WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong genetic component

  1. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 2 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic: Immune System and Disorders Health Topic: Lupus Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Complement component 2 deficiency Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 ...

  2. Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Finding strongly connected components (SCCs) in the state-space of discrete-state models is a critical task in formal verification of LTL and fair CTL properties, but the potentially huge number of reachable states and SCCs constitutes a formidable challenge. This paper is concerned with computing the sets of states in SCCs or terminal SCCs of asynchronous systems. Because of its advantages in many applications, we employ saturation on two previously proposed approaches: the Xie-Beerel algorithm and transitive closure. First, saturation speeds up state-space exploration when computing each SCC in the Xie-Beerel algorithm. Then, our main contribution is a novel algorithm to compute the transitive closure using saturation. Experimental results indicate that our improved algorithms achieve a clear speedup over previous algorithms in some cases. With the help of the new transitive closure computation algorithm, up to 10(exp 150) SCCs can be explored within a few seconds.

  3. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Strong Genetic Overlap Between Executive Functions and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E.; Mann, Frank D.; Briley, Daniel A.; Church, Jessica A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision-making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7-15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically-mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. PMID:27359131

  5. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  6. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  7. COMPONENTS IMPACT ANALYZER WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeyamala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality software can be obtained by means of rigorous testing of all the components of the software. This research work has proposed an automated software testing framework that performs a mutant based components impact analysis to identify the higher critical components from the Software Under Test (SUT. In this work, the mutants are automatically generated by injecting faults in the original program and they are used to identify the impact over the other components in the SUT. The generated mutants are executed using a suite of test cases to identify their impact over the other components of the system. Based on their impact level, the critical components are identified and then rigorously verified using the test cases generated using Genetic Algorithm (GA based approach with branch coverage and mutation score based test adequacy criterion as the fitness functions. For unit testing, the branch coverage based test case adequacy criteria is used to test whether all the branches have been covered or not. In integration testing, the components are tested against the test cases generated using GA by means of identifying the execution trace of each method and each intermediate results is compared against the expected output stored in the repository. The testing tool named as “JImpact Arbiter” developed as part of this work has carried out all these tasks in an automated way and has generated various graphs for the purpose of visualization.

  8. Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia: The Genetic Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Valenzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world, causing nearly 40% of births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. PE begins with inadequate trophoblast invasion early in pregnancy, which produces an increase in oxidative stress contributing to the development of systemic endothelial dysfunction in the later phases of the disease, leading to the characteristic clinical manifestation of PE. Numerous methods have been used to predict the onset of PE with different degrees of efficiency. These methods have used fetal/placental and maternal markers in different stages of pregnancy. From an epidemiological point of view, many studies have shown that PE is a disease with a strong familiar predisposition, which also varies according to geographical, socioeconomic, and racial features, and this information can be used in the prediction process. Large amounts of research have shown a genetic association with a multifactorial polygenic inheritance in the development of this disease. Many biological candidate genes and polymorphisms have been examined in their relation with PE. We will discuss the most important of them, grouped by the different pathogenic mechanisms involved in PE.

  9. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... of genetic diversity supports the hypothesis that teak has its centre of origin in India, from where it spread eastwards. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) gave an overall highly significant F st value of 0.227—population pairwise F st values were in the range 0.01–0.48. Applying the G......″st differentiation parameter, the estimated overall differentiation was 0.632, implying a strong genetic structure among populations. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, using the pairwise population matrix of G″st values as input, contained three distinct groups: (1) the eight provenances from Thailand and Laos, (2...

  10. Variance components and genetic parameters for body weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components resulting from direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, as well as the relationship between direct and maternal genetic effects for several body weight and fleece traits, were estimated by DFREML procedures. Traits analysed included ...

  11. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic ...

  12. The genetic component of Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Holst, Anders G; Olesen, Søren Peter

    2013-01-01

    . The prevalence varies with ethnicity ranging from 1:2,000 to 1:100,000 in different parts of the world. Today, hundreds of variants in 17 genes have been associated with BrS of which mutations in SCN5A, coding for the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, accounts for the vast majority. Despite this......, approximately 70% of BrS cases cannot be explained genetically with the current knowledge. Moreover, the monogenic role of some of the variants previously described as being associated with BrS has been questioned by their occurrence in about 4% (1:23) of the general population as found in NHLBI GO Exome......-defibrillator (ICD). The risk stratification and indications for ICD treatment are based on the ECG and on the clinical and family history. In this review we discuss the genetic basis of BrS....

  13. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Indirect estimates of obesity such as BMI seem to be strongly influenced by genetic factors in twins. Precise measurements of total and regional fat as determined by direct techniques such as DXA scan have only been applied in a few twin studies. The aim of the present study was to est......OBJECTIVE: Indirect estimates of obesity such as BMI seem to be strongly influenced by genetic factors in twins. Precise measurements of total and regional fat as determined by direct techniques such as DXA scan have only been applied in a few twin studies. The aim of the present study...... was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... genetic component (h(2)) of total (h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.86) and regional fat percentages (trunk, h(2)(young) = 0.82, h(2)(elderly) = 0.85; lower body, h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.81; and trunk/lower body, h(2)(young) = 0.83, h(2)(elderly) = 0.71) in both the young and elderly...

  14. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  15. Comparing numerical and analytical approaches to strongly interacting two-component mixtures in one dimensional traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigate one-dimensional harmonically trapped two-component systems for repulsive interaction strengths ranging from the non-interacting to the strongly interacting regime for Fermi-Fermi mixtures. A new and powerful mapping between the interaction strength parameters from a continuous...

  16. Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty-eight (88) finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) germplasm collections were tested using augmented randomized complete block design at Adet Agricultural Research Station in 2008 cropping season. The objective of this study was to find out heritability, variance components, variability and genetic advance ...

  17. Analytical thermodynamics of a strongly attractive three-component Fermi gas in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Yin Xiangguo; Wang Yupeng; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, Murray T.

    2010-01-01

    Ultracold three-component atomic Fermi gases in one dimension are expected to exhibit rich physics due to the presence of trions and different pairing states. Quantum phase transitions from the trion state into a paired phase and a normal Fermi liquid occur at zero temperature. We derive the analytical thermodynamics of strongly attractive three-component one-dimensional fermions with SU(3) symmetry via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method in unequal Zeeman splitting fields H 1 and H 2 . We find explicitly that for low temperature the system acts like either a two-component or a three-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid dependent on the system parameters. The phase diagrams for the chemical potential and specific heat are presented for illustrative values of the Zeeman splitting. We also demonstrate that crossover between different Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid phases exhibit singular behavior in specific heat and entropy as the temperature tends to zero. Beyond Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid physics, we obtain the equation of state which provides a precise description of universal thermodynamics and quantum criticality in three-component, strongly attractive Fermi gases.

  18. Functional components in sweetpotato and their genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Ishiguro, Koji; Oki, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Shigenori

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the nutritionally important components such as starches, vitamins and minerals, storage roots and leaves of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) contains several components with health-promoting functions. Of these, the functionalities of carotenoids, anthocyanins and caffeoylquinic acids have been well established by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Several sweetpotato cultivars containing high levels of these components have been developed in Japan; e.g., ‘Ayamurasaki’, which has high amounts of anthocyanin in its storage roots. To further improve the content and also to change the composition of these functional components, the identification of the genes involved in their biosynthesis and genetic modification of the biosynthetic pathway has been attempted. In this review, we summarize the present status of the research and breeding for these functional components, and we discuss the future prospects for improving sweetpotato functionality. PMID:28465668

  19. Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.; Zwicknagel, G.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.

  20. Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Mikael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity are expected to increase the extinction risk of small populations, but detailed tests in natural populations are scarce. We combine long-term population and fitness data with those from two types of molecular markers to examine the role of genetic effects in a declining metapopulation of southern dunlins Calidris alpina schinzii, an endangered shorebird. Results The decline is associated with increased pairings between related individuals, including close inbreeding (as revealed by both field observations of parentage and molecular markers. Furthermore, reduced genetic diversity seems to affect individual fitness at several life stages. Higher genetic similarity between mates correlates negatively with the pair's hatching success. Moreover, offspring produced by related parents are more homozygous and suffer from increased mortality during embryonic development and possibly also after hatching. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong genetic effects in a rapidly declining population, emphasizing the importance of genetic factors for the persistence of small populations.

  1. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  2. Computing strong metric dimension of some special classes of graphs by genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the NP-hard problem of determining the strong metric dimension of graphs. The problem is solved by a genetic algorithm that uses binary encoding and standard genetic operators adapted to the problem. This represents the first attempt to solve this problem heuristically. We report experimental results for the two special classes of ORLIB test instances: crew scheduling and graph coloring.

  3. A strong genetic footprint of the re-introduction history of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebach, Iris; Keller, Lukas F

    2009-12-01

    A population's neutral genetic variation is a composite of its size, degree of isolation and demographic history. Bottlenecks and founder events increase genetic drift, leading to the loss of genetic variation and increased genetic differentiation among populations. Gene flow has the opposite effects. Thus, gene flow can override the genetic patterns caused by founder events. Using 37 microsatellite loci, we investigated the effects of serial bottlenecks on genetic variation and differentiation among 42 Alpine ibex populations in Switzerland with known re-introduction histories. We detected a strong footprint of re-introduction events on contemporary genetic structure, with re-introduction history explaining a substantial part of the genetic differentiation among populations. As a result of the translocation of a considerable number of individuals from the sole formerly surviving population in northern Italy, most of the genetic variation of the ancestral population is now present in the combined re-introduced Swiss populations. However, re-introductions split up the genetic variation among populations, such that each contemporary Swiss population showed lower genetic variation than the ancestral population. As expected, serial bottlenecks had different effects on the expected heterozygosity (He) and standardized number of alleles (sNa). While loss of sNa was higher in the first bottlenecks than in subsequent ones, He declined to a similar degree with each bottleneck. Thus, genetic drift was detected with each bottleneck, even when no loss of sNa was observed. Overall, more than a hundred years after the beginning of this successful re-introduction programme, re-introduction history was the main determinant of today's genetic structure.

  4. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  5. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440........ For leptin vs. the various measures of overall and local fatness the correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.74 in men and from 0.48 to 0.75 in women. All correlations were significantly different genetic...

  6. Multi-system Component Phenotypes of Bipolar Disorder for Genetic Investigations of Extended Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C.; Service, Susan K.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Ramirez, Margarita; Castrillón, Gabriel; Gomez-Franco, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Montoya, Gabriel; Montoya, Patricia; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Ericson, Marissa; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier; Glahn, David C.; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Risch, Neil; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Thompson, Paul M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genetic factors contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP), yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A focus on measuring multi-system quantitative traits that may be components of BP psychopathology may enable genetic dissection of this complex disorder, and investigation of extended pedigrees from genetically isolated populations may facilitate the detection of specific genetic variants that impact on BP as well as its component phenotypes. OBJECTIVE To identify quantitative neurocognitive, temperament-related, and neuroanatomic phenotypes that appear heritable and associated with severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), and therefore suitable for genetic linkage and association studies aimed at identifying variants contributing to BP-I risk. DESIGN Multi-generational pedigree study in two closely related, genetically isolated populations: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (ANT). PARTICIPANTS 738 individuals, all from CVCR and ANT pedigrees, of whom 181 are affected with BP-I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Familial aggregation (heritability) and association with BP-I of 169 quantitative neurocognitive, temperament, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) phenotypes. RESULTS Seventy-five percent (126) of the phenotypes investigated were significantly heritable, and 31% (53) were associated with BP-I. About 1/4 of the phenotypes, including measures from each phenotype domain, were both heritable and associated with BP-I. Neuroimaging phenotypes, particularly cortical thickness in prefrontal and temporal regions, and volume and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum, represented the most promising candidate traits for genetic mapping related to BP based on strong heritability and association with disease. Analyses of phenotypic and genetic covariation identified substantial correlations among the traits, at least some of which share a common underlying genetic architecture. CONCLUSIONS AND

  7. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  8. Burden analysis of rare microdeletions suggests a strong impact of neurodevelopmental genes in genetic generalised epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Dennis; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Trucks, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb) and rare (...%) autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers) were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1) assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2) estimate the relative...... a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes....

  9. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    enough, the B-z reorientation causes changes in the flow intensity but not in the shape of the convection pattern. The results show the characteristics of ionospheric convection response during strong B-y and suggest that the convection reconfiguration is not only determined by the changing B-z but also...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...

  10. Company Slogan and a Vivid Image of a Trademark - as Main Components of a Strong Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BELOSTECINIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among other methods, good brand managers always affect clients and strengthen their fidelity to the brand by means of company advertising slogans and vivid images associated with this brand. Slogans may function as useful “levers” or “hooks” helping clients to understand the essence of a trademark and its peculiarity, as well as to nail in clients' minds the established image of a strong brand. One of the “hooks” attracting attention to brand and helping to nail it in a common man's mind – is a company (advertising slogan - short message or motto, which actively presents the key theme of the brand in general or of a certain advertising campaign, and contains substantial information, reflecting the essence of campaign's or product's marketing offer. One must admit that it is nice to recall favorite philosopher's aphorisms or sayings while getting up in the morning, and to whistle an aria from a renowned opera on your way to work. However, more often people sing unsophisticated verses about the “sign of a good taste” and get annoyed by a trivial call to “have a break” going round in their heads. This means that the advertisement of popular chocolate bars and drinks has hit its target. The main lever for success in generation of a positive and recognizable brand image - is the slogan and its graphic image in consumer's mind. Together with other brand components (logo, corporate colors, sound or music image a slogan generates the system of constant elements which ensure the brand's internal unity and are aimed at creation of exposure effect. To some extent, we all are “ad eaters” and are always capable of estimating an ad, even if it is at the level of feelings: whether we like it or not. So why a certain advertisement can make us smile, elicit good feelings and cause an urge to buy product/service that is being advertised, and another one - evokes disappointment and annoyance? The answer is obvious: the first one was

  11. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... pattern) is located in the prenoon sector for northward B-z and in the postnoon sector for southward B-z. It is found that the cell focus shifts from the prenoon sector to the postnoon sector following a southward BL turning and vice versa for a northward B-z turning. However, the motion of the convection...

  12. Between-population differences in the genetic and maternal components of body mass in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, E; Gaillard, J M; Galan, M; Vanpé, C; David, I; Pellerin, M; Kjellander, P; Hewison, A J M; Pemberton, J M

    2018-03-28

    Understanding the genetic and environmental mechanisms governing variation in morphology or phenology in wild populations is currently an important challenge. While there is a general consensus that selection is stronger under stressful conditions, it remains unclear whether the evolutionary potential of traits should increase or decrease with increasingly stressful conditions. Here, we investigate how contrasting environmental conditions during growth may affect the maternal and genetic components of body mass in roe deer, the most abundant and widespread wild ungulate in Western Europe. Body mass is a key life history trait that strongly influences both survival and reproductive performance in large herbivores. We used pedigrees and animal models to determine the variance components of juvenile and adult winter body mass in two populations experiencing contrasting early-life conditions. Our analyses showed that roe deer at Chizé, where habitat was poor and unpredictable, exhibited very low genetic variance in juvenile body mass. Instead, variance in mass was mainly driven by among-cohort differences in early-life conditions and maternal environment. In contrast, roe deer at Bogesund, where resource availability during the critical period of fawn rearing was higher, displayed a substantial level of genetic variance in body mass. We discuss the potential role of past demography and viability selection on fawn body mass on the erosion of genetic variance in the poor habitat. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for both spatial (i.e. between-population variation) and temporal (i.e. cohort variation) heterogeneity in environmental conditions, especially in early life, to understand the potential for adaptive responses of wild populations to selection.

  13. Low genetic diversity and strong population structure shaped by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in a critically endangered primate, Trachypithecus leucocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Qiao, Y; Li, S; Pan, W; Yao, M

    2017-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure. We used 214 unique multi-locus genotypes from 41 social groups across the main distribution area of T. leucocephalus, and found strong genetic structure and significant genetic differentiation among local populations. Our landscape genetic analyses using a causal modelling framework suggest that a large habitat gap and geographical distance represent the primary landscape elements shaping genetic structure, yet high levels of genetic differentiation also exist between patches separated by a small habitat gap or road. This is the first comprehensive study that has evaluated the population genetic structure and diversity of T. leucocephalus using nuclear markers. Our results indicate strong negative impacts of anthropogenic land modifications and habitat fragmentation on primate genetic connectivity between forest patches. Our analyses suggest that two management units of the species could be defined, and indicate that habitat continuity should be enforced and restored to reduce genetic isolation and enhance population viability.

  14. Focusing light through strongly scattering media using genetic algorithm with SBR discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Feng, Qi; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated light focusing through strongly scattering media by performing binary amplitude optimization with a genetic algorithm. In the experiments, we control 160 000 mirrors of digital micromirror device to modulate and optimize the light transmission paths in the strongly scattering media. We replace the universal target-position-intensity (TPI) discriminant with signal-to-background ratio (SBR) discriminant in genetic algorithm. With 400 incident segments, a relative enhancement value of 17.5% with a ground glass diffuser is achieved, which is higher than the theoretical value of 1/(2π )≈ 15.9 % for binary amplitude optimization. According to our repetitive experiments, we conclude that, with the same segment number, the enhancement for the SBR discriminant is always higher than that for the TPI discriminant, which results from the background-weakening effect of SBR discriminant. In addition, with the SBR discriminant, the diameters of the focus can be changed ranging from 7 to 70 μm at arbitrary positions. Besides, multiple foci with high enhancement are obtained. Our work provides a meaningful reference for the study of binary amplitude optimization in the wavefront shaping field.

  15. Strong incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on bacterial rrs and ITS genetic structures of cystic fibrosis sputa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Pages-Monteiro

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF lungs harbor a complex community of interacting microbes, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Meta-taxogenomic analysis based on V5-V6 rrs PCR products of 52 P. aeruginosa-positive (Pp and 52 P. aeruginosa-negative (Pn pooled DNA extracts from CF sputa suggested positive associations between P. aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas and Prevotella, but negative ones with Haemophilus, Neisseria and Burkholderia. Internal Transcribed Spacer analyses (RISA from individual DNA extracts identified three significant genetic structures within the CF cohorts, and indicated an impact of P. aeruginosa. RISA clusters Ip and IIIp contained CF sputa with a P. aeruginosa prevalence above 93%, and of 24.2% in cluster IIp. Clusters Ip and IIIp showed lower RISA genetic diversity and richness than IIp. Highly similar cluster IIp RISA profiles were obtained from two patients harboring isolates of a same P. aeruginosa clone, suggesting convergent evolution in the structure of their microbiota. CF patients of cluster IIp had received significantly less antibiotics than patients of clusters Ip and IIIp but harbored the most resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Patients of cluster IIIp were older than those of Ip. The effects of P. aeruginosa on the RISA structures could not be fully dissociated from the above two confounding factors but several trends in these datasets support the conclusion of a strong incidence of P. aeruginosa on the genetic structure of CF lung microbiota.

  16. Population genetics inference for longitudinally-sampled mutants under strong selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Miguel; Seoighe, Cathal

    2014-11-01

    Longitudinal allele frequency data are becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons, this discrete model is commonly approximated by a diffusion process that requires the assumption that the forces of natural selection and mutation are weak. This assumption is not always appropriate. For example, mutations that impart drug resistance in pathogens may evolve under strong selective pressure. Here, we present an alternative approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution that does not make any assumptions about the magnitude of selection or mutation and is much more computationally efficient than the standard diffusion approximation. Simulation studies are used to compare the performance of our method to that of the Wright-Fisher and Gaussian diffusion approximations. For large populations, our method is found to provide a much better approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution when selection is strong, while all three methods perform comparably when selection is weak. Importantly, maximum-likelihood estimates of the selection coefficient are severely attenuated when selection is strong under the two diffusion models, but not when our method is used. This is further demonstrated with an application to mutant-frequency data from an experimental study of bacteriophage evolution. We therefore recommend our method for estimating the selection coefficient when the effective population size is too large to utilize the discrete Wright-Fisher model. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  18. Derivation of the one component plasma fluid equation of state in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.; Rosenfeld, Y.

    1979-01-01

    A variational calculation of the one component plasma energy using the hard sphere Percus-Yevick g(r) and the virial entropy gives U/NkT = a GAMMA + b GAMMAsup(1/4) + c + d/ GAMMAsup(1/4) + ... in agreement with the empirical fit to Monte Carlo data. (orig.)

  19. Using a quantum well heterostructure to study the longitudinal and transverse electric field components of a strongly focused laser beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kihara Rurimo, G.; Schardt, M.; Quabis, S.; Malzer, S.; Dotzler, C.; Winkler, A.; Leuchs, G.; Döhler, G.H.; Driscoll, D.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a method to measure the electric energy density of longitudinal and transverse electric field components of strongly focused polarized laser beams. We used a quantum well photodetector and exploited the polarization dependent optical transitions of light holes and heavy holes to probe the

  20. Common and distinct genetic properties of ESCRT-II components in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Martin Herz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. In Drosophila, mutations of the ESCRT-II component vps25 cause endosomal defects leading to accumulation of Notch protein and increased Notch pathway activity. These endosomal and signaling defects are thought to account for several phenotypes. Depending on the developmental context, two different types of overgrowth can be detected. Tissue predominantly mutant for vps25 displays neoplastic tumor characteristics. In contrast, vps25 mutant clones in a wild-type background trigger hyperplastic overgrowth in a non-autonomous manner. In addition, vps25 mutant clones also promote apoptotic resistance in a non-autonomous manner. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we genetically characterize the remaining ESCRT-II components vps22 and vps36. Like vps25, mutants of vps22 and vps36 display endosomal defects, accumulate Notch protein and--when the tissue is predominantly mutant--show neoplastic tumor characteristics. However, despite these common phenotypes, they have distinct non-autonomous phenotypes. While vps22 mutations cause strong non-autonomous overgrowth, they do not affect apoptotic resistance. In contrast, vps36 mutations increase apoptotic resistance, but have little effect on non-autonomous proliferation. Further characterization reveals that although all ESCRT-II mutants accumulate Notch protein, only vps22 and vps25 mutations trigger Notch activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ESCRT-II components vps22, vps25 and vps36 display common and distinct genetic properties. Our data redefine the role of Notch for hyperplastic and neoplastic overgrowth in these mutants. While Notch is required for hyperplastic growth, it appears to be dispensable for neoplastic transformation.

  1. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Janice A; Ahmed, Rashid; Chow, Eva W C; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bassett, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    There are few studies of environmental factors in familial forms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether childhood adversity or environmental factors were associated with schizophrenia in a familial sample where schizophrenia is associated with the NOSA1P gene. We found that a cumulative adversity index including childhood illness, family instability and cannabis use was significantly associated with narrow schizophrenia, independent of NOSA1P risk genotype, previously measured childhood trauma, covariates and familial clustering (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.55 (1.01, 2.38)). The results provide further support that early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Components of the metabolic syndrome: clustering and genetic variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Povel, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    <strong>Background> Abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol levels and hypertension frequently co-occur within individuals. The cluster of these features is referred to as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim

  3. Mature habitats associated with genetic divergence despite strong dispersal ability in an arthropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Derek J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations may be bound by contemporary gene flow, selective sweeps, and extinction-recolonization processes. Indeed, existing molecular estimates indicate that species with low levels of gene flow are rare. However, strong priority effects and local selective regimes may hinder gene flow (despite dispersal sending populations on independent evolutionary trajectories. In this scenario (the monopolization hypothesis, population differentiation will increase with time and genealogical evidence should yield ample private haplotypes. Cyclical parthenogens (e.g. rotifers and cladocerans such as Daphnia have an increased capacity for rapid local adaptation and priority effects because sexual reproduction is followed by multiple generations of clonal selection and massive egg bank formation. We aimed to better understand the history of population differentiation and ongoing gene flow in Daphnia rosea s.l., by comparing population and regional divergences in mature unglaciated areas and younger previously glaciated areas. We also examined the timing and paths of colonization of previously-glaciated areas to assess the dispersal limitations of D. rosea s.l. We used DNA sequence variation (84 populations and >400 individuals at the mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear HSP90 loci from Holarctic populations for our genetic analyses. Results The genetic evidence indicated pronounced historical structure. Holarctic mtDNA phylogenies of D. rosea s.l. revealed three geographically restricted and divergent clades: European, Siberian and Japanese/American. The Japanese/American clade showed marked population genetic structure (FST > 0.8 that was weakly associated with geographic distance, and a high proportion of private haplotypes. Populations from older unglaciated habitats (i.e., Japan showed higher DNA sequence divergences than populations from presumed younger habitats (i.e. non-Beringian North America with nDNA and with mtDNA. Mismatch

  4. Identifying the genetic components underlying the pathophysiology of movement disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezquerra M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ezquerra, Yaroslau Compta, Maria J MartiParkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Service of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, SpainAbstract: Movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions, few of which have been classically described as bona fide hereditary illnesses (Huntington’s chorea, for instance. Most are considered to be either sporadic or to feature varying degrees of familial aggregation (parkinsonism and dystonia. In the late twentieth century, Mendelian monogenic mutations were found for movement disorders with a clear and consistent family history. Although important, these findings apply only to very rare forms of movement disorders. Already in the twenty-first century, and taking advantage of the modern developments in genetics and molecular biology, growing attention is being paid to the complex genetics of movement disorders. The search for risk genetic variants (polymorphisms in large cohorts and the identification of different risk variants across different populations and ethnic groups are under way, with the most relevant findings to date corresponding to recent genome wide association studies in Parkinson’s disease. These new approaches focusing on risk variants may enable the design of screening tests for early or even preclinical disease, and the identification of likely therapeutic targets.Keywords: genetics, movement disorders, Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonism, dystonia

  5. Variance components and genetic parameters for body weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer & Hill, 1992). Sampling enors for the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects were calculated as described by Tosh & Kemp (1994). Results and discussion. It is evident from Table I that mean values for production traits in the ...

