultation events of No.403, 77 and 118 revealed a disturbance of atmospheric gravity wave with velocity 300m/s, preceding the tsunami. It would probably be correspond to the gravity waves caused by seismic rupture but not tsunami. In addition, it can be seen that the perturbation height of occultation observation TEC is concentrated at 200-400km, corresponding ionosphere F region. The signals detected above are compared with GPS measurements of TEC from GEONET and IGS. From GPS data, traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed spreading out from the epicenter as a quasi-circular propagation pattern with the time. Exactly, we observed an acoustic wave coupled with Rayleigh wave starting from the epicenter with a speed of 3.0km/s and a superimposed acoustic-gravity wave moving with a speed of 800m/s. The acoustic-gravity wave generated at the epicenter and gradually attenuated 800km away, then it is replaced by a gravity wave coupled with the tsunami that moves with a speed of between 100 and 300m/s. It is necessary to confirm the propagation process of the waves if we attempt to evaluate the use of ionospheric seismology as a

  16. A Study of Mesoscale Gravity Waves over the North Atlantic with Satellite Observations and a Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2004-01-01

    Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.

  17. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  18. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-01-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such 'supersonic' Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E) during the period 2004–2007 are analyzed to study the dominant waves present in the 80–100 km altitude region of the atmosphere. The nocturnal intensity variations of different airglow emissions are observed using scanning temperature controlled filter photometers. Waves having period lying between 2 and 12 hours ...

  20. Strong correlation effects on the d-wave superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C-P; Lee, T K; Ho, C-M

    2009-01-01

    We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-wave superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electron on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t - J model with moderate doped holes describing the high T c cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid state) spectroscopies. The contrast with the d-wave case without projection is alo presented.

  1. On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.

  2. Nonlinear internal gravity waves and their interaction with the mean wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, R.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of a wave packet of internal gravity waves with the mean wind is investigated, for the case when there is a region of wind shear and hence a critical level. The principal equations are the Doppler-shifted dispersion relation, the equation for conservation of wave action and the mean momentum equation, in which the mean wind is accelerated by a 'radiation stress' tensor, due to the waves. These equations are integrated numerically to study the behaviour of a wave packet approaching a critical level, where the horizontal phase speed matches the mean wind. The results demonstrate the exchange of energy from the waves to the mean wind in the vicinity of the critical level. The interaction between the waves and the mean wind is also studied in the absence of any initial wind shear. (author)

  3. Asymptotic expansions for solitary gravity-capillary waves in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablowitz, M J; Haut, T S

    2010-01-01

    High-order asymptotic series are obtained for gravity-capillary solitary waves, where the first term in the series is the well-known sech 2 solution of the KdV equation. The asymptotic series is used, with nine terms included, to investigate the effects of surface tension on the height and energy of large amplitude waves, and waves close to the solitary version of Stokes' extreme wave. In particular, for surface tension below a critical value, the solitary wave with the maximum energy is obtained. For large surface tension, the series is also used to study the energy related to the solitary waves of depression. Energy considerations suggest that, for large enough surface tension, there are solitary waves that can get close to the fluid bottom. Comparisons are also made with recent experiments.

  4. Effect of Gravity Waves from Small Islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Oman, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of small islands in the Southern Ocean on the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is considered with a series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model in which the gravity wave stress generated by these islands is increased to resemble observed values. The enhanced gravity wave drag leads to a 2 K warming of the springtime polar stratosphere, partially ameliorating biases in this region. Resolved wave drag declines in the stratospheric region in which the added orographic gravity waves deposit their momentum, such that changes in gravity waves are partially compensated by changes in resolved waves, though resolved wave drag increases further poleward. The orographic drag from these islands has impacts for surface climate, as biases in tropospheric jet position are also partially ameliorated. These results suggest that these small islands are likely contributing to the missing drag near 60 degrees S in the upper stratosphere evident in many data assimilation products.

  5. Analysis of seismic waves and strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.; Sutton, R.

    1976-10-01

    A number of Western USA earthquake acceleration-time histories concerning events of magnitude less than 6 are considered and their Fourier spectra calculated. An analysis of some of the simpler types of seismic wave is given in order to consider the generation of a spatially dependent acceleration-time history suitable for input into a soil-structure program of analysis. Such an acceleration-time history is required by a comprehensive analysis of soil-structure interaction since the conventionally assumed model of vertically propagating seismic waves, which give rise to three spatially independent ground motions, can lead to over-conservative estimates of the building response in the high frequency range. The possible application is discussed of a given component of a recorded acceleration-time history to the base of structure under the assumption of surface Rayleigh waves or obliquely incident P and SV bulk waves. (author)

  6. Capillary-gravity waves and the Navier-Stokes equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, F.; Podolefsky, N.

    2001-01-01

    Water waves are a source of great fascination for undergraduates and thus provide an excellent context for introducing some important topics in fluid dynamics. In this paper we introduce the potential theory for incompressible and inviscid flow and derive the differential equation that governs the behaviour of the velocity potential. Next we obtain the harmonic solutions of the velocity potential by a very general argument. These solutions in turn yield the equations for the velocity and displacement of a water element under the action of a harmonic wave. Finally we obtain the dispersion relation for surface waves by requiring that the harmonic solutions satisfy the Navier-Stokes equation. (author)

  7. Analytical and numerical investigation of nonlinear internal gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kshevetskii

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of long, weakly nonlinear internal waves in a stratified gas is studied. Hydrodynamic equations for an ideal fluid with the perfect gas law describe the atmospheric gas behaviour. If we neglect the term Ͽ dw/dt (product of the density and vertical acceleration, we come to a so-called quasistatic model, while we name the full hydro-dynamic model as a nonquasistatic one. Both quasistatic and nonquasistatic models are used for wave simulation and the models are compared among themselves. It is shown that a smooth classical solution of a nonlinear quasistatic problem does not exist for all t because a gradient catastrophe of non-linear internal waves occurs. To overcome this difficulty, we search for the solution of the quasistatic problem in terms of a generalised function theory as a limit of special regularised equations containing some additional dissipation term when the dissipation factor vanishes. It is shown that such solutions of the quasistatic problem qualitatively differ from solutions of a nonquasistatic nature. It is explained by the fact that in a nonquasistatic model the vertical acceleration term plays the role of a regularizator with respect to a quasistatic model, while the solution qualitatively depends on the regularizator used. The numerical models are compared with some analytical results. Within the framework of the analytical model, any internal wave is described as a system of wave modes; each wave mode interacts with others due to equation non-linearity. In the principal order of a perturbation theory, each wave mode is described by some equation of a KdV type. The analytical model reveals that, in a nonquasistatic model, an internal wave should disintegrate into solitons. The time of wave disintegration into solitons, the scales and amount of solitons generated are important characteristics of the non-linear process; they are found with the help of analytical and numerical investigations. Satisfactory

  8. Locating the Tohoku-Oki 2011 tsunami source using acoustic-gravity waves

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamiranto Raveloson; Rainer Kind; Xiaohui Yuan; L. Cerana

    2012-01-01

    The giant Tohoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 in offshore Japan did not only generate tsunami waves in the ocean but also infrasound (or acoustic-gravity) waves in the atmosphere. We indentified ultra-long-period signals (>500s) in the recordings of infrasound stations in northeast Asia, the northwest Pacific, and Alaska. Their source was fond close to the earthquake epicenter. Therefore, we conclude that in general, infrasound observations after a large offshore earthquake are evidence th...

  9. Horizontal velocities and propagation directions of gravity waves in the ionosphere over the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Šindelářová, Tereza; Laštovička, Jan; Hruška, František; Burešová, Dalia; Baše, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2010), A11322/1-A11322/13 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1367; GA ČR GA205/09/1253 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100420901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * gravity waves * wave propagation * remote sensing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010

  10. Acoustic–gravity waves during solar eclipses: Detection and characterization using wavelet transforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Roux, S. G.; Abry, P.; Boška, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, 17-18 (2007), s. 2465-2484 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 18098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Acoustic–gravity wave * Vertical ionospheric sounding * F-layer * Wavelet transform * Wave-packet characterization Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007

  11. Convective cells of internal gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere with finite temperature gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Onishchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.

  12. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere–thermosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Trinh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs are essential for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that these waves are also important for the thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I system. Via vertical coupling, GWs can significantly influence the mean state of the T/I system. However, the penetration of GWs into the T/I system is not fully understood in modeling as well as observations. In the current study, we analyze the correlation between GW momentum fluxes observed in the middle atmosphere (30–90 km and GW-induced perturbations in the T/I. In the middle atmosphere, GW momentum fluxes are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER satellite instrument. In the T/I, GW-induced perturbations are derived from neutral density measured by instruments on the Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP satellites. We find generally positive correlations between horizontal distributions at low altitudes (i.e., below 90 km and horizontal distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200 km and above. Two coupling mechanisms are likely responsible for these positive correlations: (1 fast GWs generated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere can propagate directly to the T/I and (2 primary GWs with their origins in the lower atmosphere dissipate while propagating upwards and generate secondary GWs, which then penetrate up to the T/I and maintain the spatial patterns of GW distributions in the lower atmosphere. The mountain-wave related hotspot over the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula is found clearly in observations of all instruments used in our analysis. Latitude–longitude variations in the summer midlatitudes are also found in observations of all instruments. These variations and strong positive correlations in the summer midlatitudes suggest that GWs with origins related to convection also

  13. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere-thermosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quang Thai; Ern, Manfred; Doornbos, Eelco; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) are essential for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that these waves are also important for the thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I) system. Via vertical coupling, GWs can significantly influence the mean state of the T/I system. However, the penetration of GWs into the T/I system is not fully understood in modeling as well as observations. In the current study, we analyze the correlation between GW momentum fluxes observed in the middle atmosphere (30-90 km) and GW-induced perturbations in the T/I. In the middle atmosphere, GW momentum fluxes are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite instrument. In the T/I, GW-induced perturbations are derived from neutral density measured by instruments on the Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellites. We find generally positive correlations between horizontal distributions at low altitudes (i.e., below 90 km) and horizontal distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200 km and above). Two coupling mechanisms are likely responsible for these positive correlations: (1) fast GWs generated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere can propagate directly to the T/I and (2) primary GWs with their origins in the lower atmosphere dissipate while propagating upwards and generate secondary GWs, which then penetrate up to the T/I and maintain the spatial patterns of GW distributions in the lower atmosphere. The mountain-wave related hotspot over the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula is found clearly in observations of all instruments used in our analysis. Latitude-longitude variations in the summer midlatitudes are also found in observations of all instruments. These variations and strong positive correlations in the summer midlatitudes suggest that GWs with origins related to convection also propagate up to the T

  14. Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nielsen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  15. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buoninfante, Luca [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); University of Groningen, Van Swinderen Institute, Groningen (Netherlands); Lambiase, Gaetano [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Mazumdar, Anupam [University of Groningen, Van Swinderen Institute, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1/r singularity in the potential - such that the gradient of the potential vanishes within the scale of non-locality. We will show that a quantum wave-packet spreads faster for a ghost-free and singularity-free gravity as compared to the Newtonian case, therefore providing us a unique scenario for testing classical and quantum properties of short-distance gravity in a laboratory in the near future. (orig.)

  16. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1 / r singularity in the potential - such that the gradient of the potential vanishes within the scale of non-locality. We will show that a quantum wave-packet spreads faster for a ghost-free and singularity-free gravity as compared to the Newtonian case, therefore providing us a unique scenario for testing classical and quantum properties of short-distance gravity in a laboratory in the near future.

  17. Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.R.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Armfield, S.; Morgan, P.; Srinivas, K,

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems employing

  18. Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Lewis; B. Koren (Barry); H.C. Raven

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems

  19. Investigation of Gravity Waves VIA the Rotational Temperature of Hydroxyl Nightglow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willingham, Erin

    2001-01-01

    ... monochrometer optimized for the visible and near infrared. Quantifying gravity wave activity was the ultimate objective of this experiment. No spectrum of OH nightglow was recorded. The instrumentation was not sensitive enough to pick up the weak signal. This thesis is primarily a characterization of the equipment, its capabilities, and its limitations.

  20. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein’s general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1 / r singularity in the potential – such

  1. A statistical study of variations of internal gravity wave energy characteristics in meteor zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, N. M.; Kalov, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Internal gravity wave (IGW) parameters obtained by the radiometer method have been considered by many other researchers. The results of the processing of regular radiometeor measurements taken during 1979 to 1980 in Obninsk (55.1 deg N, 36.6 deg E) are presented.

  2. Application of dopplionograms and gonionograms to atmospheric gravity wave disturbances in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.W.; Pitteway, M.L.V.

    1982-01-01

    A sequence of digital ionograms is processed by dopplionogram and gonionogram methods. Together, these disclose a disturbance in the F region which descends in altitude with time. Two wavelike periods of the disturbance are evident. The Doppler and angle-of-arrival behavior are consistent with a semiquantitative model of the plasma perturbations caused by an internal atmospheric gravity wave

  3. On the universal hydrodynamics of strongly coupled CFTs with gravity duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with AdS 5 asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal sector of 4D conformal gauge theories. We show that when the boundary metric is flat we can uniquely specify the solution by the boundary stress tensor. We also show that in the Fefferman-Graham coordinates all these solutions have an integer Taylor series expansion in the radial coordinate (i.e. no log terms). Specifying an arbitrary stress tensor can lead to two types of pathologies, it can either destroy the asymptotic AdS boundary condition or it can produce naked singularities. We show that when solutions have no net angular momentum, all hydrodynamic stress tensors preserve the asymptotic AdS boundary condition, though they may produce naked singularities. We construct solutions corresponding to arbitrary hydrodynamic stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham coordinates using a derivative expansion. In contrast to Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates here the constraint equations simplify and at each order it is manifestly Lorentz covariant. The regularity analysis, becomes more elaborate, but we can show that there is a unique hydrodynamic stress tensor which gives us solutions free of naked singularities. In the process we write down explicit first order solutions in both Fefferman-Graham and Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates for hydrodynamic stress tensors with arbitrary η/s. Our solutions can describe arbitrary (slowly varying) velocity configurations. We point out some field-theoretic implications of our general results.

  4. Surface gravity waves and their acoustic signatures, 1-30 Hz, on the mid-Pacific sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W E; Munk, Walter

    2013-10-01

    In 1999, Duennebier et al. deployed a hydrophone and geophone below the conjugate depth in the abyssal Pacific, midway between Hawaii and California. Real time data were transmitted for 3 yr over an abandoned ATT cable. These data have been analyzed in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz. Between 1 and 6 Hz, the bottom data are interpreted as acoustic radiation from surface gravity waves, an extension to higher frequencies of a non-linear mechanism proposed by Longuet-Higgins in 1950 to explain microseisms. The inferred surface wave spectrum for wave lengths between 6 m and 17 cm is saturated (wind-independent) and roughly consistent with the traditional Phillips κ(-4) wave number spectrum. Shorter ocean waves have a strong wind dependence and a less steep wave number dependence. Similar features are found in the bottom record between 6 and 30 Hz. But this leads to an enigma: The derived surface spectrum inferred from the Longuet-Higgins mechanism with conventional assumptions for the dispersion relation is associated with mean square slopes that greatly exceed those derived from glitter. Regardless of the generation mechanism, the measured bottom intensities between 10 and 30 Hz are well below minimum noise standards reported in the literature.

  5. Gravity wave generation from jets and fronts: idealized and real-case simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plougonven, Riwal; Arsac, Antonin; Hertzog, Albert; Guez, Lionel; Vial, François

    2010-05-01

    The generation of gravity waves from jets and fronts remains an outstanding issue in the dynamics of the atmosphere. It is important to explain and quantify this emission because of the several impacts of these waves, in particular the induced momentum fluxes towards the middle atmosphere, and their contribution to turbulence and mixing, e.g. in the region of the tropopause. Yet, the mechanisms at the origin of these waves have been difficult to identify, the fundamental reason for this being the separation between the time scales of balanced motions and gravity waves. Recent simulations of idealized baroclinic life cycles and of dipoles have provided insights into the mechanisms determining the characteristics and the amplitude of gravity waves emitted by jets. It has been shown in particular that the environmental strain and shear play a crucial role in determining the characteristics and location of the emitted waves, emphasizing jet exit regions for the appearance of coherent low-frequency waves. It has also been shown how advection of relatively small-scales allow to overcome the separation of time scales alluded to above. Recent results, remaining open questions and ongoing work on these idealized simulations will be briefly summarized. Nevertheless, unavoidable shortcomings of such idealized simulations include the sensitivity of the emitted waves to model setup (resolution, diffusion, parameterizations) and uncertainty regarding the realism of this aspect of the simulations. Hence, it is necessary to compare simulations with observations in order to assess their relevance. Such comparison has been undertaken using the dataset from the Vorcore campaign (Sept. 2005 - Feb. 2006, Hertzog, J. Atmos. Ocean. Techno. 2007) during which 27 superpressure balloons drifted as quasi-Lagrangian tracers in the lower stratosphere above Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. High-resolution simulations (dx = 20 km) have been carried out using the Weather Research and Forecast

  6. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  7. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  8. Gravity induced corrections to quantum mechanical wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.P.

    1990-03-01

    We perform a semiclassical expansion in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, in powers of the gravitational constant. We then show that quantum gravitational fluctuations can provide a correction to the wave-functions which are solutions of the Schroedinger equation for matter. This also implies a correction to the expectation values of quantum mechanical observables. (author). 6 refs

  9. Current structure of strongly nonlinear interfacial solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Sergey; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim; Churaev, Egor

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) in two-layer flow are computed within the fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with use of numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITgcm). The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments [Carr & Davies, 2006]. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the computations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model [Thiem et al, 2011]. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the interface and near the bottom are computed. The results demonstrated completely different trajectories at different depths of the model area. Thus, in the surface layer is observed the largest displacement of Lagrangian particles, which can be more than two and a half times larger than the characteristic width of the soliton. Located at the initial moment along the middle pycnocline fluid particles move along the elongated vertical loop at a distance of not more than one third of the width of the solitary wave. In the bottom layer of the fluid moves in the opposite direction of propagation of the internal wave, but under the influence of the reverse flow, when the bulk of the velocity field of the soliton ceases to influence the trajectory, it moves in the opposite direction. The magnitude of displacement of fluid particles in the bottom layer is not more than the half-width of the solitary wave. 1. Carr, M., and Davies, P.A. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids, 2006, vol. 18, No. 1, 1 - 10. 2. Thiem, O., Carr

  10. Thermal infrared sounding observations of lower atmospheric variances at Mars and their implications for gravity wave activity: a preliminary examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  11. Perturbed black holes in Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: stability, ringdown, and gravitational-wave emission

    CERN Document Server

    Blázquez-Salcedo, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational waves emitted by distorted black holes---such as those arising from the coalescence of two neutron stars or black holes---carry not only information about the corresponding spacetime but also about the underlying theory of gravity. Although general relativity remains the simplest, most elegant and viable theory of gravitation, there are generic and robust arguments indicating that it is not the ultimate description of the gravitational universe. Here we focus on a particularly appealing extension of general relativity, which corrects Einstein's theory through the addition of terms which are second order in curvature: the topological Gauss-Bonnet invariant coupled to a dilaton. We study gravitational-wave emission from black holes in this theory, and (i) find strong evidence that black holes are linearly (mode) stable against both axial and polar perturbations; (ii) discuss how the quasinormal modes of black holes can be excited during collisions involving black holes, and finally (iii) show that...

  12. Strong CMB constraint on P-wave annihilating dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation via bound state formation occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  13. Hidden regularity for a strongly nonlinear wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.M.

    1988-08-01

    The nonlinear wave equation u''-Δu+f(u)=v in Q=Ωx]0,T[;u(0)=u 0 ,u'(0)=u 1 in Ω; u(x,t)=0 on Σ= Γx]0,T[ where f is a continuous function satisfying, lim |s| sup →+∞ f(s)/s>-∞, and Ω is a bounded domain of R n with smooth boundary Γ, is analysed. It is shown that there exist a solution for the presented nonlinear wave equation that satisfies the regularity condition: |∂u/∂ η|ε L 2 (Σ). Moreover, it is shown that there exist a constant C>0 such that, |∂u/∂ η|≤c{ E(0)+|v| 2 Q }. (author) [pt

  14. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  15. Big Explosions, Strong Gravity: Making Girl Scouts ACEs of Space through Chandra Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lochner, J. C.; Ganguly, R.; Feaga, L. M.; Ford, K. E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Thanks to two years of Chandra E/PO funding we have carried out a number of successful activities with the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, focusing on girls in the 11-17 year age range. Our reasons for targeting this age range include the general decline in interest in math and science that occurs at or after children reach this critical age (meaning that we reach them early enough to have a positive effect). We initially target girls due to their underrepresentation in science, but the actitivities are all gender-neutral and highly adaptable to other groups. The program includes two components, in collaboration with Girl Scouts of Central Maryland. The first component is a well-established one-day Girl Scout patch activity entitled Big Explosions and Strong Gravity (BESG) where the girls earn a patch for their badge sash. The four BESG activities, mostly adapted from existing E/PO material, are available on the World Wide Web for use by others. The activities cover the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for astronomy, the cosmic abundance of the elements and the supernova origin of many of the elements, black holes and their detection, and supernova explosions/stellar evolution. Thus far approximately 200 girls and their parents have participated in BESG and it has now become part of the council culture. The second activity is new and is part of the relatively new Girl Scout Studio 2B program, which is a girl-led program for the 11-17 year age range. Based on several meetings with small groups of girls and adults, we have formed a Studio 2B "club" called the ACE of Space Club (Astronomical Cosmic Exploration). We'll describe our experiences interacting with the Girl Scouts in this girl-led program.

  16. Statistical analysis of thermospheric gravity waves from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Fabry-Perot Interferometers at KEOPS (Sweden, Sodankylä (Finland, and Svalbard (Norway, have been analysed for gravity wave activity on all the clear nights from 2000 to 2006. A total of 249 nights were available from KEOPS, 133 from Sodankylä and 185 from the Svalbard FPI. A Lomb-Scargle analysis was performed on each of these nights to identify the periods of any wave activity during the night. Comparisons between many nights of data allow the general characteristics of the waves that are present in the high latitude upper thermosphere to be determined. Comparisons were made between the different parameters: the atomic oxygen intensities, the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and for each parameter the distribution of frequencies of the waves was determined. No dependence on the number of waves on geomagnetic activity levels, or position in the solar cycle, was found. All the FPIs have had different detectors at various times, producing different time resolutions of the data, so comparisons between the different years, and between data from different sites, showed how the time resolution determines which waves are observed. In addition to the cutoff due to the Nyquist frequency, poor resolution observations significantly reduce the number of short-period waves (<1 h period that may be detected with confidence. The length of the dataset, which is usually determined by the length of the night, was the main factor influencing the number of long period waves (>5 h detected. Comparisons between the number of gravity waves detected at KEOPS and Sodankylä over all the seasons showed a similar proportion of waves to the number of nights used for both sites, as expected since the two sites are at similar latitudes and therefore locations with respect to the auroral oval, confirming this as a likely source region. Svalbard showed fewer waves with short periods than KEOPS data for a season when both had the same time resolution data

  17. Propagation and Breaking at High Altitudes of Gravity Waves Excited by Tropospheric Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1996-01-01

    An anelastic approximation is used with a time-variable coordinate transformation to formulate a two-dimensional numerical model that describes the evolution of gravity waves. The model is solved using a semi-Lagrangian method with monotone (nonoscillatory) interpolation of all advected fields. The time-variable transformation is used to generate disturbances at the lower boundary that approximate the effect of a traveling line of thunderstorms (a squall line) or of flow over a broad topographic obstacle. The vertical propagation and breaking of the gravity wave field (under conditions typical of summer solstice) is illustrated for each of these cases. It is shown that the wave field at high altitudes is dominated by a single horizontal wavelength; which is not always related simply to the horizontal dimension of the source. The morphology of wave breaking depends on the horizontal wavelength; for sufficiently short waves, breaking involves roughly one half of the wavelength. In common with other studies, it is found that the breaking waves undergo "self-acceleration," such that the zonal-mean intrinsic frequency remains approximately constant in spite of large changes in the background wind. It is also shown that many of the features obtained in the calculations can be understood in terms of linear wave theory. In particular, linear theory provides insights into the wavelength of the waves that break at high altitudes, the onset and evolution of breaking. the horizontal extent of the breaking region and its position relative to the forcing, and the minimum and maximum altitudes where breaking occurs. Wave breaking ceases at the altitude where the background dissipation rate (which in our model is a proxy for molecular diffusion) becomes greater than the rate of dissipation due to wave breaking, This altitude, in effect, the model turbopause, is shown to depend on a relatively small number of parameters that characterize the waves and the background state.

  18. Mesoscale variations in acoustic signals induced by atmospheric gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunchuzov, Igor; Kulichkov, Sergey; Perepelkin, Vitaly; Ziemann, Astrid; Arnold, Klaus; Kniffka, Anke

    2009-02-01

    The results of acoustic tomographic monitoring of the coherent structures in the lower atmosphere and the effects of these structures on acoustic signal parameters are analyzed in the present study. From the measurements of acoustic travel time fluctuations (periods 1 min-1 h) with distant receivers, the temporal fluctuations of the effective sound speed and wind speed are retrieved along different ray paths connecting an acoustic pulse source and several receivers. By using a coherence analysis of the fluctuations near spatially distanced ray turning points, the internal wave-associated fluctuations are filtered and their spatial characteristics (coherences, horizontal phase velocities, and spatial scales) are estimated. The capability of acoustic tomography in estimating wind shear near ground is shown. A possible mechanism describing the temporal modulation of the near-ground wind field by ducted internal waves in the troposphere is proposed.

  19. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    slight longitudinal variations, with secondary high- latitude peaks occurring over Greenland and Europe . As the QBO changes to the westerly phase, the...equatorial GW temperature variances from suborbital data (e.g., Eck- ermann et al. 1995). The extratropical wave variances are generally larger in the...emanating from tropopause altitudes, presumably radiated from tropospheric jet stream in- stabilities associated with baroclinic storm systems that

  20. Role of Wind Filtering and Unbalanced Flow Generation in Middle Atmosphere Gravity Wave Activity at Chatanika Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. Triplett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological control of gravity wave activity through filtering by winds and generation by spontaneous adjustment of unbalanced flows is investigated. This investigation is based on a new analysis of Rayleigh LiDAR measurements of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere-lower mesosphere (USLM,40–50kmon 152 nights at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR, Chatanika, Alaska (65◦ N, 147◦ W, over 13 years between 1998 and 2014. The LiDAR measurements resolve inertia-gravity waves with observed periods between 1 h and 4 h and vertical wavelengths between 2 km and 10 km. The meteorological conditions are defined by reanalysis data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA. The gravity wave activity shows large night-to-night variability, but a clear annual cycle with a maximum in winter,and systematic interannual variability associated with stratospheric sudden warming events. The USLM gravity wave activity is correlated with the MERRA winds and is controlled by the winds in the lower stratosphere through filtering by critical layer filtering. The USLM gravity wave activity is also correlated with MERRA unbalanced flow as characterized by the residual of the nonlinear balance equation. This correlation with unbalanced flow only appears when the wind conditions are taken into account, indicating that wind filtering is the primary control of the gravity wave activity.

  1. Propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in arctic zones with elastic ice-sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama; Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.

    2017-04-01

    We present an analytical solution of the boundary value problem of propagating acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean by earthquakes or ice-quakes in arctic zones. At the surface, we assume elastic ice-sheets of a variable thickness, and show that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes have different mode shape than originally derived by Ref. [1] for a rigid ice-sheet settings. Computationally, we couple the ice-sheet problem with the free surface model by Ref. [2] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice-sheets cause inter modal transition at the edges and multidirectional reflections. We then derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially slowly varying thickness of ice-sheet and water depth. Surprisingly, and unlike the free-surface setting, here it is found that the higher acoustic-gravity modes exhibit a larger contribution. These modes travel at the speed of sound in water carrying information on their source, e.g. ice-sheet motion or submarine earthquake, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of quakes. In addition, we found that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes can result in orbital displacements of fluid parcels sufficiently high that may contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation, as postulated by Refs. [1, 3]. References [1] U. Kadri, 2016. Generation of Hydroacoustic Waves by an Oscillating Ice Block in Arctic Zones. Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, 2016, Article ID 8076108, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8076108 [2] A. Abdolali, J. T. Kirby and G. Bellotti, 2015, Depth-integrated equation for hydro-acoustic waves with bottom damping, J. Fluid Mech., 766, R1 doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.37 [3] U. Kadri, 2014. Deep ocean water transportation by acoustic?gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/ 2014JC010234

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  3. Effect of small floating disks on the propagation of gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, F De; Olla, P, E-mail: olla@dsf.unica.it [ISAC-CNR, Sez. Cagliari, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    A dispersion relation for gravity waves in water covered by disk-like impurities embedded in a viscous matrix is derived. The macroscopic equations are obtained by ensemble-averaging the fluid equations at the disk scale in the asymptotic limit of long waves and low disk surface fraction. Various regimes are identified depending on the disk radii and the thickness and viscosity of the top layer. Semi-quantitative analysis in the close-packing regime suggests dramatic modification of the dynamics, with orders of magnitude increase in wave damping and wave dispersion. A simplified model working in this regime is proposed. Possible applications to wave propagation in an ice-covered ocean are discussed and comparison with field data is provided. (paper)

  4. The evolution of a localized nonlinear wave of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazzo, Annagrazia; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2012-11-01

    At the interface between two fluids of different density and in the presence of gravity, there are well known periodic surface waves which can propagate for long distances with little attenuation, as it is for instance the case at the surface of the sea. If wind is present, these waves progressively accumulate energy as they propagate and grow to large sizes—this is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the other hand, we show in this paper that for a given wind strength, there is potential for the growth of a localized nonlinear wave. This wave can reach a size such that the hydrostatic pressure drop from top to bottom equals the stagnation pressure of the wind. This process for the disruption of the flat interface is localized and nonlinear. We study the properties of this wave using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  5. GPS-TEC Observation of Gravity Waves Generated in the Ionosphere During 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chinmaya; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates ionospheric effects of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse, particularly targeting eclipse-generated gravity waves in the ionosphere. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from a number of stations located both along and across the path of eclipse totality has been utilized for this purpose. Distinct gravity wave-like signatures with wave periods around 20-90 min (with dominant peak at 25-30 min wave period) have been observed at all locations both in the path of totality and away from it. The observed gravity waves are more intense at locations closer to the path of totality, and the wave amplitudes decrease gradually with increasing distance from the path of totality. Our result highlights the manifestation of eclipse-generated waves in the variability of the terrestrial ionosphere.

  6. Detection of large-scale concentric gravity waves from a Chinese airglow imager network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Li, Qinzeng; Liu, Xiao

    2018-06-01

    Concentric gravity waves (CGWs) contain a broad spectrum of horizontal wavelengths and periods due to their instantaneous localized sources (e.g., deep convection, volcanic eruptions, or earthquake, etc.). However, it is difficult to observe large-scale gravity waves of >100 km wavelength from the ground for the limited field of view of a single camera and local bad weather. Previously, complete large-scale CGW imagery could only be captured by satellite observations. In the present study, we developed a novel method that uses assembling separate images and applying low-pass filtering to obtain temporal and spatial information about complete large-scale CGWs from a network of all-sky airglow imagers. Coordinated observations from five all-sky airglow imagers in Northern China were assembled and processed to study large-scale CGWs over a wide area (1800 km × 1 400 km), focusing on the same two CGW events as Xu et al. (2015). Our algorithms yielded images of large-scale CGWs by filtering out the small-scale CGWs. The wavelengths, wave speeds, and periods of CGWs were measured from a sequence of consecutive assembled images. Overall, the assembling and low-pass filtering algorithms can expand the airglow imager network to its full capacity regarding the detection of large-scale gravity waves.

  7. Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.

  8. Temporal variability of gravity wave drag - vertical coupling and possible climate links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksovsky, Jiri; Sacha, Petr; Kuchar, Ales; Pisoft, Petr

    2017-04-01

    In the atmosphere, the internal gravity waves (IGW) are one of the fastest ways of natural information transfer in the vertical direction. Tropospheric changes that result in modification of sourcing, propagation or breaking conditions for IGWs almost immediately influence the distribution of gravity wave drag in the stratosphere. So far most of the related studies deal with IGW impacts higher in the upper stratospheric/mesospheric region and with the modulation of IGWs by planetary waves. This is most likely due to the fact that IGWs induce highest accelerations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. However, the imposed drag force is much bigger in the stratosphere. In the presented analysis, we have assessed the relationship between the gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and other climatic phenomena through statistical techniques. Multivariable regression has been applied to investigate the IGW-related eastward and northward wind tendencies in the CMAM30-SD data, subject to the explanatory variables involving local circulation characteristics (derived from regional configuration of the thermobaric field) as well as the phases of the large-scale internal climate variability modes (ENSO, NAO, QBO). Our tests have highlighted several geographical areas with statistically significant responses of the orographic gravity waves effect to each of the variability modes under investigation; additional experiments have also indicated distinct signs of nonlinearity in some of the links uncovered. Furthermore, we have also applied composite analysis of displaced and split stratospheric polar vortex events (SPV) from CMAM30-SD to focus on how the strength and occurrence of the IGW hotspots can play a role in SPV occurrence and frequency.

  9. Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, A

    2015-01-01

    Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints. (paper)

  10. Gravity dual of spin and charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    At high enough charge density, the homogeneous state of the D3-D7' model is unstable to fluctuations at nonzero momentum. We investigate the end point of this instability, finding a spatially modulated ground state, which is a charge and spin density wave. We analyze the phase structure of the model as a function of chemical potential and magnetic field and find the phase transition from the homogeneous state to be first order, with a second-order critical point at zero magnetic field.

  11. Strong convective and shock wave behaviour in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.; Davis, J.; Boris, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A model has been developed to study the gasdynamics of a flare region heated by a stream of energetic electrons. It is shown that the energy deposition can introduce strong chromospheric dynamical effects. As a result of fluid motion into rarified regions, there is considerable redistribution of mass causing a profound influence on the emitted line radiation. (author)

  12. Drake Antarctic Agile Meteor Radar (DrAAMER) First Results: Configuration and Comparison of Mean and Tidal Wind and Gravity Wave Momentum Flux Measurements with SAAMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W. K.; Bageston, J. V.; Pene, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    A new-generation meteor radar was installed at the Brazilian Antarctic Comandante Ferraz Base (62.1degS) in March 2010. This paper describes the motivations for the radar location, its measurement capabilities, and comparisons of measured mean winds, tides, and gravity wave momentum fluxes from April to June of 2010 and 2011 with those by a similar radar on Tierra del Fuego (53.8degS). Motivations for the radars include the "hotspot" of small-scale gravity wave activity extending from the troposphere into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) centered over the Drake Passage, the maximum of the semidiurnal tide at these latitudes, and the lack of other MLT wind measurements in this latitude band. Mean winds are seen to be strongly modulated at planetary wave and longer periods and to exhibit strong coherence over the two radars at shorter time scales as well as systematic seasonal variations. The semidiurnal tide contribute most to the large-scale winds over both radars, with maximum tidal amplitudes during May and maxima at the highest altitudes varying from approx.20 to >70 m/s. In contrast, the diurnal tide and various planetary waves achieve maximum winds of approx.10 to 20 m/s. Monthly-mean gravity wave momentum fluxes appear to reflect the occurrence of significant sources at lower altitudes, with relatively small zonal fluxes over both radars, but with significant, and opposite, meridional momentum fluxes below approx.85 km. These suggest gravity waves propagating away from the Drake Passage at both sites, and may indicate an important source region accounting in part for this "hotspot".

  13. Constraint on reconstructed f(R) gravity models from gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2018-06-01

    The gravitational wave (GW) detection of a binary neutron star inspiral made by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo paves the unprecedented way for multi-messenger observations. The propagation speed of this GW can be scrutinized by comparing the arrival times between GW and neutrinos or photons. It provides the constraint on the mass of the graviton. f(R) gravity theories have the habitual non-zero mass gravitons in addition to usual massless ones. Previously, we show that the model independent f(R) gravity theories can be constructed from the both background evolution and the matter growth with one undetermined parameter. We show that this parameter can be constrained from the graviton mass bound obtained from GW detection. Thus, the GW detection provides the invaluable constraint on the validity of f(R) gravity theories.

  14. Quantum solitonic wave-packet of a meso-scopic system in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we will discuss how to localise a quantum wave-packet due to self-gravitating meso-scopic object by taking into account gravitational self-interaction in the Schrödinger equation beyond General Relativity. In particular, we will study soliton-like solutions in infinite derivative ghost free theories of gravity, which resolves the gravitational 1 / r singularity in the potential. We will show a unique feature that the quantum spread of such a gravitational system is larger than that of the Newtonian gravity, therefore enabling us a window of opportunity to test classical and quantum properties of such theories of gravity in the near future at a table-top experiment.

  15. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Huang, C.M. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Zhou, Q. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW) potential energy density (E{sub P}), kinetic energy density (E{sub K}), and total energy density (E{sub T}), i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2-10 km) and lower stratospheric (typically 18- 25 km) segments have been derived from 10 years (1998- 2007) of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of E{sub P} in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, E{sub K} and E{sub T} in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35 N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35 N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere. (orig.)

  16. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of lower atmospheric inertial gravity wave energy revealed by US radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal and seasonal variations of gravity wave (GW potential energy density (EP, kinetic energy density (EK, and total energy density (ET, i.e, the sum of potential and kinetic energy densities in the tropospheric (typically 2–10 km and lower stratospheric (typically 18–25 km segments have been derived from 10 years (1998–2007 of radiosonde observations over 92 United States stations in the Northern Hemisphere. The latitudinal variation of EP in the lower stratosphere is in good agreement with satellite observations. However, EK and ET in the lower stratosphere are different from satellite observations and the difference is believed to be linked with the latitudinal dependence of GW sources. Our analysis reveals that GW energy properties exhibit distinctive latitudinal and seasonal variations. The upward-propagating GW energy in the troposphere is larger than that in the lower stratosphere at low latitudes but the opposite holds true at high latitudes. The transition latitude, where the upward- propagating energies in the two altitude regions are the same, occurs at 35° N throughout the year. So striking differences between GW activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are not likely explained only by the background wind Doppler shifting due to strong tropospheric jets. Our analysis indicates that the region around tropopause, roughly from 10 km to 18 km, is an important source region, especially at latitudes below 35° N. Our studies strongly suggest that in order to fully understand the global GW activity in the lower atmosphere, the GW kinetic energy and its geographical and seasonal variations should be included, and more attention should be given to GWs in the troposphere and GW sources within the intermediate region, especially the upper troposphere.

  17. Studies of midlatitude mesospheric temperature variability and its relationship to gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Kenneth C.

    1997-10-01

    Temperature observations of the middle atmosphere have been carried out from September 1993 through July 1995 using a Rayleigh backscatter lidar located at Utah State University (42oN, 111oW). Data have been analyzed to obtain absolute temperature profiles from 40 to 90 km. Various sources of error were reviewed in order to ensure the quality of the measurements. This included conducting a detailed examination of the data reduction procedure, integration methods, and averaging techniques, eliminating errors of 1-3%. The temperature structure climatology has been compared with several other mid-latitude data sets, including those from the French lidars, the SME spacecraft, the sodium lidars at Ft. Collins and Urbana, the MSISe90 model, and a high- latitude composite set from Andenes, Norway. In general, good agreement occurs at mid-latitudes, but areas of disagreement do exist. Among these, the Utah temperatures are significantly warmer than the MSISe90 temperatures above approximately 80 km, they are lower below 80 km than any of the others in summer, they show major year- to-year variability in the winter profiles, and they differ from the sodium lidar data at the altitudes where the temperature profiles should overlap. Also, comparisons between observations and a physics based global circulation model, the TIME-GCM, were conducted for a mid-latitude site. A photo-chemical model was developed to predict airglow intensity of OH based on output from the TIME-GCM. Many discrepancies between the model and observations were found, including a modeled summer mesopause too high, a stronger summer inversion not normally observed by lidar, a fall-spring asymmetry in the OH winds and lidar temperatures but not reproduced in the TIME-GCM equinoctial periods, larger winter seasonal wind tide than observed by the FPI, and a failure of the model to reverse the summertime mesospheric jet. It is our conclusion these discrepancies are due to a gravity wave parameterization in the

  18. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique; Ondas de gravidade na estratosfera terrestre inferida atraves da tecnica de radio ocultacao de GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IPeD), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Wickert, Jens, E-mail: cmw@univap.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: joaquim@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: denardin@dae.inpe.br, E-mail: jens.wickert@gfz-potsdam.de [GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam (GFZ), Department of Geodesy and Remote Sensing (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  19. Sea surface temperature as a proxy for convective gravity wave excitation: a study based on global gravity wave observations in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF deduced from satellite measurements by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER instrument and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST with the aim of identifying those oceanic regions for which convection is a major source of gravity waves (GWs. Our study identifies those latitude bands where high correlation coefficients indicate convective excitation with confidence. This is based on a global ray-tracing simulation, which is used to delineate the source and wind-filtering effects. Convective GWs are identified at the eastern coasts of the continents and over the warm water regions formed by the warm ocean currents, in particular the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio. Potential contributions of tropical cyclones to the excitation of the GWs are discussed. Convective excitation can be identified well into the mid-mesosphere. In propagating upward, the centers of GWMF formed by convection shift poleward. Some indications of the main forcing regions are even shown for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT.

  20. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  1. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  2. Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.

  3. Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that Newton's gravitational constant G is calculable, and a specific calculation of G for a class of gauge theories is given. A brief review of past studies of G, especially its scale invariance, scalar fields, and the quantization of gravity, is given. A formula for G that expresses in precise terms the author's philosophy that gravity is induced as a result of quantum fluctuations, as well as a Feynam diagram representing the formula, is derived. Finally, such a calculation of G in the real world, though not yet possible, is anticipated

  4. Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.

  5. Towards New Constraints in Extended Theories of Gravity: Cosmography and Gravitational-Wave Signals from Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de la Cruz Dombriz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined cosmological, astrophysical and numerical tests may shed some light on the viability of theories of gravity beyond Einsteinian relativity. In this letter, we present two different techniques providing complementary ways of testing new physics beyond the Λ CDM cosmological paradigm. First, we shall present some of the latest progress and shortcomings in the cosmographic model-independent approach for several modified gravity theories using supernovae catalogues, baryonic acoustic oscillation data and H ( z differential age compilations. Second, we shall show how once the Einsteinian paradigm is abandoned, the phenomenology of neutron stars changes dramatically since neutron-star masses can be much larger than their General Relativity counterparts. Consequently, the total energy available for radiating gravitational waves could be of the order of several solar masses, and thus a merger of these stars constitutes a privileged wave source. Unfortunately at the present time our persisting lack of understanding in the strong interaction sector does not allow to distinguish the alternative theories from the usual General Relativity predictions.

  6. Destruction of coherence in nondemolition monitoring: quantum 'watchdog effect' in gravity wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The author shows that nondemolition monitoring of a Weber bar may prevent changes of the number of phonons, and thus influence the sensitivity of quantum-counting gravity wave detectors. This effect is similar to the Watchdog Effect which is predicted to delay decays of the monitored, unstable quantum system. Relations between watchdog effect and Environment-Induced Superselection Rules as well as its connections to the fundamental questions of the quantum theory of measurement are briefly considered. (Auth.)