  6. (Co) variance Components and Genetic Parameter Estimates for Re

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapula

    group, sex of the animal, age of the animal at scanning fitted as a quadratic regression, and random effects of animal and residual ... optimal, since other effects such as the maternal genetic effect and the covariance between direct and maternal effects were not .... (2006) on replacement bulls and heifers of the. Braford and ...

  7. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, Rokupr Agricultural Research Centre, Sierra Leone .... The objectives of this study was to elucidate ... Data analysis. Generation mean analysis. (Equation 1) was used to estimates genetic control of the seven quantitative traits according to the methodology ...

  8. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed .... Bank interest rate. TL. = Test length. VC. = Veterinary costs. The following assumptions were made to simulate the profit value and to create a comparable basis for statistical analyses:.

  9. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  10. Eye evolution: common use and independent recruitment of genetic components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vopálenský, Pavel; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 364, č. 1531 (2009), s. 2819-2832 ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520908; GA AV ČR IAA500520604; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : eye * evolution * pax Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.117, year: 2009

  11. (co) variance components and genetic parameters for live weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    (CY – 0.33) and with SL (0.29); FD with CY (-0.09), with SL (0.15), with SS (0.40) and with standard deviation of ..... This is in agreement with the values reported for Australian Merinos (Asadi Fozi et al., 2005; Safari et al.,. 2007b). .... Estimates of genetic parameters for weaning weight of beef accounting for direct-maternal.

  12. Arithmetic, reading and writing performance has a strong genetic component: A study in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, L.E.J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Glasner, T.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Even children attending the same primary school and taught by the same teacher differ greatly in their performance. In the Netherlands, performance at the end of primary school determines the enrollment in a particular level of secondary education. Identifying the impact of genes and the environment

  13. A genetic component to size in queens of the ant, Formica truncorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargum, Katja; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Sundström, L.

    2004-01-01

    . In this study, we present the first evidence of an additive genetic component to queen size in ants, using maternal half sib analysis. We also compared intra-colony size variation in colonies with high (queen doubly mated) versus low (queen singly mated) genetic variability. We found a high and significant...

  14. No Genetic Diversity at Molecular Markers and Strong Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, an Endangered Plant Species in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Florence; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Although conservation biology has long focused on population dynamics and genetics, phenotypic plasticity is likely to play a significant role in population viability. Here, an investigation is made into the relative contribution of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity to the phenotypic variation in natural populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, a rare annual plant inhabiting temporary puddles in the Fontainebleau forest (Paris region, France) and exhibiting metapopulation dynamics. Methods The genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of quantitative traits (morphological and fitness components) were measured in five populations, using a combination of field measurements, common garden experiments and genotyping at microsatellite loci. Key Results It is shown that populations exhibit almost undetectable genetic diversity at molecular markers, and that the variation in quantitative traits observed among populations is due to a high level of phenotypic plasticity. Despite the lack of genetic diversity, the natural population of R. nodiflorus exhibits large population sizes and does not appear threatened by extinction; this may be attributable to large phenotypic plasticity, enabling the production of numerous seeds under a wide range of environmental conditions. Conclusions Efficient conservation of the populations can only be based on habitat management, to favour the maintenance of microenvironmental variation and the resulting strong phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, classical actions aiming to improve genetic diversity are useless in the present case. PMID:17468109

  15. Faint Object Spectrograph Spectra of the UV Emission Lines in NGC 5558: Detection of Strong Narrow Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Boggess, Albert; Wu, Chi-Chao

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 were obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope on 1992 July 5, when the UV continuum and broad emission lines were at their lowest ever observed level. The high resolution of the spectra, relative to previous UV observations, and the low state of NGC 5548 allow the detection and accurate measurement of strong narrow components of the emission lines of Ly alpha, C IV 1549, and C III 1909. Isolation of the UV narrow components enables a detailed comparison of narrow-line region (NLR) properties in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, and removal of their contribution is important for studies of the broad-line region (BLR). Relative to the other narrow lines, C IV 1549 is much stronger in NGC 5548 than in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and Mg II 2798 is very weak or absent.

  16. Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Marshall, Hollie; Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Thomas, Kelley W; Pfrender, Michael E; Spanier, Katina I; De Meester, Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in the presence of strong environmental selection. We address this key question using the water flea Daphnia magna, which produces dormant stages that accumulate in biological archives over time. We assess temporal genetic stability in three biological archives, previously used in resurrection ecology studies showing adaptive evolutionary responses to rapid environmental change. We show that neutral genetic diversity does not decline with the age of the population and it is maintained in the presence of strong selection. In addition, by comparing temporal genetic stability in hatched and unhatched populations from the same biological archive, we show that dormant egg banks can be consulted to obtain a reliable measure of genetic diversity over time, at least in the multidecadal time frame studied here. The stability of neutral genetic diversity through time is likely mediated by the buffering effect of the resting egg bank. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Additive vs non-additive genetic components in lethal cadmium tolerance of Gammarus (Crustacea): Novel light on the assessment of the potential for adaptation to contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumot, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.chaumot@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, 3 bis quai Chauveau - CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Gos, Pierre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier [Cemagref, UR MALY, 3 bis quai Chauveau - CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France)

    2009-10-04

    Questioning the likelihood that populations adapt to contamination is critical for ecotoxicological risk assessment. The appraisal of genetic variance in chemical sensitivities within populations is currently used to evaluate a priori this evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, conclusions from this approach are questionable since non-additive genetic components in chemical tolerance could limit the response of such complex phenotypic traits to selection. Coupling quantitative genetics with ecotoxicology, this study illustrates how the comparison between cadmium sensitivities among Gammarus siblings enabled discrimination between genetic variance components in chemical tolerance. The results revealed that, whereas genetically determined differences in lethal tolerance exist within the studied population, such differences were not significantly heritable since genetic variance mainly relied on non-additive components. Therefore the potential for genetic adaptation to acute Cd stress appeared to be weak. These outcomes are discussed in regard to previous findings for asexual daphnids, which suggest a strong potency of genetic adaptation to environmental contamination, but which contrast with compiled field observations where adaptation is not the rule. Hereafter, we formulate the reconciling hypothesis of a widespread weakness of additive components in tolerance to contaminants, which needs to be further tested to gain insight into the question of the likelihood of adaptation to contamination.

  18. Additive vs non-additive genetic components in lethal cadmium tolerance of Gammarus (Crustacea): Novel light on the assessment of the potential for adaptation to contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumot, Arnaud; Gos, Pierre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Questioning the likelihood that populations adapt to contamination is critical for ecotoxicological risk assessment. The appraisal of genetic variance in chemical sensitivities within populations is currently used to evaluate a priori this evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, conclusions from this approach are questionable since non-additive genetic components in chemical tolerance could limit the response of such complex phenotypic traits to selection. Coupling quantitative genetics with ecotoxicology, this study illustrates how the comparison between cadmium sensitivities among Gammarus siblings enabled discrimination between genetic variance components in chemical tolerance. The results revealed that, whereas genetically determined differences in lethal tolerance exist within the studied population, such differences were not significantly heritable since genetic variance mainly relied on non-additive components. Therefore the potential for genetic adaptation to acute Cd stress appeared to be weak. These outcomes are discussed in regard to previous findings for asexual daphnids, which suggest a strong potency of genetic adaptation to environmental contamination, but which contrast with compiled field observations where adaptation is not the rule. Hereafter, we formulate the reconciling hypothesis of a widespread weakness of additive components in tolerance to contaminants, which needs to be further tested to gain insight into the question of the likelihood of adaptation to contamination.

  19. Polygyny and strong genetic structuring within an isolated population of the wood ant Formica rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Dekoninck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social structuring of populations within some Formica species exhibits considerable variation going from monodomous and monogynous populations to polydomous, polygynous populations. The wood ant species Formica rufa appears to be mainly monodomous and monogynous throughout most of its distribution area in central and northern Europe. Only occasionally it was mentioned that F. rufa can have both polygynous and monogynous colonies in the same geographical region. We studied an isolated polydomous F. rufa population in a deciduous mixed forest in the north-west of Belgium. The level of polydomy within the colonies varied from monodomous to 11 nests per colony. Our genetic analysis of eight variable microsatellites suggest an oligo- to polygynous structure for at least the major part of the sampled nests. Relatedness amongst nest mate workers varies considerable within the population and colonies but confirms in general a polygynous structure. Additionally high genetic diversity (e.g. up to 8 out of 11 alleles per nest for the most variable locus and high within nest genetic variance (93% indicate that multiple queens contribute to the gene pool of workers of the same nest. Moreover significant genetic structuring among colonies indicates that gene flow between colonies is restricted and that exchange of workers between colonies is very limited. Finally we explain how possible factors as budding and the absence of Serviformica can explain the differences in genetic structure within this polygynous F. rufa population.

  20. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  1. Genetic structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the Old World reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Moussouni, Souhila; Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Abbas Naqvi, Summar; Ludeña, Bertha; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Bouguedoura, Nadia; Bennaceur, Malika; Si-Dehbi, Farida; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Daher, Abdourahman; Terral, Jean-Frederic; Santoni, Sylvain; Ballardini, Marco; Mercuri, Antonio; Ben Salah, Mohamed; Kadri, Karim; Othmani, Ahmed; Littardi, Claudio; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2015-07-01

    Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera, Arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. However, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the Atlantic shores to Southern Asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. In order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights on the influence of geographic origins and human activity on the genetic structure of the date palm, this study analysed the diversity of the species. Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure were investigated through the genotyping of a collection of 295 date palm accessions ranging from Mauritania to Pakistan using a set of 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a plastid minisatellite. Using a Bayesian clustering approach, the date palm genotypes can be structured into two different gene pools: the first, termed the Eastern pool, consists of accessions from Asia and Djibouti, whilst the second, termed the Western pool, consists of accessions from Africa. These results confirm the existence of two ancient gene pools that have contributed to the current date palm diversity. The presence of admixed genotypes is also noted, which points at gene flows between eastern and western origins, mostly from east to west, following a human-mediated diffusion of the species. This study assesses the distribution and level of genetic diversity of accessible date palm resources, provides new insights on the geographic origins and genetic history of the cultivated component of this species, and confirms the existence of at least two domestication origins. Furthermore, the strong genetic structure clearly established here is a prerequisite for any breeding programme exploiting the effective polymorphism related to each gene pool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. Pubertal onset in girls is strongly influenced by genetic variation affecting FSH action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian...... follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression...

  3. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-07-08

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.

  4. A Neolithic expansion, but strong genetic structure, in the independent history of New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Auckland, Kathryn; Robson, Kathryn; Attenborough, Robert; Alpers, Michael P; Koki, George; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter; Xue, Yali; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2017-09-15

    New Guinea shows human occupation since ~50 thousand years ago (ka), independent adoption of plant cultivation ~10 ka, and great cultural and linguistic diversity today. We performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping on 381 individuals from 85 language groups in Papua New Guinea and find a sharp divide originating 10 to 20 ka between lowland and highland groups and a lack of non-New Guinean admixture in the latter. All highlanders share ancestry within the last 10 thousand years, with major population growth in the same period, suggesting population structure was reshaped following the Neolithic lifestyle transition. However, genetic differentiation between groups in Papua New Guinea is much stronger than in comparable regions in Eurasia, demonstrating that such a transition does not necessarily limit the genetic and linguistic diversity of human societies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. A Neolithic expansion, but strong genetic structure, in the independent history of New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Auckland, Kathryn; Robson, Kathryn; Attenborough, Robert; Alpers, Michael P; Koki, George; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter; Xue, Yali; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2018-01-01

    New Guinea shows human occupation since ~50 thousand years ago (kya), independent adoption of plant cultivation ~10 kya, and great cultural and linguistic diversity today. We performed genome-wide SNP genotyping on 381 individuals from 85 language groups in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and find a sharp divide originating 10-20 kya between lowland and highland groups, and a lack of non-New Guinean admixture in the latter. All highlanders share ancestry within the last 10 kya, with major population growth in the same period, suggesting population structure was reshaped following the Neolithic lifestyle transition. However, genetic differentiation between groups in PNG is much stronger than in comparable regions in Eurasia, demonstrating that such a transition does not necessarily limit the genetic and linguistic diversity of human societies. PMID:28912245

  6. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  7. Winemaking and bioprocesses strongly shaped the genetic diversity of the ubiquitous yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Albertin

    Full Text Available The yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii is associated with several human activities including oenology, bakery, distillery, dairy industry, etc. In addition to its biotechnological applications, T. delbrueckii is frequently isolated in natural environments (plant, soil, insect. T. delbrueckii is thus a remarkable ubiquitous yeast species with both wild and anthropic habitats, and appears to be a perfect yeast model to search for evidence of human domestication. For that purpose, we developed eight microsatellite markers that were used for the genotyping of 110 strains from various substrates and geographical origins. Microsatellite analysis showed four genetic clusters: two groups contained most nature strains from Old World and Americas respectively, and two clusters were associated with winemaking and other bioprocesses. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA confirmed that human activities significantly shaped the genetic variability of T. delbrueckii species. Natural isolates are differentiated on the basis of geographical localisation, as expected for wild population. The domestication of T. delbrueckii probably dates back to the Roman Empire for winemaking (∼ 1900 years ago, and to the Neolithic era for bioprocesses (∼ 4000 years ago. Microsatellite analysis also provided valuable data regarding the life-cycle of the species, suggesting a mostly diploid homothallic life. In addition to population genetics and ecological studies, the microsatellite tool will be particularly useful for further biotechnological development of T. delbrueckii strains for winemaking and other bioprocesses.

  8. Winemaking and bioprocesses strongly shaped the genetic diversity of the ubiquitous yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Warren; Chasseriaud, Laura; Comte, Guillaume; Panfili, Aurélie; Delcamp, Adline; Salin, Franck; Marullo, Philippe; Bely, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii is associated with several human activities including oenology, bakery, distillery, dairy industry, etc. In addition to its biotechnological applications, T. delbrueckii is frequently isolated in natural environments (plant, soil, insect). T. delbrueckii is thus a remarkable ubiquitous yeast species with both wild and anthropic habitats, and appears to be a perfect yeast model to search for evidence of human domestication. For that purpose, we developed eight microsatellite markers that were used for the genotyping of 110 strains from various substrates and geographical origins. Microsatellite analysis showed four genetic clusters: two groups contained most nature strains from Old World and Americas respectively, and two clusters were associated with winemaking and other bioprocesses. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) confirmed that human activities significantly shaped the genetic variability of T. delbrueckii species. Natural isolates are differentiated on the basis of geographical localisation, as expected for wild population. The domestication of T. delbrueckii probably dates back to the Roman Empire for winemaking (∼ 1900 years ago), and to the Neolithic era for bioprocesses (∼ 4000 years ago). Microsatellite analysis also provided valuable data regarding the life-cycle of the species, suggesting a mostly diploid homothallic life. In addition to population genetics and ecological studies, the microsatellite tool will be particularly useful for further biotechnological development of T. delbrueckii strains for winemaking and other bioprocesses.

  9. Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigl K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Korbinian Weigl,1,2 Jenny Chang-Claude,3,4 Phillip Knebel,5 Li Hsu,6 Michael Hoffmeister,1 Hermann Brenner1,2,7 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 3Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 4University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Department for General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 7Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, Heidelberg, Germany Background and aim: Family history (FH and genetic risk scores (GRSs are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.Patients and methods: A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.Results: A total of 316 cases (13.4% and 214 controls (9.7% had a first-degree relative (FDR with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52–2.29. A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24–4.02 compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their

  10. Automatic Creation of Machine Learning Workflows with Strongly Typed Genetic Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, T.; Pilát, M.; Neruda, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 1760020. ISSN 0218-2130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19877S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : genetic programming * machine learning workflows * asynchronous evolutionary algorithm Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2016

  11. A Strong Impact of Genetic Background on Gut Microflora in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Esworthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background affects susceptibility to ileocolitis in mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2. The C57BL/6 (B6 GPx1/2 double-knockout (DKO mice have mild ileocolitis, and 129S1/Sv (129 DKO mice have severe inflammation. We used diet to modulate ileocolitis; a casein-based defined diet with AIN76A micronutrients (AIN attenuates inflammation compared to conventional LabDiets. Because luminal microbiota induce DKO ileocolitis, we assessed bacterial composition with automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA on cecal DNA. We found that mouse strain had the strongest impact on the composition of microbiota than diet and GPx genotypes. In comparing AIN and LabDiet, DKO mice were more resistant to change than the non-DKO or WT mice. However, supplementing yeast and inulin to AIN diet greatly altered microflora profiles in the DKO mice. From 129 DKO strictly, we found overgrowth of Escherichia coli. We conclude that genetic background predisposes mice to colonization of potentially pathogenic E. coli.

  12. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10−5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

  13. Neuroinformatic Analyses of Common and Distinct Genetic Components Associated with Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eLotan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies and verified their appearance on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies. A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10-5. 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density, expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain.. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Nevertheless, the convergence of different analytical approaches on similar targets may bear important implications. Thus, although adding mostly confirmatory findings, higher resolution of shared and unique genetic factors provided in this manuscript could ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of

  14. Self-Conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2015-01-01

    Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included: 1) determining if fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, 2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and 3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-conscious shyness increased across toddlerhood, but onset was earlier than predicted by theory. Fearful shyness (observed [6 and 12 months] and parents' reports [12 and 22 months]) was not predictive of self-conscious shyness. Independent genetic factors made strong contributions to parent-reported (but not observed) fearful shyness (additive genetic influence = .69 and .72 at 12 and 22 months, respectively) and self-conscious shyness (additive genetic influence = .90 for the growth model intercept). Results encourage future investigation of patterns of change and interrelations in shyness subtypes.

  15. Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to late-onset Alzheimer's disease mortality: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S K Kauwe

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an international health concern that has a devastating effect on patients and families. While several genetic risk factors for AD have been identified much of the genetic variance in AD remains unexplained. There are limited published assessments of the familiality of Alzheimer's disease. Here we present the largest genealogy-based analysis of AD to date.We assessed the familiality of AD in The Utah Population Database (UPDB, a population-based resource linking electronic health data repositories for the state with the computerized genealogy of the Utah settlers and their descendants. We searched UPDB for significant familial clustering of AD to evaluate the genetic contribution to disease. We compared the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF between AD individuals and randomly selected controls and estimated the Relative Risk (RR for a range of family relationships. Finally, we identified pedigrees with a significant excess of AD deaths.The GIF analysis showed that pairs of individuals dying from AD were significantly more related than expected. This excess of relatedness was observed for both close and distant relationships. RRs for death from AD among relatives of individuals dying from AD were significantly increased for both close and more distant relatives. Multiple pedigrees had a significant excess of AD deaths.These data strongly support a genetic contribution to the observed clustering of individuals dying from AD. This report is the first large population-based assessment of the familiality of AD mortality and provides the only reported estimates of relative risk of AD mortality in extended relatives to date. The high-risk pedigrees identified show a true excess of AD mortality (not just multiple cases and are greater in depth and width than published AD pedigrees. The presence of these high-risk pedigrees strongly supports the possibility of rare predisposition variants not yet identified.

  16. Strong genetic structure corresponds to small-scale geographic breaks in the Australian alpine grasshopper Kosciuscola tristis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Rachel A; Nash, Michael A; Miller, Adam D; Endo, Yoshinori; Umbers, Kate D L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2014-10-02

    Mountain landscapes are topographically complex, creating discontinuous 'islands' of alpine and sub-alpine habitat with a dynamic history. Changing climatic conditions drive their expansion and contraction, leaving signatures on the genetic structure of their flora and fauna. Australia's high country covers a small, highly fragmented area. Although the area is thought to have experienced periods of relative continuity during Pleistocene glacial periods, small-scale studies suggest deep lineage divergence across low-elevation gaps. Using both DNA sequence data and microsatellite markers, we tested the hypothesis that genetic partitioning reflects observable geographic structuring across Australia's mainland high country, in the widespread alpine grasshopper Kosciuscola tristis (Sjösted). We found broadly congruent patterns of regional structure between the DNA sequence and microsatellite datasets, corresponding to strong divergence among isolated mountain regions. Small and isolated mountains in the south of the range were particularly distinct, with well-supported divergence corresponding to climate cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. We found mixed support, however, for divergence among other mountain regions. Interestingly, within areas of largely contiguous alpine and sub-alpine habitat around Mt Kosciuszko, microsatellite data suggested significant population structure, accompanied by a strong signature of isolation-by-distance. Consistent patterns of strong lineage divergence among different molecular datasets indicate genetic breaks between populations inhabiting geographically distinct mountain regions. Three primary phylogeographic groups were evident in the highly fragmented Victorian high country, while within-region structure detected with microsatellites may reflect more recent population isolation. Despite the small area of Australia's alpine and sub-alpine habitats, their low topographic relief and lack of extensive glaciation

  17. Estimating Modifying Effect of Age on Genetic and Environmental Variance Components in Twin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Sillanpää, Mikko J; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2016-04-01

    Twin studies have been adopted for decades to disentangle the relative genetic and environmental contributions for a wide range of traits. However, heritability estimation based on the classical twin models does not take into account dynamic behavior of the variance components over age. Varying variance of the genetic component over age can imply the existence of gene-environment (G×E) interactions that general genome-wide association studies (GWAS) fail to capture, which may lead to the inconsistency of heritability estimates between twin design and GWAS. Existing parametricG×Einteraction models for twin studies are limited by assuming a linear or quadratic form of the variance curves with respect to a moderator that can, however, be overly restricted in reality. Here we propose spline-based approaches to explore the variance curves of the genetic and environmental components. We choose the additive genetic, common, and unique environmental variance components (ACE) model as the starting point. We treat the component variances as variance functions with respect to age modeled by B-splines or P-splines. We develop an empirical Bayes method to estimate the variance curves together with their confidence bands and provide an R package for public use. Our simulations demonstrate that the proposed methods accurately capture dynamic behavior of the component variances in terms of mean square errors with a data set of >10,000 twin pairs. Using the proposed methods as an alternative and major extension to the classical twin models, our analyses with a large-scale Finnish twin data set (19,510 MZ twins and 27,312 DZ same-sex twins) discover that the variances of the A, C, and E components for body mass index (BMI) change substantially across life span in different patterns and the heritability of BMI drops to ∼50% after middle age. The results further indicate that the decline of heritability is due to increasing unique environmental variance, which provides more

  18. Genetic covariance components within and among linear type traits differ among contrasting beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jennifer L; Berry, Donagh P; Walsh, Siobhan W; Veerkamp, Roel F; Evans, Ross D; Carthy, Tara R

    2018-04-25

    Linear type traits describing the skeletal, muscular, and functional characteristics of an animal are routinely scored on live animals in both the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic parameters for certain performance traits may differ between breeds; no study, however, has attempted to determine if differences exist in genetic parameters of linear type traits among breeds or sexes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if genetic covariance components for linear type traits differed among five contrasting cattle breeds, and to also investigate if these components differed by sex. A total of 18 linear type traits scored on 3,356 Angus (AA), 31,049 Charolais (CH), 3,004 Hereford (HE), 35,159 Limousin (LM), and 8,632 Simmental (SI) were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed using animal linear mixed models which included the fixed effects of sex of the animal (except in the investigation into the presence of sexual dimorphism), age at scoring, parity of the dam, and contemporary group of herd-date of scoring. Differences (P linear type traits. Differences (P linear type traits. Overall, the linear type traits in the continental breeds (i.e., CH, LM, SI) tended to have similar heritability estimates to each other as well as similar genetic correlations among the same pairwise traits, as did the traits in the British breeds (i.e., AA, HE). The correlation between a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the CH breed with a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the other breeds was estimated. Replacing the genetic covariance components estimated in the CH breed with those of the LM had least effect but the impact was considerable when the genetic covariance components of the AA were used. Genetic correlations between the same linear type traits in the two sexes were all close to unity

  19. Research on application of complex-genetic algorithm in nuclear component optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Wang Meng

    2010-01-01

    Complex algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods in the mechanical design optimization, such as the optimization of nuclear component. An improved method,complex-genetic algorithm(CGA), is developed based on traditional complex algorithm(TCA), in which the disadvantages of TCA have been overcome. An optimal calculation,which represents the pressurizer, is carried out in order to analyze the optimization capability of CGA. The results show that CGA has better optimizing performance than TCA. (authors)

  20. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimates of (covariance components and genetic parameters for growth traits in Suffolk lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Regina Tamioso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to estimate the components of (covariance and heritability for weights at birth (BW, weaning (WW and 180 days of age (W180, as well as the average daily gains from birth to weaning (ADG1, birth to 180 days of age (ADG2 and weaning to 180 days of age (ADG3 in Suffolk sheep. Thus, three different single-trait animal models were fitted, considering the direct additive genetic effect (Model 1, the direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects (Model 2, and in Model 3, in addition to those in Model 2, the maternal additive genetic effect was included. After comparing models through the likelihood ratio test (LRT, model 3 was chosen as the most appropriate to estimate heritability for BW, WW and ADG1. Model 2 was considered as the best to estimate the coefficient of heritability for W180 and ADG2, and model 1 for ADG3. Direct heritability estimates were inflated when maternal effects were ignored. According to the most suitable models, the heritability estimates for BW, WW, W180, ADG1, ADG2 and ADG3 were 0.06, 0.08, 0.09, 0.07, 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, indicating low possibility of genetic gain through individual selection. The results show the importance of including maternal effects in the models to properly estimate genetic parameters even at post-weaning ages.