  7. Spontaneous development of rotating inertial gravity wave inside the cylindrical tank with combined in- and outflow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Stachiv, Ivo; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), s. 133-138 ISSN 0869-8643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : inertial gravity wave * free surface * rotating flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0869864313020017

  8. Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkarev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.

  9. An Asymptotic and Stochastic Theory for the Effects of Surface Gravity Waves on Currents and Infragravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J. C.; Lane, E.; Melville, K.; Restrepo, J.; Sullivan, P.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanic surface gravity waves are approximately irrotational, weakly nonlinear, and conservative, and they have a much shorter time scale than oceanic currents and longer waves (e.g., infragravity waves) --- except where the primary surface waves break. This provides a framework for an asymptotic theory, based on separation of time (and space) scales, of wave-averaged effects associated with the conservative primary wave dynamics combined with a stochastic representation of the momentum transfer and induced mixing associated with non-conservative wave breaking. Such a theory requires only modest information about the primary wave field from measurements or operational model forecasts and thus avoids the enormous burden of calculating the waves on their intrinsically small space and time scales. For the conservative effects, the result is a vortex force associated with the primary wave's Stokes drift; a wave-averaged Bernoulli head and sea-level set-up; and an incremental material advection by the Stokes drift. This can be compared to the "radiation stress" formalism of Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, and Hasselmann; it is shown to be a preferable representation since the radiation stress is trivial at its apparent leading order. For the non-conservative breaking effects, a population of stochastic impulses is added to the current and infragravity momentum equations with distribution functions taken from measurements. In offshore wind-wave equilibria, these impulses replace the conventional surface wind stress and cause significant differences in the surface boundary layer currents and entrainment rate, particularly when acting in combination with the conservative vortex force. In the surf zone, where breaking associated with shoaling removes nearly all of the primary wave momentum and energy, the stochastic forcing plays an analogous role as the widely used nearshore radiation stress parameterizations. This talk describes the theoretical framework and presents some

  10. Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Jensen, E.; Podglajen, A.; Coy, L.; Lodha, C.; Candido, S.; Carver, R.

    2017-08-01

    Project Loon has been launching superpressure balloons since January 2013 to provide worldwide Internet coverage. These balloons typically fly between 18 and 21 km and provide measurements of winds and pressure fluctuations in the lower stratosphere. We divide 1560 Loon flights into 3405 two-day segments for gravity wave analysis. We derive the kinetic energy spectrum from the horizontal balloon motion and estimate the temperature perturbation spectrum (proportional to the potential energy spectrum) from the pressure variations. We fit the temperature (and kinetic energy) data to the functional form T'2 = T'o2[ω/ωο)α, where ω is the wave frequency, ωο is daily frequency, T'o is the base temperature amplitude, and α is the spectral slope. Both the kinetic energy and temperature spectra show -1.9 ± 0.2 power-law dependence in the intrinsic frequency window 3-50 cycles/day. The temperature spectrum slope is weakly anticorrelated with the base temperature amplitude. We also find that the wave base temperature distribution is highly skewed. The tropical modal temperature is 0.77 K. The highest amplitude waves occur over the mountainous regions, the tropics, and the high southern latitudes. Temperature amplitudes show little height variation over our 18-21 km domain. Our results are consistent with other limited superpressure balloon analyses. The modal temperature is higher than the temperature currently used in high-frequency gravity wave parameterizations.

  11. QBO Modulation of the Mesopause Gravity Wave Momentum Flux over Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Hibbins, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The interannual variability of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) gravity wave momentum flux over southern mid latitudes (53.7degS) has been studied using more than 7 years of meteor radar observations at Ro Grande, Argentina. A modulation, with periods similar to that of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), is observed in the vertical flux of zonal as well as meridional momentum. The QBO signal is largest in the zonal component during summer and is in phase with the stratospheric QBO at 50 hPa (approx. 21 km). The relation between the stratospheric QBO and the QBO modulation in the MLT gravity wave forcing (derived from the divergence of the momentum flux) was found to be consistent with that expected from the Holton-Tan effect coupled to the interhemispheric coupling mechanism. These results provide the first observational support for the existence of the midlatitude gravity wave forcing anomalies as hypothesized in the interhemispheric coupling mechanism.

  12. Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E

    2016-11-10

    Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.

  13. Determination of gravity wave parameters in the airglow combining photometer and imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyassor, Prosper K.; Arlen Buriti, Ricardo; Paulino, Igo; Medeiros, Amauri F.; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano

    2018-05-01

    Mesospheric airglow measurements of two or three layers were used to characterize both vertical and horizontal parameters of gravity waves. The data set was acquired coincidentally from a multi-channel filter (Multi-3) photometer and an all-sky imager located at São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W) in the equatorial region from 2001 to 2007. Using a least-square fitting and wavelet analysis technique, the phase and amplitude of each observed wave were determined, as well as the amplitude growth. Using the dispersion relation of gravity waves, the vertical and horizontal wavelengths were estimated and compared to the horizontal wavelength obtained from the keogram analysis of the images observed by an all-sky imager. The results show that both horizontal and vertical wavelengths, obtained from the dispersion relation and keogram analysis, agree very well for the waves observed on the nights of 14 October and 18 December 2006. The determined parameters showed that the observed wave on the night of 18 December 2006 had a period of ˜ 43.8 ± 2.19 min, with the horizontal wavelength of 235.66 ± 11.78 km having a downward phase propagation, whereas that of 14 October 2006 propagated with a period of ˜ 36.00 ± 1.80 min with a horizontal wavelength of ˜ 195 ± 9.80 km, and with an upward phase propagation. The observation of a wave taken by a photometer and an all-sky imager allowed us to conclude that the same wave could be observed by both instruments, permitting the investigation of the two-dimensional wave parameter.

  14. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  15. Mesospheric Temperature Measurements over Scandinavia During the Gravity Wave Life Cycle Campaign (GW-LCYCLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M.; Kaifler, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Gravity Wave Life Cycle (GW-LCYCLE) project took place in Northern Scandinavia during the winter 2015-16. This international program focused on investigating the generation and deep propagation of atmospheric gravity waves, especially the orographic waves generated over the Scandinavian mountain range. A series of instruments was operated at several ground-based locations and on-board the DLR HALO Gulfstream V and Falcon aircrafts. As part of this project, Utah State University (USU) deployed 3 Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mappers (AMTM) at the ALOMAR facility, Norway (operational since December 2010), at the IRF institute in Kiruna, Sweden, and at the FMI institute in Sodankylä, Finland. Each of these instruments measures the OH (3,1) rotational temperature over a large region (200x160km) at 87km altitude. During the campaign, their total coverage extended across the Scandinavian Mountain Range, from the wind side in the west to 500 km to the east in the lee of the mountains, allowing the investigation of the occurrence and evolution of gravity waves (GWs) over this part of Scandinavia. Furthermore, the AMTM in Sodankylä operated in the container housing a DLR Rayleigh lidar. Both instruments ran simultaneously and autonomously from November 2015 to April 2016, providing an unprecedented complementary high-quality data set. This presentation will introduce preliminary results obtained during this campaign, in particular the evolution of the mesospheric temperature through the winter, the analysis of mountain waves occurrence and dynamics at mesospheric altitude, as well as the investigation of interesting individual GW cases.

  16. First OH Airglow Observation of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over European Russia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinzeng; Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Jiyao

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, we perform a study of mesospheric gravity waves (GWs) for four different seasons of 1 year in the latitudinal band from 45°N to 75°N using an OH all-sky airglow imager over Kazan (55.8°N, 49.2°E), Russia, during the period of August 2015 to July 2016. Our observational study fills a huge airglow imaging observation gap in Europe and Russia region. In total, 125 GW events and 28 ripple events were determined by OH airglow images in 98 clear nights. The observed GWs showed a strong preference of propagation toward northeast in all seasons, which was significantly different from airglow imager observations at other latitudes that the propagation directions were seasonal dependent. The middle atmosphere wind field is used to explain the lack of low phase speed GWs since these GWs were falling into the blocking region due to the filtering effects. Deep tropospheric convections derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data are determined near Caucasus Mountains region, which suggests that the convections are the dominant source of the GWs in spring, summer, and autumn seasons. This finding extends our knowledge that convection might also be an important source of GWs in the higher latitudes. In winter the generation mechanism of the GWs are considered to be jet stream systems. In addition, the occurrence frequency of ripple is much lower than other stations. This study provides some constraints on the range of GW parameters in GW parameterization in general circulation models in Europe and Russia region.

  17. Testing effective quantum gravity with gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunes, N; Sopuerta, C F

    2010-01-01

    Testing deviation of GR is one of the main goals of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. For the first time, we consistently compute the generation of gravitational waves from extreme-mass ratio inspirals (stellar compact objects into supermassive black holes) in a well-motivated alternative theory of gravity, that to date remains weakly constrained by double binary pulsar observations. The theory we concentrate on is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, a 4-D, effective theory that is motivated both from string theory and loop-quantum gravity, and which enhances the Einstein-Hilbert action through the addition of a dynamical scalar field and the parity-violating Pontryagin density. We show that although point particles continue to follow geodesics in the modified theory, the background about which they inspiral is a modification to the Kerr metric, which imprints a CS correction on the gravitational waves emitted. CS modified gravitational waves are sufficiently different from the General Relativistic expectation that they lead to significant dephasing after 3 weeks of evolution, but such dephasing will probably not prevent detection of these signals, but instead lead to a systematic error in the determination of parameters. We end with a study of radiation-reaction in the modified theory and show that, to leading-order, energy-momentum emission is not CS modified, except possibly for the subdominant effect of scalar-field emission. The inclusion of radiation-reaction will allow for tests of CS modified gravity with space-borne detectors that might be two orders of magnitude larger than current binary pulsar bounds.

  18. Statistical analysis of mesospheric gravity waves over King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.2°S, 58.8°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hosik; Jee, Geonhwa; Kim, Yong; Ham, Young-bae; Song, In-Sun

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of mesospheric short period (King Sejong Station (KSS) (62.22°S, 58.78°W) during a period of 2008-2015. By applying 2-dimensional FFT to time differenced images, we derived horizontal wavelengths, phase speeds, and propagating directions (188 and 173 quasi-monochromatic waves from OH and OI airglow images, respectively). The majority of the observed waves propagated predominantly westward, implying that eastward waves were filtered out by strong eastward stratospheric winds. In order to obtain the intrinsic properties of the observed waves, we utilized winds simultaneously measured by KSS Meteor Radar and temperatures from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). More than half the waves propagated horizontally, as waves were in Doppler duct or evanescent in the vertical direction. This might be due to strong eastward background wind field in the mesosphere over KSS. For freely propagating waves, the vertical wavelengths were in the interquartile range of 9-33 km with a median value of 15 km. The vertical wavelengths are shorter than those observed at Halley station (76°S, 27°W) where the majority of the observed waves were freely propagating. The difference in the wave propagating characteristics between KSS and Halley station suggests that gravity waves may affect mesospheric dynamics in this part of the Antarctic Peninsula more strongly than over the Antarctic continent. Furthermore, strong wind shear over KSS played an important role in changing the vertical wavenumbers as the waves propagated upward between two airglow layers (87 and 96 km).

  19. Gravity and Displacement Variations in the Areas of Strong Earthquakes in the East of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. Yu.; Kalish, E. N.; Stus', Yu. F.; Ardyukov, D. G.; Valitov, M. G.; Timofeev, A. V.; Nosov, D. A.; Sizikov, I. S.; Boiko, E. V.; Gornov, P. Yu.; Kulinich, R. G.; Kolpashchikova, T. N.; Proshkina, Z. N.; Nazarov, E. O.; Kolmogorov, V. G.

    2018-05-01

    The modern gravimetry methods are capable of measuring gravity with an accuracy of up to 10-10 of the normal value, which is commensurate with the accuracy of the up-to-date methods of displacement measurements by satellite geodesy. Significant changes, e.g., in the coseismic displacements of the Earth's surface are recorded in the zones of large earthquakes. These changes should manifest themselves in the variations of gravity. Absolute measurements have been conducted by various modifications of absolute ballistic gravimeters GABL since the mid-1970s at the Klyuchi point (Novosibirsk) in the south of the West Siberian plate. Monitoring observations have been taking place in the seismically active regions since the 1990s. In this paper we consider the results of the long-term measurements of the variations in gravity and recent crustal displacements for different types of earthquakes (the zones of shear, extension, and compression). In the seismically active areas in the east of Russia, the longest annual series of absolute measurements starting from 1992 was recorded in the southeastern segment of Baikal region. In this area, the Kultuk earthquake with magnitude 6.5 occurred on August 27, 2008, at a distance of 25 km from the observation point of the Talaya seismic station. The measurements in Gornyi (Mountainous) Altai have been conducted since 2000. A strikeslip earthquake with magnitude 7.5 took place in the southern segment of the region on September 27, 2003. The effects of the catastrophic M = 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of March 11, 2011 were identified in Primor'e in the far zone of the event. The empirical data are consistent with the results of modeling based on the seismological data. The coseismic variations in gravity are caused by the combined effect of the changes in the elevation of the observation point and crustal deformation.

  20. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...

  1. Quantum-Wave Equation and Heisenberg Inequalities of Covariant Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cremaschini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Key aspects of the manifestly-covariant theory of quantum gravity (Cremaschini and Tessarotto 2015–2017 are investigated. These refer, first, to the establishment of the four-scalar, manifestly-covariant evolution quantum wave equation, denoted as covariant quantum gravity (CQG wave equation, which advances the quantum state ψ associated with a prescribed background space-time. In this paper, the CQG-wave equation is proved to follow at once by means of a Hamilton–Jacobi quantization of the classical variational tensor field g ≡ g μ ν and its conjugate momentum, referred to as (canonical g-quantization. The same equation is also shown to be variational and to follow from a synchronous variational principle identified here with the quantum Hamilton variational principle. The corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations are then obtained upon introducing the Madelung representation for ψ , which provides an equivalent statistical interpretation of the CQG-wave equation. Finally, the quantum state ψ is proven to fulfill generalized Heisenberg inequalities, relating the statistical measurement errors of quantum observables. These are shown to be represented in terms of the standard deviations of the metric tensor g ≡ g μ ν and its quantum conjugate momentum operator.

  2. Impact of dissipation on the energy spectrum of experimental turbulence of gravity surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Antoine; Hassaini, Roumaissa; Redor, Ivan; Sommeria, Joël; Valran, Thomas; Viboud, Samuel; Mordant, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the impact of dissipation on the development of the energy spectrum in wave turbulence of gravity surface waves with emphasis on the effect of surface contamination. We performed experiments in the Coriolis facility, which is a 13-m-diam wave tank. We took care of cleaning surface contamination as well as possible, considering that the surface of water exceeds 100 m2. We observe that for the cleanest condition the frequency energy spectrum shows a power-law decay extending up to the gravity capillary crossover (14 Hz) with a spectral exponent that is increasing with the forcing strength and decaying with surface contamination. Although slightly higher than reported previously in the literature, the exponent for the cleanest water remains significantly below the prediction from the weak turbulence theory. By discussing length and time scales, we show that weak turbulence cannot be expected at frequencies above 3 Hz. We observe with a stereoscopic reconstruction technique that the increase with the forcing strength of energy spectrum beyond 3 Hz is mostly due to the formation and strengthening of bound waves.

  3. A Note on Standing Internal Inertial Gravity Waves of Finite Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of finite amplitude are examined in two-dimensional, standing, internal gravity waves in a rectangular container which rotates about a vertical axis at frequency f/2. Expressions are given for the velocity components, density fluctuations and isopycnal displacements to second order in the wave steepness in fluids with buoyancy frequency, N, of general form, and the effect of finite amplitude on wave frequency is given in an expansion to third order. The first order solutions, and the solutions to second order in the absence of rotation, are shown to conserve energy during a wave cycle. Analytical solutions are found to second order for the first two modes in a deep fluid with N proportional to sech(az), where z is the upward vertical coordinate and a is scaling factor. In the absence of rotation, results for the first mode in the latter stratification are found to be consistent with those for interfacial waves. An analytical solution to fourth order in a fluid with constant N is given and used to examine the effects of rotation on the development of static instability or of conditions in which shear instability may occur. As in progressive internal waves, an effect of rotation is to enhance the possibility of shear instability for waves with frequencies close to f. The analysis points to a significant difference between the dynamics of standing waves in containers of limited size and progressive internal waves in an unlimited fluid; the effect of boundaries on standing waves may inhibit the onset of instability. A possible application of the analysis is to transverse oscillations in long, narrow, steep-sided lakes such as Loch Ness, Scotland.

  4. Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.

  5. Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio

    2012-10-01

    We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.

  6. Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Luz M., E-mail: luzmarinareyes@gmail.com [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar, E-mail: edgar.madriz@red.cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-10-22

    We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.

  7. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-10

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  8. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-01

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar-tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar-tensor modification of gravity.

  9. Simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We present two simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy in inflationary models; one method uses a time-dependent transfer function, the other methods uses an approximate gravity-mode function which is a simple combination of the lowest order spherical Bessel functions. We compare the CBR anisotropy tensor multipole spectrum computed using our methods with the previous result of the highly accurate numerical method, the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote method. Our time-dependent transfer function is more accurate than the time-independent transfer function found by Turner, White, and Lindsey; however, we find that the transfer function method is only good for l approx-lt 120. Using our approximate gravity-wave mode function, we obtain much better accuracy; the tensor multipole spectrum we find differs by less than 2% for l approx-lt 50, less than 10% for l approx-lt 120, and less than 20% for l≤300 from the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote result. Our approximate graviton mode function should be quite useful in studying tensor perturbations from inflationary models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lombriser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  11. Gravity wave-driven fluctuations in OH nightglow from an extended, dissipative emission region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Walterscheid, R.L.; Hickey, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of gravity wave-driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow from an extended source region is generalized to account for effects of eddy kinematic viscosity v and eddy thermal diffusivity κ. In the nondiffusive case, the amplitudes and phases of vertically integrated normalized intensity (δI)/(bar I) and temperature (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ) perturbations and vertically integrated Krassovsky's ratio (η) as functions of period are influenced by the upper limit of vertical integration of the extended source, especially at long periods when vertical wavelengths γ v are small. The effects, which include oscillations in (δT)/(bar I), (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ), and (η), particularly at long periods, are due to constructive and destructive interference of nightglow signals from vertically separated levels of the OH emitting region that occur when γ v is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the main emission region. The sensitivity of these ratios to the upper limit of vertical integration occurs because of the relatively small rate of decay of the intensity of OH emission with height above the peak emission level and the exponential growth with altitude of nondissipative gravity waves. Because eddy diffusion increases γ v , especially at long periods, and reduces wave growth with height compared with the case v = κ = 0, inclusion of eddy diffusion removes the sensitivity of (η) and the other ratios ot the maximum height of vertical integration. It is essential to account for both eddy diffusion and emission from the entire vertically extended emission region to correctly predict (η), (δI)/(bar I), and (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ) at long gravity wave periods

  12. An Estimation of Wave Attenuation Factor in Ultrasonic Assisted Gravity Drainage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that ultrasonic energy can considerably increase the amount of oil recovery in an immiscible displacement process. Although many studies have been performed on investigating the roles of ultrasonic waves, based on the best of our knowledge, little attention has been paid to evaluate wave attenuation parameter, which is an important parameter in the determination of the energy delivered to the porous medium. In this study, free fall gravity drainage process is investigated in a glass bead porous medium. Kerosene and Dorud crude oil are used as the wetting phases and air is used as the non-wetting phase. A piston-like displacement model with considering constant capillary pressure and applying Corey type approximation for relative permeabilities of both wetting and nonwetting phases is applied. A pressure term is considered to describe the presence of ultrasonic waves and the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves is calculated by evaluating the value of external pressure applied to enhance the flow using the history matching of the data in the presence and absence of ultrasonic waves. The results introduce the attenuation factor as an important parameter in the process of ultrasonic assisted gravity drainage. The results show that only a low percentage of the ultrasonic energy (5.8% for Dorud crude oil and 3.3% for kerosene is delivered to the flow of the fluid; however, a high increase in oil recovery enhancement (15% for Dorud crude oil and 12% for Kerosene is observed in the experiments. This proves that the ultrasonic waves, even when the contribution is not substantial, can be a significantly efficient method for flow enhancement.

  13. Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-12-01

    A coherent and reasonable account of gravitational physics is shown to be possible. The three non-gravitational interactions are described by a scale and conformal invariant and asymptotically free Yang-Mills theory with massless fermions. Conformal invariance is required so that the gravitational sector of the theory is given by the Weyl action. The theory is renormalizable and has a unitary S-matrix. Possible breakdown of causality is observable only at the Planck length. In this theory, Einstein's theory of gravity is induced as an effective long-distance theory. An R 2 term is also induced with a finite and physically desired sign

  14. Tsunami mitigation by resonant triad interaction with acoustic-gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Tsunamis have been responsible for the loss of almost a half million lives, widespread long lasting destruction, profound environmental effects, and global financial crisis, within the last two decades. The main tsunami properties that determine the size of impact at the shoreline are its wavelength and amplitude in the ocean. Here, we show that it is in principle possible to reduce the amplitude of a tsunami, and redistribute its energy over a larger space, through forcing it to interact with resonating acoustic-gravity waves. In practice, generating the appropriate acoustic-gravity modes introduces serious challenges due to the high energy required for an effective interaction. However, if the findings are extended to realistic tsunami properties and geometries, we might be able to mitigate tsunamis and so save lives and properties. Moreover, such a mitigation technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's energy.

  15. Acoustic Gravity Waves Generated by an Oscillating Ice Sheet in Arctic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, A.; Kadri, U.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the formation of acoustic-gravity waves due to oscillations of large ice blocks, possibly triggered by atmospheric and ocean currents, ice block shrinkage or storms and ice-quakes.For the idealized case of a homogeneous weakly compressible water bounded at the surface by ice sheet and a rigid bed, the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by the water depth h and angular frequency of oscillating ice sheet ω ; The acoustic wave field is governed by the leading mode given by: Nmax=\\floor {(ω h)/(π c)} where c is the sound speed in water and the special brackets represent the floor function (Fig1). Unlike the free-surface setting, the higher acoustic modes might exhibit a larger contribution and therefore all progressive acoustic modes have to be considered.This study focuses on the characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves generated by an oscillating elastic ice sheet in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with a free surface model [Abdolali et al. 2015] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice sheets cause inter modal transition and multidirectional reflections. A theoretical solution and a 3D numerical model have been developed for the study purposes. The model is first validated against the theoretical solution [Kadri, 2016]. To overcome the computational difficulties of 3D models, we derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially varying ice sheet thickness and water depth. We show that the generated acoustic-gravity waves contribute significantly to deep ocean currents compared to other mechanisms. In addition, these waves travel at the sound speed in water carrying information on ice sheet motion, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of ice-quakes. Fig1:Snapshots of dynamic pressure given by an oscillating ice sheet; h=4500m, c=1500m/s, semi-length b=10km, ζ =1m, omega=π rad/s. Abdolali, A., Kirby, J. T. and Bellotti, G

  16. Recent progress in mesospheric gravity wave studies using nightglow imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton Junior, William R.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Olsen, Chris; Babu, Hema Karnam Surendra [Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah (United States); Medeiros, Amauri F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Unidade Academica de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao, E-mail: mtaylor@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: wpen@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: dominiquepautet@gmail.com, E-mail: yucheng@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: cmellob@gmail.com, E-mail: hema_sb@rediffmail.com, E-mail: afragoso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A variety of optical remote sensing techniques have now revealed a rich spectrum of wave activity in the upper atmosphere. Many of these perturbations, with periodicities ranging from {approx} 5 min to many hours and horizontal scales of a few tens of km to several thousands km, are due to freely propagating atmospheric gravity waves and forced tidal oscillations. Passive optical observations of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region ( {approx} 80-100 km) are facilitated by several naturally occurring, vertically distinct nightglow layers. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art ground-based CCD imaging techniques to detect these waves in intensity and temperature. All-sky (180 deg ) image measurements are used to illustrate the characteristics of small-scale, short period ( < 1 hour) waves and to investigate their seasonal propagation and momentum impact on the MLT region. These results are then contrasted with measurements of mesospheric temperature made using a new temperature mapping imaging system capable of determining induced temperature amplitudes of a large range of wave motions and investigating night-to-night and seasonal variability in mesospheric temperature. (author)

  17. Instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in atmospheres and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane are investigated. The wave-energy exchange equation shows that there is an exchange of energy with the background stratified medium. The energy source driving the instability lies in the background enthalpy released by the gravitational buoyancy force. It is shown that if the phase speed of the westward propagating low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave exceeds the Poincaré-Kelvin (or "equivalent" shallow water wave speed, instability arises from the merging of Rossby and Poincaré modes. There are two key parameters in this instability condition; namely, the equatorial/rotational Mach (or Froude number M and the latitude θ0 of the β-plane. In general waves equatorward of a critical latitude for given M can be driven unstable, with corresponding growth rates of the order of a day or so. Although these conclusions may only be safely drawn for short wavelengths corresponding to a JWKB wave packet propagating internally and located far from boundaries, nevertheless such a local instability may play a significant role in atmosphere-ocean dynamics.

  18. Strong quantum violation of the gravitational weak equivalence principle by a non-Gaussian wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P; Majumdar, A S; Sinha, S; Home, D; Mousavi, S V; Mozaffari, M R

    2012-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle of gravity is examined at the quantum level in two ways. First, the position detection probabilities of particles described by a non-Gaussian wave packet projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection are calculated. These probabilities exhibit mass dependence at both these points, thereby reflecting the quantum violation of the weak equivalence principle. Second, the mean arrival time of freely falling particles is calculated using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. Such a mass dependence is shown to be enhanced by increasing the non-Gaussianity parameter of the wave packet, thus signifying a stronger violation of the weak equivalence principle through a greater departure from Gaussianity of the initial wave packet. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanishes in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter. A selection of Bohm trajectories is exhibited to illustrate these features in the free fall case. (paper)

  19. Vertical Transport of Momentum by the Inertial-Gravity Internal Waves in a Baroclinic Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Slepyshev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When the internal waves break, they are one of the sources of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence causes the vertical exchange in the ocean. However, internal waves with regard to the Earth rotation in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous two-dimensional current are able to contribute to the vertical transport. Free inertial-gravity internal waves in a baroclinic current in a boundless basin of a constant depth are considered in the Bussinesq approximation. Boundary value problem of linear approximation for the vertical velocity amplitude of internal waves has complex coefficients when current velocity component, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, depends on the vertical coordinate (taking into account the rotation of the Earth. Eigenfunction and wave frequency are complex, and it is shown that a weak wave damping takes place. Dispersive relation and wave damping decrement are calculated in the linear approximation. At a fixed wave number damping decrement of the second mode is larger (in the absolute value than the one of the first mode. The equation for vertical velocity amplitude for real profiles of the Brunt – Vaisala frequency and current velocity are numerically solved according to implicit Adams scheme of the third order of accuracy. The dispersive curves of the first two modes do not reach inertial frequency in the low-frequency area due to the effect of critical layers in which wave frequency of the Doppler shift is equal to the inertial one. Termination of the second mode dispersive curves takes place at higher frequency than the one of the first mode. In the second order of the wave amplitude the Stokes drift speed is determined. It is shown that the Stokes drift speed, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the transversal component of current velocity depends on the vertical coordinate. In this case, the Stokes drift speed in the second mode is lower than

  20. Effective gravitational wave stress-energy tensor in alternative theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Leo C.; Yunes, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the stress-energy of gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. For gravitational waves, the dominant contribution is characterized by an effective stress-energy tensor at future null infinity. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with dynamical scalar fields coupled to higher-order curvature invariants and show that the gravitational wave stress-energy tensor still reduces to Isaacson's. The calculations presented in this paper are crucial to perform systematic tests of such modified gravity theories through the orbital decay of binary pulsars or through gravitational wave observations.

  1. Imaging gravity waves in lower stratospheric AMSU-A radiances, Part 2: Validation case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Eckermann

    2006-01-01

    , horizontal structure and time evolution that closely match those observed in the AMSU-A data. These comparisons not only verify gravity wave detection and horizontal imaging capabilities for AMSU-A Channel 9, but provide an absolute validation of the anticipated radiance signals for a given three-dimensional gravity wave, based on the modeling of Eckermann and Wu (2006.

  2. Analyses of the stratospheric dynamics simulated by a GCM with a stochastic nonorographic gravity wave parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serva, Federico; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Riccio, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the propagation and breaking of atmospheric gravity waves have long been considered crucial for their impact on the circulation, especially in the stratosphere and mesosphere, between heights of 10 and 110 km. These waves, that in the Earth's atmosphere originate from surface orography (OGWs) or from transient (nonorographic) phenomena such as fronts and convective processes (NOGWs), have horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 1000 km, vertical wavelengths of several km, and frequencies spanning from minutes to hours. Orographic and nonorographic GWs must be accounted for in climate models to obtain a realistic simulation of the stratosphere in both hemispheres, since they can have a substantial impact on circulation and temperature, hence an important role in ozone chemistry for chemistry-climate models. Several types of parameterization are currently employed in models, differing in the formulation and for the values assigned to parameters, but the common aim is to quantify the effect of wave breaking on large-scale wind and temperature patterns. In the last decade, both global observations from satellite-borne instruments and the outputs of very high resolution climate models provided insight on the variability and properties of gravity wave field, and these results can be used to constrain some of the empirical parameters present in most parameterization scheme. A feature of the NOGW forcing that clearly emerges is the intermittency, linked with the nature of the sources: this property is absent in the majority of the models, in which NOGW parameterizations are uncoupled with other atmospheric phenomena, leading to results which display lower variability compared to observations. In this work, we analyze the climate simulated in AMIP runs of the MAECHAM5 model, which uses the Hines NOGW parameterization and with a fine vertical resolution suitable to capture the effects of wave-mean flow interaction. We compare the results obtained with two

  3. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign. Part I. Observations with collocated radars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, P.; Serafimovich, A.; Peters, D.; Latteck, R. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Goldberg, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    During the MaCWAVE campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andoeya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes and the Swedish rocket range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHP radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3 N, 16.0 E) and the ESRAD VHP radar near Kiruna (67.9 N, 21.9 E). Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24-26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4-5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13-14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of {proportional_to}200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of {proportional_to}5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains. (orig.)

  4. Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás

    2018-05-01

    The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.

  5. Distance measurement and wave dispersion in a Liouville-string approach to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1997-01-01

    Within a Liouville approach to non-critical string theory, we discuss space-time foam effects on the propagation of low-energy particles. We find an induced frequency-dependent dispersion in the propagation of a wave packet, and observe that this would affect the outcome of measurements involving low-energy particles as probes. In particular, the maximum possible order of magnitude of the space-time foam effects would give rise to an error in the measurement of distance comparable to that independently obtained in some recent heuristic quantum-gravity analyses. We also briefly compare these error estimates with the precision of astrophysical measurements.

  6. Planetary-Scale Inertio Gravity Waves in the Numerical Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. R.; Talaat, E. R.; Porter, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours. Waves with such a period are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), and they are identified as planetary-scale inertio gravity waves (IGW). These IGWs have periods between 9 and 11 hours and appear above 60 km in the zonal mean (m = 0), as well as in zonal wavenumbers m = 1 to 4. The waves can propagate eastward and westward and have vertical wavelengths around 25 km. The amplitudes in the wind field are typically between 10 and 20 m/s and can reach 30 m/s in the westward propagating component for m = 1 at the poles. In the temperature perturbations, the wave amplitudes above 100 km are typically 5 K and as large as 10 K for m = 0 at the poles. The IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in late winter and spring. In the NSM, the IGW are generated like the planetary waves (PW). They are produced apparently by the instabilities that arise in the zonal mean circulation. Relative to the PWs, however, the IGWs propagate zonally with much larger velocities, such that they are not affected much by interactions with the background zonal winds. Since the IGWs can propagate through the mesosphere without much interaction, except for viscous dissipation, one should then expect that they reach the thermosphere with significant and measurable amplitudes.

  7. Seasonal and nightly variations of gravity-wave energy density in the middle atmosphere measured by the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.

  8. Studies of Gravity Waves Using Michelson Interferometer Measurements of OH (3-1) Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-In; Cho, Young-Min; Lee, Bang Yong; Kim, J.

    2001-06-01

    As part of a long-term program for polar upper atmospheric studies, temperatures and intensities of the OH (3-1) bands were derived from spectrometric observations of airglow emissions over King Sejong station (62.22o S, 301.25o E). These measurements were made with a Michelson interferometer to cover wavelength regions between 1000 nm and 2000 nm. A spectral analysis was performed to individual nights of data to acquire information on the waves in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. It is assumed that the measured fluctuations in the intensity and temperature of the OH (3-1) airglow were caused by gravity waves propagating through the emission layer. Correlation of intensity and temperature variation revealed oscillations with periods ranging from 2 to 9 hours. We also calculated Krassovsky's parameter and compared with published values.

  9. Studies of Gravity Waves Using Michelson Interferometer Measurements of OH (3-1 Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Won

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a long-term program for polar upper atmospheric studies, temperatures and intensities of the OH (3-1 bands were derived from spectrometric observations of airglow emissions over King Sejong station (62.22o S, 301.25o E. These measurements were made with a Michelson interferometer to cover wavelength regions between 1000 nm and 2000 nm. A spectral analysis was performed to individual nights of data to acquire information on the waves in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. It is assumed that the measured fluctuations in the intensity and temperature of the OH (3-1 airglow were caused by gravity waves propagating through the emission layer. Correlation of intensity and temperature variation revealed oscillations with periods ranging from 2 to 9 hours. We also calculated Krassovsky's parameter and compared with published values.

  10. Secondary gravity waves from momentum deposition in the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the generation, propagation and effectsof secondary gravity waves (GWs) from momentum deposition in the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere in high-resolution GW-resolving models and in TEC/lidar/redline data. We show that secondary GWs generated from the dissipation of orographic GWs at McMurdo Station in Antarctica play a dominant role in the wave activity over McMurdo in the wintertime mesosphere. These secondary GWs are created in the stratosphere, and have been identified in models and data via their telltale "fishbone" appearance in z-t plots. We also show that secondary GWs from the dissipation of GWs excited by deep convectiongenerate concentric rings in the F-region ionosphere. These model results and data point to the importance of secondary GWs from momentumdeposition in the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere.

  11. Imaging the Chicxulub central crater zone from large scale seismic acoustic wave propagation and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments

  12. Gravity waves from the non-renormalizable electroweak vacua phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Eric [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Vaudrevange, Pascal M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    It is currently believed that the Standard Model is an effective low energy theory which in principle may contain higher dimensional non-renormalizable operators. These operators may modify the standard model Higgs potential in many ways, one of which being the appearance of a second vacuum. For a wide range of parameters, this new vacuum becomes the true vacuum. It is then assumed that our universe is currently sitting in the false vacuum. Thus the usual second-order electroweak phase transition at early times will be followed by a second, first-order phase transition. In cosmology, a first-order phase transition is associated with the production of gravity waves. In this paper we present an analysis of the production of gravitational waves during such a second electroweak phase transition. We find that, for one certain range of parameters, the stochastic background of gravitational waves generated by bubble nucleation and collision have an amplitude which is estimated to be of order {omega}{sub GW}h{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -11} at f=3 x 10{sup -4} Hz, which is within reach of the planned sensitivity of LISA. For another range of parameters, we find that the amplitude is estimated to be of order {omega}{sub GW}h{sup 2}{proportional_to} 0{sup -25} around f=10{sup 3} Hz, which is within reach of LIGO. Hence, it is possible to detect gravity waves from such a phase transition at two different detectors, with completely different amplitude and frequency ranges. (orig.)

  13. Agradient velocity, vortical motion and gravity waves in a rotating shallow-water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutyrin Georgi, G.

    2004-07-01

    A new approach to modelling slow vortical motion and fast inertia-gravity waves is suggested within the rotating shallow-water primitive equations with arbitrary topography. The velocity is exactly expressed as a sum of the gradient wind, described by the Bernoulli function,B, and the remaining agradient part, proportional to the velocity tendency. Then the equation for inverse potential vorticity,Q, as well as momentum equations for agradient velocity include the same source of intrinsic flow evolution expressed as a single term J (B, Q), where J is the Jacobian operator (for any steady state J (B, Q) = 0). Two components of agradient velocity are responsible for the fast inertia-gravity wave propagation similar to the traditionally used divergence and ageostrophic vorticity. This approach allows for the construction of balance relations for vortical dynamics and potential vorticity inversion schemes even for moderate Rossby and Froude numbers assuming the characteristic value of |J(B, Q)| = to be small. The components of agradient velocity are used as the fast variables slaved to potential vorticity that allows for diagnostic estimates of the velocity tendency, the direct potential vorticity inversion with the accuracy of 2 and the corresponding potential vorticity-conserving agradient velocity balance model (AVBM). The ultimate limitations of constructing the balance are revealed in the form of the ellipticity condition for balanced tendency of the Bernoulli function which incorporates both known criteria of the formal stability: the gradient wind modified by the characteristic vortical Rossby wave phase speed should be subcritical. The accuracy of the AVBM is illustrated by considering the linear normal modes and coastal Kelvin waves in the f-plane channel with topography.

  14. Instability of nonplanar modulated dust acoustic wave packets in a strongly coupled nonthermal dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com; Zedan, N. A., E-mail: nesreenplasma@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. 34517 (Egypt); El-Taibany, W. F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com, E-mail: eltaibany@du.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, P.O. 960 Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-15

    Cylindrical and spherical amplitude modulations of dust acoustic (DA) solitary wave envelopes in a strongly coupled dusty plasma containing nonthermal distributed ions are studied. Employing a reductive perturbation technique, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation including the geometrical effect is derived. The influences of nonthermal ions, polarization force, and the geometries on the modulational instability conditions are analyzed and the possible rogue wave structures are discussed in detail. It is found that the spherical DA waves are more structurally stable to perturbations than the cylindrical ones. Possible applications of these theoretical findings are briefly discussed.

  15. Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan

    2016-04-22

    We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.

  16. Analysis of the Effect of Electron Density Perturbations Generated by Gravity Waves on HF Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.

  17. Influences of Gravity Waves on Convectively Induced Turbulence (CIT): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Robert D.; Trier, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    Thunderstorms are known to produce turbulence. Such turbulence is commonly referred to as convectively induced turbulence or CIT, and can be hazardous to aviation. Although this turbulence can occur both within and outside the convection, out-of-cloud CIT is particularly hazardous, since it occurs in clear air and cannot be seen by eye or onboard radar. Furthermore, due to its small scale and its ties to the underlying convection, it is very difficult to forecast. Guidelines for out-of-cloud CIT avoidance are available, but they are oversimplified and can be misleading. In the search for more appropriate and physically based avoidance guidelines, considerable research has been conducted in recent years on the nature of the phenomenon, and in particular, its connection to gravity waves generated by the convection. This paper reviews the advances in our understanding of out-of-cloud CIT and its relation to convective gravity waves, and provides several detailed examples of observed cases to elucidate some of the underlying dynamics.

  18. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  19. Three-Dimensional Coupled NLS Equations for Envelope Gravity Solitary Waves in Baroclinic Atmosphere and Modulational Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.

  20. The dust acoustic wave in a bounded dusty plasma with strong electrostatic interactions between dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma cylindrical waveguide is derived, accounting for strong electrostatic interactions between charged dust grains. It is found that the boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW. The present result should be helpful for understanding the frequency spectrum of the DAW in a dusty plasma waveguide with strongly coupled charged dust grains. - Highlights: → We study the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a bounded plasma. → We account for interactions between dust grains. → The boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW.

  1. Phase locking in backward-wave oscillators with strong end reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Sinitsyn, O. V.; Rodgers, J.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of phase-locked oscillations in a backward-wave oscillator with strong end reflections is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the locking bandwidth of such a device phase-locked by a prebunched electron beam can be twice the bandwidth of a resonator formed by a waveguide with strong end reflections. It is also shown that the device can operate with the efficiency exceeding 50% and that, in some cases, it can exhibit a hysteresis in the process of tuning the signal frequency. The applicability of the results obtained to the experiments with the plasma-assisted backward-wave oscillator currently underway at the University of Maryland is discussed

  2. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: pintu@ipr.res.in; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2007-09-03

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO{sub 2} dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of {partial_derivative}{omega}/{partial_derivative}k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  3. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO 2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects

  4. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2007-09-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  5. Magnetoelastic shear wave propagation in pre-stressed anisotropic media under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nirmala; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Singh, Abhishek K.; Sahu, Sanjeev A.

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigates the propagation of shear wave (horizontally polarized) in two initially stressed heterogeneous anisotropic (magnetoelastic transversely isotropic) layers in the crust overlying a transversely isotropic gravitating semi-infinite medium. Heterogeneities in both the anisotropic layers are caused due to exponential variation (case-I) and linear variation (case-II) in the elastic constants with respect to the space variable pointing positively downwards. The dispersion relations have been established in closed form using Whittaker's asymptotic expansion and were found to be in the well-agreement to the classical Love wave equations. The substantial effects of magnetoelastic coupling parameters, heterogeneity parameters, horizontal compressive initial stresses, Biot's gravity parameter, and wave number on the phase velocity of shear waves have been computed and depicted by means of a graph. As a special case, dispersion equations have been deduced when the two layers and half-space are isotropic and homogeneous. The comparative study for both cases of heterogeneity of the layers has been performed and also depicted by means of graphical illustrations.

  6. Constraints on Born-Infeld gravity from the speed of gravitational waves after GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2018-04-01

    The observations of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star merger event GW170817 and the subsequent observation of its electromagnetic counterparts from the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A provide us a significant opportunity to study theories of gravity beyond general relativity. An important outcome of these observations is that they constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to less than 10-15c . Also, the time delay between the arrivals of gravitational waves at different detectors constrains the speed of gravity at the Earth to be in the range 0.55 c gravity: Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. We show that, in EiBI theory, the speed of gravitational waves in matter deviates from c . From the time delay in the arrival of gravitational wave signals at Earth-based detectors, we obtain the bound on the theory parameter κ as |κ |≲1021 m2 . Similarly, from the time delay between the signals of GW170817 and GRB 170817A, in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we obtain |κ |≲1037 m2 . Although the bounds on κ are weak compared to other earlier bounds from the study of neutron stars, stellar evolution, primordial nucleosynthesis, etc., our bounds are from direct observations and thus worth noting.

  7. Neutrino emission, equation of state and the role of strong gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, O. L., E-mail: ocaballe@uoguelph.ca [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2016-07-07

    Neutron-star mergers are interesting for several reasons: they are proposed as the progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts, they have been speculated to be a site for the synthesis of heavy elements, and they emit gravitational waves possibly detectable at terrestrial facilities. The understanding of the merger process, from the pre-merger stage to the final compact object-accreting system involves detailed knowledge of numerical relativity and nuclear physics. In particular, key ingredients for the evolution of the merger are neutrino physics and the matter equation of state. We present some aspects of neutrino emission from binary neutron star mergers showing the impact that the equation of state has on neutrinos and discuss some spectral quantities relevant to their detection such as energies and luminosities far from the source.