  2. Genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, James S M; Tasker, Fiona; Cherkas, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry. Data from 1449 matched female twin pairs in the age range 19-85 years in four ordinal categories of increasing severity were employed in the analysis. Estimates of additive and dominance genetic components of 27% and 25% were found when all three levels of depression were included, and near zero and 33% when the recurrent/severe level was excluded. Shared environmental effects were not significant in either case, but the estimate for random environmental effects was greater when the severe level was excluded. These results suggest that the incidence of severe depression is associated with homozygotic alleles and the less severe with heterozygotic alleles. This is in accord with the finding that the hereditary component of severe depression is relatively high and that milder forms are more dependent on life-time environmental factors. Such conclusions have clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder by practicing psychiatrists. They also lead to the importance of focusing future genome-wide and linkage studies on those females with severe levels of depression if progress in identifying genetic risk loci is to be made.

  3. Genetic parameters of yield components and pomologic properties in raspberry seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period yield components and pomologic properties were studied in 20 raspberry seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker`s yellow clone. The primary goals of this research were to determine its variability components, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense. The analysis of the components of total variance evidenced that higher proportion of genotypic variance was found with fruit shape index (30.84% and sucrose content (35.61%. The results revealed that genotypic coefficient of variation were less than its corresponding estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation for all traits which indicated significant role of environment in the expression of these characters. The values of heritability coefficients, in a broader sense, were high except for number of flowers per inflorescens (9.47%, titratable acidity (6.38% and inverted sugar content (28.88%. Nine characters had h2 in interval from 50 to 80% but for fruit weight and fruit length was greater than 80% which implies the high potential of genetic improvement in those traits.

  4. Climatic and temporal effects on the expression of secondary sexual characters: genetic and environmental components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garant, Dany; Sheldon, Ben C; Gustafsson, Lars

    2004-03-01

    Despite great interest in sexual selection, relatively little is known in detail about the genetic and environmental determinants of secondary sexual characters in natural populations. Such information is important for determining the way in which populations may respond to sexual selection. We report analyses of genetic and large-scale environmental components of phenotypic variation of two secondary sexual plumage characters (forehead and wing patch size) in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis over a 22-year period. We found significant heritability for both characters but little genetic covariance between the two. We found a positive association between forehead patch size and a large-scale climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, but not for wing patch. This pattern was observed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting that the population response to NAO index can be explained as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Heritability of forehead patch size for old males, calculated under favorable conditions (NAO index > or = median), was greater than that under unfavorable conditions (NAO index secondary sexual characters, which may have important implications for understanding selection and evolution of these characters.

  5. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2017-11-07

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  6. Components of genetic variability and heritability of grain yield of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the following parameters for the grain yield of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and components of genetic variability and heritability on the basis of the diallel set. The two-year four-replicate trial was set up according to the randomized complete-block design at Zemun Polje. It was determined that a genotype, year and their interaction significantly affected variability of this trait. The highest. i.e. the lowest grain yield, on the average for both investigation years. was recorded in the silage maize inbred lines ZPLB402 and ZPLB405. respectively. The analysis of components of genetic variance for grain yield shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variance, while a positive component F and the frequency of dominant (u and recessive (v genes for this observed trait point to prevalence of dominant genes over recessive ones. Furthermore. this is confirmed by the ratio of dominant to recessive genes in parental genotypes for grain yield (Kd/Kr> 1 that is greater than unity in both years of investigation. The estimated value of the average degree of dominance (H1/D1/2 exceeds unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation. Results of Vr/Vr regression analysis indicate superdominance in inheritance of grain yield. Moreover. a registered presence of non-allelic interaction points out to the need to study effects of epistasis, as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high values of broad-sense heritability for grain yield in both investigation years (98.71%, i.e. 97.19% in 1997, i.e. 1998, respectively. and low values of narrow-sense heritability (11.9% in 1997 and 12.2% in 1998.

  7. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  8. Genetic modifier screens reveal new components that interact with the Drosophila dystroglycan-dystrophin complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya M Kucherenko

    Full Text Available The Dystroglycan-Dystrophin (Dg-Dys complex has a capacity to transmit information from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton inside the cell. It is proposed that this interaction is under tight regulation; however the signaling/regulatory components of Dg-Dys complex remain elusive. Understanding the regulation of the complex is critical since defects in this complex cause muscular dystrophy in humans. To reveal new regulators of the Dg-Dys complex, we used a model organism Drosophila melanogaster and performed genetic interaction screens to identify modifiers of Dg and Dys mutants in Drosophila wing veins. These mutant screens revealed that the Dg-Dys complex interacts with genes involved in muscle function and components of Notch, TGF-beta and EGFR signaling pathways. In addition, components of pathways that are required for cellular and/or axonal migration through cytoskeletal regulation, such as Semaphorin-Plexin, Frazzled-Netrin and Slit-Robo pathways show interactions with Dys and/or Dg. These data suggest that the Dg-Dys complex and the other pathways regulating extracellular information transfer to the cytoskeletal dynamics are more intercalated than previously thought.

  9. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  10. Genetic evidence strongly support an essential role for PfPV1 in intra-erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Chu

    Full Text Available Upon invading the host erythrocyte, the human malaria parasite P. falciparum lives and replicates within a membrane bound compartment referred to as the parasitophorous vacuole. Recently, interest in this compartment and its protein content has grown, due to the important roles these play in parasite egress and protein traffic to the host cell. Surprisingly, the function of many proteins within this compartment has not been experimentally addressed. Here, we study the importance of one of these proteins, termed PfPV1, for intra-erythrocytic parasite survival. Despite numerous attempts to inactivate the gene encoding PfPV1, we were unable to recover deletion mutants. Control experiments verified that the pv1 gene locus was per se open for gene targeting experiments, allowing us to exclude technical limitations in our experimental strategy. Our data provide strong genetic evidence that PfPV1 is essential for survival of blood stage P. falciparum, and further highlight the importance of parasitophorous vacuole proteins in this part of the parasite's life cycle.

  11. Estimation of variance components and genetic trends for twinning rate in Holstein dairy cattle of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Kohram, H

    2009-07-01

    Calving records from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran, collected from January 1991 to December 2007 and comprising 1,163,594 Holstein calving events from 2,552 herds, were analyzed using a linear animal model, linear sire model, threshold animal model, and threshold sire model to estimate variance components, heritabilities, genetic correlations, and genetic trends for twinning rate in the first, second, and third parities. The overall twinning rate was 3.01%. Mean incidence of twins increased from first to fourth and later parities: 1.10, 3.20, 4.22, and 4.50%, respectively. For first-parity cows, a maximum frequency of twinning was observed from January through April (1.36%), and second- and third-parity cows showed peaks from July to September (at 3.35 and 4.55%, respectively). The phenotypic rate of twinning decreased from 1991 to 2007 for the first, second, and third parities. Sire predicted transmitting abilities were estimated using linear sire model and threshold sire model analyses. Sire transmitting abilities for twinning rate in the first, second, and third parities ranged from -0.30 to 0.42, -0.32 to 0.31, and -0.27 to 0.30, respectively. Heritability estimates of twinning rate for parities 1, 2, and 3 ranged from 1.66 to 10.6%, 1.35 to 9.0%, and 1.10 to 7.3%, respectively, using different models for analysis. Heritability estimates for twinning rate, obtained from the analysis of threshold models, were greater than the estimates of linear models. Solutions for age at calving for the first, second, and third parities demonstrated that cows older at calving were more likely to have twins. Genetic correlations for twinning rate between parities 2 and 3 were greater than correlations between parities 1 and 2 and between parities 1 and 3. There was a slightly increasing trend for twinning rate in parities 1, 2, and 3 over time with the analysis of linear animal and linear sire models, but the trend for twinning rate in parities 1, 2, and 3 with threshold

  12. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  13. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  14. Genetic evaluation of the nine component features of hip score in UK Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Lewis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the genetic relationship between the nine component traits comprising the British Veterinary Association (BVA total hip score in UK registered Labrador Retrievers. Data consisted of 11,928 single records of trait scores of dogs aged between one and four years (365-1459 days old, from radiographs evaluated between 2000 and 2007. Pedigree information was provided by the UK Kennel Club. The distribution of trait scores showed only small numbers of dogs with visible malformation in the six traits that were scored according to the severity of osteoarthritis. Linear mixed models were fitted using ASREML. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.38, and litter effects from 0.04 to 0.10. Genetic correlations between all nine traits were extremely high ranging from 0.71 to 1.0, implying considerable genetic similarity. The decomposition demonstrated that aggregate scores of only the 3 traits indicative of laxity in one year old dogs was predictive of the phenotype of the remaining six scored on osteoarthritic severity in dogs at 4+ years old. The application of selection index methodology in selecting against hip dysplasia using the trait scores was explored and potential improvements in accuracy (directly related to response to selection of over 10% are reported compared to the current total hip score. This study demonstrates that traits descriptive of joint laxity are valuable early-age predictors of osteoarthritis and shows that there is scope for improvement in the way data from the UK hip score scheme are used for selection against hip dysplasia in Labradors. This was verified via use of selection indices, which identified substantial increases in accuracy, not only via optimum coefficients, but also through an easily applicable aggregate of scores of just two or three traits only compared with the current total hip score.

  15. TNF-α Genetic Predisposition and Higher Expression of Inflammatory Pathway Components in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Muneeza; Tahir, Saira; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Ishaq, Mazhar; Hussain, Alamdar; Siddique, Pir Muhammad; Saeed, Sadia; Khan, Wajid Ali; Qamar, Raheel; Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Azam, Maleeha

    2017-07-01

    To date keratoconus (KC) pathogenesis is undefined; however, the involvement of inflammatory pathways in disease development is becoming apparent. In the present study, we investigated the role of a promoter region polymorphism rs1800629 (-308G>A) in the inflammatory pathway component TNF-α and its effects on the expression of TNF-α and downstream molecules tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2), v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in KC development. TNF-α promoter polymorphism rs1800629 (-308G>A), was genotyped in 257 sporadic KC patients and 253 healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to assess for the -308G>A genotypes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out to compare the mRNA expression of TNF-α, TNFR1, TNFR2, RELA, and IL6 in the corneal tissues of 20 KC patients and 20 donor controls. The -308G>A genotype GA was found to be significantly associated with KC development (dominant model [odds ratio (OR) = 6.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.28-10.42), P A polymorphism is a significant genetic risk factor for the pathogenesis of KC. Moreover, this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was observed to be associated with deregulated expression of downstream molecules, thus further reinforcing the role of the inflammatory pathway components in the development of KC.

  16. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongman Cai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  17. Seagrass radiation after Messinian salinity crisis reflected by strong genetic structuring and out-of-Africa scenario (Ruppiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Triest

    Full Text Available Many aquatic plant and seagrass species are widespread and the origin of their continent-wide ranges might result from high gene flow levels. The response of species when extending northwards since the Last Glacial Maximum can be opposed to the structuring of their populations that survived glaciation cycles in southern regions. The peri-Mediterranean is a complex series of sea basins, coastlines, islands and river deltas with a unique history since the Messinian Crisis that potentially influenced allopatric processes of aquatic life. We tested whether vast ranges across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean of a global seagrass group (Ruppia species complexes can be explained by either overall high levels of gene flow or vicariance through linking population genetics, phylogeography and shallow phylogenetics. A multigene approach identified haplogroup lineages of two species complexes, of ancient and recent hybrids with most of the diversity residing in the South. High levels of connectivity over long distances were only observed at recently colonized northern ranges and in recently-filled seas following the last glaciation. A strong substructure in the southern Mediterranean explained an isolation-by-distance model across Europe. The oldest lineages of the southern Mediterranean Ruppia dated back to the period between the end of the Messinian and Late Pliocene. An imprint of ancient allopatric origin was left at basin level, including basal African lineages. Thus both vicariance in the South and high levels of connectivity in the North explained vast species ranges. Our findings highlight the need for interpreting global distributions of these seagrass and euryhaline species in the context of their origin and evolutionary significant units for setting up appropriate conservation strategies.

  18. Constant, cycling, hot and cold thermal environments: strong effects on mean viability but not on genetic estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, Tarmo; Kellermann, Vanessa; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2012-01-01

    and their fluctuations. How species will respond to these changes is uncertain, particularly as there is a lack of studies which compare genetic performances in constant vs. fluctuating environments. In this study, we used a nested full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine how the genetic variances and heritabilities...

  19. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  20. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Conclusions/Significance: Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  1. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Semple Delaney

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding.We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation.Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  2. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kathleen Semple; Riley, Seth P D; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-09-16

    Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding. We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation. Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  3. Storage and executive components of working memory: integrating cognitive psychology and behavior genetics in the study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Xian, Hong; Jacobson, Kristen C; Eaves, Lindon J; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew S; Eisen, Seth A; Crider, Andrew; Lyons, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    We combined experimental cognitive and behavior genetic methods to investigate storage and executive components of working memory in 663 middle-aged male twins. A single latent factor model indicated that digits forward (storage) and two-digit transformation (executive + storage) scores were influenced by the same genes. Additional executive demands in digit transformation appeared to increase the variance of individual genetic differences from 25% for digits forward to 48% and 53% for the digit transformation scores. Although it was not the best model, a two-factor model also provided a good fit to the data. This model suggested the possibility of a second set of genes specifically influencing the executive component. We discuss the findings in the context of research suggesting that new genetic influences come into play if demand continues to increase beyond a certain threshold, a threshold that may change with task difficulty and with age.

  4. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A A-T; Mérigot, B; Valière, S; Chenuil, A

    2015-12-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters (Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic), we sequenced the mitochondrial marker COI and genotyped an intron (i51) for 788 individuals. In addition, we sequenced 10 nuclear loci newly developed from transcriptome sequences, for six sympatric populations of brooders and broadcasters from Greece. At the large scale, we found a high genetic structure within the brooders (COI: 0.07 lecithotrophic larval stage allows on average a 50-fold increase in migration rates, a 280-fold increase in effective size and a threefold to fourfold increase in genetic diversity. Our work, investigating complementary genetic markers on sympatric and syntopic taxa, highlights the strong impact of the larval phase on connectivity and genetic diversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  6. Strong genetic structure among coral populations within a conservation priority region, the Bird's Head Seascape (Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig John Starger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are widely considered to be one of the best strategies available for protecting species diversity and ecosystem processes in marine environments. While data on connectivity and genetic structure of marine populations are critical to designing appropriately sized and spaced networks of MPAs, such data are rarely available. This study examines genetic structure in reef-building corals from Papua and West Papua, Indonesia, one of the most biodiverse and least disturbed coral reef regions in the world. We focused on two common reef-building corals, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus 1758 and Seriatopora hystrix (family: Pocilloporidae, from three regions under different management regimes: Teluk Cenderawasih, Raja Ampat, and southwest Papua. Analyses of molecular variance, assignment tests, and genetical bandwidth mapping based on microsatellite variation revealed significant genetic structure in both species, although there were no clear regional filters to gene flow among regions. Overall, P. damicornis populations were less structured (FST = 0.139, p < 0.00001 than S. hystrix (FST = 0.357, p < 0.00001. Despite occurring in one of the most pristine marine habitats in Indonesia, populations of both species showed evidence of recent declines. Furthermore, exclusion of individual populations from connectivity analyses resulted in marked increases in self-recruitment. Maintaining connectivity within and among regions of Eastern Indonesia will require coral conservation on the local scales and regional networks of MPAs. 

  7. Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, V.; Reichard, M.; Janko, Karel; Polačik, M.; Blažek, R.; Reichwald, K.; Cellerino, A.; Bryja, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 196 (2013), s. 1-15 ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : temporary pool * pyhlogeography * population genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/196

  8. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  9. [Effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain' s protein component and quality of strong and medium gluten winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cui-ping; Zhang, Yong-qing; Zhang, Ding-yi; Dang, Jian-you

    2008-08-01

    In a field experiment with split-split plot design, the effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain's protein component and quality of strong gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 145 and medium gluten wheat cultivar Linyou 2018 were studied. The results showed that proper sowing date brought the highest protein content and yield in wheat grain. With sowing date postponed, the grain's gliadin and glutenin contents of Linyou 145 increased obviously, while those of Linyou 2018 changed little. The grain quality of Linyou 145 was more affected by sowing date, compared with that of Linyou 2018. When sowing at proper date, the grain's protein and glutenin contents had significant correlations with its wet gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, softness, and evaluation value; while when the sowing date postponed, there existed a positive correlation between the contents of gliadin and wet gluten. The change of the proportions of different protein components in wheat grain induced by the variation of sowing date could be the main reason of the improvement in wheat grain quality. Within the test range (2.25 million - 3.75 million plants x hm(-2)) of planting density, the grain's protein content was less affected, but the grain quality of Linyou 145 was affected to a certain extent. Low planting density (2.25 million plants x hm(-2)) brought the best grain quality of Linyou 2018.

  10. Insight into the genetics of hypertension, a core component of the metabolic syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 393-397 ISSN 1363-1950 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624; EURATOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetics * hypertension * genome-wide association studies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.690, year: 2008

  11. Self-Conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness

    OpenAIRE

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included: 1) determining if fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, 2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and 3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-consc...

  12. Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, Veronika; Reichard, Martin; Janko, Karel; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichwald, K.; Cellerino, A.; Bryja, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 196 (2013), s. 196 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0815; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Temporary pool * Phylogeography * Population genetics * Cyprinodontiformes * Senescence * Pluvials * Pleistocene climate changes * Dispersal * Founder effect * Killifish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/196

  13. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  14. Analyses of historical and current populations of black grouse in Central Europe reveal strong effects of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segelbacher, G.; Strand, T.M.; Quintela, M.; Axelsson, T.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Hoglund, J.

    2014-01-01

    Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in Central Europe have undergone a severe contraction of their range in recent decades with only a few small isolated remaining populations. Here we compare genetic diversity of two contemporary isolated populations (Sallandse Heuvelrug, Netherlands and Luneburger Heide,

  15. Breast magnetic resonance imaging significance for breast cancer diagnostic in women with genetic predisposition and a strong family history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Karpova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of breast cancer with mammography recommended to women over 40 has been shown to decrease breast cancer mortality. But mam- mography has much lower accuracy in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations and women with a strong family history. Therefore new screening methods in young high-risk women are necessary to detect early-stage cancer.

  16. Populations genetically rifting within a complex geological system: The case of strong structure and low genetic diversity in the migratory freshwater catfish, Bagrus docmak, in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Basiita, Rose Komugisha; Zenger, Kyall Richard; Jerry, Dean Robert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The complex geological history of East Africa has been a driving factor in the rapid evolution of teleost biodiversity. While there is some understanding of how macroevolutionary drivers have shaped teleost speciation in East Africa, there is a paucity of research into how the same biogeographical factors have affected microevolutionary processes within lakes and rivers. To address this deficiency, population genetic diversity, demography, and structure were investigated in a widely ...

  17. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  18. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  19. Low Genetic Diversity and Strong Geographical Structure of the Critically Endangered White-Headed Langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiran; Qiao, Yu; Pan, Wenshi; Yao, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the limestone karst forests in southwestern China. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 390 fecal samples from 40 social groups across the main distribution areas, which represented one-third of the total extant population. Only nine haplotypes and 10 polymorphic sites were identified, indicating remarkably low genetic diversity in the species. Using a subset of 77 samples from different individuals, we evaluated genetic variation, population structure, and population demographic history. We found very low values of haplotype diversity (h = 0.570 ± 0.056) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00323 ± 0.00044) in the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mtDNA control region. Distribution of haplotypes displayed marked geographical pattern, with one population (Chongzuo, CZ) showing a complete lack of genetic diversity (having only one haplotype), whereas the other population (Fusui, FS) having all nine haplotypes. We detected strong population genetic structure among habit patches (ΦST = 0.375, P population size and modest population expansion in the last 2,000 years. Our results indicate different genetic diversity and possibly distinct population history for different local populations, and suggest that CZ and FS should be considered as one evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) and two management units (MUs) pending further investigation using nuclear markers.

  20. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Population genomic analysis suggests strong influence of river network on spatial distribution of genetic variation in invasive saltcedar across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Rang; Jo, Yeong-Seok; Park, Chan-Ho; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Olson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the complex influences of landscape and anthropogenic elements that shape the population genetic structure of invasive species provides insight into patterns of colonization and spread. The application of landscape genomics techniques to these questions may offer detailed, previously undocumented insights into factors influencing species invasions. We investigated the spatial pattern of genetic variation and the influences of landscape factors on population similarity in an invasive riparian shrub, saltcedar (Tamarix L.) by analysing 1,997 genomewide SNP markers for 259 individuals from 25 populations collected throughout the southwestern United States. Our results revealed a broad-scale spatial genetic differentiation of saltcedar populations between the Colorado and Rio Grande river basins and identified potential barriers to population similarity along both river systems. River pathways most strongly contributed to population similarity. In contrast, low temperature and dams likely served as barriers to population similarity. We hypothesize that large-scale geographic patterns in genetic diversity resulted from a combination of early introductions from distinct populations, the subsequent influence of natural selection, dispersal barriers and founder effects during range expansion.