  8. Surface-gravity inequalities and generic conditions for strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-German, Wenceslao

    2003-01-01

    Transforming Penrose's intuitive picture of a strong cosmic censorship principle - that generically forbids the appearance of locally naked space-time singularities - into a formal mathematical proof, remains at present, one of the most outstanding unsolved mathematical problems from the theory of gravitational collapse. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that we do not possess yet a clear-cut understanding of the hypothesis needed for the establishment of some sort of strong cosmic censorship theorem. What we have is a selected list of solutions, which at first sight seem to go against cosmic censorship, but at the end they fail in some way. However, the space of solutions of Einstein's field equations is vast. In this article, we plan to increase one's intuition by establishing a link between certain inequalities for Cauchy-horizon stability and a set of generic conditions, such as a reasonable equation of state, which determines whether or not the space-time is asymptotically flat, an energy condition, and a hypothesis over the class of metrics on which Einstein's field equations ought to be solved to ensure strong cosmic censorship inside black holes. With these tools in hand we examine the Cauchy-horizon stability of the theory created by Born and Infeld, whose action principle has been used as a prototype in superstring theory, and the singularity-free Bardeen black-hole model

  9. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This

  10. Properties of internal planetary-scale inertio gravity waves in the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Mayr

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes in the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10h. Waves with such a period are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, and they are identified as planetary-scale inertio gravity waves (IGW. These IGWs have periods between 9 and 11h and appear above 60km in the zonal mean (m=0, as well as in m=1 to 4, propagating eastward and westward. Under the influence of the Coriolis force, the amplitudes of the waves propagating westward are larger at high latitudes than those propagating eastward. The waves grow in magnitude at least up to about 100km and have vertical wavelengths around 25km. Applying a running window of 15 days for spectral analysis, the amplitudes in the wind field are typically between 10 and 20m/s and can reach 30m/s in the westward propagating component for m=1 at the poles. In the temperature perturbations, the wave amplitudes above 100km are typically 5K and as large as 10K for m=0 at the poles. The IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in late winter and spring. Numerical experiments show that such waves are also generated without excitation of the migrating tides. The amplitudes and periods then are similar, indicating that the tides are not essential to generate the waves. However, the seasonal variations without tides are significantly different, which leads to the conclusion that non linear interactions between the semidiurnal tide and planetary waves must contribute to the excitation of the IGWs. Directly or indirectly through the planetary waves, the IGWs are apparently excited by the instabilities that arise in the zonal mean circulation. When the solar heating is turned off for m=0, both the PWs and IGWs essentially disappear. That the IGWs and PWs have common roots in their excitation mechanism is also indicated by the striking similarity of their seasonal variations in the

  11. Strong Measurements Give a Better Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele

    2016-01-29

    Weak measurements have thus far been considered instrumental in the so-called direct measurement of the quantum wave function [4J. S. Lundeen, Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011).]. Here we show that a direct measurement of the wave function can be obtained by using measurements of arbitrary strength. In particular, in the case of strong measurements, i.e., those in which the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus is maximum, we compared the precision and the accuracy of the two methods, by showing that strong measurements outperform weak measurements in both for arbitrary quantum states in most cases. We also give the exact expression of the difference between the original and reconstructed wave function obtained by the weak measurement approach; this will allow one to define the range of applicability of such a method.

  12. Frozen-wave instability in near-critical hydrogen subjected to horizontal vibration under various gravity fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D

    2014-01-01

    The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].

  13. Solutions to the strong-CP problem in a world with gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON

    1992-01-01

    We examine various solutions of the strong-CP problem to determine their sensitivity to possible violations of global symmetries by Plauck scale physics. While some solutions remain viable even in the face of such effects. Violations of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry by non-renormalizable operators of dimension less than 10 will generally shift the value of bar θ to values inconsistent with the experimental bound bar θ approx-lt 10 - 9. We show that it is possible to construct axion models where gauge symmetries protect PQ symmetry to the requisite level

  14. Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure from Joint Inversion of Body Wave and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We use both free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model of the GRACE satellite mission. The gravity data provide...relocation analysis. We use both free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model of the GRACE satellite mission. The gravity...topographic relief this effect needs to be removed; thus, we converted free-air anomalies into Bouguer anomalies assuming a standard density for crustal rocks

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the

  16. Numerical simulation of convective generated gravity waves in the stratosphere and MLT regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Convection is an important source of gravity wave generation, especially in the summer tropics and midlatitudes, and coherent wave fields above convection are now routinely measured in the stratosphere and mesosphere [e.g. Hoffmann et al., JGR, 118, 2013; Gong et al., JGR, 120, 2015; Perwitasari et al., GRL, 42, 22, 2016]. Numerical studies have been performed to investigate the generation mechanisms, source spectra, and their effects on the middle and upper atmosphere [e.g. Fovell et al., AMS, 49,16, 1992; Alexander and Holton, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4 2004; Vincent et al., JGR, 1118, 2013], however there is still considerable work needed to fully describe these parameters. GCMs currently lack the resolution to explicitly simulate convection generation and rely on simplified parameterizations while full cloud resolving models are computationally expensive and often only extend into the stratosphere. More recent studies have improved the realism of these simulations by using radar derived precipitation rates to drive latent heating in models that simulate convection [Grimsdell et al., AMS, 67, 2010; Stephan and Alexander., J. Adv. Model. Earth. Syst, 7, 2015], however they too only consider wave propagation in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use a 2D nonlinear, fully compressible model [Snively and Pasko., JGR, 113, 2008] to excite convectively generated waves, based on NEXRAD radar data, using the Stephan and Alexander [2015] algorithms. We study the propagation, and spectral evolution of the generated waves up into the MLT region. Ambient atmosphere parameters are derived from observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data, and stratospheric (AIRS) and mesospheric (Lidar, OH airglow) observations enable comparisons with simulation results.

  17. Gravity wave and neutrino bursts from stellar collapse: A sensitive test of neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.; Barsuglia, M.; Bizouard, M.A.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Hello, P.; Pradier, T.

    2002-01-01

    New methods are proposed with the goal to determine absolute neutrino masses from the simultaneous observation of the bursts of neutrinos and gravitational waves emitted during a stellar collapse. It is shown that the neutronization electron neutrino flash and the maximum amplitude of the gravitational wave signal are tightly synchronized with the bounce occurring at the end of the core collapse on a time scale better than 1 ms. The existing underground neutrino detectors (SuperKamiokande, SNO,...) and the gravity wave antennas soon to operate (LIGO, VIRGO,...) are well matched in their performance for detecting galactic supernovae and for making use of the proposed approach. Several methods are described, which apply to the different scenarios depending on neutrino mixing. Given the present knowledge on neutrino oscillations, the methods proposed are sensitive to a mass range where neutrinos would essentially be mass degenerate. The 95% C.L. upper limit which can be achieved varies from 0.75 eV/c 2 for large ν e survival probabilities to 1.1 eV/c 2 when in practice all ν e 's convert into ν μ 's or ν τ 's. The sensitivity is nearly independent of the supernova distance

  18. Propagation of 3D internal gravity wave beams in a slowly varying stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Boyu; Akylas, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    The time-mean flows induced by internal gravity wave beams (IGWB) with 3D variations have been shown to have dramatic implications for long-term IGWB dynamics. While uniform stratifications are convenient both theoretically and in the laboratory, stratifications in the ocean can vary by more than an order of magnitude over the ocean depth. Here, in view of this fact, we study the propagation of a 3D IGWB in a slowly varying stratification. We assume that the stratification varies slowly relative to the local variations in the wave profile. In the 2D case, the IGWB bends in response to the changing stratification, but nonlinear effects are minor even in the finite amplitude regime. For a 3D IGWB, in addition to bending, we find that nonlinearity results in the transfer of energy from waves to a large-scale time-mean flow associated with the mean potential vorticity, similar to IGWB behavior in a uniform stratification. In a weakly nonlinear setting, we derive coupled evolution equations that govern this process. We also use these equations to determine the stability properties of 2D IGWB to 3D perturbations. These findings indicate that 3D effects may be relevant and possibly fundamental to IGWB dynamics in nature. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1512925.

  19. Shear-wave velocity compilation for Northridge strong-motion recording sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole and other geotechnical information collected at the strong-motion recording sites of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994 provide an important new basis for the characterization of local site conditions. These geotechnical data, when combined with analysis of strong-motion recordings, provide an empirical basis to evaluate site coefficients used in current versions of US building codes. Shear-wave-velocity estimates to a depth of 30 meters are derived for 176 strong-motion recording sites. The estimates are based on borehole shear-velocity logs, physical property logs, correlations with physical properties and digital geologic maps. Surface-wave velocity measurements and standard penetration data are compiled as additional constraints. These data as compiled from a variety of databases are presented via GIS maps and corresponding tables to facilitate use by other investigators.

  20. Approximation of wave action flux velocity in strongly sheared mean flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemi, Saeideh; Kirby, James T.; Dong, Zhifei

    2017-08-01

    Spectral wave models based on the wave action equation typically use a theoretical framework based on depth uniform current to account for current effects on waves. In the real world, however, currents often have variations over depth. Several recent studies have made use of a depth-weighted current U˜ due to [Skop, R. A., 1987. Approximate dispersion relation for wave-current interactions. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng. 113, 187-195.] or [Kirby, J. T., Chen, T., 1989. Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1013-1027.] in order to account for the effect of vertical current shear. Use of the depth-weighted velocity, which is a function of wavenumber (or frequency and direction) has been further simplified in recent applications by only utilizing a weighted current based on the spectral peak wavenumber. These applications do not typically take into account the dependence of U˜ on wave number k, as well as erroneously identifying U˜ as the proper choice for current velocity in the wave action equation. Here, we derive a corrected expression for the current component of the group velocity. We demonstrate its consistency using analytic results for a current with constant vorticity, and numerical results for a measured, strongly-sheared current profile obtained in the Columbia River. The effect of choosing a single value for current velocity based on the peak wave frequency is examined, and we suggest an alternate strategy, involving a Taylor series expansion about the peak frequency, which should significantly extend the range of accuracy of current estimates available to the wave model with minimal additional programming and data transfer.

  1. Momentum flux associated with gravity waves in the low-latitude troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Prabhakaran Nayar

    Full Text Available The vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum at tropospheric heights are calculated for four days, 25–28 August 1999. The mean zonal wind during these days show the presence of strong westward wind at the upper troposphere. Both the symmetric beam radar method and the power spectral method of evaluation of vertical flux of zonal and meridional momentum shows nearly the same result for quiet conditions. The temporal evolution of the momentum flux is estimated for a day with strong zonal shear and convection. These results indicate that on 28 August 1999, the strong downward vertical wind in the lower altitude range is associated with upward vertical flux of zonal momentum, and strong upward vertical wind is associated with downward vertical flux. Similarly, the strong shear in zonal wind is associated with the increase in negative values in vertical flux in the upper troposphere. Analysis of the role of wave periods in the transport of momentum flux indicates that the vertical momentum flux magnitude is not evenly distributed in all wave periods, but instead it peaks at certain wave periods in the range 10 to 100 min.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective process; tropical meteorology; precipitation

  2. Bifurcation analysis for ion acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma including trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Atteya, A.

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear ion acoustic wave propagation in a strongly coupled plasma composed of ions and trapped electrons has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (mKdV-Burgers) equation. To solve this equation in case of dissipative system, the tangent hyperbolic method is used, and a shock wave solution is obtained. Numerical investigations show that, the ion acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force, the trapped electrons and the viscosity coefficients. Applying the bifurcation theory to the dynamical system of the derived mKdV-Burgers equation, the phase portraits of the traveling wave solutions of both of dissipative and non-dissipative systems are analyzed. The present results could be helpful for a better understanding of the waves nonlinear propagation in a strongly coupled plasma, which can be produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped electrons [1], and also in neutron stars or white dwarfs interior.

  3. Satellite traces, range spread-F occurrence, and gravity wave propagation at the southern anomaly crest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M.A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Ezquer, R.G. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    Range spread-F (RSF) and occurrence of ''satellite'' traces prior to RSF onset were studied at the southern peak of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (EA). Ionograms recorded in September 2007 at the new ionospheric station of Tucuman, Argentina (26.9 S, 294.6 E, dip latitude 15.5 S), by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were considered. Satellite traces (STs) are confirmed to be a necessary precursor to the appearance of an RSF trace on the ionograms. Moreover, an analysis of isoheight contours of electron density seems to suggest a relationship between RSF occurrence and gravity wave (GW) propagation. (orig.)

  4. Gauge/gravity duality for interactions of spherical membranes in 11-dimensional pp-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hok Kong; McLoughlin, Tristan; Wu Xinkai

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the gauge/gravity duality in the interaction between two spherical membranes in the 11-dimensional pp-wave background. On the supergravity side, we find the solution to the field equations at locations close to a spherical source membrane, and use it to obtain the light-cone Lagrangian of a spherical probe membrane very close to the source, i.e., with their separation much smaller than their radii. On the gauge theory side, using the BMN matrix model, we compute the one-loop effective potential between two membrane fuzzy spheres. Perfect agreement is found between the two sides. Moreover, the one-loop effective potential we obtain on the gauge theory side is valid beyond the small-separation approximation, giving the full interpolation between interactions of membrane-like objects and that of graviton-like objects

  5. Intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux in the mesopause region observed with an all-sky airglow imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-01-01

    The intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux (MF) near the OH airglow layer (˜87 km) in the mesopause region is investigated for the first time using observation of all-sky airglow imager over Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W), and Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W). At both sites, the probability density function (pdf) of gravity wave MF shows two distinct distributions depending on the magnitude of the MF. For MF smaller (larger) than ˜16 m2 s-2 (0.091 mPa), the pdf follows a lognormal (power law) distribution. The intermittency represented by the Bernoulli proxy and the percentile ratio shows that gravity waves have higher intermittency at Maui than at Cerro Pachón, suggesting more intermittent background variation above Maui. It is found that most of the MF is contributed by waves that occur very infrequently. But waves that individually contribute little MF are also important because of their higher occurrence frequencies. The peak contribution is from waves with MF around ˜2.2 m2 s-2 at Cerro Pachón and ˜5.5 m2 s-2 at Maui. Seasonal variations of the pdf and intermittency imply that the background atmosphere has larger influence on the observed intermittency in the mesopause region.

  6. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of du...

  7. Structure of Langmuir and electromagnetic collapsing wave packets in two-dimensional strong plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinejad, H.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Skjaeraasen, O.; Sobhanian, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleating and collapsing wave packets relevant to electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are studied theoretically in two dimensions. Model collapsing Langmuir and transverse potentials are constructed as superpositions of approximate eigenstates of a spherically symmetric density well. Electrostatic and electromagnetic potentials containing only components with azimuthal quantum numbers m=0, 1, 2 are found to give a good representation of the electric fields of nucleating collapsing wave packets in turbulence simulations. The length scales of these trapped states are related to the electron thermal speed v e and the length scale of the density well. It is shown analytically that the electromagnetic trapped states change with v e and that for v e e > or approx. 0.17c, the Langmuir and transverse modes remain coupled during collapse, with autocorrelation lengths in a constant ratio. An investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells shows that the strongest power transfer to the nucleating state occurs for Langmuir waves. Energy transitions between different trapped and free states for collapsing wave packets are studied, and the transition rate from trapped Langmuir to free plane electromagnetic waves is calculated and related to the emission of electromagnetic waves at the plasma frequency

  8. Gravity Waves in the Martian Atmosphere detected by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    Gravity waves are an ubiquitous feature in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres. They are known to play a significant role in the energy and momentum budget of the Earth, and they are assumed to be of importance for the redistribution of energy and momentum throughout the Martian atmosphere.

  9. Influence of vertically and obliquely propagating gravity waves on the polar summer mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, B.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are sensitive to changes in temperature of the cold polar summer mesosphere, which in turn are modulated by gravity waves (GWs). In this study we investigate the link between PMCs and GWs that propagate both vertically (i.e. wave propagation is directly above the source region) and obliquely (lateral or non-vertical propagation upward but away from the source region). Several observational studies have analyzed the link between PMCs and vertically propagating GWs and have reported both positive and negative correlations. Moreover, while modelling studies have noted the possibility of oblique propagation of GWs from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere, observational studies of the influence of these waves on the polar summer mesosphere are sparse. We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of vertically and obliquely propagating GWs on the northern hemisphere (NH) polar summer mesosphere using data from 8 PMC seasons. Temperature data from the SOFIE experiment on the AIM satellite and SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are used to derive GW parameters. SOFIE PMC data in terms of Ice Water Content (IWC) are used to quantify the changes in the polar summer mesosphere. At high latitudes, preliminary analysis of vertically propagating waves indicate a weak but positive correlation between GWs at 50 km and GWs at the PMC altitude of 84 km. Overall there is a negative correlation between GWs at 50 km and IWC and a positive correlation between GWs at 84 km and IWC. These results and the presence of a slanted structure (slanted from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere) in GW momentum flux suggest the possibility of a significant influence of obliquely propagating GWs on the polar summer mesosphere

  10. Integrating Unified Gravity Wave Physics into the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Yudin, V.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Unified Gravity Wave Physics (UGWP) project for the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) is a NOAA collaborative effort between the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Environemntal Modeling Center (EMC) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU-CIRES) to support upgrades and improvements of GW dynamics (resolved scales) and physics (sub-grid scales) in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)†. As envisioned the global climate, weather and space weather models of NEMS will substantially improve their predictions and forecasts with the resolution-sensitive (scale-aware) formulations planned under the UGWP framework for both orographic and non-stationary waves. In particular, the planned improvements for the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of NEMS are: calibration of model physics for higher vertical and horizontal resolution and an extended vertical range of simulations, upgrades to GW schemes, including the turbulent heating and eddy mixing due to wave dissipation and breaking, and representation of the internally-generated QBO. The main priority of the UGWP project is unified parameterization of orographic and non-orographic GW effects including momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere and turbulent heating and eddies due to wave dissipation and breaking. The latter effects are not currently represented in NOAA atmosphere models. The team has tested and evaluated four candidate GW solvers integrating the selected GW schemes into the NGGPS model. Our current work and planned activity is to implement the UGWP schemes in the first available GFS/FV3 (open FV3) configuration including adapted GFDL modification for sub-grid orography in GFS. Initial global model results will be shown for the operational and research GFS configuration for spectral and FV3 dynamical cores. †http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/index.php?branch=NEMS

  11. Effects of Rotation and Gravity Field on Surface Waves in Fibre-Reinforced Thermoelastic Media under Four Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd-Alla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation is done to investigate the gravitational and rotational parameters effects on surface waves in fibre-reinforced thermoelastic media. The theory of generalized surface waves has been firstly developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, namely, Stoneley waves, Rayleigh waves, and Love waves. The analytical expressions for surface waves velocity and attenuation coefficient are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations and four thermoelastic theories. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. The numerical results are given for equation of coupled thermoelastic theory (C-T, Lord-Shulman theory (L-S, Green-Lindsay theory (G-L, and the linearized (G-N theory of type II. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of gravity, rotation, and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material media. The results obtained are displayed by graphs to clear the phenomena physical meaning. The results indicate that the effect of gravity, rotation, relaxation times, and parameters of fibre-reinforced of the material medium is very pronounced.

  12. Detectable gravitational waves from very strong phase transitions in the general NMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Stephan J.; Nardini, Germano; Bern Univ.

    2015-12-01

    We study the general NMSSM with an emphasis on the parameter regions with a very strong first-order electroweak phase transition (EWPT). In the presence of heavy fields coupled to the Higgs sector, the analysis can be problematic due to the existence of sizable radiative corrections. In this paper we propose a subtraction scheme that helps to circumvent this problem. For simplicity we focus on a parameter region that is by construction hidden from the current collider searches. The analysis proves that (at least) in the identified parameter region the EWPT can be very strong and striking gravitational wave signals can be produced. The corresponding gravitational stochastic background can potentially be detected at the planned space-based gravitational wave observatory eLISA, depending on the specific experiment design that will be approved.

  13. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  14. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  15. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  16. Distortion of gravitational-wave packets due to their self-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    When a source emits a gravity-wave (GW) pulse over a short period of time, the leading edge of the GW signal is redshifted more than the inner boundary of the pulse. The GW pulse is distorted by the gravitational effect of the self-energy residing in between these shells. We illustrate this distortion for GW pulses from the final plunge of black hole binaries, leading to the evolution of the GW profile as a function of the radial distance from the source. The distortion depends on the total GW energy released ε and the duration of the emission τ, scaled by the total binary mass M. The effect should be relevant in finite box simulations where the waveforms are extracted within a radius of 2 M. For characteristic emission parameters at the final plunge between binary black holes of arbitrary spins, this effect could distort the simulated GW templates for LIGO and LISA by a fraction of 10 -3 . Accounting for the wave distortion would significantly decrease the waveform extraction errors in numerical simulations

  17. Pressure and intracorporal acceleration measurements in pigs exposed to strong shock waves in a free field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs

  18. Quantitative study of two- and three-dimensional strong localization of matter waves by atomic scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antezza, Mauro; Castin, Yvan; Hutchinson, David A. W.

    2010-01-01

    We study the strong localization of atomic matter waves in a disordered potential created by atoms pinned at the nodes of a lattice, for both three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems. The localization length of the matter wave, the density of localized states, and the occurrence of energy mobility edges (for the 3D system), are numerically investigated as a function of the effective scattering length between the atomic matter wave and the pinned atoms. Both positive and negative matter wave energies are explored. Interesting features of the density of states are discovered at negative energies, where maxima in the density of bound states for the system can be interpreted in terms of bound states of a matter wave atom with a few pinned atomic scatterers. In 3D we found evidence of up to three mobility edges, one at positive energies, and two at negative energies, the latter corresponding to transitions between extended and localized bound states. In 2D, no mobility edge is found, and a rapid exponential-like increase of the localization length is observed at high energy.

  19. Large-scale dynamical influence of a gravity wave generated over the Antarctic Peninsula – regional modelling and budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL Arnault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of a mountain wave triggered by the Antarctic Peninsula on 6 October 2005, which has already been documented in the literature, is chosen here to quantify the associated gravity wave forcing on the large-scale flow, with a budget analysis of the horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy. In particular, a numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is compared to a control simulation with flat orography to separate the contribution of the mountain wave from that of other synoptic processes of non-orographic origin. The so-called differential budgets of horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy (after subtracting the results from the simulation without orography are then averaged horizontally and vertically in the inner domain of the simulation to quantify the mountain wave dynamical influence at this scale. This allows for a quantitative analysis of the simulated mountain wave's dynamical influence, including the orographically induced pressure drag, the counterbalancing wave-induced vertical transport of momentum from the flow aloft, the momentum and energy exchanges with the outer flow at the lateral and upper boundaries, the effect of turbulent mixing, the dynamics associated with geostrophic re-adjustment of the inner flow, the deceleration of the inner flow, the secondary generation of an inertia–gravity wave and the so-called baroclinic conversion of energy between potential energy and kinetic energy.

  20. Atmospheric-like rotating annulus experiment: gravity wave emission from baroclinic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Costanza; Borcia, Ion; Harlander, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating- annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modelling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Joint laboratory experiment and numerical simulation have been conducted. The comparison between the data obtained from the experiment and the numerical simulations shows a very good

  1. Numerical modeling study of the momentum deposition of small amplitude gravity waves in the thermosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Henan Normal Univ., Xinxiang (China). College of Mathematics and Information Science; Xu, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Yue, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). High Altitude Observatory; Hampton Univ., VA (United States). Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences; Vadas, S.L. [North West Research Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We study the momentum deposition in the thermosphere from the dissipation of small amplitude gravity waves (GWs) within a wave packet using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional compressible numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear propagation and dissipation of a GW packet from the stratosphere into the thermosphere with realistic molecular viscosity and thermal diffusivity for various Prandtl numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for GW packets with initial vertical wavelengths ({lambda}{sub z}) ranging from 5 to 50 km. We show that {lambda}{sub z} decreases in time as a GW packet dissipates in the thermosphere, in agreement with the ray trace results of Vadas and Fritts (2005) (VF05). We also find good agreement for the peak height of the momentum flux (z{sub diss}) between our simulations and VF05 for GWs with initial {lambda}{sub z} {<=} 2{pi}H in an isothermal, windless background, where H is the density scale height.We also confirm that z{sub diss} increases with increasing Prandtl number. We include eddy diffusion in the model, and find that the momentum deposition occurs at lower altitudes and has two separate peaks for GW packets with small initial {lambda}{sub z}. We also simulate GW packets in a non-isothermal atmosphere. The net {lambda}{sub z} profile is a competition between its decrease from viscosity and its increase from the increasing background temperature. We find that the wave packet disperses more in the non-isothermal atmosphere, and causes changes to the momentum flux and {lambda}{sub z} spectra at both early and late times for GW packets with initial {lambda}{sub z} {>=} 10 km. These effects are caused by the increase in T in the thermosphere, and the decrease in T near the mesopause. (orig.)

  2. Progress on The GEMS (Gravity Electro-Magnetism-Strong) Theory of Field Unification and Its Application to Space Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Progress on the GEMS (Gravity Electro-Magnetism-Strong), theory is presented as well as its application to space problems. The GEMS theory is now validated through the Standard Model of physics. Derivation of the value of the Gravitation constant based on the observed variation of α with energy: results in the formula G congruent with (ℎ/2π)c/M ηc 2 exp(-1/(1.61α)), where α is the fine structure constant,(ℎ/2π), is Planck's constant, c, is the speed of light, and M ηc is the mass of the η cc Charmonium meson that is shown to be identical to that derived from the GEM postulates. Covariant formulation of the GEM theory is now possible through definition of the spacetime metric tensor as a portion of the EM stress tensor normalized by its own trace: g ab = 4(F c a F cb )/(F ab F ab ), it is found that this results in a massless ground state vacuum and a Newtonian gravitation potential φ = 1/2 E 2 /B 2 . It is also found that a Lorentz or flat-space metric is recovered in the limit of a full spectrum ZPF

  3. Crustal and mantle structure of the greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland region (NE Atlantic) from combined 3D structural, S-wave velocity, and gravity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Meeßen, C.; Breivik, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The study area is located between the Jan Mayen Ridge and the east coast of Greenland. It has a complex geological setting with the ultraslow Kolbeinsey and Mohn's spreading ridges, the anomalously shallow Eggvin Bank, the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMMC), and the tectonically active West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (WJMFZ). In this study, we present the results of forward 3D structural, S-wave velocity, and gravity modeling which provide new insights into the deep crust and mantle structure and the wide-ranging influence of the Iceland Plume. The crustal parts of the presented 3D structural model are mainly constrained by local seismic refraction and reflection data. Accordingly, greatest crustal thicknesses (24 km) are observed on the northern boundary of the JMMC, while the average crustal thickness is 8.5 km and 4 km in the Kolbeinsey and Mohn's Ridge, respectively. The densities of the crustal parts are from previous studies. Additionally, the mantle density is derived from S-wave velocity data (between 50 and 250 km depth), while densities of the lithospheric mantle between the Moho and 50 km are calculated assuming isostatic equilibrium at 250 km depth. This is used as a starting density model which is further developed to obtain a reasonable fit between the calculated and measured (free-air) gravity fields. The observed S-wave tomographic data and the gravity modeling prove that the Iceland plume anomaly in the asthenosphere affects the lithospheric thickness and temperature, from the strongly influenced Middle Kolbeinsey Ridge, to the less affected North Kolbeinsey Ridge (Eggvin Bank), and to the little impacted Mohn's Ridge. Thus, the age-temperature relations of the different mid-ocean ridges of the study area are perturbed to different degrees controlled by the distance from the Iceland Plume. Furthermore, we find that the upper 50 km of lithospheric mantle are thermally affected by the plume only in the southwestern parts of the study area.

  4. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  5. Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajkovskij, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers

  6. Wave, particle-family duality and the conservation of discrete symmetries in strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Spuy, E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper starts from a nonlinear fermion field equation of motion with a strongly coupled self-interaction. Nonperturbative quark solutions of the equation of motion are constructed in terms of a Reggeized infinite component free spinor field. Such a field carries a family of strongly interacting unstable compounds lying on a Regge locus in the analytically continued quark spin. Such a quark field is naturally confined and also possesses the property of asymptotic freedom. Furthermore, the particular field self-regularizes the interactions and naturally breaks the chiral invariance of the equation of motion. We show why and how the existence of such a strongly coupled solution and its particle-family, wave duality forces a change in the field equation of motion such that it conserves C,P,T, although its individual interaction terms are of V-A and thus C,P nonconserving type

  7. Wave, particle-family duality and the conservation of discrete symmetries in strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Spuy, E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper starts from a nonlinear fermion field equation of motion with a strongly coupled selfinteraction. Nonperturbative quark solutions of the equation of motion are constructed in terms of a Reggeized infinite component free spinor field. Such a field carries a family of strongly interacting unstable compounds lying on a Regge locus in the analytically continued quark spin. Such a quark field is naturally confined and also possesses the property of asymptotic freedom. Furthermore the particular field selfregularizes the interactions and naturally breaks the chiral invariance of the equation of motion. We show why and how the existence of such a strongly coupled solution and its particle-family, wave duality forces a change in the field equation of motion such that it conserves C, P, T although its individual interaction terms are of V - A and thus C, P nonconserving type

  8. Derivation of gravity wave intrinsic parameters and vertical wavelength using a single scanning OH(3-1) airglow spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Offenwanger, Thomas; Schmidt, Carsten; Bittner, Michael; Jacobi, Christoph; Stober, Gunter; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2018-05-01

    For the first time, we present an approach to derive zonal, meridional, and vertical wavelengths as well as periods of gravity waves based on only one OH* spectrometer, addressing one vibrational-rotational transition. Knowledge of these parameters is a precondition for the calculation of further information, such as the wave group velocity vector.OH(3-1) spectrometer measurements allow the analysis of gravity wave ground-based periods but spatial information cannot necessarily be deduced. We use a scanning spectrometer and harmonic analysis to derive horizontal wavelengths at the mesopause altitude above Oberpfaffenhofen (48.09° N, 11.28° E), Germany for 22 nights in 2015. Based on the approximation of the dispersion relation for gravity waves of low and medium frequencies and additional horizontal wind information, we calculate vertical wavelengths. The mesopause wind measurements nearest to Oberpfaffenhofen are conducted at Collm (51.30° N, 13.02° E), Germany, ca. 380 km northeast of Oberpfaffenhofen, by a meteor radar.In order to compare our results, vertical temperature profiles of TIMED-SABER (thermosphere ionosphere mesosphere energetics dynamics, sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry) overpasses are analysed with respect to the dominating vertical wavelength.

  9. Modelling alongshore flow in a semi-enclosed lagoon strongly forced by tides and waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Barthel, Knut; Christensen, Kai H.; Furaca, Noca; Gammelsrød, Tor; Hoguane, António M.; Nharreluga, Bilardo

    2014-08-01

    Alongshore flows strongly driven by tides and waves is studied in the context of a one-dimensional numerical model. Observations from field surveys performed in a semi-enclosed lagoon (1.7 km×0.2 km) outside Xai-Xai, Mozambique, are used to validate the model results. The model is able to capture most of the observed temporal variability of the current, but sea surface height tends to be overestimated at high tide, especially during high wave events. Inside the lagoon we observed a mainly uni-directional alongshore current, with speeds up to 1 ms-1. The current varies primarily with the tide, being close to zero near low tide, generally increasing during flood and decreasing during ebb. The observations revealed a local minimum in the alongshore flow at high tide, which the model was successful in reproducing. Residence times in the lagoon were calculated to be less than one hour with wave forcing dominating the flushing. At this beach a high number of drowning casualties have occurred, but no connection was found between them and strong current events in a simulation covering the period 2011-2012.

  10. Gravity wave control on ESF day-to-day variability: An empirical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathy, R. P.; Manju, G.

    2017-06-01

    The gravity wave control on the daily variation in nighttime ionization irregularity occurrence is studied using ionosonde data for the period 2002-2007 at magnetic equatorial location Trivandrum. Recent studies during low solar activity period have revealed that the seed perturbations should have the threshold amplitude required to trigger equatorial spread F (ESF), at a particular altitude and that this threshold amplitude undergoes seasonal and solar cycle changes. In the present study, the altitude variation of the threshold seed perturbations is examined for autumnal equinox of different years. Thereafter, a unique empirical model, incorporating the electrodynamical effects and the gravity wave modulation, is developed. Using the model the threshold curve for autumnal equinox season of any year may be delineated if the solar flux index (F10.7) is known. The empirical model is validated using the data for high, moderate, and low solar epochs in 2001, 2004, and 1995, respectively. This model has the potential to be developed further, to forecast ESF incidence, if the base height of ionosphere is in the altitude region where electrodynamics controls the occurrence of ESF. ESF irregularities are harmful for communication and navigation systems, and therefore, research is ongoing globally to predict them. In this context, this study is crucial for evolving a methodology to predict communication as well as navigation outages.Plain Language SummaryThe manifestation of nocturnal ionospheric irregularities at magnetic equatorial regions poses a major hazard for communication and navigation systems. It is therefore essential to arrive at prediction methodologies for these irregularities. The present study puts forth a novel empirical model which, using only solar flux index, successfully differentiates between days with and without nocturnal ionization irregularity occurrence. The model-derived curve is obtained such that the days with and without occurrence of

  11. The Universal Role of Tubulence in the Propagation of Strong Shocks and Detonation Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John H.

    2001-06-01

    The passage of a strong shock wave usually results in irreversible physical and chemical changes in the medium. If the chemical reactions are sufficiently exothermic, the shock wave can be self-propagating, i.e., sustained by the chemical energy release via the expansion work of the reaction products. Although shocks and detonations can be globally stable and propagate at constant velocities (in the direction of motion), their structure may be highly unstable and exhibit large hydrodynamic fluctuations, i.e., turbulence. Recent investigations on plastic deformation of polycrystalline material behind shock waves have revealed particle velocity dispersion at the mesoscopic level, a result of vortical rotational motion similar to that of turbulent fluid flows at high Reynolds number.1 Strong ionizing shocks in noble gases2, as well as dissociating shock waves in carbon dioxide,3 also demonstrate a turbulent density fluctuation in the non-equilibrium shock transition zone. Perhaps the most thoroughly investigated unstable structure is that of detonation waves in gaseous explosives.4 Detonation waves in liquid explosives such as nitromethane also take on similar unstable structure as gaseous detonations.5 There are also indications that detonations in solid explosives have a similar unsteady structure under certain conditions. Thus, it appears that it is more of a rule than an exception that the structure of strong shocks and detonations are unstable and exhibit turbulent-like fluctuations as improved diagnostics now permit us to look more closely at the meso- and micro-levels. Increasing attention is now devoted to the understanding of the shock waves at the micro-scale level in recent years. This is motivated by the need to formulate physical and chemical models that contain the correct physics capable of describing quantitatively the shock transition process. It should be noted that, in spite of its unstable 3-D structure, the steady 1-D conservation laws (in the

  12. Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly

  13. Magnetized Langmuir wave packets excited by a strong beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Sol, H.; Asseo, E.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of beam-plasma interaction, which has been investigated for a long time mostly in relation with solar bursts, is now more widely invoked in various astrophysical contexts such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, close binaries, cataclysmic variables, γ bursters, and so on. In these situations the interaction is more likely in the spirit of strong Langmuir turbulence rather than in the spirit of quasilinear theory. Many investigations have been done for two opposite extremes, namely, in very weak and in very strong magnetic fields. Very few properties of the strong Langmuir turbulence are known in the most usual astrophysical situation where the magnetic field plays a significant role but is not strong enough to force the electrons into one-dimensional motion. For this case, we analyze the dynamics of Langmuir wave packets and provide new results about the stability of the solitons against transverse perturbations. It turns out that both the averaged Lagrangian method and the adiabatic perturbation method derived from the inverse scattering transform give exactly the same results (which is not obvious in soliton perturbation theory). In particular, they predict the stability of the solitons as long as the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the plasma frequency (strong magnetic field) and their instability against transverse self-modulation in the opposite case (weak magnetic field); moreover, they allow one to deduce the self-similar collapsing oblate cavitons in the latter case. The laws governing the collapse of the wave packets determine the relaxation of the beam in the surrounding medium and we derive a useful formula giving the power loss of the beam. We outline the astrophysical consequences of this investigation

  14. Explicit and exact solutions for a generalized long-short wave resonance equations with strong nonlinear term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions

  15. Axisymmetric capillary-gravity waves at the interface of two viscous, immiscible fluids - Initial value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoiya, Palas Kumar; Dasgupta, Ratul

    2017-11-01

    When the interface between two radially unbounded, viscous fluids lying vertically in a stable configuration (denser fluid below) at rest, is perturbed, radially propagating capillary-gravity waves are formed which damp out with time. We study this process analytically using a recently developed linearised theory. For small amplitude initial perturbations, the analytical solution to the initial value problem, represented as a linear superposition of Bessel modes at time t = 0 , is found to agree very well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, for a range of initial conditions. Our study extends the earlier work by John W. Miles who studied this initial value problem analytically, taking into account, a single viscous fluid only. Implications of this study for the mechanistic understanding of droplet impact into a deep pool, will be discussed. Some preliminary, qualitative comparison with experiments will also be presented. We thank SERB Dept. Science & Technology, Govt. of India, Grant No. EMR/2016/000830 for financial support.

  16. Evidence for Gravity Wave Seeding of Convective Ionosphere Storms Initiated by Deep Troposphere Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II

    2014-12-01

    With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.

  17. Frequency variations of gravity waves interacting with a time-varying tide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.M.; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F.; Huang, K.M.; Gan, Q.; Gong, Y. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Y.H. [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). College of Hydrometeorolgy

    2013-11-01

    Using a nonlinear, 2-D time-dependent numerical model, we simulate the propagation of gravity waves (GWs) in a time-varying tide. Our simulations show that when aGW packet propagates in a time-varying tidal-wind environment, not only its intrinsic frequency but also its ground-based frequency would change significantly. The tidal horizontal-wind acceleration dominates the GW frequency variation. Positive (negative) accelerations induce frequency increases (decreases) with time. More interestingly, tidal-wind acceleration near the critical layers always causes the GW frequency to increase, which may partially explain the observations that high-frequency GW components are more dominant in the middle and upper atmosphere than in the lower atmosphere. The combination of the increased ground-based frequency of propagating GWs in a time-varying tidal-wind field and the transient nature of the critical layer induced by a time-varying tidal zonal wind creates favorable conditions for GWs to penetrate their originally expected critical layers. Consequently, GWs have an impact on the background atmosphere at much higher altitudes than expected, which indicates that the dynamical effects of tidal-GW interactions are more complicated than usually taken into account by GW parameterizations in global models.

  18. Inertia–gravity wave radiation from the elliptical vortex in the f -plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Inertia–gravity wave (IGW) radiation from the elliptical vortex is investigated in the f -plane shallow water system. The far field of IGW is analytically derived for the case of an almost circular Kirchhoff vortex with a small aspect ratio. Cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at finite values of the Rossby number (Ro) caused by the source originating in the Coriolis acceleration. While the intensity of IGWs from the cyclone monotonically decreases as f increases, that from the anticyclone increases as f increases for relatively smaller f and has a local maximum at intermediate f . A numerical experiment is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain. The numerical results agree quite well with the analytical ones for elliptical vortices with small aspect ratios, implying that the derived analytical forms are useful for the verification of the numerical model. For elliptical vortices with larger aspect ratios, however, significant deviation from the analytical estimates appears. The intensity of IGWs radiated in the numerical simulation is larger than that estimated analytically. The reason is that the source of IGWs is amplified during the time evolution because the shape of the vortex changes from ideal ellipse to elongated with filaments. Nevertheless, cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry similar to the analytical estimate appears in all the range of aspect ratios, suggesting that this asymmetry is a robust feature. (paper)

  19. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  20. Precise response function for the magnetic component of gravitational waves in scalar-tensor gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The important issue of the magnetic component of gravitational waves (GWs) has been considered in various papers in the literature. From such analyses, it has been found that such a magnetic component becomes particularly important in the high-frequency portion of the frequency range of ground based interferometers for GWs which arises from standard general theory of relativity (GTR). Recently, such a magnetic component has been extended to GWs arising from scalar-tensor gravity (STG) too. After a review of some important issues on GWs in STG, in this paper we reanalyze the magnetic component in the framework of STG from a different point of view, by correcting an error in a previous paper and by releasing a more precise response function. In this way, we also show that if one neglects the magnetic contribution considering only the low-frequency approximation of the electric contribution, an important part of the signal could be, in principle, lost. The determination of a more precise response function for the magnetic contribution is important also in the framework of the possibility of distinguishing other gravitational theories from GTR. At the conclusion of this paper, an expansion of the main results is also shown in order to recall the presence of the magnetic component in GTR too.

  1. Electronics for the IBM gravity wave detector. Concept, implementation, and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.L.; Garwin, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus - antenna, transducer, signal processor, and calibrator - was designed to settle the question of the existence of gravity waves at 1.7kHz of the numbers and intensities claimed at the time (end-1971). The design criteria were: modest sensitivity, sensitivity independent of signal arrival time and state of excitation of the antenna, absolute calibration with pulsed mechanical excitation of the antenna, full simulation of the apparatus, hands-off computer analysis with every point published. It was recognized that a single bar would ultimately be limited by some Boltzmann distribution of noise at sub-thermal temperature, and that such an ideal antenna would be equivalent to an ideal coincidence pair of antennas, each of half the mass. Transducer, amplifier, signal processor, and programming were all done by the experimenters in order to reduce the cycle time for introducing improvements. Before the antenna and amplifier were ready, the processing algorithms were developed and tested with digitally-simulated antenna output, and many problems avoided. Any excess local noise proved to be sufficiently infrequent so that the single antenna could negate claims by Weber of the detection of gravitational radiation. The computer processing obviated the need for temperature control of the antenna or for tracking of the bar resonant frequency with the reference oscillator

  2. Gravity Wave Dynamics in a Mesospheric Inversion Layer: 1. Reflection, Trapping, and Instability Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughman, Brian; Wang, Ling; Lund, Thomas S.; Collins, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract An anelastic numerical model is employed to explore the dynamics of gravity waves (GWs) encountering a mesosphere inversion layer (MIL) having a moderate static stability enhancement and a layer of weaker static stability above. Instabilities occur within the MIL when the GW amplitude approaches that required for GW breaking due to compression of the vertical wavelength accompanying the increasing static stability. Thus, MILs can cause large‐amplitude GWs to yield instabilities and turbulence below the altitude where they would otherwise arise. Smaller‐amplitude GWs encountering a MIL do not lead to instability and turbulence but do exhibit partial reflection and transmission, and the transmission is a smaller fraction of the incident GW when instabilities and turbulence arise within the MIL. Additionally, greater GW transmission occurs for weaker MILs and for GWs having larger vertical wavelengths relative to the MIL depth and for lower GW intrinsic frequencies. These results imply similar dynamics for inversions due to other sources, including the tropopause inversion layer, the high stability capping the polar summer mesopause, and lower frequency GWs or tides having sufficient amplitudes to yield significant variations in stability at large and small vertical scales. MILs also imply much stronger reflections and less coherent GW propagation in environments having significant fine structure in the stability and velocity fields than in environments that are smoothly varying. PMID:29576994

  3. Probability distribution of wave packet delay time for strong overlapping of resonance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshits, V.L.