  2. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  3. So Far Away, Yet So Close: Strong Genetic Structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae), a Species with Restricted Geographic Distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felappi, Jéssica F.; Vieira, Renata C.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.; Verrastro, Laura V.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings. PMID:25692471

  4. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  6. Impact of genetic and climatic factors on parameters of breadmaking quality of wheat kernel and flour starch component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živančev Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how genetic and climatic factors affect parameters of breadmaking quality of wheat kernel and flour starch component. Nine wheat cultivars with different combinations of HMW-GS were grown in three production years. Various rheological devices such as Falling Number (FN, Farinograph, Amylograph, Mixolab and SDmatic were used for characterization of milled wheat samples. The most results showed that climatic factors affected parameters of breadmaking quality of wheat kernel and flour starch component more than HMW-GS composition. However, some results of the bread making quality parameters that are considered to be very reliable indicators of changes in starch component of wheat in wet years, such as FN and maximum peak of viscosity by Amylograph, were dependent of HMW-GS composition.

  7. A genetic analysis of relative growth rate and underlying components in Hordeum spontaneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Van Rijn, C.P.E.; Vanhala, T.K.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; de Jong, Y.E.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lambers, H.

    2005-01-01

    Species from productive and unproductive habitats differ inherently in their relative growth rate (RGR) and a wide range of correlated quantitative traits. We investigated the genetic basis of this trait complex, and specifically assessed whether it is under the control of just one or a few genes

  8. Unravelling the genetic components involved in the immune response of pigs vaccinated against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo; Gava, Danielle; Peixoto, Jane de Oliveira; Schaefer, Rejane; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis; Biondo, Natalha; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa

    2015-12-02

    A genome-wide association study for immune response to influenza vaccination in a crossbred swine population was conducted. Swine influenza is caused by influenza A virus (FLUAV) which is considered one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in swine worldwide. The main strategy used to control influenza in swine herds is through vaccination. However, the currently circulating FLUAV subtypes in swine are genetically and antigenically diverse and their interaction with the host genetics poses a challenge for the production of efficacious and cross-protective vaccines. In this study, 103 pigs vaccinated with an inactivated H1N1 pandemic virus were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60V2 BeadChip for the identification of genetic markers associated with immune response efficacy to influenza A virus vaccination. Immune response was measured based on the presence or absence of HA (hemagglutinin) and NP (nucleoprotein) antibodies induced by vaccination and detected in swine sera by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and ELISA assays, respectively. The ELISA test was also used as a measurement of antibody levels produced following the FLUAV vaccination. Associations were tested with x(2) test for a case and control data and using maximum likelihood method for the quantitative data, where a moderate association was considered if pimmune response. Using the response to vaccination measured by ELISA as a qualitative and quantitative phenotype, four genomic regions were associated with immune response: one on SSC12 and three on chromosomes SSC1, SSC7, and SSC15, respectively. Those regions harbor important functional candidate genes possibly involved with the degree of immune response to vaccination. These results show an important role of host genetics in the immune response to influenza vaccination. Genetic selection for pigs with better response to FLUAV vaccination might be an alternative to reduce the impact of influenza virus infection in the swine industry

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF GENETIC VARIANTS OF κ-CASEIN ON MILK COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk production of 22 cows of Slovak Pied breed with Holstein-Friesian was analyzed according to the genetic variants of the polymorphic proteins determined by starch gel electrophoresis. The effect of genetic variants of the proteins was analyzed by selected properties of milk (milk yield, proteins, fats and lactose. Differences between the productive characters in testing groups were evaluated according to statistic method of t-test. Evaluation was carried out during throughout lactation. Based on the analyses we have obtained results frequency of genotypes: κ-CN AA in 9 cows (41%, AB in 12 cows (54.5% and BB in one cow, which is 4.5%. The average daily milk production of κ-CN AA was 13.5 l/day and in κ-CN AB 14.2 l/day. Contents of protein of genetic variation κ-CN AA was 3.1% in milk genotype κ-CN AB was found not significant lower protein proportion 3.0%. Based on the analyses, we can assume that cow’s nutrition higher influence the increase in the proportion of protein than polymorphism of κ-CN. In our research was found out the average fat content 4.0% in genetic variation of κ-CN AA and not significant lower in genetic variation κ-CN AB 3.8%. The average lactose content in the cow’s milk with κ-CN AA genotype was 4.9% and κ-CN AB was 5.0%. The difference between fat content wasn’t statistically significant.

  10. A hybrid color space for skin detection using genetic algorithm heuristic search and principal component analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabdar Oghaz, Mahdi; Maarof, Mohd Aizaini; Zainal, Anazida; Rohani, Mohd Foad; Yaghoubyan, S Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Color is one of the most prominent features of an image and used in many skin and face detection applications. Color space transformation is widely used by researchers to improve face and skin detection performance. Despite the substantial research efforts in this area, choosing a proper color space in terms of skin and face classification performance which can address issues like illumination variations, various camera characteristics and diversity in skin color tones has remained an open issue. This research proposes a new three-dimensional hybrid color space termed SKN by employing the Genetic Algorithm heuristic and Principal Component Analysis to find the optimal representation of human skin color in over seventeen existing color spaces. Genetic Algorithm heuristic is used to find the optimal color component combination setup in terms of skin detection accuracy while the Principal Component Analysis projects the optimal Genetic Algorithm solution to a less complex dimension. Pixel wise skin detection was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed color space. We have employed four classifiers including Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine and Multilayer Perceptron in order to generate the human skin color predictive model. The proposed color space was compared to some existing color spaces and shows superior results in terms of pixel-wise skin detection accuracy. Experimental results show that by using Random Forest classifier, the proposed SKN color space obtained an average F-score and True Positive Rate of 0.953 and False Positive Rate of 0.0482 which outperformed the existing color spaces in terms of pixel wise skin detection accuracy. The results also indicate that among the classifiers used in this study, Random Forest is the most suitable classifier for pixel wise skin detection applications.

  11. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hou-Min; Kadia, John F.; Li, Bailian; Sederoff, Ron

    2005-06-30

    In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem

  12. Genetic Counseling as an Educational Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James M.; St. Pierre, Richard

    Historically genetic counseling programs have not included strong educational components or sound educational foundations. This paper deals with some of the drawbacks of current genetic counseling programs and the implications for education in the genetic counseling process. The author adopts a broad definition of genetic counseling which…

  13. Towards the discovery of novel genetic component involved in stress resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraniec, Michal; Lequeux, Hélène; Hermans, Christian; Willems, Glenda; Nordborg, Magnus; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Salis, Pietrino; Vromant, Maud; Lutts, Stanley; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    The exposure of plants to high concentrations of trace metallic elements such as copper involves a remodeling of the root system, characterized by a primary root growth inhibition and an increase in the lateral root density. These characteristics constitute easy and suitable markers for screening mutants altered in their response to copper excess. A forward genetic approach was undertaken in order to discover novel genetic factors involved in the response to copper excess. A Cu(2+) -sensitive mutant named copper modified resistance1 (cmr1) was isolated and a causative mutation in the CMR1 gene was identified by using positional cloning and next-generation sequencing. CMR1 encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function. The analysis of the cmr1 mutant indicates that the CMR1 protein is required for optimal growth under normal conditions and has an essential role in the stress response. Impairment of the CMR1 activity alters root growth through aberrant activity of the root meristem, and modifies potassium concentration and hormonal balance (ethylene production and auxin accumulation). Our data support a putative role for CMR1 in cell division regulation and meristem maintenance. Research on the role of CMR1 will contribute to the understanding of the plasticity of plants in response to changing environments. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. The genetic component of the forced diving bradycardia response in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eFahlman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We contrasted the forced diving bradycardia between two genetically similar (inbred rat strains (Fischer and Buffalo, compared to that of outbred rats (Wistar. The animals were habituated to forced diving for 4 weeks. Each animal was then tested during one 40-sec dive on each of 3 days. The heart rate (fH was measured before, during, and after each dive. Fischer and Buffalo exhibited marked difference in dive bradycardia (Fischer: 120.9 ± 14.0 beats • min-1 vs. Buffalo: 92.8 ± 12.8 beats • min-1, P < 0.05. Outbred rats showed an intermediate response (103.0 ± 30.9 beats • min-1 but their between-animal variability in mean dive fH and pre-diving resting fH were higher than the inbred strains (P < 0.05, which showed no difference (P > 0.05. The decreased variability in fH in inbred rats as compared with the outbred group indicates that reduced genetic variability minimizes variability of the diving bradycardia between individuals. Heritability within strains was assessed by the repeatability (R index and was 0.93 ± 0.05 for the outbred, 0.84 ± 0.16 for Buffalo, and 0.80 ± 0.12 for Fischer rats for fH during diving. Our results suggest that a portion of the mammalian diving bradycardia may be a heritable trait.

  15. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  16. Application of DNA Hybridization Biosensor as a Screening Method for the Detection of Genetically Modified Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Filipiak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently attached by 5’-phosphate end to amino group of cysteamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM on gold electrode surface with the use of activating reagents – water soluble 1-ethyl-3(3’- dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxy-sulfosuccinimide (NHS. The hybridization reaction on the electrode surface was detected via methylene blue (MB presenting higher affinity to ssDNA probe than to DNA duplex. The electrode modification procedure was optimized using 19-mer oligoG and oligoC nucleotides. The biosensor enabled distinction between DNA samples isolated from soybean RoundupReady® (RR soybean and non-genetically modified soybean. The frequent introduction of investigated DNA sequences in other genetically modified organisms (GMOs give a broad perspectives for analytical application of the biosensor.

  17. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants interact with the mediterranean diet modifying the inflammatory status and its relationship with aging: CORDIOPREV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition has been associated with age-related diseases. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants have been associated with LTL; whereas fatty acids (FAs) can interact with genetic factors and influence in aging. We explore whether variability at t...

  18. Evaluation of the sensitization rates and identification of IgE-binding components in wild and genetically modified potatoes in patients with allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seung-Hyun

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potato is one of the most common types of genetically modified (GM food. However, there are no published data evaluating the impact of genetic manipulations on the allergenicity of GM potatoes. To compare the allergenicity of GM potatoes with that of wild-type potatoes using in vivo and in vitro methods in adult allergy patients sensitized to potatoes. Methods A total of 1886 patients with various allergic diseases and 38 healthy controls participated in the study. Skin-prick testing and IgE-ELISA were carried out with extracts prepared from wild-type and GM potatoes. An ELISA inhibition test was used to confirm the binding specificity. IgE-binding components in extracts from the two types of potato were identified by SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes and heat on the allergenicity of the extracts was evaluated by preincubating the potatoes with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the absence or presence of heat. Results Positive responses (ratio of the wheal size induced by the allergen to that induced by histamine (A/H ≥ 2+ to wild-type or GM potato extracts, as demonstrated by the skin-prick test, were observed in 108 patients (5.7%. Serum-specific IgE was detected in 0–88% of subjects who tested positively. ELISA inhibition tests indicated significant inhibition when extract from each type of potato was added. IgE-immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of 14 IgE-binding components within the wild-type potato and 9 within the GM potato. Furthermore, a common 45-kDa binding component that yielded similar IgE-binding patterns was noted in more than 80% of the reactions using sera from patients sensitized to wild-type or GM potato. Exposure to simulated gastric fluid and heat treatment similarly inhibited IgE binding by extracts from wild-type and GM potatoes, whereas minimal changes were obtained following exposure of the extracts to simulated intestinal fluid

  19. Strong genetic differentiation among east Atlantic populations of the sword razor shell ( Ensis siliqua) assessed with mtDNA and RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Alberto; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

    2011-03-01

    The sword razor shell Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) is a bivalve with a high commercial value being appreciated in fresh and processed markets. However, the genetic studies carried out in populations of E. siliqua are scarce. In this work, the genetic variability and differentiation of the sword razor shell was assessed using PCR-RFLPs of a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and random amplified polymorphic loci (RAPD) in nine localities from Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. In the 314 individuals examined for the mitochondrial fragment, 12 composite haplotypes were observed; meanwhile, a unique phenotype was observed for each of the 242 individuals analyzed with 61 RAPD loci. Two of the mitochondrial composite haplotypes accounted for the majority of individuals (89.81%) and showed a remarkably disjoint distribution between Irish and Iberian samples, with the exception of Aveiro which exhibited as the most frequent haplotype the same found in Ireland. The level of variability observed for each sample was generally correlated with both types of markers and the results obtained suggest the existence of a strong population differentiation between Irish and Iberian localities, except for the Portuguese sample from Aveiro which is surprisingly closer to Irish individuals, although it is probably highly differentiated.

  20. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  1. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Versace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  2. Transcription, reverse transcription, and analysis of RNA containing artificial genetic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Nicole A; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Hoshika, Shuichi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Carrigan, Matthew A; Benner, Steven A

    2015-04-17

    Expanding the synthetic biology of artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS) requires tools to make and analyze RNA molecules having added nucleotide "letters". We report here the development of T7 RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase to catalyze transcription and reverse transcription of xNA (DNA or RNA) having two complementary AEGIS nucleobases, 6-amino-5-nitropyridin-2-one (trivially, Z) and 2-aminoimidazo[1,2a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (trivially, P). We also report MALDI mass spectrometry and HPLC-based analyses for oligomeric GACUZP six-letter RNA and the use of ribonuclease (RNase) A and T1 RNase as enzymatic tools for the sequence-specific degradation of GACUZP RNA. We then applied these tools to analyze the GACUZP and GACTZP products of polymerases and reverse transcriptases (respectively) made from DNA and RNA templates. In addition to advancing this 6-letter AEGIS toward the biosynthesis of proteins containing additional amino acids, these experiments provided new insights into the biophysics of DNA.

  3. Genome-wide association study identified genetic variations and candidate genes for plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Caixiang; Gu, Lijiao; Wang, Hantao; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Qibao; Huang, Long; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-03-01

    Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton were identified via GWAS. Four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits. A candidate gene, Gh_D03G0922, might be responsible for plant height in upland cotton. A compact plant architecture is increasingly required for mechanized harvesting processes in China. Therefore, cotton plant architecture is an important trait, and its components, such as plant height, fruit branch length and fruit branch angle, affect the suitability of a cultivar for mechanized harvesting. To determine the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel composed of 355 accessions and 93,250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing method. Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits were identified via GWAS. Most importantly, four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits, and these SNPs were harbored in one linkage disequilibrium block. Furthermore, 21 candidate genes for plant architecture were predicted in a 0.95-Mb region including the four peak SNPs. One of these genes (Gh_D03G0922) was near the significant SNP D03_31584163 (8.40 kb), and its Arabidopsis homologs contain MADS-box domains that might be involved in plant growth and development. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gh_D03G0922 was upregulated in the apical buds and young leaves of the short and compact cotton varieties, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) proved that the silenced plants exhibited increased PH. These results indicate that Gh_D03G0922 is likely the candidate gene for PH in cotton. The genetic variations and candidate genes identified in this study lay a foundation

  4. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, D V A; Wimmers, K

    2015-09-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future.

  5. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. A. Khoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS, Duroc (DU, Berlin miniature pig (BMP, German Landrace (LR, Pietrain (PIE, and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig. Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK. Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9 as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future.

  6. Energy efficiency and energy homeostasis as genetic and epigenetic components of plant performance and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, Marc; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2011-06-01

    The importance of energy metabolism in plant performance and plant productivity is conceptually well recognized. In the eighties, several independent studies in Lolium perenne (ryegrass), Zea mays (maize), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) correlated low respiration rates with high yields. Similar reports in the nineties largely confirmed this correlation in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). However, selection for reduced respiration does not always result in high-yielding cultivars. Indeed, the ratio between energy content and respiration, defined here as energy efficiency, rather than respiration on its own, has a major impact on the yield potential of a crop. Besides energy efficiency, energy homeostasis, representing the balance between energy production and consumption in a changing environment, also contributes to an enhanced plant performance and this happens mainly through an increased stress tolerance. Although a few single gene approaches look promising, probably whole interacting networks have to be modulated, as is done by classical breeding, to improve the energy status of plants. Recent developments show that both energy efficiency and energy homeostasis have an epigenetic component that can be directed and stabilized by artificial selection (i.e. selective breeding). This novel approach offers new opportunities to improve yield potential and stress tolerance in a wide variety of crops. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Diversity for Grain Yield and its Components in Winter Wheat Genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabrizi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the most effective characters on grain yield and its component in winter wheat genotypes, an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Planting seed, application of fertilizers and fertilizers and pesticides and irrigation regimes were processed as they are usually done in the region. Some traits such as days to heading, days to maturity, height plant, main spike weight, straw yield, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, grain yield and harvest index were characterized. Analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among genotypes for most of the traits except the weight of main spike and grain number per plant. Results also showed that the highest phenotypic (19.77% diversity belonged to the weight of main spike and least to days to maturity and days to heading (with 0.27% and 0.52% respectively. Results of factor analysis showed that four factors accounted for 82.73% of the total variation. Cluster analysis, based on traits under study, grouped the genotypes into two groups. The first group consisted of seven and the second on of five genotypes.

  8. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients of yield and its components analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient were studied for yield and yield component traits in twenty one diverse genotypes of pumpkin. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for fruit length (cm, single fruit weight (kg, Brix (% and yield per plant (kg. Heritability estimates in broad sense were higher for almost all the characters. The characters namely, fruit length, single fruit weight, yield per plant and brix% had high genotypic coefficient of variation coupled with heritability gave high genetic advance expressed as percentage of mean ranged from 76.84 to 96.06 which indicated that these characters were less influenced by environment confirming additive gene action, and therefore, selection of these characters would be more effective for yield improvement of pumpkins. Total six traits likely fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, single fruit weight and number of fruits per plant were positively and significantly associated with yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis also revealed maximum contribution of single fruit weight (0.869 to yield and this was followed by the contribution of number of fruit per plant (0.527 at genotypic level.

  9. Strong correlation between cross-amplification success and genetic distance across all members of 'True Salamanders' (Amphibia: Salamandridae) revealed by Salamandra salamandra-specific microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Ralf; Susanne Hauswaldt, J; Veith, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    The unpredictable and low cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci tested for congeneric amphibian species has mainly been explained by the size and complexity of amphibian genomes, but also by taxonomy that is inconsistent with phylogenetic relationships among taxa. Here, we tested whether the cross-amplification success of nine new and 11 published microsatellite loci cloned for an amphibian source species, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), correlated with the genetic distance across all members of True Salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella and Salamandra that form a monophyletic clade within the family of Salamandridae) serving as target species. Cross-amplification success varied strongly among the species and showed a highly significant negative relationship with genetic distance and amplification success. Even though lineages of S. salamandra and Lyciasalamndra have separated more than 30 Ma, a within genus amplification success rate of 65% was achieved for species of Lyciasalamandra thus demonstrating that an efficient cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci in amphibians is feasible even across large evolutionary distances. A decrease in genome size, on the other hand, paralleled also a decrease in amplified loci and therefore contradicted previous results and expectations that amplification success should increase with a decrease in genome size. However, in line with other studies, our comprehensive dataset clearly shows that cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci is well explained by phylogenetic divergence between species. As taxonomic classifications on the species and genus level do not necessarily mirror phylogenetic divergence between species, the pure belonging of species to the same taxonomic units (i.e. species or genus) might be less useful to predict cross-amplification success of microsatellite loci between such species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Roles of Vascular and Metabolic Components in Cognitive Dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: Short- and Long-term Modification by Non-genetic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD. Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of 1 compromised vascular reactivity, 2 vascular lesions, 3 hypo/hyperglycemia, and 4 exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. Beta-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: 1 functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, 2 MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, 3 clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, 4 amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  11. Genetic Interactions Between the Meiosis-Specific Cohesin Components, STAG3, REC8, and RAD21L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ayobami; Hopkins, Jessica; Mckay, Matthew; Murray, Steve; Jordan, Philip W

    2016-06-01

    Cohesin is an essential structural component of chromosomes that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Previous studies have shown that there are cohesin complexes specific to meiosis, required to mediate homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. Meiosis-specific cohesin complexes consist of two structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMC1α/SMC1β and SMC3), an α-kleisin protein (RAD21, RAD21L, or REC8), and a stromal antigen protein (STAG1, 2, or 3). STAG3 is exclusively expressed during meiosis, and is the predominant STAG protein component of cohesin complexes in primary spermatocytes from mouse, interacting directly with each α-kleisin subunit. REC8 and RAD21L are also meiosis-specific cohesin components. Stag3 mutant spermatocytes arrest in early prophase ("zygotene-like" stage), displaying failed homolog synapsis and persistent DNA damage, as a result of unstable loading of cohesin onto the chromosome axes. Interestingly, Rec8, Rad21L double mutants resulted in an earlier "leptotene-like" arrest, accompanied by complete absence of STAG3 loading. To assess genetic interactions between STAG3 and α-kleisin subunits RAD21L and REC8, our lab generated Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double knockout mice, and compared them to the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. These double mutants are phenotypically distinct from one another, and more severe than each single knockout mutant with regards to chromosome axis formation, cohesin loading, and sister chromatid cohesion. The Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double mutants both progress further into prophase I than the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that cohesins containing STAG3 and REC8 are the main complex required for centromeric cohesion, and RAD21L cohesins are required for normal clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, the STAG3/REC8 and STAG3/RAD21L cohesins are the primary cohesins required for

  12. Genetic Interactions Between the Meiosis-Specific Cohesin Components, STAG3, REC8, and RAD21L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Ward

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cohesin is an essential structural component of chromosomes that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Previous studies have shown that there are cohesin complexes specific to meiosis, required to mediate homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. Meiosis-specific cohesin complexes consist of two structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMC1α/SMC1β and SMC3, an α-kleisin protein (RAD21, RAD21L, or REC8, and a stromal antigen protein (STAG1, 2, or 3. STAG3 is exclusively expressed during meiosis, and is the predominant STAG protein component of cohesin complexes in primary spermatocytes from mouse, interacting directly with each α-kleisin subunit. REC8 and RAD21L are also meiosis-specific cohesin components. Stag3 mutant spermatocytes arrest in early prophase (“zygotene-like” stage, displaying failed homolog synapsis and persistent DNA damage, as a result of unstable loading of cohesin onto the chromosome axes. Interestingly, Rec8, Rad21L double mutants resulted in an earlier “leptotene-like” arrest, accompanied by complete absence of STAG3 loading. To assess genetic interactions between STAG3 and α-kleisin subunits RAD21L and REC8, our lab generated Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double knockout mice, and compared them to the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. These double mutants are phenotypically distinct from one another, and more severe than each single knockout mutant with regards to chromosome axis formation, cohesin loading, and sister chromatid cohesion. The Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double mutants both progress further into prophase I than the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that cohesins containing STAG3 and REC8 are the main complex required for centromeric cohesion, and RAD21L cohesins are required for normal clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, the STAG3/REC8 and STAG3/RAD21L cohesins are the primary

  13. Analysis of electronic component inventory optimization in six stages supply chain management for warehouse with ABC using genetic algorithm and PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh Yadav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the proposed study is to give a new dimension on warehouse with artificial bee colony algorithm using genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm processes in six stages - 11 member supply chain in electronic component inventory optimization to describe the certain and uncertain market demand which is based on supply reliability and to develop more realistic and more flexible models. We hope that the proposed study has a great potential to solve various practical tribulations related to the warehouse using genetic algorithm processes in six stages - 11 member supply chain in electronic component inventory optimization and also provide a general review for the application of soft computing techniques like genetic algorithms to use for improve the effectiveness and efficiency for various aspect of warehouse with artificial bee colony algorithm using genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  14. Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebregziabher Gebreyohannes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY, lactation length (LL, average milk yield per day (YD, initial milk yield (IY, peak milk yield (PY, days to peak (DP and parameters (ln(a and c of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus Boran (B and Horro (H and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F, Jersey (J and Simmental (S. There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001 by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F had the highest least squares means (LSM for LY (2,490±178.9 kg, IY (10.5±0.8 kg, PY (12.7±0.9 kg, YD (7.6±0.55 kg and LL (361.4±31.2 d, while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses

  15. Variance components and genetic parameters for milk production and lactation pattern in an ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Gebregziabher; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Elzo, Mauricio A; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (YD), initial milk yield (IY), peak milk yield (PY), days to peak (DP) and parameters (ln(a) and c) of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG) in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta) in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus) Boran (B) and Horro (H) and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F), Jersey (J) and Simmental (S). There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S) in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (pIY (10.5±0.8 kg), PY (12.7±0.9 kg), YD (7.6±0.55 kg) and LL (361.4±31.2 d), while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses yielded low heritability (0.03±0.03 and 0.08±0.02) and repeatability (0.14±0.01 to 0.24±0.02) estimates for LL, DP and parameter c

  16. Populations genetically rifting within a complex geological system: The case of strong structure and low genetic diversity in the migratory freshwater catfish,Bagrus docmak,in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiita, Rose Komugisha; Zenger, Kyall Richard; Jerry, Dean Robert

    2017-08-01

    The complex geological history of East Africa has been a driving factor in the rapid evolution of teleost biodiversity. While there is some understanding of how macroevolutionary drivers have shaped teleost speciation in East Africa, there is a paucity of research into how the same biogeographical factors have affected microevolutionary processes within lakes and rivers. To address this deficiency, population genetic diversity, demography, and structure were investigated in a widely distributed and migratory (potamodromous) African teleost species, Ssemutundu ( Bagrus docmak ). Samples were acquired from five geographical locations in East Africa within two major drainage basins; the Albertine Rift and Lake Victoria Basin. Individuals ( N  = 175) were genotyped at 12 microsatellite loci and 93 individuals sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. Results suggested populations from Lakes Edward and Victoria had undergone a severe historic bottleneck resulting in very low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively) and negatively significant Fu values (-3.769 and -5.049; p  < .05). Heterozygosity deficiencies and restricted effective population size ( N eLD ) suggested contemporary exposure of these populations to stress, consistent with reports of the species decline in the East African Region. High genetic structuring between drainages was detected at both historical (ɸ ST  = 0.62 for mtDNA; p  < .001) and contemporary (microsatellite F ST  = 0.460; p  < .001) levels. Patterns of low genetic diversity and strong population structure revealed are consistent with speciation patterns that have been linked to the complex biogeography of East Africa, suggesting that these biogeographical features have operated as both macro- and micro-evolutionary forces in the formation of the East African teleost fauna.

  17. Estimation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Birth Weight in Brown Swiss Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kaygisiz*, Galip Bakir1, Isa Yilmaz2 and Yusuf Vanli3

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight in Brown Swiss cattle reared at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, Türkiye. The least square means of birth weight were 39.91±0.005 and 42.26±0.09kg for the calves raised at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, respectively. The effects of calving year, parity and calf sex on birth weight were significant (P<0.05. The effect of calving season on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01 for Malya State Farm, while it was non-significant for Konuklar State Farm. Direct heritability (h2d, maternal heritability (h2m, total heritability (h2T and the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (c2 were 0.09, 0.04, 0.11 and 0.04, respectively for birth weights of the calves raised at Malya State Farms. The corresponding values of birth weight for calves raised at Konuklar State Farm were 0.39, 0.015, 0.29 and 0.018, respectively.

  18. Genetics of Wellbeing and Its Components Satisfaction with Life, Happiness, and Quality of Life: A Review and Meta-analysis of Heritability Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wellbeing is a major topic of research across several disciplines, reflecting the increasing recognition of its strong value across major domains in life. Previous twin-family studies have revealed that individual differences in wellbeing are accounted for by both genetic as well as environmental

  19. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  20. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...

  1. Insertional inactivation of hblC encoding the L2 component of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 haemolysin BL strongly reduces enterotoxigenic activity, but not the haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, T; Okstad, O A; Rishovd, A L; Kolstø, A B

    1999-11-01

    Haemolysin BL (HBL) is a Bacillus cereus toxin composed of a binding component, B, and two lytic components, L1 and L2. HBL is also the enterotoxin responsible for the diarrhoeal food poisoning syndrome caused by several strains of B. cereus. The three genes encoding the HBL components constitute an operon and are transcribed from a promoter 608 bp upstream of the hblC translational start site. The first gene of the hbl operon, hblC, in the B. cereus type strain, ATCC 14579, was inactivated in this study. Inactivation of hblC strongly reduced both the enterotoxigenic activity of B. cereus ATCC 14579 and the haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes, while maintaining full haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

  2. Effects of genetic deletion of endogenous opioid system components on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Burokas, Aurelijus; Mancino, Samantha; Kummer, Sami; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The repeated cycles of cessation of consumption and relapse remain the major clinical concern in treating drug addiction. The endogenous opioid system is a crucial component of the reward circuit that participates in the adaptive changes leading to relapse in the addictive processes. We have used genetically modified mice to evaluate the involvement of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and their main endogenous ligands, the enkephalins derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN), in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Constitutive knockout mice of MOR, DOR, PENK, and PDYN, and their wild-type littermates were trained to self-administer cocaine or to seek for palatable food, followed by a period of extinction and finally tested on a cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior. The four lines of knockout mice acquired operant cocaine self-administration behavior, although DOR and PENK knockout mice showed less motivation for cocaine than wild-type littermates. Moreover, cue-induced relapse was significantly decreased in MOR and DOR knockout mice. In contrast, PDYN knockout mice showed a slower extinction and increased relapse than wild-type littermates. C-Fos expression analysis revealed differential activation in brain areas related with memory and reward in these knockout mice. No differences were found in any of the four genotypes in operant responding to obtain palatable food, indicating that the changes revealed in knockout mice were not due to unspecific deficit in operant performance. Our results indicate that MOR, DOR, and PDYN have a differential role in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  3. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, F. David; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M. Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Martínez-Berriochoa, Agustín; Unzurrunzaga, Ainhoa; Hidalgo-Conde, Ana; Madroñero-Vuelta, Ana B.; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Ordóñez-Cañizares, M. Carmen; Escalante, Begoña; Marí-Alfonso, Begoña; Sopeña, Bernardo; Magro, César; Raya, Enrique; Grau, Elena; Román, José A.; de Miguel, Eugenio; López-Longo, F. Javier; Martínez, Lina; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Díaz-López, J. Bernardino; Caminal-Montero, Luis; Martínez-Zapico, Aleida; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Sánchez-Martín, Julio; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Pérez-Conesa, Mercedes; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; García-Villanueva, M. Jesús; Fernández-Contreras, M. Encarnación; Sanchez-Pernaute, Olga; Blanco, Ricardo; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Callejas, José L.; Fanlo-Mateo, Patricia; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor M.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10−40, OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1∗04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10−43) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10−46), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10−45) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10−6, OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10−6, OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10−5, OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. PMID:25817017

  4. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likelihood of getting certain diseases Mental abilities Natural talents An abnormal trait (anomaly) that is passed down ... one of them has a genetic disorder. Information Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes . These consist ...

  5. Strong genetic structure revealed by multilocus patterns of variation in Giardia duodenalis isolates of patients from Galicia (NW-Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabín-García, Luis B; Bartolomé, Carolina; Abal-Fabeiro, José L; Méndez, Santiago; Llovo, José; Maside, Xulio

    2017-03-01

    We report a survey of genetic variation at three coding loci in Giardia duodenalis of assemblages A and B obtained from stool samples of patients from Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, NW-Iberian Peninsula). The mean pooled synonymous diversity for assemblage A was nearly five times lower than for assemblage B (0.77%±0.30% and 4.14%±1.65%, respectively). Synonymous variation in both assemblages was in mutation-drift equilibrium and an excess of low-frequency nonsynonymous variants suggested the action of purifying selection at the three loci. Differences between isolates contributed to 40% and 60% of total genetic variance in assemblages A and B, respectively, which revealed a significant genetic structure. These results, together with the lack of evidence for recombination, support that (i) Giardia assemblages A and B are in demographic equilibrium and behave as two genetically isolated populations, (ii) infections are initiated by a reduced number of individuals, which may be genetically diverse and even belong to different assemblages, and (iii) parasites reproduce clonally within the host. However, the observation of invariant loci in some isolates means that mechanisms for the homogenization of the genetic content of the two diploid nuclei in each individual must exist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    results of preexisting genetic components. Future work will be required to characterize the expression patterns of these orthologous genes in natural populations and will provide further insights into the adaptive mechanisms underlying the wide range of B. humilis adaptations.

  7. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  8. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasawin, Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a closely related B. carambolae

  9. Genetics of osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Ralston (Stuart); A.G. Uitterlinden (André)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass, defects in the microarchitecture of bone tissue, and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Twin and family studies have shown high heritability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other

  10. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  11. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  12. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for tuber-cadmium and zinc concentration in potato reveals associations with maturity and both overlapping and independent components of genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Molla F; Alves, Sheila; Griffin, Denis; Creedon, Joanne; McLaughlin, Mike J; Jones, Peter W; Milbourne, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Cd is a toxic metal, whilst Zn is an essential for plant and human health. Both can accumulate in potato tubers. We examine the genetic control of this process. The aim of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing tuber concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn). We developed a segregating population comprising 188 F 1 progeny derived from crossing two tetraploid cultivars exhibiting divergent tuber-Cd-accumulation phenotypes. These progeny were genotyped using the SolCap 8303 SNP array, and evaluated for Cd, Zn, and maturity-related traits. Linkage and QTL mapping were performed using TetraploidSNPMap software, which incorporates all allele dosage information. The final genetic map comprised 3755 SNP markers with average marker density of 2.94 per cM. Tuber-Cd and Zn concentrations were measured in the segregating population over 2 years. QTL mapping identified four loci for tuber-Cd concentration on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, and 7, which explained genetic variance ranging from 5 to 33%, and five loci for tuber-Zn concentration on chromosome 1, 3, 5, and, 6 explaining from 5 to 38% of genetic variance. Among the QTL identified for tuber-Cd concentration, three loci coincided with tuber-Zn concentration. The largest effect QTL for both tuber-Cd and Zn concentration coincided with the maturity locus on chromosome 5 where earliness was associated with increased tuber concentration of both metals. Coincident minor-effect QTL for Cd and Zn sharing the same direction of effect was also found on chromosomes 3 and 6, and these were unrelated to maturity The results indicate partially overlapping genetic control of tuber-Cd and Zn concentration in the cross, involving both maturity-related and non-maturity-related mechanisms.

  13. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David Carmona, F.; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castaneda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jose; Prieto-Gonzalez, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; Francisca Gonzalez-Escribano, M.; Ortiz-Fernandez, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narvaez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, Jose A.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schoenau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Oyvind; Molberg, Oyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip

  14. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    ) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii...... four breeding schemes with or without genomic selection and with or without intensive use of young bulls using pseudo-genomic stochastic simulations. The breeding goal consisted of a milk production trait and a functional trait. The two breeding schemes with genomic selection resulted in higher ΔGAG...

  15. Genetic background strongly modifies the severity of symptoms of Hirschsprung disease, but not hearing loss in rats carrying Ednrb(sl mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Dang

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is thought to result as a consequence of multiple gene interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate the developing gut. However, it remains unknown whether the single complete deletion of important HSCR-associated genes is sufficient to result in HSCR disease. In this study, we found that the null mutation of the Ednrb gene, thought indispensable for enteric neuron development, is insufficient to result in HSCR disease when bred onto a different genetic background in rats carrying Ednrb(sl mutations. Moreover, we found that this mutation results in serious congenital sensorineural deafness, and these strains may be used as ideal models of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 (WS4. Furthermore, we evaluated how the same changed genetic background modifies three features of WS4 syndrome, aganglionosis, hearing loss, and pigment disorder in these congenic strains. We found that the same genetic background markedly changed the aganglionosis, but resulted in only slight changes to hearing loss and pigment disorder. This provided the important evidence, in support of previous studies, that different lineages of neural crest-derived cells migrating along with various pathways are regulated by different signal molecules. This study will help us to better understand complicated diseases such as HSCR and WS4 syndrome.

  16. Reflections on changeability versus stability of health-related quality of life: distinguishing between its environmental and genetic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The field of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) could benefit from a broadening of perspectives to include recent advancements in research on adaptation, positive psychology, and genetics. These advances shed new light on the extent to which HRQOL is changeable or fixed. The objective

  17. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  18. Genetic structure of wild pea (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius) populations in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent reflects moderate cross-pollination and strong effect of geographic but not environmental distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Trněný, Oldřich; Brus, Jan; Hanáček, Pavel; Rathore, Abhishek; Roma, Rani Das; Pechanec, Vilém; Duchoslav, Martin; Bhattacharyya, Debjyoti; Bariotakis, Michalis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Berger, Jens; Toker, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of current genetic diversity and mating systems of crop wild relatives (CWR) in the Fertile Crescent is important in crop genetic improvement, because western agriculture began in the area after the cold-dry period known as Younger Dryas about 12,000 years ago and these species are also wild genepools of the world's most important food crops. Wild pea (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius) is an important source of genetic diversity for further pea crop improvement harbouring traits useful in climate change context. The genetic structure was assessed on 187 individuals of Pisum sativum subsp. elatius from fourteen populations collected in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent using 18,397 genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism DARTseq markers. AMOVA showed that 63% of the allelic variation was distributed between populations and 19% between individuals within populations. Four populations were found to contain admixed individuals. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.99 to 6.26% with estimated self-pollination rate between 47 to 90%. Genetic distances of wild pea populations were correlated with geographic but not environmental (climatic) distances and support a mixed mating system with predominant self-pollination. Niche modelling with future climatic projections showed a local decline in habitats suitable for wild pea, making a strong case for further collection and ex situ conservation.

  19. Enriching an intraspecific genetic map and identifying QTL for fiber quality and yield component traits across multiple environments in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Teng, Zhonghua; Wang, Jinxia; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianping; Fang, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhaoyun; Ali, Iftikhar; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhengsheng

    2017-12-01

    Cotton is a significant commercial crop that plays an indispensable role in many domains. Constructing high-density genetic maps and identifying stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling agronomic traits are necessary prerequisites for marker-assisted selection (MAS). A total of 14,899 SSR primer pairs designed from the genome sequence of G. raimondii were screened for polymorphic markers between mapping parents CCRI 35 and Yumian 1, and 712 SSR markers showing polymorphism were used to genotype 180 lines from a (CCRI 35 × Yumian 1) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Genetic linkage analysis was conducted on 726 loci obtained from the 712 polymorphic SSR markers, along with 1379 SSR loci obtained in our previous study, and a high-density genetic map with 2051 loci was constructed, which spanned 3508.29 cM with an average distance of 1.71 cM between adjacent markers. Marker orders on the linkage map are highly consistent with the corresponding physical orders on a G. hirsutum genome sequence. Based on fiber quality and yield component trait data collected from six environments, 113 QTLs were identified through two analytical methods. Among these 113 QTLs, 50 were considered stable (detected in multiple environments or for which phenotypic variance explained by additive effect was greater than environment effect), and 18 of these 50 were identified with stability by both methods. These 18 QTLs, including eleven for fiber quality and seven for yield component traits, could be priorities for MAS.

  20. [Supervision of foods containing components of genetically modified organisms and the problems of labeling this type of products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2010-01-01

    Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops as food or feed is regarded as a promising social area in the development of modern biotechnology. The Russian Federation has set up a governmental system to regulate the use of biotechnology products, which is based on Russian and foreign experience and the most up-to-date scientific approaches. The system for evaluating the quality and safety of GM foodstuffs envisages the postregistration monitoring of their circulation as an obligatory stage. For these purposes, the world community applies two methods: enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. It should be noted that there are various approaches to GM food labeling in the world; this raises the question of whether the labeling of foods that are prepared from genetically modified organisms, but contain no protein or DNA is to be introduced in Russia, as in the European Union.

  1. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio C. Lins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%, Native American (25.78% and African (16.73%. Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037 and obesity (mean difference (MD = 5.3%; p = 0.042. African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035, VLDL (r = -0.185; p = 0.014, hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003 and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026. Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047 and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039. These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women.

  2. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Tulio C; Pires, Alause S; Paula, Roberta S; Moraes, Clayton F; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Vianna, Lucy G; Nobrega, Otávio T; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = -0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women.

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity in banana cultivars (Musa cvs.) from the South of Oman using AFLP markers and classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Jacobson, Dan; Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar

    2010-01-01

    Banana is an important crop grown in Oman and there is a dearth of information on its genetic diversity to assist in crop breeding and improvement programs. This study employed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to investigate the genetic variation in local banana cultivars from the southern region of Oman. Using 12 primer combinations, a total of 1094 bands were scored, of which 1012 were polymorphic. Eighty-two unique markers were identified, which revealed the distinct separation of the seven cultivars. The results obtained show that AFLP can be used to differentiate the banana cultivars. Further classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed significant differences between the clusters found with molecular markers and those clusters created by previous studies using morphological analysis. Based on the analytical results, a consensus dendrogram of the banana cultivars is presented. PMID:20443211

  4. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  5. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, William W; Hennig, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr–Cu–Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design. (paper)

  6. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, William W; Hennig, Richard G

    2013-12-11

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr-Cu-Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design.

  7. Genetic adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis: strong and weak mutators with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds emerge in mucA and/or lasR mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During the chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods due to adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Hypermutability is considered to play an important role in this adaptive evolution and it has been demonstrated...

  8. Permutation-based variance component test in generalized linear mixed model with application to multilocus genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ting; Chen, Feng

    2015-04-22

    In many medical studies the likelihood ratio test (LRT) has been widely applied to examine whether the random effects variance component is zero within the mixed effects models framework; whereas little work about likelihood-ratio based variance component test has been done in the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), where the response is discrete and the log-likelihood cannot be computed exactly. Before applying the LRT for variance component in GLMM, several difficulties need to be overcome, including the computation of the log-likelihood, the parameter estimation and the derivation of the null distribution for the LRT statistic. To overcome these problems, in this paper we make use of the penalized quasi-likelihood algorithm and calculate the LRT statistic based on the resulting working response and the quasi-likelihood. The permutation procedure is used to obtain the null distribution of the LRT statistic. We evaluate the permutation-based LRT via simulations and compare it with the score-based variance component test and the tests based on the mixture of chi-square distributions. Finally we apply the permutation-based LRT to multilocus association analysis in the case-control study, where the problem can be investigated under the framework of logistic mixed effects model. The simulations show that the permutation-based LRT can effectively control the type I error rate, while the score test is sometimes slightly conservative and the tests based on mixtures cannot maintain the type I error rate. Our studies also show that the permutation-based LRT has higher power than these existing tests and still maintains a reasonably high power even when the random effects do not follow a normal distribution. The application to GAW17 data also demonstrates that the proposed LRT has a higher probability to identify the association signals than the score test and the tests based on mixtures. In the present paper the permutation-based LRT was developed for variance

  9. Modeling genetic and nongenetic variation of feed efficiency and its partial relationships between component traits as a function of management and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Vandehaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Tempelman, R J

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE), characterized as the fraction of feed nutrients converted into salable milk or meat, is of increasing economic importance in the dairy industry. We conjecture that FE is a complex trait whose variation and relationships or partial efficiencies (PE) involving the conversion of dry matter intake to milk energy and metabolic body weight may be highly heterogeneous across environments or management scenarios. In this study, a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate mixed model was proposed to jointly infer upon such heterogeneity at both genetic and nongenetic levels on PE and variance components (VC). The heterogeneity was modeled by embedding mixed effects specifications on PE and VC in addition to those directly specified on the component traits. We validated the model by simulation and applied it to a joint analysis of a dairy FE consortium data set with 5,088 Holstein cows from 13 research stations in Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Although no differences were detected among research stations for PE at the genetic level, some evidence was found of heterogeneity in residual PE. Furthermore, substantial heterogeneity in VC across stations, parities, and ration was observed with heritability estimates of FE ranging from 0.16 to 0.46 across stations. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A genetic perspective on coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine with an autoimmune component and strong heritability. Genetic studies have confirmed strong association to HLA and identified 39 nonHLA risk genes, mostly immune-related. Over 50% of the disease-associated single nucleotide

  11. [The impact of components of conventional and genetically modified soybeans on parameters of the immune and reproductive systems in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolaĭchuk, O P; Fedoruk, R S; Koval'chuk, I I

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of research of the content of glycoproteins and their specific carbohydrate components, total protein, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, leucocytes molecules of average mass and circulating immune complexes in the blood of female rats under conditions feeding of conventional and transgenic soybeans. Also the reproductive function and mass coefficient of fetus of the studied animals was analyzed. The studies were conducted in three groups of female rats aged 3 months. Animals of I group (control) were kept on a balanced diet during the study period. Animals of groups II and III (research) received a diet according to the scheme of the control group with the addition of 30% from the nutritional value diet native or transgenic soybean, respectively. We found that soy feeding had no significant effect on hematological data in the second and third experimental groups versus control. However, addition to the diet of soybeans, including genetically modified, has a significant impact on the content of glycoproteins and their specific carbohydrate components, female's fertility and less pronounced impact on the data of functional status of their immune system. A generalized analysis of the results of research leads to the conclusion that there is no definite negative or positive impact of GM soy components on their physiological state compared with animals fed native soybeans.

  12. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  13. Genetic Deficiency of Complement Component 3 Does Not Alter Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul B.; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Several genes and proteins of the complement cascade are present at elevated levels in brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). The complement cascade is well characterized as an effector arm of the immune system, and in the brain it is important for developmental synapse elimination. We hypothesized that increased levels of complement in HD brains contributes to disease progression, perhaps by contributing to synapse elimination or inflammatory signaling. We tested this hypothesis in the R6/2 mouse model of HD by crossing mice deficient in complement component 3 (C3), a crucial complement protein found at increased levels in HD brains, to R6/2 mice and monitoring behavioral and neuropathological disease progression. We found no alterations in multiple behavioral assays, weight or survival in R6/2 mice lacking C3. We also quantified the expression of several complement cascade genes in R6/2 brains and found that the large scale upregulation of complement genes observed in HD brains is not mirrored in R6/2 brains. These data show that C3 deficiency does not alter disease progression in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. PMID:23097680

  14. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  15. Immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of a dual-component genetic cancer vaccine cotargeting carcinoembryonic antigen and HER2/neu in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi; Peruzzi, Daniela; Koo, Gloria; Wei, Wei-Zen; La Monica, Nicola; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2014-02-01

    Several cancer vaccine efforts have been directed to simultaneously cotarget multiple tumor antigens, with the intent to achieve broader immune responses and more effective control of cancer growth. Genetic cancer vaccines based on in vivo muscle electro-gene-transfer of plasmid DNA (DNA-EGT) and adenoviral vectors represent promising modalities to elicit powerful immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu. Combinations of these modalities of immunization (heterologous prime-boost) can induce superior immune reactions as compared with single-modality vaccines. We have generated a dual component-dual target genetic cancer vaccine consisting of a DNA moiety containing equal amounts of two plasmids, one encoding the extracellular and transmembrane domains of HER2 (ECD.TM) and the other encoding CEA fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB), and of an adenoviral subtype 6 dicistronic vector carrying the same two tumor antigens gene constructs. The CEA/HER2 vaccine was tested in two different CEA/HER2 double-transgenic mouse models and in NOD/scid-DR1 mice engrafted with the human immune system. The immune response was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, flow cytometry, and ELISA. The CEA/HER2 vaccine was able to break immune tolerance against both antigens. Induction of a T cell and antibody immune response was detected in immune-tolerant mice. Most importantly, the vaccine was able to slow the growth of HER2/neu⁺ and CEA⁺ tumors. A significant T cell response was measured in NOD/scid-DR1 mice engrafted with human cord blood cells. In conclusion, the CEA/HER2 genetic vaccine was immunogenic and able to confer significant therapeutic effects. These data warrant the evaluation of this vaccination strategy in human clinical trials.

  16. Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up, Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Macagno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. MR and CT imaging showed a heavily ossified central mass surrounded by a peripheral fatty component. No connection with the underlying bone was detected on imagery and during surgery. After surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed a tumor harboring combined features of well-differentiated liposarcoma and low-grade osteosarcoma. Tumor cells displayed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4, and P16 by immunohistochemistry and CGH revealed amplification of 12q13-15 as the only genetic imbalance. MDM2 FISH analysis was performed but was inconclusive. The pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, the differential diagnoses, and the therapeutic management of this unusual tumor are discussed. No complementary treatment was performed initially. Following first treatment, two recurrences occurred 6 and 9 years later, both displaying histological features similar to the first occurrence. Radiotherapy was started after the second recurrence. Follow-up shows no evidence of disease 11 years after initial diagnosis. This case was unusual due to the paravertebral location of the tumor and its divergent differentiation.

  17. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C

    2016-02-01

    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes.

  18. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  19. Genome-wide association mapping in dogs enables identification of the homeobox gene, NKX2-8, as a genetic component of neural tube defects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Safra

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome  =3.0 × 10(-5, after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525 were found to be significantly over-represented (p=0.036. This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs.

  20. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  1. Migraine genetics : from monogenic to complex forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanmolkot, Kaate Raymond Josepha

    2008-01-01

    Migraine has a strong genetic component, but the identification of these factors has proven difficult mainly because of the complex interaction of multiple loci and environmental factors. Unraveling its molecular basis and deciphering pathways leading to migraine attacks will help identifying novel

  2. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  3. Simulation of quantitative characters by genes with biochemically definable action. III. The components of genetic effects in the inheritance of anthocyanins in Matthiola incana R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, S; Seyffert, W

    1971-01-01

    In a self-pollinated plant species, Matthiola incana R. Br., six groups of isogenic lines were developed which were ideally suited for investigating the properties of individual genes controlling a quantitative character. Each group consisted of four homozygous parents for two alleles at each of the two loci in a common genetic background. A complete 4 × 4 diallel cross was obtained in each group. Because of the identical genetic background each diallel set could be considered as a genetic system of two loci. The biochemical functions of the alleles at each locus modifying the structure of the anthocyanin molecule were known. The phenotypes of the nine possible genotypes were qualitatively distinguishable by their flower colour differences. A quantitative measure of the phenotypic value associated with a genotype is the concentration of anthocyanins in flower tissues. In these simplified genetic systems, the nine phenotypic values could be expressed in terms of nine biometrical quantities, eight of which are attributable to the genetic effects of the alleles at the two loci under consideration. An unique solution of the set of nine equations in nine unknowns provided direct estimates of the parameters specifying additive, dominance and epistatic effects. Thus the effects of individual genes in a well-defined genetic background could be estimated by the use of a simple additive genetic model. An extension of the model provided estimates of the genetic parameters in different years and genetic backgrounds.Dominance was found to be the most important type of gene action in the inheritance of anthocyanin content in the flower tissues of M. incana. There was considerable epistasis, but the effect was very unstable over years and genetic backgrounds. The relative magnitude of additive effect was most stable. Heterosis was observed and was found to be largely due to dominance and additive × dominance interactions.

  4. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. Part VIII. The concept of mutation component and its use in risk estimation for multifactorial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denniston, C. [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (United States); Chakraborty, R. [Human Genetics Center, University of Texas School of Public Health, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX (United States); Sankaranarayanan, K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Sylvius Laboratories, Leiden University Medical Centre, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-08-31

    Multifactorial diseases, which include the common congenital abnormalities (incidence: 6%) and chronic diseases with onset predominantly in adults (population prevalence: 65%), contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality. Their transmission patterns do not conform to Mendelian expectations. The model most frequently used to explain their inheritance and to estimate risks to relatives is a Multifactorial Threshold Model (MTM) of disease liability. The MTM assumes that: (1) the disease is due to the joint action of a large number of genetic and environmental factors, each of which contributing a small amount of liability, (2) the distribution of liability in the population is Gaussian and (3) individuals whose liability exceeds a certain threshold value are affected by the disease. For most of these diseases, the number of genes involved or the environmental factors are not fully known. In the context of radiation exposures of the population, the question of the extent to which induced mutations will cause an increase in the frequencies of these diseases has remained unanswered. In this paper, we address this problem by using a modified version of MTM which incorporates mutation and selection as two additional parameters. The model assumes a finite number of gene loci and threshold of liability (hence, the designation, Finite-Locus Threshold Model or FLTM). The FLTM permits one to examine the relationship between broad-sense heritability of disease liability and mutation component (MC), the responsiveness of the disease to a change in mutation rate. Through the use of a computer program (in which mutation rate, selection, threshold, recombination rate and environmental variance are input parameters and MC and heritability of liability are output estimates), we studied the MC-heritability relationship for (1) a permanent increase in mutation rate (e.g., when the population sustains radiation exposure in every generation) and (2) a one-time increase in

  5. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  6. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  7. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  8. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  9. Population genetic structure of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) in Uganda: evidence for a strong philopatry among warthogs and social structure breakdown in a disturbed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanka, V.B.; Nyakaana, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2007-01-01

    populations from five localities in Uganda are genetically structured using both mitochondrial control region sequence and microsatellite allele length variation. Four of the localities (Queen Elizabeth, Murchison Falls, Lake Mburo and Kidepo Valley) are national parks with relatively good wildlife protection......Fine-scale genetic structure of large mammals is rarely analysed. Yet it is potentially important in estimating gene flow between the now fragmented wildlife habitats and in predicting re-colonization following local extinction events. In this study, we examined the extent to which warthog...... geographical distances between populations, significant genetic differentiation was observed in all pair-wise population comparisons at the two marker sets (mtDNA FST = 0.21-0.79, P 

  10. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Abstract> Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large number of

  11. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large

  12. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  13. Genetics of head circumference in infancy: a longitudinal study of Japanese twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Karvonen, Marjo; Sugimoto, Masako; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dunkel, Leo; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown strong genetic influence to head circumference (HC), but still little is known on the development of genetic etiology of HC in infancy, especially in non-Caucasian populations. Thus, we decided to analyze the genetics of HC growth in Japanese infants. Longitudinal measures of HC were available from birth to 13 months of age in 206 monozygotic and 156 dizygotic complete twin pairs. Genetic modeling for twin data was used. We found only little evidence for sex-specific differences in the genetics of HC and thus analyzed boys and girls together. After 5 months of age the heritability of HC was high, but before that age also a substantial common environmental component was present. Not only strong genetic persistence for HC was found but also a new genetic variation emerged. New environmental variation shared by co-twins affecting HC was found until 3 months of age, and this effect was further transmitted until 1 year of age. HC and its growth are strongly genetically regulated. Largely, the same genetic factors affect the variation of HC at different ages, and new genetic variation emerged during the first year of life. Knowledge on the genetic component in the variation of HC may help to design tools for defining abnormal growth of HC in population-based screenings for related disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  15. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  16. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  19. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  20. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  1. Desempenho em confinamento e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros mestiços de três grupos genéticos Performance in feedlot and non carcass components in crossbred lambs from three genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho em confinamento e a produção de carcaça e de componentes não carcaça de cordeiros dos grupos genéticos Texel x Hampshire Down (THD, Texel x Ile de France (TIF e Texel x Suffolk (TS. Foram utilizados 17 cordeiros castrados, sendo seis THD, seis TIF e cinco TS, com idade de 120 dias e peso vivo médio inicial de 31,0±3,2kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados por um período de 51 dias, quando receberam diariamente ração concentrada comercial com 18% PB e 74% NDT, na proporção de 1,5% do peso vivo, mais cana-de-açúcar picada in natura à vontade. Não houve diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para ganho de peso, peso final e escores de condição corporal entre os grupos genéticos; porém, cordeiros TS tiveram maiores (P0,05 entre os grupos genéticos para conversão alimentar. Pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente também foram similares entre os grupos genéticos. Para os componentes não carcaça, houve diferenças (PThe objective of this research was to evaluate the performance in feedlot and the production of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs from the genetic groups Texel x Hampshire Down (THD, Texel x Ile de France (TIF and Texel x Suffolk (TS. Seventeen castrated lambs were used, being six THD, six TIF and five TS. The average age and weight at the beginning of the experiment were, respectively, 120 days and 31.0±3.2kg. Lambs were fed lot for 51 days, where they received a daily commercial concentrate ration (18% CP and 74% TDN, in the proportion of 1.5% of body weight, and had free access to chopped in natura sugar cane. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for weight gain, final weight and body condition score among the genetic groups. However, TS lambs presented greater (P0.05 among genetic groups for feed conversion. Weights and dressing percentages of hot carcass were also similar among genetic groups. There were few differences among genetic groups for non

  2. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  3. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  4. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  5. Genetics of Tinnitus: Time to Biobank Phantom Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Cederroth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is a common phantom sensation resulting most often from sensory deprivation, and for which little knowledge on the molecular mechanisms exists. While the existing evidence for a genetic influence on the condition has been until now sparse and underpowered, recent data suggest that specific forms of tinnitus have a strong genetic component revealing that not all tinnitus percepts are alike, at least in how they are genetically driven. These new findings pave the way for a better understanding on how phantom sensations are molecularly driven and call for international biobanking efforts.

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on risk of death due to infections assessed in Danish twins, 1943-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Christensen, Kaare; Petersen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Genetic differences have been proposed to play a strong role in risk of death from infectious diseases. The study base of 44,005 included all same-sex twin pairs born in 1870-2001, with both twins alive on January 1, 1943, or those born thereafter. Cause of death was obtained from the Danish Cause...... from infectious diseases could be demonstrated, the absolute effect of the genetic component on mortality was small....... genetic influence on the risk of death...

  7. A maize landrace that emits defense volatiles in response to?herbivore eggs possesses a strongly inducible terpene synthase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Tamiru, Amanuel; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Richter, Annett; Woodcock, Christine M.; Midega, Charles A. O.; Degenhardt, J?rg; Kelemu, Segenet; Pickett, John A.; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition\\ud to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in\\ud their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological\\ud role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among\\ud maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene\\ud in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 po...

  8. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  9. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  10. Genetic interactions between a phospholipase A2 and the Rim101 pathway components in S. cerevisiae reveal a role for this pathway in response to changes in membrane composition and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi, M; Jambhekar, A; Kaferle, P; Derisi, J L; Krizaj, I; Petrovic, U

    2010-06-01

    Modulating composition and shape of biological membranes is an emerging mode of regulation of cellular processes. We investigated the global effects that such perturbations have on a model eukaryotic cell. Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s), enzymes that cleave one fatty acid molecule from membrane phospholipids, exert their biological activities through affecting both membrane composition and shape. We have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cellular effects of a PLA(2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. We demonstrate functional genetic and biochemical interactions between PLA(2) activity and the Rim101 signaling pathway in S. cerevisiae. Our results suggest that the composition and/or the shape of the endosomal membrane affect the Rim101 pathway. We describe a genetically and functionally related network, consisting of components of the Rim101 pathway and the prefoldin, retromer and SWR1 complexes, and predict its functional relation to PLA(2) activity in a model eukaryotic cell. This study provides a list of the players involved in the global response to changes in membrane composition and shape in a model eukaryotic cell, and further studies are needed to understand the precise molecular mechanisms connecting them.

  11. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  12. Regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase transcription by the CrbS/R two-component system is conserved in genetically diverse environmental pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Jacob

    Full Text Available The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA, an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis. In toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, CrbS/R-dependent expression of acsA is required for virulence in an arthropod model. Here, we investigate the function of the CrbS/R system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas entomophila, and non-toxigenic V. cholerae strains. We demonstrate that its role in acetate metabolism is conserved; this system regulates expression of the acsA gene and is required for growth on acetate as a sole carbon source. As a first step towards describing the mechanism of signaling through this pathway, we identify residues and domains that may be critical for phosphotransfer. We further demonstrate that although CrbS, the putative hybrid sensor kinase, carries both a histidine kinase domain and a receiver domain, the latter is not required for acsA transcription. In order to determine whether our findings are relevant to pathogenesis, we tested our strains in a Drosophila model of oral infection previously employed for the study of acetate-dependent virulence by V. cholerae. We show that non-toxigenic V. cholerae strains lacking CrbS or CrbR are significantly less virulent than are wild-type strains, while P. aeruginosa and P. entomophila lacking CrbS or CrbR are fully pathogenic. Together, the data suggest that the CrbS/R system plays a central role in acetate metabolism in V. cholerae, P. aeruginosa, and P. entomophila. However, each microbe's unique environmental adaptations and pathogenesis

  13. <strong>Relative Biological Effect of Antiprotonsstrong>> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael

    purpose/objective The AD-4/ACE collaboration has recently performed experiments to directly measure the RBE of antiprotons. Antiprotons have very similar stopping power compared to protons, but when they come to rest, antiprotons will annihilate on a target nucleus and thereby release almost 2 Ge......V of energy. About 30 MeV of this energy is deposited in the vicinity of the Bragg-peak, thereby significantly enhancing it. It is furthermore expected that this additional energy is deposited by radiation which carries a high-LET component. This will have a significant influence on the radiobiological...... nuclear research facility CERN. A beam of 126 MeV antiprotons, corresponding to about 12 cm range in water, was spread out to a SOBP with a width of 1 cm. Dosimetry experiments were carried out with ionization chambers, alanine pellets and radiochromic film, and the results were used for benchmarking...

  14. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  15. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  16. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  17. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  18. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2013-05-04

    Mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-A(y) littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-A(y) females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-A(y) males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Growth curves of DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-A(y) mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-A(y) males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F(1)-A(y) mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the A(y) allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC A(y) males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-A(y) males. The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes. This QTL

  19. Multiple strong postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers isolate florally diverse species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Jamie L; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of nine postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits. To evaluate the relative importance of floral trait diversification for the strength of these postmating barriers, we assessed their relationship to floral divergence, genetic distance, geographical context, and ecological differences, using conventional tests and a new linear-mixed modeling approach. Despite close evolutionary relationships, all species pairs showed moderate to strong isolation. Nonetheless, floral trait divergence was not a consistent predictor of the strength of isolation; instead this was best explained by genetic distance, although we found evidence for mechanical isolation in one species, and a positive relationship between floral trait divergence and fruit set isolation across species pairs. Overall, our data indicate that intrinsic postzygotic isolation is more strongly associated with genome-wide genetic differentiation, rather than floral divergence. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  1. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  2. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 8 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in several populations, particularly in people with Hispanic, Japanese, or African Caribbean heritage, whereas type II primarily ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  3. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  4. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  5. Hyperfrequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  6. Variance Components

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R; McCulloch, Charles E

    1992-01-01

    WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES. The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. ". . .Variance Components is an excellent book. It is organized and well written, and provides many references to a variety of topics. I recommend it to anyone with interest in linear models.".

  7. Gorduras de descarte e componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos Trim fat and external components of the body of steers and cull cows from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Cattelan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar as proporções das diferentes gorduras de descarte e os componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte 5/8Charolês (Ch 3/8Nelore (Ne e 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. A idade média dos animais ao final do período experimental foi de 23 meses para os novilhos e 68 meses para as vacas de descarte. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento até atingirem acabamento para o abate. A dieta alimentar continha relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60 (base na matéria seca, com 14,2% de proteína bruta e 2.869kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (2 categorias x 2 grupos genéticos. Houve maior peso de abate (PAB (509,67 contra 414,50kg e de corpo vazio (PCVZ (433,01 contra 355,27kg para as vacas em relação aos novilhos. Quando os componentes foram expressos em valores absolutos e ajustados para PCVZ e PAB, as vacas apresentaram maiores pesos de gordura inguinal/úbere, gordura renal e no total de gordura interna. Quando os pesos dos componentes foram ajustados para PAB e PCVZ, os novilhos foram superiores no peso da cabeça, patas, vassoura da cauda e no total dos componentes externos. Os animais 5/8Ch 3/8Ne apresentaram maior peso absoluto da cabeça e maior peso relativo ao PCVZ da gordura ruminal, em relação aos 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. Por outro lado, os 5/8N e 3/8Ch apresentaram maiores pesos relativos ao PAB e PCVZ do couro e do PAB do total de componentes externos, quando comparados aos 5/8Ch 3/8Ne. Não houve correlação entre o rendimento de carcaça e os componentes não integrantes da carcaça.The objective of this research was to evaluate the trim fat and external components of the body of two categories, steers and cull cows, from two genetic groups: 5/8 Charolais (Ch 3/8 Nellore (Ne and 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. The average age of animals at the end of the experimental period was of 23 and 68 months, for steers and cull

  8. Genomic and genetic dissection of pheochromocytona and paraganglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Cubas, Aguirre Andrés de

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 16-12-2014 Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, with a strong genetic component, that comprises fifteen genes so far. The advent of high-­‐throughput technologies have permitted the simultaneous interrogation of thousands ...

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  12. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  13. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  14. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  15. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

  16. Crescimento de componentes corporais de três grupos genéticos na fases de recria e terminação Growth of body components of three genetic groups in the growing and finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, and 12 crossbred ½ Caracu x ½ Zebu were used to evaluate the composition of the gain and the growth curves of corporal components. The growing animals had initial average weight of 225 kg, and the finishing ones, initial average weight of 332 kg. The animals were maintained in confinement regime to reach 310 to 340 kg of weight for the growing animals and 420 to 470 kg of weight for the finishing ones. A same diet was supplied ad libitum to all the animals. The corporal components of each animal were weighed and a representative sample of the section HH for evaluation of the carcasses physical components was collected. The contents of carcass muscle, carcass fatty tissue and carcass bone and the total of organs and visceral fatty tissue (VFT in empty body were predict by the equation of regression of the logarithm of the content of these corporal components in the empty body, on the logarithm of the empty body weight - EBW (ARC, 1980. By deriving the equations above, the equations of prediction of the participation of the corporal components in the gain of 1 kg of empty body weight (EBWG were obtained. In each genetic group, all the characteristics were significantly correlated with the EBW of the animal. The results showed that the bone tissue was of more precocious maturity in the carcass. VFT was the highest alometric coefficient to the ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu animals. The milk aptitude reduced the participation of the carcass in the EBWG, as the participation of the organs in this gain increased. The positive alometric development of muscle, the smaller increase velocity in the carcass fatty tissue gain and the smaller decrease velocity in the carcass bone gain in the finishing phase, in Nelore animals may be caused by Nelore compensatory growth.

  17. Environmental variation partitioned into separate heritable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Rohde, Palle Duun; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2018-01-01

    Trait variation is normally separated into genetic and environmental components, yet genetic factors also control the expression of environmental variation, encompassing plasticity across environmental gradients and within-environment responses. We defined four components of environmental variation...... functionally validated the effects of a subset of candidate genes affecting each of the four components of environmental variation and also confirmed the genetic and phenotypic correlations obtained from the DGRP in distinct genetic backgrounds. We delineate selection targets associated with environmental...... variation and the constraints acting upon them, providing a framework for evolutionary and applied studies on environmental sensitivity. Based on our results we suggest that the traditional quantitative genetic view of environmental variation and genotype-by-environment interactions needs revisiting....

  18. Genetic Backgrounds of Asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Hizawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and COPD are complex diseases with strong genetic and environmental components. These common pulmonary diseases have both different and similar clinical features. Molecular genetic techniques are being used to improve understanding of these common late onset disorders. Recently, several genes and genetic loci associated with increased susceptibility to asthma and COPD have been described. Many of these genes are expressed in the lung tissues, indicating that events in lung tissues might drive disease processes. Lung tissues are rich sources of innate danger signals, and an increased understanding of how the lung tissues communicate with the immune system to maintain healthy tissue might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases in which injury and repair are in disequilibrium. Given that the innate immune system is at the interface between the airways and environmental insults, genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the innate immune system are likely to affect susceptibility to both asthma and CopD. In addition, some findings from genetic studies provide molecular support for the point of view proposed in the Dutch hypothesis regarding the relationship between asthma and COPD, which highlights the complexity of the pathways that can induce small airway disease and suggests that there is a continuum between asthma and COPD.

  19. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  20. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from......The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  1. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  2. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-09

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown......One of the most intriguing recent results in physics is the growing evidence that an unknown energy field and an unknown kind of matter are the major components of the Universe (70% and 30%, respectively; see e.g. Riess et al. 1998, Spergel et al. 2007). Understanding and estimating the precise...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies...

  4. The Breda Study: Search for genetic factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a defined Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jonathan Hendrik Otto van

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of genetic variation underlying complex diseases in humans. The recognition that susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus has a strong inherited component provides a mechanism for developing the molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes

  5. Estimating maternal genetic effects in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the estimation of direct and maternal genetic (co)variances, accounting for environmental covariances between direct and maternal effects. Estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects presented in the literature have often been strongly negative, and

  6. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  7. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  8. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  9. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of rapid development in Drosophila melanogaster. M. Rajamani N. Raghavendra ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster.

  10. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  12. No evidence for strong cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in a simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellnow, Nikolas; Vizoso, Dita B; Viktorin, Gudrun; Schärer, Lukas

    2017-04-20

    Cytoplasmic sex allocation distorters, which arise from cytonuclear conflict over the optimal investment into male versus female reproductive function, are some of the best-researched examples for genomic conflict. Among hermaphrodites, many such distorters have been found in plants, while, to our knowledge, none have been clearly documented in animals. Here we provide a quantitative test for cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We used a quantitative genetic breeding design, employing pair-wise crosses of 2 × 15 independent inbred lines, to partition the phenotypic variance in several traits (including sex allocation) into its nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Although the nuclear genetic background had a significant effect on all traits analyzed, we found significant cytoplasmic genetic variation only for ovary size, there explaining just 4.1% of the variance. A subsequent statistical power analysis showed that the experimental design had considerable power to detect cytonuclear interactions. We conclude that there were no strong effects of cytonuclear conflict in the studied populations, possibly because the usually compact mitochondrial genomes in animals have a lower evolvability than the large mitochondrial genomes in plants or because the sampled populations currently do not harbor variation at putative distorter and/or the restorer loci.

  13. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  14. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  16. Biobanking genetic material for agricultural animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology ...

  17. Genetic load makes cancer cells more sensitive to common drugs: evidence from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ana B; Korolev, Kirill S

    2017-05-16

    Genetic alterations initiate tumors and enable the evolution of drug resistance. The pro-cancer view of mutations is however incomplete, and several studies show that mutational load can reduce tumor fitness. Given its negative effect, genetic load should make tumors more sensitive to anticancer drugs. Here, we test this hypothesis across all major types of cancer from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, which provides genetic and expression data of 496 cell lines together with their response to 24 common anticancer drugs. We found that the efficacy of 9 out of 24 drugs showed significant association with genetic load in a pan-cancer analysis. The associations for some tissue-drug combinations were remarkably strong, with genetic load explaining up to 83% of the variance in the drug response. Overall, the role of genetic load depended on both the drug and the tissue type with 10 tissues being particularly vulnerable to genetic load. We also identified changes in gene expression associated with increased genetic load, which included cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage and apoptosis. Our results show that genetic load is an important component of tumor fitness and can predict drug sensitivity. Beyond being a biomarker, genetic load might be a new, unexplored vulnerability of cancer.

  18. Genetic conflict between sexual signalling and juvenile survival in the three-spined stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2016-02-29

    Secondary sexual traits and mating preferences may evolve in part because the offspring of attractive males inherit attractiveness and other genetically correlated traits such as fecundity and viability. A problem regarding these indirect genetic mechanisms is how sufficient genetic variation in the traits subject to sexual selection is maintained within a population. Here we explored the additive genetic correlations between carotenoid-based male ornament colouration, female fecundity and juvenile survival rate in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to test the possibility that attractiveness genes reduce important fitness components in the bearers not expressing the sexual trait. Male sexual attractiveness (i.e., red nuptial colouration) as well as female fecundity and juvenile viability showed heritable variations in the three-spined stickleback. Thus, females can gain indirect benefits by mating with an attractive male. There was a strong positive genetic correlation between female fecundity and juvenile viability. However, red sexual signal of male sticklebacks was negatively genetically correlated with juvenile survival, suggesting genetic conflict between attractiveness and viability. There was no significant correlation between attractiveness of brothers and fecundity of sisters, suggesting no intra-locus sexual conflict. The negative effects of mating with a colourful male on offspring viability may contribute to maintaining the heritable variation under strong directional sexual selection. The strength of indirect sexual selection may be weaker than previously thought due to the hidden genetic conflicts.

  19. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  20. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  1. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  2. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  3. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  4. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  5. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  6. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  7. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  8. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  9. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  10. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  11. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  12. The genetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All definitions of the metabolic syndrome include some form of obesity as one of the possible features. Body mass index (BMI) has a known genetic component, currently estimated to account for about 70% of the population variance in weight status for non-syndromal obesity. Much research effort has be...

  13. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  14. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  15. Cellular Components Mediating Coadherence of Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Cen, L; Kaplan, C; Zhou, X; Lux, R; Shi, W; He, X

    2015-10-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen found as part of the normal oral flora. It can be coisolated with Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, from oral disease sites, such as those involved in refractory periodontitis and pulp necrosis. The physical coadherence between these 2 clinically important microbes has been well documented and suggested to play a role in facilitating their oral colonization and colocalization and contributing to polymicrobial pathogenesis. Previous studies indicated that the physical interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum was mediated by the carbohydrate components on the surface of C. albicans and the protein components on the Fusobaterium cell surface. However, the identities of the components involved still remain elusive. This study was aimed at identifying the genetic determinants involved in coaggregation between the 2 species. By screening a C. albicans SN152 mutant library and a panel of F. nucleatum 23726 outer membrane protein mutants, we identified FLO9, which encodes a putative adhesin-like cell wall mannoprotein of C. albicans and radD, an arginine-inhibitable adhesin-encoding gene in F. nucleatum that is involved in interspecies coadherence. Consistent with these findings, we demonstrated that the strong coaggregation between wild-type F. nucleatum 23726 and C. albicans SN152 in an in vitro assay could be greatly inhibited by arginine and mannose. Our study also suggested a complex multifaceted mechanism underlying physical interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum and for the first time revealed the identity of major genetic components involved in mediating the coaggregation. These observations provide useful knowledge for developing new targeted treatments for disrupting interactions between these 2 clinically relevant pathogens. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Genetic Predisposition to Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosika, Olabola; Oussedik, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin disease with a multifaceted pathophysiology, including environmental stressors and neurovascular and immune dysfunction affected by the presence of pathogens. The genetic component of this disorder is not well understood. However, a possible genetic origin in Northern European descendants, family inheritance, twin concordance, and genetic associations with autoimmune disorders attest the genetic predisposition to rosacea. Currently, one single-nucleotide polymorphism has been identified in association with rosacea and is intergenic between HLA-DRA and BTNL2. Additional associations with HLA alleles and immune-mediated disorders support the role of immune-regulating genes and innate and adaptive immunity in rosacea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strong selection barriers explain microgeographic adaptation in wild salamander populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    Microgeographic adaptation occurs when populations evolve divergent fitness advantages across the spatial scales at which focal organisms regularly disperse. Although an increasing number of studies find evidence for microgeographic adaptation, the underlying causes often remain unknown. Adaptive divergence requires some combination of limited gene flow and strong divergent natural selection among populations. In this study, we estimated the relative influence of selection, gene flow, and the spatial arrangement of populations in shaping patterns of adaptive divergence in natural populations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Within the study region, A. maculatum co-occur with the predatory marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) in some ponds, and past studies have established a link between predation risk and adaptive trait variation in A. maculatum. Using 14 microsatellite loci, we found a significant pattern of genetic divergence among A. maculatum populations corresponding to levels of A. opacum predation risk. Additionally, A. maculatum foraging rate was strongly associated with predation risk, genetic divergence, and the spatial relationship of ponds on the landscape. Our results indicate the sorting of adaptive genotypes by selection regime and strongly suggest that substantial selective barriers operate against gene flow. This outcome suggests that microgeographic adaptation in A. maculatum is possible because strong antagonistic selection quickly eliminates maladapted phenotypes despite ongoing and substantial immigration. Increasing evidence for microgeographic adaptation suggests a strong role for selective barriers in counteracting the homogenizing influence of gene flow. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic ... genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to develop new, better and cheaper ...

  19. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  20. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factor for the development of celiac disease, genetic predisposition. Without this factor, it is impossible that the ... with antibody testing in the future. When the genetic predisposition for celiac disease was detected (on Chromosome 6) ...

  1. Genetic counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a high risk of having babies with Tay-Sachs or Canavan's disease. African-Americans, who may risk ... yours to make. Images Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis References Simpson JL, Holzgreve W, Driscoll DA. Genetic ...

  2. Genetic risk

    OpenAIRE

    ten Kate, Leo P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I will review different aspects of genetic risk in the context of preconception care. I restrict myself to the knowledge of risk which is relevant for care and/or enables reproductive choice. The paper deals with chromosomes, genes and the genetic classification of diseases, and it explains why Mendelian disorders frequently do not show the expected pattern of occurrence in families. Factors that amplify genetic risk are also discussed. Of the two methods of genetic risk assessm...

  3. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  4. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  5. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  6. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  7. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  8. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...... and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood...

  9. Strongly interacting mesoscopic systems of anyons in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the fractional statistical properties of so-called anyonic particles, we present exact solutions for up to six strongly interacting particles in one-dimensional confinement that interpolate the usual bosonic and fermionic limits. Specifically, we consider two-component mixtures of anyons...

  10. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  11. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  12. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  13. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  14. High prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Isfahan: Do familial components have a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Hashemipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite elimination of iodine deficiency, the rates of both permanent and transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH in our study were higher than the comparable worldwide rates, which emphasize the major role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of CH and many studies in this regard confirm this possibility. Materials and Methods: In this review, we report all studies that established during CH screening program regarding familial and genetic component of the disease. Results: Although we could not entirely ignore the possible role of environmental and autoimmune factors in the development and function of thyroid gland, our findings strongly suggest the role of genetic factors as dominant etiologic factor in CH. Conclusion: The studies support the existence of a familial component of CH involving dominant genetic predisposition factors with a low penetrance. Considering the polygenic/multifactorial basis of CH, they suggest the possible involvement of other unknown genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, which may also follow non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance.

  15. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic study of scheduled caste populations of Tamil Nadu. M. Vijaya S. ... Keywords. caste system; genetic affinity; scheduled castes; socio-economic groups; Tamil Nadu; principal component analysis. ... A. Ramesh1. Department of Genetics, Dr ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India ...

  16. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  17. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  18. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  20. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  1. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDAŞ Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy

  2. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos de características de crescimento da raça Simental no Brasil Variance components and genetic parameters estimates for growth traits of Simmental cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.A. Marques

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Informações de genealogia e produção, cedidas pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores da Raça Simental (ABCRS, relativas aos pesos desde o nascimento até um ano de idade, foram utilizadas para estimar, sob modelos alternativos, os componentes de variância e os parâmetros genéticos em animais da raça Simental no Brasil. A matriz de parentesco incluiu 25.812 animais dos quais 7587 com dados de produção. O modelo 1 contém, além do erro, o efeito genético direto. Os modelos seguintes contêm os componentes do modelo 1, mais o efeito permanente de ambiente materno (modelo 2, ou o componente genético materno (modelo 3, ambos os componentes (modelo 5, os componentes do modelo 3 mais a covariância entre os efeitos genéticos direto e materno (modelo 4 e todos os componentes citados (modelo 6. Os modelos foram comparados pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança pelo chi² (PBirth, 100-day, weaning and yearling weights of 7587 Simmental cattle, and 25,812 pedigree data were used to estimate genetic parameters using different animal models. The simplest model (model l included additive genetic and residual random effects. Models 2 and 3 were the same as model 1, but included, respectively, maternal permanent and maternal genetic effects. Model 4 did not include permanent effect. The most complete model (model 6 also included maternal additive and permanent effects, assuming covariance between them. Model 5 was the same as model 6, but did not included direct maternal covariance. Contemporary groups considered animals born in the same herd, year and season, from the same sex and raised under the same nutritional system. The models were compared using likelihood ratio tests. The (covariance components and the genetic parameters decreased from the most simple (model 1 to the most complete model (model 6. One-hundred-day weight showed no (.00±.00 maternal genetic variance but moderate maternal environmental permanent effect (.17±.07. The

  4. Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-02-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  6. Magnesium for Crashworthy Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, T.; Easton, M.; Schmidt, R.

    Most applications of magnesium in automobiles are for nonstructural components. However, the light weight properties of magnesium make it attractive in structural applications where energy absorption in a crash is critical. Because most deformation in a crash occurs as bending rather than simple tension or compression, the advantages of magnesium are greater than anticipated simply from tensile strength to weight ratios. The increased thickness possible with magnesium strongly influences bending behavior and theoretical calculations suggest almost an order of magnitude greater energy absorption with magnesium compared to the same weight of steel. The strain rate sensitivity of steel is of concern for energy absorption. Mild steels exhibit a distinct yield point which increases with strain rate. At strain rates typical of vehicle impact, this can result in strain localization and poor energy absorption. Magnesium alloys with relatively low aluminum contents exhibit strain rate sensitivity, however, this is manifest as an increase in work hardening and tensile / yield ratio. This behavior suggests that the performance of magnesium alloys in terms of energy absorption actually improves at high strain rates.

  7. Likelihood assessment for gene flow of transgenes from imported genetically modified soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) to wild soybean (Glycine sojaSeib. et Zucc.) in Japan as a component of environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; McPherson, Marc A; Comstock, Bradley A; Stojšin, Duška; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2017-09-01

    Environmental risk assessment is required for genetically modified (GM) crops before their import into Japan. Annual roadside monitoring along transportation routes from ports to processing facilities for GM soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) have been requested as a condition of import only approval because of lack of information on the likelihood of persistence of imported GM soybean for food, feed and processing and the potential for transfer of transgenes into wild soybean ( Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) through gene flow under the Japanese environment. The survey of soybean seeds, plants and wild soybean populations were conducted along transportation routes from unloading ports to processing facilities that provided data to help quantify actual exposure. The survey indicated that the opportunities for co-existence and subsequent crossing between wild soybean populations and imported soybean are highly unlikely. Together the survey results and the comprehensive literature review demonstrated low exposure of imported GM soybean used for food, feed and processing in Japan. This evaluation of exposure level is not specific to particular GM soybean event but can apply to any GM soybean traits used for food, feed and processing if their weediness or invasiveness are the same as those of the conventional soybean.

  8. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  9. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  10. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  11. Genetic barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  12. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome.

  13. Experiencing the genetic body: parents' encounters with pediatric clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, Kelly; Skinner, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Because of advancements in genetic research and technologies, the clinical practice of genetics is becoming a prevalent component of biomedicine. As the genetic basis for more and more diseases are found, it is possible that ways of experiencing health, illness, identity, kin relations, and the body are becoming geneticized, or understood within a genetic model of disease. Yet, other models and relations that go beyond genetic explanations also shape interpretations of health and disease. This article explores how one group of individuals for whom genetic disorder is highly relevant formulates their views of the body in light of genetic knowledge. Using data from an ethnographic study of 106 parents or potential parents of children with known or suspected genetic disorders who were referred to a pediatric genetic counseling and evaluation clinic in the southeastern United States, we find that these parents do, to some degree, perceive of their children's disorders in terms of a genetic body that encompasses two principal qualities: a sense of predetermined health and illness and an awareness of a profound historicity that reaches into the past and extends into the present and future. They experience this genetic body as both fixed and historical, but they also express ideas of a genetic body made less deterministic by their own efforts and future possibilities. This account of parents' experiences with genetics and clinical practice contributes to a growing body of work on the ways in which genetic information and technologies are transforming popular and medical notions of the body, and with it, health, illness, kinship relations, and personal and social identities.

  14. A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenchai, Sirintip; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Dhitavat, Jittima; Pitisuthitham, Arom; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Boonnak, Kobporn; Lapphra, Keswadee; Sabmee, Yupa; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Poredi, Indrajeet Kumar; Petre, Jean; Thai, Pham Hong; Viviani, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that protection induced by acellular pertussis vaccines is short-lived, requiring repeated booster vaccination to control pertussis disease. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine containing genetically inactivated pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin, as either a monovalent vaccine (aP [PTgen/FHA] ) or in combination with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines (TdaP [PTgen/FHA] ), versus a licensed tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria and acellular pertussis combination vaccine (Tdap). We did this phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial at two sites in Bangkok, Thailand. Healthy adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation list with block sizes of three, to receive one dose (0·5 mL) of aP (PTgen/FHA) , TdaP (PTgen/FHA) , or Tdap (comparator). Clinical research staff responsible for participant randomisation, vaccine preparation and administration, and accountability were aware of group allocation. However, allocation was concealed from all other site study staff, data management personnel, statisticians, laboratory staff, and study participants. The primary outcome was non-inferior immunogenicity of TdaP (PTgen/FHA) to Tdap based on seroconversion rates (a four-fold increase or more) for pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin IgG antibodies 28 days after vaccination, with a predefined 10% margin of equivalence. We did analysis by per protocol. This study is registered with the Thai Clinical Trial Registry, number TCTR20150703002. Between July 6 and Aug 20, 2015, we allocated 450 participants to receive one dose of TdaP (PTgen/FHA) (n=150), aP (PTgen/FHA) (n=150), or comparator Tdap (n=150). 28 days after vaccination, seroconversion rates for anti-pertussis toxin IgG were 96·6% (95% CI 93·8-99·5; n=144) in the TdaP (PTgen/FHA) group and 55·0% (47·1-63·0; n=82) in the comparator Tdap

  15. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVean, Gil

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  16. The genetic epidemiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Emerging evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. The pathogenesis of diverticulosis and DD is controversially discussed. Current studies call the traditional concept of a fibre-deficient diet causing the development of diverticula into question. Data from two recent twin studies have provided conclusive evidence for a strong genetic component to diverticulosis. Although genomewide association studies have provided new insights into the polygenic architecture of human diseases, genomic research in diverticulosis and DD has just been started. This is an astonishing fact given the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as the substantial economic burden on health care systems. For this review, we provide an update of the molecular pathobiology and summarise recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that distinct, yet unidentified genetic variants contribute to the development of diverticulosis and DD. PMID:26535118

  17. Equilibrium statistical mechanics of strongly coupled plasmas by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical experiments using the Monte Carlo method have led to systematic and accurate results for the thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled one-component plasmas and mixtures of two nuclear components. These talks are intended to summarize the results of Monte Carlo simulations from Paris and from Livermore. Simple analytic expressions for the equation of state and other thermodynamic functions have been obtained in which there is a clear distinction between a lattice-like static portion and a thermal portion. The thermal energy for the one-component plasma has a simple power dependence on temperature, (kT)/sup 3 / 4 /, that is identical to Monte Carlo results obtained for strongly coupled fluids governed by repulsive l/r/sup n/ potentials. For two-component plasmas the ion-sphere model is shown to accurately represent the static portion of the energy. Electron screening is included in the Monte Carlo simulations using linear response theory and the Lindhard dielectric function. Free energy expressions have been constructed for one and two component plasmas that allow easy computation of all thermodynamic functions

  18. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  19. Genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefenstette, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Genetic algorithms solve problems by using principles inspired by natural population genetics: They maintain a population of knowledge structures that represent candidate solutions, and then let that population evolve over time through competition and controlled variation. GAs are being applied to a wide range of optimization and learning problems in many domains.

  20. Genetic Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Information is presented on a number of tests used in genetic counseling (e.g., genetic evaluation, chromosome evaluation, consideration of multifactorial conditions, prenatal testing, and chorionic villus sampling) which help parents with one disabled child make family planning decisions. (CB)

  1. Genetic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I will review different aspects of genetic risk in the context of preconception care. I restrict myself to the knowledge of risk which is relevant for care and/or enables reproductive choice. The paper deals with chromosomes, genes and the genetic classification of diseases, and it

  2. Diffraction analysis of materials under strong plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of X-ray diffraction in analyses of the microstructure texture and intrinsic stresses of materials under strong plastic deformation is illustrated by examples and discussed. The experimental methods and findings are supplemented by numeric calculations. It is shown how the microstructure, texture and intrinsic stresses can thus be optimized already in the production process. Analyses of changes in materials during operation of a component provide information on loads and material response to loads which can then be used for optimization of the component, e.g. by constructional modifications or selective heat treatment [de

  3. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    . This article compares and contrasts the work of two doctors in Finland, Elias Lönnrot and Reijo Norio, working over a century and a half apart, to examine the ways in which they have contributed to the formation of national identity and unity. The notion of genetic romanticism is introduced as a term...... to complement the notion of national romanticism that has been used to describe the ways in which nineteenth-century scholars sought to create and deploy common traditions for national-romantic purposes. Unlike national romanticism, however, strategies of genetic romanticism rely on the study of genetic...... inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  4. Genetic Counseling and Evaluation for BRCA1/2 Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Options Talking to Family Family Stories Diseases Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Recommend on ... inherited mutation, your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. Understanding and dealing with a strong family health ...

  5. Genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genet...

  6. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  7. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  8. Genetics of osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Qiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chuan Qiu1,2, Christopher J Papasian2, Hong-Wen Deng1,2,3,4, Hui Shen1,21Center for Bioinformatics and Genomics, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Center of System Biomedical Sciences, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; 4Molecular and Statistical Genetics Lab, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, ChinaAbstract: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that results in a massive burden to patients and society through associated low-trauma, osteoporotic fractures. Previous studies have shown that osteoporosis-associated traits, such as low bone mineral density, as well as the probability of actually experiencing an osteoporotic fracture, are under strong genetic control. Susceptibility to osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures is likely to be controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and by interactions between them. Although numerous genetic studies, mainly candidate gene association studies, have attempted to decipher the genetic basis for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, little success has been achieved. Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and knowledge of common human genetic variants have shifted the approach for studying human complex disorders from candidate gene studies to large-scale genome-wide association studies. In the past three years, more than 10 genome-wide association studies have been carried out for osteoporosis. A number of genes that are associated with osteoporosis-related traits, and/or with the probability of actually experiencing an osteoporotic fracture, have been successfully identified and replicated through these studies. In this article, we review the recent progress in the genetics

  9. LDA+DMFT Approach to Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Strong Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xin Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges posed by the need of finding strong rare-earth-free magnets demand methods that can predict magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE. We argue that correlated electron effects, which are normally underestimated in band-structure calculations, play a crucial role in the development of the orbital component of the magnetic moments. Because magnetic anisotropy arises from this orbital component, the ability to include correlation effects has profound consequences on our predictive power of the MAE of strong magnets. Here, we show that incorporating the local effects of electronic correlations with dynamical mean-field theory provides reliable estimates of the orbital moment, the mass enhancement, and the MAE of YCo_{5}.

  10. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  11. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  12. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  13. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  14. Spatial structuring of the population genetics of a European subterranean termite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Perdereau, Elfie; Kutnik, Magdalena; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    In population genetics studies, detecting and quantifying the distribution of genetic variation can help elucidate ecological and evolutionary processes. In social insects, the distribution of population-level genetic variability is generally linked to colony-level genetic structure. It is thus especially crucial to conduct complementary analyses on such organisms to examine how spatial and social constraints interact to shape patterns of intraspecific diversity. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene for 52 colonies of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), sampled from a population in southwestern France. Three haplotypes were detected, one of which was found exclusively in the southern part of the study area (near the Pyrenees). After genotyping 6 microsatellite loci for 512 individual termites, we detected a significant degree of isolation by distance among individuals over the entire range; however, the cline of genetic differentiation was not continuous, suggesting the existence of differentiated populations. A spatial principal component analysis based on allele frequency data revealed significant spatial autocorrelation among genotypes: the northern and southern groups were strongly differentiated. This finding was corroborated by clustering analyses; depending on the randomized data set, two or three clusters, exhibiting significant degrees of differentiation, were identified. An examination of colony breeding systems showed that colonies containing related neotenic reproductives were prevalent, suggesting that inbreeding may contribute to the high level of homozygosity observed and thus enhance genetic contrasts among colonies. We discuss the effect of evolutionary and environmental factors as well as reproductive and dispersal modes on population genetic structure. PMID:26357538

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  16. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  17. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  18. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  19. Use of the Strong Collision Model to Calculate Spin Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Chow, K. H.; Smadella, M.; Hossain, M. D.; MacFarlane, W. A.; Morris, G. D.; Ofer, O.; Morenzoni, E.; Salman, Z.; Saadaoui, H.; Song, Q.; Kiefl, R. F.

    The strong collision model is used to calculate spin relaxation of a muon or polarized radioactive nucleus in contact with a fluctuating environment. We show that on a time scale much longer than the mean time between collisions (fluctuations) the longitudinal polarization decays exponentially with a relaxation rate equal to a sum of Lorentzians-one for each frequency component in the static polarization function ps(t).

  20. Strongly driven ion acoustic waves in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldis, H.A.; Labaune, C.; Renard, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper present an experimental study of ion acoustic waves with wavenumbers corresponding to stimulated Brillouin scattering. Time resolved Thomson scattering in frequency and wavenumber space, has permitted to observe the dispersion relation of the waves as a function of the laser intensity. Apart from observing ion acoustic waves associated with a strong second component is observed at laser intensities above 10 13 Wcm -2

  1. Equation of state of strongly coupled plasma mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled (high density) plasmas of mixtures of light elements have been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For an assumed uniform charge background the equation of state of ionic mixtures is a simple extension of the one-component plasma EOS. More realistic electron screening effects are treated in linear response theory and with an appropriate electron dielectric function. Results have been obtained for the ionic pair distribution functions, and for the electric microfield distribution

  2. Genetic testing in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Steven W J; Uitterlinden, André G

    2009-01-01

    In the practice of internal medicine, the value of genetic testing in common (mono)genetic diseases such as familial hemochromatosis, hypercholesterolemia, Mediterranean fever, and thrombophilia is limited. The genotype insufficiently predicts the phenotype because of the powerful effects of other modifying genes, environmental influences, and lifestyle factors. Many common diseases, including diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease, have strong genetic influences but are called complex genetic traits. The underlying genetic factors are currently investigated using new molecular tools such as genome-wide association studies, analyzing up to 500,000 markers in huge numbers of patients. Many new (often unexpected) markers have been identified, and in many instances their functional significance is unknown. Genomic profiles play a rapidly growing role in the field of pharmacogenomics. A number of recently identified pharmacogenomic biomarkers are helpful to predict drug-related toxic effects.

  3. Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    (insulin resistance, obesity) with widely varying symptoms among the affected. Studies have shown a clear pattern of disparity in clinical manifestations of its component phenotypes across ethnic populations. Recent genetic association studies suggested differential genetic background that could contribute...

  4. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  5. Relationship between heterosis and genetic divergence for phosphorus use efficiency and its components in tropical maize Relação entre heterose e divergência genética para a eficiência no uso do fósforo e seus componentes em milho tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos Caixeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between heterosis and genetic divergence for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE in tropical maize. It was used two groups of genitors, each consisting of seven lines, contrasting with each other in the nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency. It was obtained 41 hybrid combinations between these groups, which were evaluated in low phosphorus. Randomized complete block design with two replications was used. For obtaining the components of variance and the breeding values were used REML/BLUP method. In the genotyping of the parental lines were used 80 microsatellite markers. Through the correlation between genetic distance obtained by the markers and specific combining ability it was not possible to determine with accuracy by molecular markers, the crosses that produced hybrids with the highest heterosis for PUE. Thus, is possible to conclude that there is no relationship between genetic divergence and heterosis for phosphorus use efficiency and its components in tropical maize.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a relação entre divergência genética e heterose para a eficiência no uso de fósforo (EUP em milho tropical. Utilizaram-se dois grupos de genitores, compostos de sete linhagens cada, contrastantes entre si para as eficiências no uso de nitrogênio e fósforo. Foram obtidas 41 combinações híbridas entre esses grupos, as quais foram avaliadas em baixo fósforo. Usou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições. A obtenção dos componentes de variância e valores genéticos foi realizada via REML/BLUP e, para genotipagem das linhagens genitoras, foram utilizados 80 marcadores microssatélites. Através da correlação entre a distância genética obtida pelos marcadores e a capacidade específica de combinação, observou-se não ser possível a determinação com acurácia, via marcadores moleculares, dos cruzamentos que produziram os híbridos com as maiores

  6. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  8. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan

    2018-03-29

    The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  9. [Genetics and epigenetics in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Atsuo; Masaki, Shiego; Aoki, Eiko

    2006-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted, stereotyped interests and behaviors. Several lines of evidence support the contention that genetic factors are a large component to autism etiology. However, in spite of vigorous genetic studies, no single causative or susceptibility gene common in autism has been identified. Thus multiple susceptibility genes in interaction are considered to account for the disorder. Furthermore, environmental risk factors can accelerate the autism development of. Recent advances in understanding the epigenetic regulation may shed light on the interaction among multiple genetic factors and environmental factors.

  10. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  11. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to their children Screening embryos for disease Testing for genetic diseases in adults before they cause ... provide information about the pros and cons of testing. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  12. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic geograp....... These methodological developments and exemplar provide the basis for a new synthesis in health geography: genetic GIScience.......The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome...

  13. Arthropod Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalde, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on arthropod genetics that involves phenotype and genotype identification of the creature and the construction process. Includes a list of required materials and directions to build a model arthropod. (YDS)

  14. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    In a study carried out to estimate the components of variation in 'egusi' melon populations indicated high proportion of genetic variation in the yield attributes ... of the improvement made in yield of watermelon may be attributed to its genetic ..... variability and correlation studies in “egusi” melon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) ...

  15. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  16. Componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos para caracteres produtivos à desmama de bezerros Angus criados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Covariance components and genetic parameters for weaning production traits of Angus calves raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Flores Cardoso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos para peso ao nascer (PN, ganho do nascimento à desmama (G205 e escores de conformação (CD, precocidade de terminação (GD, musculatura (MD e tamanho (TD à desmama, utilizando-se registros de desmama de 40.915 bezerros Angus, criados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Desses, 12.706 tinham pesagem ao nascer e 11.863, avaliação completa para escores visuais (EV. Os dados foram analisados por meio de um modelo animal, em análises uni e multivariadas, e os componentes de variância estimados pela máxima verossimilhança restrita. As herdabilidades aditivas diretas estimadas foram 0,29; 0,25; 0,18; 0,19; 0,19; e 0,21, respectivamente, para PN, G205, CD, GD, MD e TD. A herdabilidade materna para G205 foi 0,16 e a correlação entre efeito genético direto e materno, -0,51. Essa correlação negativa indica antagonismo entre esses efeitos e provocou decréscimo na herdabilidade total para G205, que foi 0,18. A contribuição do ambiente permanente da vaca para a variância fenotípica esteve entre um mínimo de 0,05 para PN e máximo de 0,12 para G205. A correlação genética entre PN e G205 foi --0,06, mostrando que estes caracteres são independentes geneticamente. As correlações genéticas encontradas entre G205 e EV foram entre 0,71 e 0,86 e de EV entre si, 0,58 a 0,91. Essas associações positivas entre os escores visuais e destes com o crescimento na fase pré-desmama favorecem a seleção conjunta destes caracteres, por meio de índices de seleção.(Co variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW, adjusted weaning gain (AWG and for conformation (WC, precocity (WP, muscling (WM and size (WS scores at weaning were estimated, from records of 40,915 Angus calves, raised in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. From that data, 12,706 had birth weight records and 11,863 had complete records for visual scores (VS. The data were

  17. Thermogravimetric analysis of combustible waste components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munther, Anette; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter

    , polypropylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Strong interactions were observed between PVC & wood, PVC & paper and PVC & coal. Interactions were also observed between PE & wood, PE & PVC, PE & paper and PE & coal, but to a smaller degree. No interactions were observed between coal & wood, coal & paper...... and wood & paper. Since PVC was the only waste component to interact strongly with coal, the interaction between coal and a real waste mixture might be similar to the interaction observed between PVC & coal....

  18. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  20. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  1. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong_cqupt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  2. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box–Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed...... in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box–Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis...... in the original metric. In the pig data, the statistical evidence is stronger, but the coefficient of correlation between additive genetic effects affecting mean and variance changes sign, compared to the results in the untransformed scale. The study confirms that inferences on variances can be strongly affected...

  4. Sexual dimorphism in two types of dermatoglyphic traits in the Turkmenian population of Russia: principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Bibha; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2009-09-01

    Objective of this study is to explore the nature of sex differences between two different sets of dermatoglyphic traits based on principal components in the Turkmenian population. Two categories of dermatoglyphic traits--22 usually studied quantitative traits and 42 variables of diversity and asymmetry were analysed among 745 individuals (309 males and 436 females). The three principal components are very prominent in both sexes--"digital pattern size factor" indicates the degree of universality, as found in earlier studies among different ethnic populations; "intra individual diversity factor" and "bilateral asymmetry factor" are also similar with the earlier studies, which suggest the genetic factor has more influence on these variables than environmental factors. These results strongly indicate that there is a common biological validity exists of the underlying principal component structures between two different sets of dermatoglyphic characters and thus dermatoglyphic factors between two groups of variables can be used for sex-discrimination in different populations.

  5. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  6. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  7. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  8. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  9. J. Genet. classic 125

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 125. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 126. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 127. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. 128. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  10. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  11. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  12. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  13. CORE COMPONENT POT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN RL; OMBERG RP

    1975-12-19

    The core component pot is an open top vessel used to hold both new and irradiated core components for storage in the IDS and for holding the components submerged in sodium while being trasported inside CLEM. The top of the CCP is equipped with a grapple lip which is engaged by the hoisting grapples. Heat for maintaining the preheat of new components and dissipation of decay heat of irradiated fuel assemblies is conducted between the wall of the pot and the surrounding environment by thermal radiation and convection.

  14. Improvement of ECM Techniques through Implementation of a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Townsend, James D

    2008-01-01

    This research effort develops the necessary interfaces between the radar signal processing components and an optimization routine, such as genetic algorithms, to develop Electronic Countermeasure (ECM...

  15. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  16. Spatio temporal media components for neurofeedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2013-01-01

    A class of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) involves interfaces for neurofeedback training, where a user can learn to self-regulate brain activity based on real-time feedback. These particular interfaces are constructed from audio-visual components and temporal settings, which appear to have...... a strong influence on the ability to control brain activity. Therefore, identifying the different interface components and exploring their individual effects might be key for constructing new interfaces that support more efficient neurofeedback training. We discuss experiments involving two different...... designs of neurofeedback interfaces and suggest further research to clarify the influence of different audiovisual components and temporal settings on neurofeedback effect....

  17. Genetics Home Reference: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functioning (cognitive decline), and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or strongly held false beliefs (delusions). Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency ...

  18. Genetics of Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipatna, Ashwin; Marino, Meghan; Singh, Arun D

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a malignant retinal tumor that affects young children. Mutations in the RB1 gene cause retinoblastoma. Mutations in both RB1 alleles within the precursor retinal cell are essential, with one mutation that may be germline or somatic and the second one that is always somatic. Identification of the RB1 germline status of a patient allows differentiation between sporadic and heritable retinoblastoma variants. Application of this knowledge is crucial for assessing short-term (risk of additional tumors in the same eye and other eye) and long-term (risk of nonocular malignant tumors) prognosis and offering cost-effective surveillance strategies. Genetic testing and genetic counseling are therefore essential components of care for all children diagnosed with retinoblastoma. The American Joint Committee on Cancer has acknowledged the importance of detecting this heritable trait and has introduced the letter "H" to denote a heritable trait of all cancers, starting with retinoblastoma (in publication). In this article, we discuss the clinically relevant aspects of genetic testing and genetic counseling for a child with retinoblastoma.

  19. Genetics of upper and lower airway diseases in the horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber V; Tessier C; Marti E

    2014-01-01

    Genetic predispositions for guttural pouch tympany recurrent laryngeal neuropathy and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) are well documented. There is also evidence that exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage and infectious diseases of the respiratory tract in horses have a genetic component. The clinical expression of equine respiratory diseases with a genetic basis results from complex interactions between the environment and the genetic make up of each individual horse. The genetic effects...

  20. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...

  1. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  2. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  3. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  4. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  5. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  6. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  7. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  8. Desktop Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learning techniques can transform this information into a cognitive therapeutic development tool that will revolutionize medicine.

  9. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune-related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS.

  10. Variance component and heritability estimates of early growth traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance component and heritability estimates of early growth traits in the Elsenburg Dormer sheep ... of variance and co- variance components. In recent years, heritability estimates of growth traits have been reported for many breeds of sheep. However, little information ..... Modeling genetic evaluation systems. Project no.

  11. Evaluation of genetic variations in growth and yield components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... t,/ ha in 2002, 2003 and 2004 planting seasons, respectively. Fresh fruit weight showed highly significant positive correlations with number of branches per plant, number of nodes per plant and number of fruits per plant. Keywords: Genotypes, Aromatic pepper, Capsicum annum, Nigeria. Agro-Science Vol. 5 (1) 2006: pp.

  12. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    colonisation of below-ground plant organs. It focused on bacterial endophyte, Rhizobium KAW12, colonisation of spontaneously formed nodules in snf1 mutants and symbiotic signalling mutants in a snf1 background. Additionally, participation of genes required for rhizobial accomodation during endophytic invasion...... was tested by coinoculation experiments with Rhizobium KAW12 and nodule inducing strains or their symbiotically deficient mutants. Such approaches allowed to identify genes possibly involved in host-endophyte recognition. Additionally, bacterial mutants used in these screenings pointed towards...... testing single host-single microsymbiont interactions, an effort was made to study relationships in between plants and the soil microbiome. Comparison of results for the nfr5 mutant of Lotus with results previously obtained for Arabidopsis suggested that plants were able to build specific bacterial...

  13. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters for yield components and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helianthus annuus L.) breeding lines were studied using line x tester analysis. Eight lines and six testers along with their 48 F1 single cross combinations and two checks were planted in simple lattice design with two replications. The results of ...

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  16. A parallel attractor-finding algorithm based on Boolean satisfiability for genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wensheng; Yang, Guowu; Wu, Wei; He, Lei; Sun, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems, the dynamic analysis method has gained increasing attention in the past decade. The Boolean network is the most common model of a genetic regulatory network. The interactions of activation and inhibition in the genetic regulatory network are modeled as a set of functions of the Boolean network, while the state transitions in the Boolean network reflect the dynamic property of a genetic regulatory network. A difficult problem for state transition analysis is the finding of attractors. In this paper, we modeled the genetic regulatory network as a Boolean network and proposed a solving algorithm to tackle the attractor finding problem. In the proposed algorithm, we partitioned the Boolean network into several blocks consisting of the strongly connected components according to their gradients, and defined the connection between blocks as decision node. Based on the solutions calculated on the decision nodes and using a satisfiability solving algorithm, we identified the attractors in the state transition graph of each block. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked on a variety of genetic regulatory networks. Compared with existing algorithms, it achieved similar performance on small test cases, and outperformed it on larger and more complex ones, which happens to be the trend of the modern genetic regulatory network. Furthermore, while the existing satisfiability-based algorithms cannot be parallelized due to their inherent algorithm design, the proposed algorithm exhibits a good scalability on parallel computing architectures.

  17. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  18. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. Jinping Wang. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 91 Issue 3 December 2012 pp 303-312 Research Article. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components · Lin Wang Fa Cui Jinping Wang Li Jun Anming Ding Chunhua ...

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS, and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY and Tongling (TL and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP.

  1. Assessing the impact of a combined analysis of four common low-risk genetic variants on autism risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carayol Jerome

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a complex disorder characterized by deficits involving communication, social interaction, and repetitive and restrictive patterns of behavior. Twin studies have shown that autism is strongly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. In other disease states with a complex etiology, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, combined analysis of multiple genetic variants in a genetic score has helped to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Genetic scores are designed to test for association of genetic markers with disease. Method The accumulation of multiple risk alleles markedly increases the risk of being affected, and compared with studying polymorphisms individually, it improves the identification of subgroups of individuals at greater risk. In the present study, we show that this approach can be applied to autism by specifically looking at a high-risk population of children who have siblings with autism. A two-sample study design and the generation of a genetic score using multiple independent genes were used to assess the risk of autism in a high-risk population. Results In both samples, odds ratios (ORs increased significantly as a function of the number of risk alleles, with a genetic score of 8 being associated with an OR of 5.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45 to 12.49. The sensitivities and specificities for each genetic score were similar in both analyses, and the resultant area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were identical (0.59. Conclusions These results suggest that the accumulation of multiple risk alleles in a genetic score is a useful strategy for assessing the risk of autism in siblings of affected individuals, and may be better than studying single polymorphisms for identifying subgroups of individuals with significantly greater risk.

  2. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  3. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  4. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  5. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  6. Hyperspherical Treatment of Strongly-Interacting Few-Fermion Systems in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    We examine a one-dimensional two-component fermionic system in a trap, assuming that all particles have the same mass and interact through a strong repulsive zero-range force. First we show how a simple system of three strongly interacting particles in a harmonic trap can be treated using...

  7. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as "dauer pheromones" because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development.Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were strongly dependent on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, strongly supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone. After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides strongly correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions.Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings

  9. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  10. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Abrahamson, S.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major classes of genetic diseases that would be increased as a result of an increased gonadal radiation exposure to a human population. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The major classes of genetic disease will be induced at different frequencies, and will also impact differentially in terms of survivability and fertility on the affected individuals and their descendants. Some classes of disease will be expected to persist for only a few generations at most. Other types of genetic disease will persist through a longer period. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. For each of these classes we have derived the general equations of mutation induction for the male and female germ cells of critical importance in the mutation process. The frequency of induced mutations will be determined initially by the dose received, the type of radiation and, to some extent at high dose, by the manner in which the dose is received. We have used the modeling analyses to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population receives a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50-year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives an acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations

  11. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  12. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calcula...

  13. J. Genet. classic 9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 9. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 10. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. 11. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 12. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1, April 2009. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics ...

  14. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  15. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  16. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  17. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  18. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  19. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  20. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  1. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  3. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  4. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  6. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  7. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  8. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  9. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  10. Diet, Cardiometabolic Factors and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent condition and is associated with a number of metabolic risk factors such as excess of weight, impaired lipid profile and higher levels of blood pressure. As other complex diseases, it is strongly related to an environmental component such as sedentarism and unhealthy diet, and also to a genetic component. A cluster of variants (polymorphisms) in a large number of genes seem to interact with nutrients/dietary factors in modulating cardiometabolic parameters in healthy individuals. The role of total calories intake and also different kind of carbohydrates and dietary fats in worsening the excess of weight and/or metabolic profile in patients with diabetes is well known, but the extent to which genetic factors can modify these associations is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this mini-review is to discuss the interaction of genetics and diet in the T2DM setting, since both are strongly involved in the genesis and development of the disease.

  11. Coherence and quasistable states in a strong infrared field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-03-01

    We study the quasistability of UV-pulse-train-excited H atoms in a strong infrared (IR) laser as a function of the phase delay of the UV pulse train relative to the IR laser. The UV pulse train contains two frequency components. When the two components have frequencies separated by two IR photons, the population of surviving electrons is modulated by up to ten percent. When electrons are excited to right above or below the threshold, the survival probabilities have inverted phase delay dependence, which can be explained classically. When the two frequencies are one IR photon apart, the angular symmetry of the quasistable electrons is broken, and the asymmetry is also controlled by the phase delay. The asymmetrical distribution can be observed while the IR is on and smoothly evolves to a nonzero asymmetry that only weakly depends on the duration of the IR field.

  12. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  13. Cooperative fluorescence from a strongly driven dilute cloud of atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cooperative fluorescence in a dilute cloud of strongly driven two-level emitters. Starting from the Heisenberg equations of motion, we compute the first-order scattering corrections to the saturation of the excited-state population and to the resonance-fluorescence spectrum, which...... both require going beyond the state-of-the-art linear-optics approach to describe collective phenomena. A dipole blockade is observed due to long-range dipole-dipole coupling that vanishes at stronger driving fields. Furthermore, we compute the inelastic component of the light scattered by a cloud...

  14. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  15. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L; Ahufinger, V; Kantian, A; Zakrzewski, J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M

    2006-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes

  16. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud XI, Bat 503, Centre scientifique, F-91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Ahufinger, V [ICREA and Grup d' optica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kantian, A [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zakrzewski, J [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego i Centrum Badan Ukladow Zlozonych imienia Marka Kaca, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sanpera, A [ICREA and Grup de FIsica Teorica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M [ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la TecnologIa, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2006-05-28

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  17. A Quick Reference on Anion Gap and Strong Ion Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente Artero, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LCA profiles for building components:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    , a new approach explores how environmental information on building components can be simplified for strategic use early in the design process in a Danish context. In this paper, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are undertaken for several hundred typical external wall solutions, based on relevant standards....... A full bivariate linear regression analysis is performed, showing statistically significant correlations with strong direct relationships between environmental impact categories. A simplified LCA profile consisting of total primary energy, global warming potential and acidification potential is developed....... This simplified LCA profile presents environmental data in a more understandable way, creating a strategic overview that can be easily used by non-technical clients and construction professionals in the early design stages. This has a scientific and statistical validity generated by environmental assessment...

  19. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  20. Quantitative genetic analysis of brain size variation in sticklebacks: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikiene, Kristina; Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Husby, Arild; Merilä, Juha

    2015-07-07

    The mosaic model of brain evolution postulates that different brain regions are relatively free to evolve independently from each other. Such independent evolution is possible only if genetic correlations among the different brain regions are less than unity. We estimated heritabilities, evolvabilities and genetic correlations of relative size of the brain, and its different regions in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that heritabilities were low (average h(2) = 0.24), suggesting a large plastic component to brain architecture. However, evolvabilities of different brain parts were moderate, suggesting the presence of additive genetic variance to sustain a response to selection in the long term. Genetic correlations among different brain regions were low (average rG = 0.40) and significantly less than unity. These results, along with those from analyses of phenotypic and genetic integration, indicate a high degree of independence between different brain regions, suggesting that responses to selection are unlikely to be severely constrained by genetic and phenotypic correlations. Hence, the results give strong support for the mosaic model of brain evolution. However, the genetic correlation between brain and body size was high (rG = 0.89), suggesting a constraint for independent evolution of brain and body size in sticklebacks. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Causes of Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Ahmet O.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Over the past decade, genetic tests have become available for numerous heritable disorders, especially those whose inheritance follows the Mendelian model. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a group of developmental disorders with a strong genetic basis. During the past few years, genetic research in ASDs has been successful in…

  2. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  3. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling analyses are used to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population received a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50 year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  4. Supporting aboriginal knowledge and practice in health care: lessons from a qualitative evaluation of the strong women, strong babies, strong culture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara

    2015-02-05

    The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health

  5. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  6. Variação genética de componentes do crescimento em progénies jovens de uma população de clones de seringueira Genetic variation of growth components in young progenies of a rubber tree clone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    1992-01-01

    .] considered as the best in growth and yield performance in a mature clonal population of the Instituto Agronômico in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was established in field conditions at the Pindorama Experimental Station, under randomized complete block design with 17 progenies. Growth characters (height, stem diameter and number of whorls of leaves were studied at 12, 18 and 24 months. Components of variance were estimated from the analysis in an attempt to quantify heritabilities and genetic gains. Data of stem diameters at the age of 12, 18 and 24 months with average of 2.01, 3.16 and 4.68 cm confirm the growth potential of the listed genetic material. The genetic variance among progenies estimated for height, stem diameter and number of whorls of leaves showed good precision. The narrow sense heritabilities at plant level were lower than those obtained for to the mean progeny level. Estimates of the different types of heritabilities were greater for height, followed by stem diameter. These evidences showed favorable to the perspectives for selection response of these characters. Genetic gain estimates for selection among and within progenies showed considerable genetic advances for all characters, revealing the possibility of successful selection within the trial. These results concerning heritabilities, as well as genetic gains, for height and stem diameter indicate that mass selection practiced on these characters is the best alternative for improving this population.

  7. Genetic Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental reason that the genetics of behavior has remained so controversial for so long is that the layer of theory between data and their interpretation is thicker and more opaque than in more established areas of science. The finding that variations in tiny snippets of DNA have small but detectable relations to variation in behavior surprises no one, at least no one who was paying attention to the twin studies. How such snippets of DNA are related to differences in behavior-known as the gene-to-behavior pathway-is the great theoretical problem of modern behavioral genetics. Given that intentional human breeding is a horrific prospect, what kind of technology might we want (or fear) out of human behavioral genetics? One possibility is a technology that could predict important behavioral characteristics of humans based on their genomes alone. A moment's thought suggests significant benefits and risks that might be associated with such a possibility, but for the moment, just consider how convincing it would be if on the day of a baby's birth we could make meaningful predictions about whether he or she would become a concert pianist or an alcoholic. This article will consider where we are right now as regards that possibility, using human height and intelligence as the primary examples. © 2015 The Hastings Center.

  8. Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Trait Emotional Intelligence: A Genetic Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Dimitri; Schermer, Julie A; de Zeeuw, Eveline; Dunkel, Curtis S; Pekaar, Keri A; Bakker, Arnold B; Vernon, Philip A; Petrides, K V

    2018-03-01

    A previous meta-analysis (Van der Linden et al., Psychol Bull 143:36-52, 2017) showed that the General Factor of Personality (GFP) overlaps with ability as well as trait emotional intelligence (EI). The correlation between trait EI and the GFP was so high (ρ = 0.88) in that meta-analysis that these two may be considered virtually identical constructs. The present study builds on these findings by examining whether the strong phenotypic correlation between the GFP and trait EI has a genetic component. In a sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability estimates for the GFP and trait EI were 53 and 45%, respectively. Moreover, there was a strong genetic correlation of r = .90 between the GFP and trait EI. Additional analyses suggested that a substantial proportion of the genetic correlations reflects non-additive genetic effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis). These findings are discussed in light of evolutionary accounts of the GFP.

  9. Encyclopedia of Software Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lloyd V. (Inventor); Beckman, Brian C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent browsing through a collection of reusable software components is facilitated with a computer having a video monitor and a user input interface such as a keyboard or a mouse for transmitting user selections, by presenting a picture of encyclopedia volumes with respective visible labels referring to types of software, in accordance with a metaphor in which each volume includes a page having a list of general topics under the software type of the volume and pages having lists of software components for each one of the generic topics, altering the picture to open one of the volumes in response to an initial user selection specifying the one volume to display on the monitor a picture of the page thereof having the list of general topics and altering the picture to display the page thereof having a list of software components under one of the general topics in response to a next user selection specifying the one general topic, and then presenting a picture of a set of different informative plates depicting different types of information about one of the software components in response to a further user selection specifying the one component.

  10. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  11. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-07-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed νe/c increases and as the temperature ratio Ti/Te of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on νe/c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of Ti/Te. The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of νe/c. For νe/c ≲0.17, strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and wave packets have very similar structure to purely electrostatic wave packets. For νe/c ≳0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all νe/c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as νe/c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  12. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  13. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  14. Direct and Maternal Genetic Effects and Weaning Weight Trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components for weaning weight (WWT) in local Tuli cattle were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood. A single trait animal model was fitted, allowing for genetic maternal effects and a genetic covariance between direct and maternal effects. Estimates of heritability for direct genetic effects (h²A), maternal ...

  15. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-10-25

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Biological aspects of genetic differences in piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to gain insight in the biological background of differences in the direct genetic (piglet) component of piglet survival. Estimations of the direct genetic component of piglet survival were obtained by calculation of estimated breeding values for piglet survival

  17. Application of molecular genetic tools for forest pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; John Hanna; Amy Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to address critical issues in forest pathology to help promote resilient forests. Although molecular genetic tools are initially applied to understand individual components of forest pathosystems, forest pathosystems involve dynamic interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the...

  18. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias" - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids. Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals. Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony. Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  19. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-10-28

    Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias") - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids.Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals). Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals) even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony.Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  20. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  1. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  2. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined......This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  3. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  4. De Novo Coding Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; Fernandez, Thomas V; Yu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    damaging missense) are overrepresented in probands (RR 1.37, p = 0.003). We identify four likely risk genes with multiple de novo damaging variants in unrelated probands: WWC1 (WW and C2 domain containing 1), CELSR3 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3), NIPBL (Nipped-B-like), and FN1...... trios from the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium on Genetics (511 total). We observe strong and consistent evidence for the contribution of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants (rate ratio [RR] 2.32, p = 0.002). Additionally, de novo damaging variants (LGD and probably...... (fibronectin 1). Overall, we estimate that de novo damaging variants in approximately 400 genes contribute risk in 12% of clinical cases. VIDEO ABSTRACT....

  5. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  6. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  7. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  8. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  9. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  10. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  11. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  12. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  13. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  14. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  15. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  16. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  17. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  18. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  20. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)