    1983-01-01

    Time behaviour of nuclear reactions in the case of high level densities is investigated basing on the theory of overlapping resonances. In the framework of a model of n equivalent channels an analytical expression is obtained for the probability distribution function for wave packet delay time at the compound nucleus production. It is shown that at strong overlapping of the resonance levels the relative fluctuation of the delay time is small at the stage of compound nucleus production. A possible increase in the duration of nuclear reactions with the excitation energy rise is discussed

  4. Simulations of large winds and wind shears induced by gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region

    OpenAIRE

    X. Liu; X. Liu; J. Xu; H.-L. Liu; J. Yue; W. Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Using a fully nonlinear two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model, we simulated gravity waves (GWs) breaking and their contributions to the formation of large winds and wind shears in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). An eddy diffusion coefficient is used in the 2-D numerical model to parameterize realistic turbulent mixing. Our study shows that the momentum deposited by breaking GWs accelerates the mean wind. The resultant large background wind increases the GW's app...

  5. Planetary and gravity wave signatures in the F region ionosphere with impact on radio propagation predictions and variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altadill, D.; Apostolov, E. M.; Boška, Josef; Laštovička, Jan; Šauli, Petra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2/3 (2004), s. 1109-1119 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth-space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10; GA ČR GA205/01/1071; GA ČR GP205/02/P077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere * planetary waves * gravity waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004

  6. Wavelet characterisation of ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves occuring during the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Abry, P.; Boška, Josef; Duchayne, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 68, 3-5 (2006), s. 586-598 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/02/P077; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/01/1071; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042102 Grant - others:CNRS(FR) 18098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Solar eclipse * Acoustic-gravity waves * Vertical ionospheric sounding * Wavelet decomposition * Wave packet characterisation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.448, year: 2006

  7. Inertia-gravity waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere associated with a jet stream exit region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomas

    Full Text Available Radar measurements at Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W of winds at tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are shown for 12-13 March 1994 in a region of highly curved flow, downstream of the jet maximum. The perturbations of horizontal velocity have comparable amplitudes in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with downward and upward phase propagation, respectively, in these two height regions. The sense of rotation with increasing height in hodographs of horizontal perturbation velocity derived for hourly intervals show downwards propagation of energy in the troposphere and upward propagation in the lower stratosphere with vertical wavelengths of 1.7 to 2.3 km. The results indicate inertia-gravity waves propagating in a direction similar to that of the jet stream but at smaller velocities. Some of the features observed contrast with those of previous observations of inertia-gravity waves propagating transverse to the jet stream. The interpretation of the hodographs to derive wave parameters has taken account of the vertical shear of the background wind transverse to the direction of wave propagation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  8. A fast wind-farm boundary-layer model to investigate gravity wave effects and upstream flow deceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  9. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches

  10. A case study of the energy dissipation of the gravity wave field based on satellite altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Parsons, C. L.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Wave breaking is proposed as the primary energy dissipation mechanism for the gravity wave field. The energy dissipation rate is calculated based on the statistical model proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1969) with a modification of the breaking criterion incorporating the surface stress according to Phillips and Banner (1974). From this modified model, an analytic expression is found for the wave attenuation rate and the half-life time of the wave field which depend only on the significant slope of the wave field and the ratio of friction velocity to initial wave phase velocity. These expressions explain why the freshly generated wave field does not last long, but why swells are capable of propagating long distances without substantial change in energy density. It is shown that breaking is many orders of magnitude more effective in dissipating wave energy than the molecular viscosity, if the significant slope is higher than 0.01. Limited observational data from satellite and laboratory are used to compare with the analytic results, and show good agreement.

  11. The significance of ultra-refracted surface gravity waves on sheltered coasts, with application to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, D.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean surface gravity waves propagating over shallow bathymetry undergo spatial modification of propagation direction and energy density, commonly due to refraction and shoaling. If the bathymetric variations are significant the waves can undergo changes in their direction of propagation (relative to deepwater) greater than 90° over relatively short spatial scales. We refer to this phenomenon as ultra-refraction. Ultra-refracted swell waves can have a powerful influence on coastal areas that otherwise appear to be sheltered from ocean waves. Through a numerical modeling investigation it is shown that San Francisco Bay, one of the earth's largest and most protected natural harbors, is vulnerable to ultra-refracted ocean waves, particularly southwest incident swell. The flux of wave energy into San Francisco Bay results from wave transformation due to the bathymetry and orientation of the large ebb tidal delta, and deep, narrow channel through the Golden Gate. For example, ultra-refracted swell waves play a critical role in the intermittent closure of the entrance to Crissy Field Marsh, a small restored tidal wetland located on the sheltered north-facing coast approximately 1.5 km east of the Golden Gate Bridge.

  12. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  13. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  14. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves

  15. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.

  16. Variations of global gravity waves derived from 14 years of SABER temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Garcia, Rolando R.; Russell, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin; Wu, Dong L.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2017-06-01

    The global gravity wave (GW) potential energy (PE) per unit mass is derived from SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature profiles over the past 14 years (2002-2015). Since the SABER data cover longer than one solar cycle, multivariate linear regression is applied to calculate the trend (means linear trend from 2002 to 2015) of global GW PE and the responses of global GW PE to solar activity, to QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) and to ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation). We find a significant positive trend of GW PE at around 50°N during July from 2002 to 2015, in agreement with ground-based radar observations at a similar latitude but from 1990 to 2010. Both the monthly and the deseasonalized trends of GW PE are significant near 50°S. Specifically, the deseasonalized trend of GW PE has a positive peak of 12-15% per decade at 40°S-50°S and below 60 km, which suggests that eddy diffusion is increasing in some places. A significant positive trend of GW PE near 50°S could be due to the strengthening of the polar stratospheric jets, as documented from Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications wind data. The response of GW PE to solar activity is negative in the lower and middle latitudes. The response of GW PE to QBO (as indicated by 30 hPa zonal winds over the equator) is negative in the tropical upper stratosphere and extends to higher latitudes at higher altitudes. The response of GW PE to ENSO (as indicated by the Multivariate ENSO Index) is positive in the tropical upper stratosphere.

  17. Control and dynamics of attosecond electron wave packets in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, P.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M.B.; Schafer, K.J.; Mairess, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Boutu, W.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Trains of attosecond pulses, emerging from the phase-locking of high-order harmonics generated in a strong laser field are now being routinely produced and characterized in a few laser laboratories. Attosecond pulse trains (APTs) are flexible attosecond sources, since the amplitude and relative phase of the spectral components (the harmonics) can be tailored, allowing us to vary both the duration and the carrier frequency of the pulses. Attosecond pulses interacting with a gas of atoms generate electron wave packets (EWPs), which are temporally localized with approximately the same duration as the attosecond pulses. In contrast to the tunneling electron wave packets giving rise to processes such as high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold-ionization (ATI), the properties of these EWPs are inherited from the attosecond pulses through the single-photon ionization step. Thus the energy and temporal characteristics of the EWPs can be varied independently of the process under investigation, by controlling the properties of the attosecond pulses. This talk will describe two recent experiments done in Lund. First we report on the generation, compression and delivery on target of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses using external amplitude and phase control. The APT is synthesized from the 13 th to 35 th harmonics of a 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser. The harmonics are generated by focusing the laser beam into a window-less gas cell, filled with argon. To achieve the required on-target attosecond pulses, the harmonics are filtered spatially, using a fixed aperture, and spectrally using aluminum filters. The aluminum filters also serve the purpose of compressing the attosecond pulses, using the negative group-delay dispersion of aluminum to compensate for the intrinsic positive chirp of the attosecond pulses. This experiment demonstrates a practical method for the synthesis and control of attosecond waveforms, and in this case the production of pulses

  18. The non-Gaussian joint probability density function of slope and elevation for a nonlinear gravity wave field. [in ocean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.; Tung, C.-C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the mapping method developed by Huang et al. (1983), an analytic expression for the non-Gaussian joint probability density function of slope and elevation for nonlinear gravity waves is derived. Various conditional and marginal density functions are also obtained through the joint density function. The analytic results are compared with a series of carefully controlled laboratory observations, and good agreement is noted. Furthermore, the laboratory wind wave field observations indicate that the capillary or capillary-gravity waves may not be the dominant components in determining the total roughness of the wave field. Thus, the analytic results, though derived specifically for the gravity waves, may have more general applications.

  19. Simulation and Observation of Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav; Andreeva, Elena; Krysanov, Boris; Nesterov, Ivan

    Atmospheric and ionospheric perturbations associated with the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) with typical frequencies of a few hertz -millihertz are considered. These events may be caused by the influence from space and atmosphere as well as by oscillations of the Earth surface and other near-surface phenomena. The surface sources include long-period oscillations of the Earth's surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches and tsunami waves. The wavelike phenomena manifest themself as travelling disturbances of air (in the atmosphere) and of electron density (in the ionosphere). Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are well detected by radio physical methods. AGW generation by near-surface sources is modeled by the numerical solution of the equation of geophysical fluid dynamics for different sources in two-dimensional non-linear dissipative compressible atmosphere. The numerical calculations are based on the FCT (Flux Corrected Transport) technique of the second order accuracy in time and space. Different scenarios of AGW generation are analyzed. The AGW caused by the surface sources within a few hertz-millihertz frequency band appear at the altitudes of middle atmosphere and ionosphere as the disturbances with typical scales from a few kilometers to several hundreds kilometers. Such structures can be successfully monitored by the methods of satellite radio tomography (RT). For the purposes of RT diagnostics of such disturbances, low-orbiting navigational satellites like Transit and Tsikada and high-orbiting navigation systems GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of numerical modeling of AGW generation by the surface sources are compared with the data of RT sounding. Also, generation of AGW by volumetric sources such as particle precipitation, rocket launching, heating by high-frequency radiation and other are considered. The obtained results proved the capability of RT methods of detecting and distinguishing between TIDs caused by AGW generated by

  20. A novel method for the extraction of local gravity wave parameters from gridded three-dimensional data: description, validation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schoon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the local diagnosis of wave properties, we develop, validate, and apply a novel method which is based on the Hilbert transform. It is called Unified Wave Diagnostics (UWaDi. It provides the wave amplitude and three-dimensional wave number at any grid point for gridded three-dimensional data. UWaDi is validated for a synthetic test case comprising two different wave packets. In comparison with other methods, the performance of UWaDi is very good with respect to wave properties and their location. For a first practical application of UWaDi, a minor sudden stratospheric warming on 30 January 2016 is chosen. Specifying the diagnostics for hydrostatic inertia–gravity waves in analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, we detect the local occurrence of gravity waves throughout the middle atmosphere. The local wave characteristics are discussed in terms of vertical propagation using the diagnosed local amplitudes and wave numbers. We also note some hints on local inertia–gravity wave generation by the stratospheric jet from the detection of shallow slow waves in the vicinity of its exit region.

  1. What if LIGO's gravitational wave detections are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham P.; Jauzac, Mathilde; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the preponderance of so-called `heavy black holes' in the binary black hole (BBH) gravitational wave (GW) detections to date, and the role that gravitational lensing continues to play in discovering new galaxy populations, we explore the possibility that the GWs are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. For example, if one of the GW sources were actually located at z = 1, then the rest-frame mass of the associated BHs would be reduced by a factor of ˜2. Based on the known populations of BBH GW sources and strong-lensing clusters, we estimate a conservative lower limit on the number of BBH mergers detected per detector year at LIGO/Virgo's current sensitivity that are multiply-imaged, of Rdetect ≃ 10-5 yr-1. This is equivalent to rejecting the hypothesis that one of the BBH GWs detected to date was multiply-imaged at ≲4σ. It is therefore unlikely, but not impossible, that one of the GWs is multiply-imaged. We identify three spectroscopically confirmed strong-lensing clusters with well-constrained mass models within the 90 per cent credible sky localizations of the BBH GWs from LIGO's first observing run. In the event that one of these clusters multiply-imaged one of the BBH GWs, we predict that 20-60 per cent of the putative next appearances of the GWs would be detectable by LIGO, and that they would arrive at Earth within 3yr of first detection.

  2. Long-wave model for strongly anisotropic growth of a crystal step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenner, Mikhail

    2013-08-01

    A continuum model for the dynamics of a single step with the strongly anisotropic line energy is formulated and analyzed. The step grows by attachment of adatoms from the lower terrace, onto which atoms adsorb from a vapor phase or from a molecular beam, and the desorption is nonnegligible (the "one-sided" model). Via a multiscale expansion, we derived a long-wave, strongly nonlinear, and strongly anisotropic evolution PDE for the step profile. Written in terms of the step slope, the PDE can be represented in a form similar to a convective Cahn-Hilliard equation. We performed the linear stability analysis and computed the nonlinear dynamics. Linear stability depends on whether the stiffness is minimum or maximum in the direction of the step growth. It also depends nontrivially on the combination of the anisotropy strength parameter and the atomic flux from the terrace to the step. Computations show formation and coarsening of a hill-and-valley structure superimposed onto a long-wavelength profile, which independently coarsens. Coarsening laws for the hill-and-valley structure are computed for two principal orientations of a maximum step stiffness, the increasing anisotropy strength, and the varying atomic flux.

  3. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  4. The Effects of Surface Gravity Waves on Coastal Currents: Implementation, Phenomenological Explanation, and Realistic Simulation with ROMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, James C; Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    ... (Uchiyama and McWilliams, 2008). An investigation of shear instability due to breaking-wave-driven barotropic littoral currents on a barred beach is being carried out by extending the asymptotic theory appropriate for a strong current regime near surf zones with a parameterized, non-conservative wave breaking (Uchiyama et al., 2008).

  5. influence of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Mukherjee

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.

  6. Long-term MST radar observations of vertical wave number spectra of gravity waves in the tropical troposphere over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E: comparison with model spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential utility of Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar measurements of zonal, meridional and vertical winds for divulging the gravity wave vertical wave number spectra is discussed. The data collected during the years 1995–2004 are used to obtain the mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy in the tropical troposphere over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E. First, the climatology of 3-dimensional wind components is developed using ten years of radar observations, for the first time, over this latitude. This climatology brought out the salient features of background tropospheric winds over Gadanki. Further, using the second order polynomial fit as background, the day-to-day wind anomalies are estimated. These wind anomalies in the 4–14 km height regions are used to estimate the profiles of zonal, meridional and vertical kinetic energy per unit mass, which are then used to estimate the height profile of total kinetic energy. Finally, the height profiles of total kinetic energy are subjected to Fourier analysis to obtain the monthly mean vertical wave number spectra of gravity wave kinetic energy. The monthly mean vertical wave number spectra are then compared with a saturation spectrum predicted by gravity wave saturation theory. A slope of 5/3 is used for the model gravity wave spectrum estimation. In general, the agreement is good during all the months. However, it is noticed that the model spectrum overestimates the PSD at lower vertical wave numbers and underestimates it at higher vertical wave numbers, which is consistently observed during all the months. The observed discrepancies are attributed to the differences in the slopes of theoretical and observed gravity wave spectra. The slopes of the observed vertical wave number spectra are estimated and compared with the model spectrum slope, which are in good agreement. The estimated slopes of the observed monthly vertical wave number spectra are in the

  7. Plasma flux and gravity waves in the midlatitude ionosphere during the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wu, Chen; Huang, Xueqin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhong, Dingkun; Qi, Hao; Huang, Liang; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The solar eclipse effects on the ionosphere are very complex. Except for the ionization decay due to the decrease of the photochemical process, the couplings of matter and energy between the ionosphere and the regions above and below will introduce much more disturbances. Five ionosondes in the Northeast Asia were used to record the midlatitude ionospheric responses to the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012. The latitude dependence of the eclipse lag was studied first. The foF2 response to the eclipse became slower with increased latitude. The response of the ionosphere at the different latitudes with the same eclipse obscuration differed from each other greatly. The plasma flux from the protonsphere was possibly produced by the rapid temperature drop in the lunar shadow to make up the ionization loss. The greater downward plasma flux was generated at higher latitude with larger dip angle and delayed the ionospheric response later. The waves in the foEs and the plasma frequency at the fixed height in the F layer are studied by the time period analytic method. The gravity waves of 43-51 min center period during and after the solar eclipse were found over Jeju and I-Cheon. The northward group velocity component of the gravity waves was estimated as ~108.7 m/s. The vertical group velocities between 100 and 150 km height over the two stations were calculated as ~5 and ~4.3 m/s upward respectively, indicating that the eclipse-induced gravity waves propagated from below the ionosphere.

  8. Satellite Detection of Orographic Gravity-wave Activity in the Winter Subtropical Stratosphere over Australia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orographic gravity-wave (OGW) parameterizations in models produce waves over subtropical mountain ranges in Australia and Africa that propagate into the stratosphere during austral winter and deposit momentum, affecting weather and climate. Satellite sensors have measured stratospheric GWs for over a decade, yet find no evidence of these waves. So are parameterizations failing here? Here we argue that the short wavelengths of subtropical OGWs place them near or below the detection limits of satellite sensors. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyze nine years of stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite during austral winter, applying new averaging techniques to maximize signal-to-noise and improve thresholds for OGW detection. Deep climatological enhancements in stratospheric OGW variance over specific mountain ranges in Australia and southern Africa are revealed for the first time, which exhibit temporal and vertical variations consistent with predicted OGW responses to varying background winds.

  9. Strong seismic wave scattering beneath Kanto region derived from dense K-NET/KiK-net strong motion network and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, S.; Yoshimoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Observed seismograms, which consist of the high-frequency body waves through the low-velocity (LV) region at depth of 20-40 km beneath northwestern Chiba in Kanto, show strong peak delay and spindle shape of S waves. By analyzing dense seismic records from K-NET/KiK-net, such spindle-shape S waves are clearly observed in the frequency range of 1-8 Hz. In order to investigate a specific heterogeneous structure to generate such observations, we conduct 3-D finite-difference method (FDM) simulation using realistic heterogeneous models and compare the simulation results with dense strong motion array observations. Our 3-D simulation model is covering the zone 150 km by 64 km in horizontal directions and 75 km in vertical direction, which has been discretized with uniform grid size 0.05 km. We assume a layered background velocity structure, which includes basin structure, crust, mantle and subducting oceanic plate, base on the model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2008). In order to introduce the effect of seismic wave scattering, we assume a stochastic random velocity fluctuation in each layer. Random velocity fluctuations are characterized by exponential-type auto-correlation function (ACF) with correlation distance a = 3 km and rms value of fluctuation e = 0.05 in the upper crust, a = 3 km and e = 0.07 in the lower crust, a = 10 km and e = 0.02 in the mantle. In the subducting oceanic plate, we assume an anisotropic random velocity fluctuation characterized by exponential-type ACF with aH = 10 km in horizontal direction, aZ = 0.5 km in vertical direction and e = 0.02 (e.g., Furumura and Kennett, 2005). In addition, we assume a LV zone at northeastern part of Chiba with depth of 20-40 km (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2004). In the LV zone, random velocity fluctuation characterized by Gaussian-type ACF with a = 1 km and e = 0.07 is superposed on exponential-type ACF with a = 3 km and e = 0.07, in order to modulate the S-wave propagation in the dominant frequency range of

  10. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  11. Sensitivity of the Freie Universität Berlin Climate Middle Atmosphere Model (FUB-CMAM to different gravity-wave drag parameterisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mieth

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the sensitivity of the Berlin Climate Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM to different gravity-wave (GW parameterisations. We perform five perpetual January experiments: 1 Rayleigh friction (RF (control, 2 non-orographic GWs, 3 orographic GWs, 4 orographic and non-orographic GWs with no background stress, and 5 as for 4 but with background stress. We also repeat experiment 4 but for July conditions. Our main aim is to improve the model climatology by introducing orographic and non-orographic parameterisations and to investigate the individual effect of these schemes in the Berlin CMAM. We compare with an RF control to determine the improvement upon a previously-published model version employing RF. Results are broadly similar to previously-published works. The runs having both orographic and non-orographic GWs produce a statistically-significant warming of 4-8K in the wintertime polar lower stratosphere. These runs also feature a cooling of the warm summer pole in the mesosphere by 10-15K, more in line with observations. This is associated with the non-orographic GW scheme. This scheme is also associated with a heating feature in the winter polar upper stratosphere directly below the peak GW-breaking region. The runs with both orographic and non-orographic GWs feature a statistically-significant deceleration in the polar night jet (PNJ of 10-20ms-1 in the lower stratosphere. Both orographic and non-orographic GWs individually produce some latitudinal tilting of the polar jet with height, although the main effect comes from the non-orographic waves. The resulting degree of tilt, although improved, is nevertheless still weaker than that observed. Accordingly, wintertime variability in the zonal mean wind, which peaks at the edge of the vortex, tends to maximise too far polewards in the model compared with observations. Gravity-planetary wave interaction leads to a decrease in the amplitudes of stationary planetary waves 1 and 2 by up to 50% in

  12. Sensitivity of the Freie Universität Berlin Climate Middle Atmosphere Model (FUB-CMAM to different gravity-wave drag parameterisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mieth

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the sensitivity of the Berlin Climate Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM to different gravity-wave (GW parameterisations. We perform five perpetual January experiments: 1 Rayleigh friction (RF (control, 2 non-orographic GWs, 3 orographic GWs, 4 orographic and non-orographic GWs with no background stress, and 5 as for 4 but with background stress. We also repeat experiment 4 but for July conditions. Our main aim is to improve the model climatology by introducing orographic and non-orographic parameterisations and to investigate the individual effect of these schemes in the Berlin CMAM. We compare with an RF control to determine the improvement upon a previously-published model version employing RF. Results are broadly similar to previously-published works. The runs having both orographic and non-orographic GWs produce a statistically-significant warming of 4-8K in the wintertime polar lower stratosphere. These runs also feature a cooling of the warm summer pole in the mesosphere by 10-15K, more in line with observations. This is associated with the non-orographic GW scheme. This scheme is also associated with a heating feature in the winter polar upper stratosphere directly below the peak GW-breaking region. The runs with both orographic and non-orographic GWs feature a statistically-significant deceleration in the polar night jet (PNJ of 10-20ms-1 in the lower stratosphere. Both orographic and non-orographic GWs individually produce some latitudinal tilting of the polar jet with height, although the main effect comes from the non-orographic waves. The resulting degree of tilt, although improved, is nevertheless still weaker than that observed. Accordingly, wintertime variability in the zonal mean wind, which peaks at the edge of the vortex, tends to maximise too far polewards in the model compared with observations. Gravity-planetary wave interaction leads to a decrease in the amplitudes of stationary planetary waves 1 and 2 by

  13. Acoustic-gravity waves generated by atmospheric and near-surface sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Kholodov, Alexander S.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Andreeva, Elena S.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Vorontsov, Artem M.

    2013-04-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) generated by long-period oscillations of the Earth's (oceanic) surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. Wavelike disturbances are quite frequent phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere. These events can be caused by the impacts from space and atmosphere, by oscillations of the Earth'as surface and other near-surface events. These wavelike phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere appear as the alternating areas of enhanced and depleted density (in the atmosphere) or electron concentration (in the ionosphere). In the paper, AGW with typical frequencies of a few hertz - millihertz are analyzed. AGW are often observed after the atmospheric perturbations, during the earthquakes, and some time (a few days to hours) in advance of the earthquakes. Numerical simulation of the generation of AGW by long-period oscillations of the Earth's and oceanic surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seiches, and tsunami is carried out. The AGW generated by the near-surface phenomena within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range build up at the mid-atmospheric and ionospheric altitudes, where they assume their typical spatial scales of the order of a few hundred kilometers. Oscillations of the ionospheric plasma within a few hertz-millihertz frequency range generate electromagnetic waves with corresponding frequencies as well as travelling ionospheric irregularities (TIDs). Such structures can be successfully monitored using satellite radio tomography (RT) techniques. For the purposes of RT diagnostics, 150/400 MHz transmissions from low-orbiting navigational satellites flying in polar orbits at the altitudes of about 1000 km as well as 1.2-1.5 GHz signals form high-orbiting (orbital altitudes about 20000 km) navigation systems like GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of experimental studies on generation of wavelike disturbances by particle precipitation are presented

  14. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 2. Gravity wave observations in the MLT region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Antonita, T. Maria; Shelbi, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    In the present communication, allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar observations of gravity wave activity in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The present meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the MLT region, which can be readily used for studying the tides, planetary waves, gravity waves of periods 2-6 hours, and other long period oscillations in this region. However, these hourly winds are not sufficient for studying short period gravity waves having periods less than an hour, which demand high temporal resolution measurements. Even though the winds are estimated on an hourly basis, information such as zenith angle, azimuth angle, and radial velocity of each detected meteor are archived. Using these details of the meteor, an algorithm is developed to obtain the 15-min temporal resolution wind data. The output of the algorithm is compared with hourly wind data, and it showed a good agreement during the high meteor shower periods. Most of the times high meteor counts are observed during late night and early morning hours (local) over this latitude. Continuous wind measurements during the high meteor shower periods are used for studying the gravity wave activity in the MLT region. As the wave activity is intermittent and nonstationary, wavelet analysis has been used for delineating the wave features. The results showed the upward propagating intermittent gravity waves with periods 1-2 and 4-5 hours. The new aspect of the present communication is the usage of meteor radar for gravity wave studies for the first time over this latitude and studying their seasonal variability.

  15. The effect of regional variation of seismic wave attenuation on the strong ground motion from earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D H; Bernreuter, D L

    1981-10-01

    Attenuation is caused by geometric spreading and absorption. Geometric spreading is almost independent of crustal geology and physiographic region, but absorption depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than about 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States is similar to that in the western United States. Beyond the near field, differences in ground motion can best be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The stress drop of eastern earthquakes may be higher than for western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. But we believe this factor is of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. The characteristics of strong ground motion in the conterminous United States are discussed in light of these considerations, and estimates are made of the epicentral ground motions in the central and eastern United States. (author)

  16. Investigating the Role of Gravity Wave on Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities using SABER and C/NOFS Satellites Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Tesema, F.; Tebabal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical simulations have shown that gravity wave (GW) seeded perturbations amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) results in ESF (equatorial spread F); however, there have been limited observational studies using simultaneous observations of GW and ionospheric parameters. In this paper, for the fist time, simultaneous atmospheric temperature perturbation profiles that are due to GWs obtained from Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on-board the TIMED satellite and equatorial in -situ ion density and vertical plasma drift velocity observations with and without ESF activity obtained from C/NOFS satellites are used to investigate the effect of GW on the generation of ESF. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of ionospheric oscillations and GWs respectively have been estimated applying wavelet transforms. Cross wavelet analysis has also been applied between two closely observed profiles of temperature perturbations to estimate the horizontal wavelength of the GWs. Moreover, vertically propagating GWs that dissipate energy at the upper atmosphere have been investigated using spectral analysis compared with theoretical results. The analysis show that when the ion density shows strong post sunset irregularity between 20 and 24 LT, vertically upward drift velocities increase between 17 and 19 LT, but it becomes vertically downward when the ion density shows smooth variation. The horizontal wavelengths estimated from C/NOFS and SABER observations show excellent agreement when ion density observations show strong fluctuations; otherwise, they have poor agreement. It is also found that altitude profiles of potential energy of GW increases up to 90 km and then decreases significantly. It is found that the vertical wavelength of GW, corresponding to the dominant spectral power, ranges from about 7 km to 20 km regardless of the situation of the ionosphere; however, GWs with vertical wavelengths between 100 m to 1 km are found to

  17. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  18. Extracting gravity wave parameters during the September 2002 Southern Hemisphere major sudden stratospheric warming using a SANAE imaging riometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbatha, N. [South African National Space Agency, Hermanus (South Africa). Space Science; KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). School of Chemistry and Physics; Sivakumar, V. [KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). School of Chemistry and Physics; Bencherif, H. [La Reunion Univ. UMR 8105 CNRS, Saint-Denis (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Malinga, S. [South African National Space Agency, Hermanus (South Africa). Space Science

    2013-11-01

    Using absorption data measured by imaging riometer for ionospheric studies (IRIS) located at the South Africa National Antarctic Expedition (SANAE), Antarctica (72 S, 3 W), we extracted the parameters of gravity waves (GW) of periods between 40 and 50 min during late winter/ spring of the year 2002, a period of the unprecedented major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in the Southern Hemisphere middle atmosphere. During this period, an unprecedented substantial increase of temperature by about 25-30K throughout the stratosphere was observed. During the period of the occurrence of the major stratospheric warming, there was a reduction of both the GW horizontal phase speeds and the horizontal wavelengths at 90 km. The GW phase speeds and horizontal wavelengths were observed to reach minimum values of about 7ms{sup -1} and 19 km, respectively, while during the quiet period the average value of the phase speed and horizontal wavelength was approximately 23ms{sup -1} and 62 km, respectively. The observed event is discussed in terms of momentum flux and also a potential interaction of gravity waves, planetary waves and mean circulation.

  19. 22 July 2009 total solar eclipse induced gravity waves in ionosphere as inferred from GPS observations over EIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Vijay; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Rajesh

    2016-11-01

    In the present contribution we investigate the variation in the Global Positioning System (GPS) derived ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) over Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) region on the rare occasional astronomical phenomenon of total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009. The aim is to study and identify the wave like structure enumerated due to solar eclipse induced gravity waves in the F-region ionosphere altitude. The work is aimed to understand features of horizontal and vertical variation of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) properties over the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) region in Indian low latitude region. The ionospheric observations is from the site of Allahabad (lat 25.4° N; lon. 81.9° E; dip 38.6° N) located at the fringe of eclipse totality path. The estimated vertical electron density profile from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS-RO satellite, considering all the satellite line of sight around the time of eclipse totality shows maximum depletion of 43%. The fast fourier transform and wavelet transform of GPS DTEC data from Allahabad station (Allahabad: lat 25.4 N; lon. 81.9 E) shows the presence of periodic waves of ∼20 to 45 min and ∼70 to 90 min period at F-region altitude. The shorter period correspond to the sunrise time morning terminator and longer period can be associated with solar eclipse generated AGWs. The most important result obtained is that our results along with previous result for wave like signatures in D-region ionosphere from Allahabad station show that AGWs generated by sunrise time terminator have similarity in the D and F region of the ionosphere but solar eclipse induced AGWs show higher period in the F-region compared to D-region ionosphere.

  20. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  1. Search for strong gravity signatures in same-sign dimuon final states using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; 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    2013-07-16

    A search for microscopic black holes has been performed in a same-sign dimuon final state using 1.3 fb^-1 of proton-proton collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model and the results are used to derive exclusion contours in the context of a low scale gravity model.

  2. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign – Part I: Observations with collocated radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffmann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available During the {MaCWAVE} campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes and the Swedish Rocket Range (ESRANGE near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHF radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3° N, 16.0° E and the ESRAD VHF radar near Kiruna (67.9° N, 21.9° E. Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24–26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4–5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13–14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of ~200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of ~5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains.

  3. A solution of nonlinear equation for the gravity wave spectra from Adomian decomposition method: a first approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gledson Goulart

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equation for the gravity wave spectra in mean atmosphere is analytically solved without linearization by the Adomian decomposition method. As a consequence, the nonlinear nature of problem is preserved and the errors found in the results are only due to the parameterization. The results, with the parameterization applied in the simulations, indicate that the linear solution of the equation is a good approximation only for heights shorter than ten kilometers, because the linearization the equation leads to a solution that does not correctly describe the kinetic energy spectra.

  4. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  5. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartin, A.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Hamburg Univ.

    2011-06-01

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  6. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartin, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-06-15

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  7. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  8. Strong Evidence for Stochastic Growth of Langmuir-Like Waves in Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Bursty Langmuir-like waves driven by electron beams in Earth's foreshock have properties which are inconsistent with the standard plasma physics paradigm of uniform exponential growth saturated by nonlinear processes. Here it is demonstrated for a specific period that stochastic growth theory (SGT) quantitatively describes these waves throughout a large fraction of the foreshock. The statistical wave properties are inconsistent with nonlinear processes or self-organized criticality being important. SGT's success in explaining the foreshock waves and type III solar bursts suggests that SGT is widely applicable to wave growth in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas.

  9. Scale hierarchy in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity: strong constraint from synchrotron radiation in the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-10-12

    Hořava-Lifshitz gravity models contain higher-order operators suppressed by a characteristic scale, which is required to be parametrically smaller than the Planck scale. We show that recomputed synchrotron radiation constraints from the Crab Nebula suffice to exclude the possibility that this scale is of the same order of magnitude as the Lorentz breaking scale in the matter sector. This highlights the need for a mechanism that suppresses the percolation of Lorentz violation in the matter sector and is effective for higher-order operators as well.

  10. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Lee Wave Case over Three-Dimensional Mountainous Terrain under Strong Wind Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study of a lee wave event over three-dimensional (3D mountainous terrain in Lantau Island, Hong Kong, using a simulation combining mesoscale model and computational fluid dynamics (CFD model has shown that (1 3D steep mountainous terrain can trigger small scale lee waves under strong wind condition, and the horizontal extent of the wave structure is in a dimension of few kilometers and corresponds to the dimension of the horizontal cross-section of the mountain; (2 the life cycle of the lee wave is short, and the wave structures will continuously form roughly in the same location, then gradually move downstream, and dissipate over time; (3 the lee wave triggered by the mountainous terrain in this case can be categorized into “nonsymmetric vortex shedding” or “turbulent wake,” as defined before based on water tank experiments; (4 the magnitude of the wave is related to strength of wind shear. This study also shows that a simulation combining mesoscale model and CFD can capture complex wave structure in the boundary layer over realistic 3D steep terrain, and have a potential value for operational jobs on air traffic warning, wind energy utilization, and atmospheric environmental assessment.

  12. Effect of a relative phase of waves constituting the initial perturbation and the wave interference on the dynamics of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2017-07-01

    While it is a common wisdom that initial conditions influence the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the research in this area is focused primarily on the effects of the wavelength and amplitude of the interface perturbation. The information has hitherto largely ignored the influences on RMI dynamics of the relative phase of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation and the interference of the perturbation waves. In this work we systematically study the influence of the relative phase and the interference of waves constituting a multiwave initial perturbation on a strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface separating ideal fluids with contrast densities. We apply group theory analysis and smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations. For verification and validation of the simulations, qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed with rigorous zeroth-order, linear, and nonlinear theories as well as with gas dynamics experiments achieving good agreement. For a sample case of a two-wave (two-mode) initial perturbation we select the first-wave amplitude enabling the maximum initial growth rate of the RMI and we vary the second-wave amplitude from 1% to 100% of the first-wave amplitude. We also vary the relative phase of the first and second waves and consider the in-phase, the antiphase and the random-phase cases. We find that the relative phase and the interference of waves are important factors of RMI dynamics influencing qualitatively and quantitatively the symmetry, morphology, and growth rate of the Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable interface, as well as the order and disorder in strong-shock-driven RMI.

  13. Investigation of fog structure affected by gravity waves and turbulence in the mountainous region of Pyeongchang, Korea, the place for the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, I.; Yum, S. S.; Yeom, J. M.; Gultepe, I.

    2017-12-01

    Since microphysical and dynamical processes of fog are not well-known and have non-linear relationships among processes that are related to fog formation, improving the accuracy of the fog forecasting/nowcasting system is challenging. For these reasons, understanding the fog mechanism is needed to develop the fog forecasting system. So, we focus on understanding fog-turbulence interactions and fog-gravity wave interactions. Many studies noted that turbulence plays important roles in fog. However, a discrepancy between arguments for the effect of turbulent mixing on fog formation exists. Several studies suggested that turbulent mixing suppresses fog formation. Some other studies reported that turbulent mixing contributes to fog formation. On the other hand, several quasi-periodic oscillations of temperature, visibility, and vertical velocity, which have period of 10-20 minutes, were observed to be related to gravity waves in fog; because gravity waves play significant dynamic roles in the atmosphere. Furthermore, a numerical study suggested that gravity waves, simulated near the top of the fog layer, may affect fog microphysics. Thus, we investigate the effects of turbulent mixing on fog formation and the influences of gravity waves on fog microphysics to understand fog structure in Pyeongchang. In these studies, we analyze the data that are obtained from doppler lidar and 3.5 m meteorological observation tower including 3D-ultrasonic anemometer, IR sensor, and fog monitor during ICE-POP (International Collaborative Experiments for Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter games) campaign. In these instruments, doppler lidar is a good instrument to observe the gravity waves near the fog top, while in situ measurements have small spatial coverage. The instruments are installed at the mountainous terrain of Pyeongchang, Korea. More details will be presented at the conference.

  14. Experimental observation of strong mixing due to internal wave focusing over sloping terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.; Manders, A.; Harlander, U.; Maas, L.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental observation of internal waves that are focused due to a sloping topography. A remarkable mixing of the density field was observed. This result is of importance for the deep ocean, where internal waves are believed to play a role in mixing. The experiments were

  15. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  16. Genesis of Twin Tropical Cyclones as Revealed by a Global Mesoscale Model: The Role of Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data, including NCEP reanalysis data and METEOSAT 7 IR satellite imagery, and performing numerical simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no sub-grid cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and thus the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres, leading to the formation of the TCs. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (1) wave deepening (intensification) associated with a reduction in wavelength and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with boundary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.

  17. Strong electron dissipation by a mode converted ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The fast wave approximation, extended to include the effects of electron dissipation, is used to calculate the power mode converted to the ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave in the vicinity of the ion hybrid resonance. The power absorbed from the fast wave by ion cyclotron damping and by electron Landau and transit time damping (including cross terms) is also calculated. The fast wave equation is solved for either the Budden configuration of a cut-off-resonance pair or the triplet configuration of cut-off-resonance-cut-off. The fraction mode converted is compared for the triplet case and the Budden multi-pass situation. The electron damping rate of the ion hybrid wave is obtained from the local dispersion relation and a ray tracing code is used to calculate the damping of the mode converted ion hybrid wave by the electrons as it propagates away from the resonance. Quantitative results for a range of conditions relevant to JET, TFTR and ITER are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Fermions in the 5D Gravity-Scalar Standing Wave Braneworld

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Midodashvili, Pavle

    2014-01-01

    In the article we investigate localization problem for spinor fields within the 5D standing wave braneworld with the bulk real scalar field and show that there exist normalizable fermion field zero modes on the brane.

  19. Modeling magnetic field and TEC signatures of large-amplitude acoustic and gravity waves generated by natural hazard events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Inchin, P.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean and solid earth responses during earthquakes are a significant source of large amplitude acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs) that perturb the overlying ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system. IT disturbances are routinely detected following large earthquakes (M > 7.0) via GPS total electron content (TEC) observations, which often show acoustic wave ( 3-4 min periods) and gravity wave ( 10-15 min) signatures with amplitudes of 0.05-2 TECU. In cases of very large earthquakes (M > 8.0) the persisting acoustic waves are estimated to have 100-200 m/s compressional velocities in the conducting ionospheric E and F-regions and should generate significant dynamo currents and magnetic field signatures. Indeed, some recent reports (e.g. Hao et al, 2013, JGR, 118, 6) show evidence for magnetic fluctuations, which appear to be related to AGWs, following recent large earthquakes. However, very little quantitative information is available on: (1) the detailed spatial and temporal dependence of these magnetic fluctuations, which are usually observed at a small number of irregularly arranged stations, and (2) the relation of these signatures to TEC perturbations in terms of relative amplitudes, frequency, and timing for different events. This work investigates space- and time-dependent behavior of both TEC and magnetic fluctuations following recent large earthquakes, with the aim to improve physical understanding of these perturbations via detailed, high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional modeling case studies with a coupled neutral atmospheric and ionospheric model, MAGIC-GEMINI (Zettergren and Snively, 2015, JGR, 120, 9). We focus on cases inspired by the large Chilean earthquakes from the past decade (viz., the M > 8.0 earthquakes from 2010 and 2015) to constrain the sources for the model, i.e. size, frequency, amplitude, and timing, based on available information from ocean buoy and seismometer data. TEC data are used to validate source amplitudes and to constrain

  20. Strong ion accelerating by collisionless magnetosonic shock wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)

  1. Wave failure at strong coupling in intracellular C a2 + signaling system with clustered channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Yuning; Gao, Xuejuan; Cai, Meichun; Shuai, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    As an important intracellular signal, C a2 + ions control diverse cellular functions. In this paper, we discuss the C a2 + signaling with a two-dimensional model in which the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (I P3 ) receptor channels are distributed in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The wave failure at large C a2 + diffusion coupling is discussed in detail in the model. We show that with varying model parameters the wave failure is a robust behavior with either deterministic or stochastic channel dynamics. We suggest that the wave failure should be a general behavior in inhomogeneous diffusing systems with clustered excitable regions and may occur in biological C a2 + signaling systems.

  2. Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.

  3. Numerical modelling of the structure of electromagnetic disturbances generated by acoustic-gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorel'tsev, A.I.; Bidlingmajer, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    A numeric model of electromagnetic field disturbances generated under the interaction of acoustic-gravitational waves with ionospheric plasma is elaborated and vertical structure of the above disturbances is calculated. The estimates shown that electromagnetic disturbances can penetrate into neutral atmosphere and can be recorded through measurements of the variation of magnetic field and electron field vertical component near the earth is surface. A conclusion is made on a feasibility of monitoring of acoustic-gravitational wave activity in the lower thermosphere through land measurements of magnetic and electric field variations

  4. Coherent reflection from surface gravity water waves during reciprocal acoustic transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiey, Mohsen; Song, Aijun; Smith, Kevin B

    2012-10-01

    During a recent experiment in Kauai, Hawaii, reciprocal transmissions were conducted between two acoustic transceivers mounted on the seafloor at a depth of 100 m. The passage of moving surface wave crests was shown to generate focused and intense coherent acoustic returns, which had increasing or decreasing delay depending on the direction of propagation relative to the direction of surface wave crests. It is shown that a rough surface two-dimensional parabolic equation model with an evolving sea surface can produce qualitative agreement with data for the dynamic surface returns.

  5. Gravity, Special Relativity, and the Strong Force A Bohr-Einstein-de Broglie Model for the Formation of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2012-01-01

    This book shows that the strong interaction forces, which keep hadrons and nuclei together, are relativistic gravitational forces exerted between very small particles in the mass range of neutrinos. First, this book considers the problematic motion of two charged particles under the influence of electrostatic and gravitational forces only, which shows that bound states are formed by following the same semi-classical methodology used by Bohr to describe the H atom. This approach is also coupled with Newton's gravitational law and with Einstein's special relativity. The results agree with experi

  6. Search for strong gravity in multijet final states produced in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2016-03-07

    A search is conducted for new physics in multijet final states using 3.6 inverse femtobarns of data from proton-proton collisions at √s=13 TeV taken at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector. Events are selected containing at least three jets with scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (H{sub T}) greater than 1 TeV. No excess is seen at large H{sub T} and limits are presented on new physics: models which produce final states containing at least three jets and having cross sections larger than 1.6 fb with H{sub T}> 5.8 TeV are excluded. Limits are also given in terms of new physics models of strong gravity that hypothesize additional space-time dimensions.

  7. Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hot Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7degS, 67.7degW), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  8. Radiation from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Molecular Medium due to Parametric Pumping by a Strong Electromagnetic Wave,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS 4WJD ASTRONOMY COLLG PAM A 2 3i 81 4 30) 235. RADIATION FROM A .ELATIVISTIC_§LECTRON BEAM IN AZOLECULAR...A MOLECULAR MEDIUM DUE TO PARAMETRIC PUMPING BY A STRONG ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE L. Stenflo Department of Plasma Physics Umel University S-90187 Umel...GUteborg, Sweden and Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies University