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Sample records for strong genetic component

  1. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 2 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic: Immune System and Disorders Health Topic: Lupus Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Complement component 2 deficiency Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 ...

  2. The genetic component of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Bernth Jensen, Jens Magnus; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal deaths. The aetiology of preeclampsia is largely unknown but a polygenetic component is assumed. To explore this hypothesis, we performed an in-depth whole-exome sequencing study in women with (cases, N = 50) and without (controls, N = 50......) preeclampsia. The women were identified in an unselected cohort of 2,545 pregnant women based on data from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Medical Birth Registry. Matching DNA was obtained from a biobank containing excess blood from routine antenatal care visits. Novogene performed the whole......-exome sequencing blinded to preeclampsia status. Variants for comparison between cases and controls were filtered in the Ingenuity Variant Analysis software. We applied two different strategies; a disease association panel approach, which included variants in single genes associated with established clinical risk...

  3. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Strong Tracking Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of blind source separation (BSS) based on the nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) criterion. An adaptive strong tracking filter (STF) based algorithm was developed, which is immune to system model mismatches. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges quickly and has satisfactory steady-state accuracy. The Kalman filtering algorithm and the recursive leastsquares type algorithm are shown to be special cases of the STF algorithm. Since the forgetting factor is adaptively updated by adjustment of the Kalman gain, the STF scheme provides more powerful tracking capability than the Kalman filtering algorithm and recursive least-squares algorithm.

  4. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  6. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  7. White Matter Hyperintensities Are Under Strong Genetic Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Perminder S; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Wen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    The genetic basis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is still unknown. This study examines the heritability of WMH in both sexes and in different brain regions, and the influence of age. Participants from the Older Australian Twins Study were recruited (n=320; 92 monozygotic and 68 dizygotic pairs) who volunteered for magnetic resonance imaging scans and medical assessments. Heritability, that is, the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total phenotypic variance, was estimated using the twin design. Heritability was high for total WMH volume (0.76), and for periventricular WMH (0.64) and deep WMH (0.77), and varied from 0.18 for the cerebellum to 0.76 for the occipital lobe. The genetic correlation between deep and periventricular WMH regions was 0.85, with one additive genetics factor accounting for most of the shared variance. Heritability was consistently higher in women in the cerebral regions. Heritability in deep but not periventricular WMH declined with age, in particular after the age of 75. WMH have a strong genetic influence but this is not uniform through the brain, being higher for deep than periventricular WMH and in the cerebral regions. The genetic influence is higher in women, and there is an age-related decline, most markedly for deep WMH. The data suggest some heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of WMH for different brain regions and for men and women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Genetic component of flammability variation in a Mediterranean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, B; Castellanos, M C; Pausas, J G

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent fires impose a strong selection pressure in many ecosystems worldwide. In such ecosystems, plant flammability is of paramount importance because it enhances population persistence, particularly in non-resprouting species. Indeed, there is evidence of phenotypic divergence of flammability under different fire regimes. Our general hypothesis is that flammability-enhancing traits are adaptive; here, we test whether they have a genetic component. To test this hypothesis, we used the postfire obligate seeder Ulex parviflorus from sites historically exposed to different fire recurrence. We associated molecular variation in potentially adaptive loci detected with a genomic scan (using AFLP markers) with individual phenotypic variability in flammability across fire regimes. We found that at least 42% of the phenotypic variation in flammability was explained by the genetic divergence in a subset of AFLP loci. In spite of generalized gene flow, the genetic variability was structured by differences in fire recurrence. Our results provide the first field evidence supporting that traits enhancing plant flammability have a genetic component and thus can be responding to natural selection driven by fire. These results highlight the importance of flammability as an adaptive trait in fire-prone ecosystems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Circulating anti-Mullerian hormone levels in adult men are under a strong genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Rissanen, Aila; Raivio, Taneli

    2012-01-01

    The determinants of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in adult men remain unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic and environmental components in determining postpubertal AMH levels in healthy men. Serum AMH levels, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 64 healthy male (23 monozygotic and 41 dizygotic) twin pairs. Postpubertal AMH levels were highly genetically determined (broad sense heritability 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96). AMH correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.26, P = 0.030) and fat mass (r = -0.23, P = 0.048). As AMH, BMI had a high heritability (0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.83), but no genetic correlation was observed between them. AMH levels in men after puberty are under a strong genetic influence. Twin modeling suggests that AMH and BMI are influenced by different sets of genes.

  10. Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia: The Genetic Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Valenzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world, causing nearly 40% of births delivered before 35 weeks of gestation. PE begins with inadequate trophoblast invasion early in pregnancy, which produces an increase in oxidative stress contributing to the development of systemic endothelial dysfunction in the later phases of the disease, leading to the characteristic clinical manifestation of PE. Numerous methods have been used to predict the onset of PE with different degrees of efficiency. These methods have used fetal/placental and maternal markers in different stages of pregnancy. From an epidemiological point of view, many studies have shown that PE is a disease with a strong familiar predisposition, which also varies according to geographical, socioeconomic, and racial features, and this information can be used in the prediction process. Large amounts of research have shown a genetic association with a multifactorial polygenic inheritance in the development of this disease. Many biological candidate genes and polymorphisms have been examined in their relation with PE. We will discuss the most important of them, grouped by the different pathogenic mechanisms involved in PE.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 8 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people with Hispanic, Japanese, or African Caribbean heritage, whereas type II primarily occurs in people of Northern European descent. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  12. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic ...

  13. The genetic component of human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mette Sørensen; De Rango, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    In human longevity studies, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis identified a large number of genetic variants with small effects, yet not easily replicable in different populations. New insights may come from the combined analysis of different SNPs, especially when grouped by metabolic...... pathway. We applied this approach to study the joint effect on longevity of SNPs belonging to three candidate pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), DNA repair and pro/antioxidant. We analysed data from 1,058 tagging SNPs in 140 genes, collected in 1825 subjects (1......, was further found influencing longitudinal survival in nonagenarian females (p = .026). Results here presented highlight the validity of SNP-SNP interactions analyses for investigating the genetics of human longevity, confirming previously identified markers but also pointing to novel genes as central nodes...

  14. Strong Genetic Overlap Between Executive Functions and Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, Laura E.; Mann, Frank D.; Briley, Daniel A.; Church, Jessica A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision-making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic infl...

  15. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  16. Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability, variance components and genetic advance of some yield and yield related traits in Ethiopian ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... randomized complete block design at Adet Agricultural Research Station in 2008 cropping season.

  17. variance components and genetic parameters for live weight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Against this background the present study estimated the (co)variance .... Starting values for the (co)variance components of two-trait models were ..... Estimates of genetic parameters for weaning weight of beef accounting for direct-maternal.

  18. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  19. Analysis of conditional genetic effects and variance components in developmental genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J

    1995-12-01

    A genetic model with additive-dominance effects and genotype x environment interactions is presented for quantitative traits with time-dependent measures. The genetic model for phenotypic means at time t conditional on phenotypic means measured at previous time (t-1) is defined. Statistical methods are proposed for analyzing conditional genetic effects and conditional genetic variance components. Conditional variances can be estimated by minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) method. An adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) procedure is suggested for predicting conditional genetic effects. A worked example from cotton fruiting data is given for comparison of unconditional and conditional genetic variances and additive effects.

  20. Identifying and Analyzing Strong Components of an Industrial Network Based on Cycle Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field. From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation. In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations. The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: the lengths and the numbers of cycles through a vertex. Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

  1. Genetic and environmental contributions to cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians: the strong heart family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W

    2003-02-15

    The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that these heritabilities are large enough to warrant a search for major risk factor genes.

  2. Analytical thermodynamics of a strongly attractive three-component Fermi gas in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Yin Xiangguo; Wang Yupeng; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, Murray T.

    2010-01-01

    Ultracold three-component atomic Fermi gases in one dimension are expected to exhibit rich physics due to the presence of trions and different pairing states. Quantum phase transitions from the trion state into a paired phase and a normal Fermi liquid occur at zero temperature. We derive the analytical thermodynamics of strongly attractive three-component one-dimensional fermions with SU(3) symmetry via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method in unequal Zeeman splitting fields H 1 and H 2 . We find explicitly that for low temperature the system acts like either a two-component or a three-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid dependent on the system parameters. The phase diagrams for the chemical potential and specific heat are presented for illustrative values of the Zeeman splitting. We also demonstrate that crossover between different Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid phases exhibit singular behavior in specific heat and entropy as the temperature tends to zero. Beyond Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid physics, we obtain the equation of state which provides a precise description of universal thermodynamics and quantum criticality in three-component, strongly attractive Fermi gases.

  3. Identification of strong photometric activity in the components of LHS 1070

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Martioli, E.

    2010-01-01

    Activity in low-mass stars is an important ingredient in the evolution of such objects. Fundamental physical properties such as age, rotation, magnetic field are correlated with activity. Aims: We show that two components of the low-mass triple system LHS 1070 exhibit strong flaring activity. We identify the flaring components and obtained an improved astrometric solution for the LHS 1070 A/(B+C) system. Methods: Time-series CCD observations were used to monitor LHS 1070 in the B and I_C band...

  4. Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Mikael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity are expected to increase the extinction risk of small populations, but detailed tests in natural populations are scarce. We combine long-term population and fitness data with those from two types of molecular markers to examine the role of genetic effects in a declining metapopulation of southern dunlins Calidris alpina schinzii, an endangered shorebird. Results The decline is associated with increased pairings between related individuals, including close inbreeding (as revealed by both field observations of parentage and molecular markers. Furthermore, reduced genetic diversity seems to affect individual fitness at several life stages. Higher genetic similarity between mates correlates negatively with the pair's hatching success. Moreover, offspring produced by related parents are more homozygous and suffer from increased mortality during embryonic development and possibly also after hatching. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong genetic effects in a rapidly declining population, emphasizing the importance of genetic factors for the persistence of small populations.

  5. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  6. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440........ For leptin vs. the various measures of overall and local fatness the correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.74 in men and from 0.48 to 0.75 in women. All correlations were significantly different genetic...

  7. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern......) the Indian provenances from the dry interior and the moist west coast and (3) the provenances from northern Myanmar. The provenances from southern Myanmar were placed close to the root of the tree together with the three provenances from the semi-moist east coast of India. A Bayesian cluster analysis using...

  8. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  9. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    of growth hormones or nitrogen fixation. However, the genes involved in plant-endophyte interactions and bacterial accomodation within plant tissues are not known. In order to shed some light on such processes, an approach “one host-one endophyte” was chosen. The focus on a single plant species and a single......Endophytes are microorganisms capable of colonising plant tissues without inducing host defense responses. They have a large impact on plants, since they can modulate plant responses to pathogens, herbivores and environmental stress. They can also induce plant growth promotion through synthesis...... bacterial strain aimed at obtaining a reliable and easy to handle system for plant-microsymbiont interaction research. Two different methods were tested for their usefulness in identification of genetic components involved in plant-endophyte interactions. The first method was based on measuring growth...

  10. Self-Assembling Multi-Component Nanofibers for Strong Bioinspired Underwater Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M.; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly, and structure-function relationship of those natural amyloid fibers remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibers. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibers have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ/m2, which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibers taken on their own at all pHs and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥7.0. This work establishes a platform for engineering multi-component self-assembling materials inspired by nature. PMID:25240674

  11. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... cell, or the largest change in the convection pattern, is limited roughly to the region between the previous cell focus and the new cell focus. Outside this region, the ionospheric flows could be greatly enhanced or weakened, while the convection pattern shape changes very little. When B-y is strong...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...

  12. Radiation-induced structural transitions in composite materials with strong interaction of polymer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier papers the internal friction (IF) method was applied to studies of structural relaxation in different types of polymer-based composite materials (glass-cloth, paper-based and foiled laminates impregnated by epoxy and phenolic resins) irradiated by 2 MeV electrons in the dose range of 0.1-50.0 MGy. Selectivity and high sensibility of the internal friction method allowed to distinguish glassy transitions in different structural components of the composites. The relaxation processes observed were identified and attributed to structural alterations in the polymer filler, the binder and the boundary layers. It was shown that changes in the parameters of relaxation maximums during irradiation can be considered as quantitative characteristics for the degree of radiation-induced degradation or cross-linking of polymer molecules. This paper deals with specific features of IF spectra in paper-based laminates where both the filler fibers and the binder are strongly interacting polymers. Anisotropy of viscous and elastic properties is very weak for this kind of materials, so that IF measurements give nearly the same result independently on the filler fiber orientation in the sample. The main reasons for it are the rigid chain structure of fillers (polyethylene-terephthalate and cellulose) and the good adhesion strengthened by diffusion of the epoxy or phenolic binder to defect regions of the filler.The IF temperature dependence observed in paper-based laminates is represented by superposition of two very broad relaxation maximums associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components, each based on one of the polymers. The inflection points characteristic for IF temperature dependence in paper-based laminates give a reason to treat them as a superposition of α-peaks associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components of a composite based on the binder and the filler, respectively. Another

  13. Diabetes-specific genetic effects on obesity traits in American Indian populations: the Strong Heart Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barbara V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  14. Low genetic diversity and strong population structure shaped by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in a critically endangered primate, Trachypithecus leucocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Qiao, Y; Li, S; Pan, W; Yao, M

    2017-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure. We used 214 unique multi-locus genotypes from 41 social groups across the main distribution area of T. leucocephalus, and found strong genetic structure and significant genetic differentiation among local populations. Our landscape genetic analyses using a causal modelling framework suggest that a large habitat gap and geographical distance represent the primary landscape elements shaping genetic structure, yet high levels of genetic differentiation also exist between patches separated by a small habitat gap or road. This is the first comprehensive study that has evaluated the population genetic structure and diversity of T. leucocephalus using nuclear markers. Our results indicate strong negative impacts of anthropogenic land modifications and habitat fragmentation on primate genetic connectivity between forest patches. Our analyses suggest that two management units of the species could be defined, and indicate that habitat continuity should be enforced and restored to reduce genetic isolation and enhance population viability.

  15. Company Slogan and a Vivid Image of a Trademark - as Main Components of a Strong Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BELOSTECINIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among other methods, good brand managers always affect clients and strengthen their fidelity to the brand by means of company advertising slogans and vivid images associated with this brand. Slogans may function as useful “levers” or “hooks” helping clients to understand the essence of a trademark and its peculiarity, as well as to nail in clients' minds the established image of a strong brand. One of the “hooks” attracting attention to brand and helping to nail it in a common man's mind – is a company (advertising slogan - short message or motto, which actively presents the key theme of the brand in general or of a certain advertising campaign, and contains substantial information, reflecting the essence of campaign's or product's marketing offer. One must admit that it is nice to recall favorite philosopher's aphorisms or sayings while getting up in the morning, and to whistle an aria from a renowned opera on your way to work. However, more often people sing unsophisticated verses about the “sign of a good taste” and get annoyed by a trivial call to “have a break” going round in their heads. This means that the advertisement of popular chocolate bars and drinks has hit its target. The main lever for success in generation of a positive and recognizable brand image - is the slogan and its graphic image in consumer's mind. Together with other brand components (logo, corporate colors, sound or music image a slogan generates the system of constant elements which ensure the brand's internal unity and are aimed at creation of exposure effect. To some extent, we all are “ad eaters” and are always capable of estimating an ad, even if it is at the level of feelings: whether we like it or not. So why a certain advertisement can make us smile, elicit good feelings and cause an urge to buy product/service that is being advertised, and another one - evokes disappointment and annoyance? The answer is obvious: the first one was

  16. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  17. Variance components and genetic parameters for body weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model included a direct as well as a maternal additive genetic effect, while only the direct additive genetic eff'ect had a sig- .... deviations from the log likelihood value obtained under the ... (1995).lt would therefore be fair to assume that a.

  18. Focusing light through strongly scattering media using genetic algorithm with SBR discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Feng, Qi; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated light focusing through strongly scattering media by performing binary amplitude optimization with a genetic algorithm. In the experiments, we control 160 000 mirrors of digital micromirror device to modulate and optimize the light transmission paths in the strongly scattering media. We replace the universal target-position-intensity (TPI) discriminant with signal-to-background ratio (SBR) discriminant in genetic algorithm. With 400 incident segments, a relative enhancement value of 17.5% with a ground glass diffuser is achieved, which is higher than the theoretical value of 1/(2π )≈ 15.9 % for binary amplitude optimization. According to our repetitive experiments, we conclude that, with the same segment number, the enhancement for the SBR discriminant is always higher than that for the TPI discriminant, which results from the background-weakening effect of SBR discriminant. In addition, with the SBR discriminant, the diameters of the focus can be changed ranging from 7 to 70 μm at arbitrary positions. Besides, multiple foci with high enhancement are obtained. Our work provides a meaningful reference for the study of binary amplitude optimization in the wavefront shaping field.

  19. Population genetics inference for longitudinally-sampled mutants under strong selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Miguel; Seoighe, Cathal

    2014-11-01

    Longitudinal allele frequency data are becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons, this discrete model is commonly approximated by a diffusion process that requires the assumption that the forces of natural selection and mutation are weak. This assumption is not always appropriate. For example, mutations that impart drug resistance in pathogens may evolve under strong selective pressure. Here, we present an alternative approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution that does not make any assumptions about the magnitude of selection or mutation and is much more computationally efficient than the standard diffusion approximation. Simulation studies are used to compare the performance of our method to that of the Wright-Fisher and Gaussian diffusion approximations. For large populations, our method is found to provide a much better approximation to the mutant-frequency distribution when selection is strong, while all three methods perform comparably when selection is weak. Importantly, maximum-likelihood estimates of the selection coefficient are severely attenuated when selection is strong under the two diffusion models, but not when our method is used. This is further demonstrated with an application to mutant-frequency data from an experimental study of bacteriophage evolution. We therefore recommend our method for estimating the selection coefficient when the effective population size is too large to utilize the discrete Wright-Fisher model. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Common and distinct genetic properties of ESCRT-II components in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Martin Herz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. In Drosophila, mutations of the ESCRT-II component vps25 cause endosomal defects leading to accumulation of Notch protein and increased Notch pathway activity. These endosomal and signaling defects are thought to account for several phenotypes. Depending on the developmental context, two different types of overgrowth can be detected. Tissue predominantly mutant for vps25 displays neoplastic tumor characteristics. In contrast, vps25 mutant clones in a wild-type background trigger hyperplastic overgrowth in a non-autonomous manner. In addition, vps25 mutant clones also promote apoptotic resistance in a non-autonomous manner. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we genetically characterize the remaining ESCRT-II components vps22 and vps36. Like vps25, mutants of vps22 and vps36 display endosomal defects, accumulate Notch protein and--when the tissue is predominantly mutant--show neoplastic tumor characteristics. However, despite these common phenotypes, they have distinct non-autonomous phenotypes. While vps22 mutations cause strong non-autonomous overgrowth, they do not affect apoptotic resistance. In contrast, vps36 mutations increase apoptotic resistance, but have little effect on non-autonomous proliferation. Further characterization reveals that although all ESCRT-II mutants accumulate Notch protein, only vps22 and vps25 mutations trigger Notch activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ESCRT-II components vps22, vps25 and vps36 display common and distinct genetic properties. Our data redefine the role of Notch for hyperplastic and neoplastic overgrowth in these mutants. While Notch is required for hyperplastic growth, it appears to be dispensable for neoplastic transformation.

  1. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Janice A; Ahmed, Rashid; Chow, Eva W C; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bassett, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    There are few studies of environmental factors in familial forms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether childhood adversity or environmental factors were associated with schizophrenia in a familial sample where schizophrenia is associated with the NOSA1P gene. We found that a cumulative adversity index including childhood illness, family instability and cannabis use was significantly associated with narrow schizophrenia, independent of NOSA1P risk genotype, previously measured childhood trauma, covariates and familial clustering (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.55 (1.01, 2.38)). The results provide further support that early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Derivation of the one component plasma fluid equation of state in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.; Rosenfeld, Y.

    1979-01-01

    A variational calculation of the one component plasma energy using the hard sphere Percus-Yevick g(r) and the virial entropy gives U/NkT = a GAMMA + b GAMMAsup(1/4) + c + d/ GAMMAsup(1/4) + ... in agreement with the empirical fit to Monte Carlo data. (orig.)

  3. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUNK, W. CHRIS; LOVICH, ROBERT E.; HOHENLOHE, PAUL A.; HOFMAN, COURTNEY A.; MORRISON, SCOTT A.; SILLETT, T. SCOTT; GHALAMBOR, CAMERON K.; MALDONADO, JESUS E.; RICK, TORBEN C.; DAY, MITCH D.; POLATO, NICHOLAS R.; FITZPATRICK, SARAH W.; COONAN, TIMOTHY J.; CROOKS, KEVIN R.; DILLON, ADAM; GARCELON, DAVID K.; KING, JULIE L.; BOSER, CHRISTINA L.; GOULD, NICHOLAS; ANDELT, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of 6 subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1–89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland gray foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6–6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness, and reduced adaptive potential. PMID:26992010

  4. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Is the strongly penetrating component a sign of the strangelet passage through matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the possible connection between the very penetrating component, frequently accompanying the cosmic-ray exotic phenomena, and the hypothesis of the formation of strangelets, in the process of strangeness distillation, being the last stage of the evolution of the quark matter droplet. We find that the many-maxima long-range cascades observed in the homogeneous lead emulsion chambers of the Pamir and Chacaltaya experiments can be produced in the process of strangelet penetration through the apparatus. (author)

  6. Dynamics of a strongly driven two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmond, G.L.; Holmes, C.A.; Milburn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in two spatially localized modes of a double-well potential, with periodic modulation of the tunnel coupling between the two modes. We treat the driven quantum field using a two-mode expansion and define the quantum dynamics in terms of the Floquet Operator for the time periodic Hamiltonian of the system. It has been shown that the corresponding semiclassical mean-field dynamics can exhibit regions of regular and chaotic motion. We show here that the quantum dynamics can exhibit dynamical tunneling between regions of regular motion, centered on fixed points (resonances) of the semiclassical dynamics

  7. Associated genetic syndromes and extracardiac malformations strongly influence outcomes of fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemlali, Myriam; Bajolle, Fanny; Ladouceur, Magalie; Fermont, Laurent; Lévy, Marilyne; Le Bidois, Jérôme; Salomon, Laurent J; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-05-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with extracardiac malformations (ECMs) and genetic syndromes. To determine the effect of cytogenetic anomalies and/or ECMs associated with CHD on parental decision to choose termination of pregnancy (TOP) or compassionate care (CC), as well as on the outcome of children born alive. This 10-year retrospective study included all prenatally diagnosed cases of CHD in a single tertiary referral centre. From January 2002 to December 2011, 2036 consecutive cases of fetal CHD (798 TOPs and 1238 live births, including 59 with postnatal CC) were included. CHD was associated with a known cytogenetic anomaly in 9.8% of cases and a major ECM in 11.7% of cases. The proportion of prenatally identified associated cytogenetic anomalies was significantly lower in the live-birth group than in the TOP plus CC group (4.2% vs 17.5%; P<0.001); this was also true for ECMs (8.1% vs 16.7%; P<0.001). The mortality rate was higher in the group with an associated cytogenetic anomaly or ECM (29.1%) than in cases with isolated CHD; a 2.4-fold increase in the death rate was observed (95% confidence interval 1.34-4.38; P=0.003). These associations remained significant after multivariable analysis, including the severity of the CHD (uni- or biventricular physiology). Prenatal diagnosis of a known cytogenetic anomaly or major ECM strongly influences parental decision to choose TOP or postnatal CC. Genetic syndromes and ECMs are associated with a higher mortality rate, independent of the complexity of the CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  9. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  10. Temporal genetic stability in natural populations of the waterflea Daphnia magna in response to strong selection pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Marshall, Hollie; Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Thomas, Kelley W; Pfrender, Michael E; Spanier, Katina I; De Meester, Luc

    2016-12-01

    Studies monitoring changes in genetic diversity and composition through time allow a unique understanding of evolutionary dynamics and persistence of natural populations. However, such studies are often limited to species with short generation times that can be propagated in the laboratory or few exceptional cases in the wild. Species that produce dormant stages provide powerful models for the reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics in the natural environment. A remaining open question is to what extent dormant egg banks are an unbiased representation of populations and hence of the species' evolutionary potential, especially in the presence of strong environmental selection. We address this key question using the water flea Daphnia magna, which produces dormant stages that accumulate in biological archives over time. We assess temporal genetic stability in three biological archives, previously used in resurrection ecology studies showing adaptive evolutionary responses to rapid environmental change. We show that neutral genetic diversity does not decline with the age of the population and it is maintained in the presence of strong selection. In addition, by comparing temporal genetic stability in hatched and unhatched populations from the same biological archive, we show that dormant egg banks can be consulted to obtain a reliable measure of genetic diversity over time, at least in the multidecadal time frame studied here. The stability of neutral genetic diversity through time is likely mediated by the buffering effect of the resting egg bank. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Additive vs non-additive genetic components in lethal cadmium tolerance of Gammarus (Crustacea): Novel light on the assessment of the potential for adaptation to contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumot, Arnaud; Gos, Pierre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Questioning the likelihood that populations adapt to contamination is critical for ecotoxicological risk assessment. The appraisal of genetic variance in chemical sensitivities within populations is currently used to evaluate a priori this evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, conclusions from this approach are questionable since non-additive genetic components in chemical tolerance could limit the response of such complex phenotypic traits to selection. Coupling quantitative genetics with ecotoxicology, this study illustrates how the comparison between cadmium sensitivities among Gammarus siblings enabled discrimination between genetic variance components in chemical tolerance. The results revealed that, whereas genetically determined differences in lethal tolerance exist within the studied population, such differences were not significantly heritable since genetic variance mainly relied on non-additive components. Therefore the potential for genetic adaptation to acute Cd stress appeared to be weak. These outcomes are discussed in regard to previous findings for asexual daphnids, which suggest a strong potency of genetic adaptation to environmental contamination, but which contrast with compiled field observations where adaptation is not the rule. Hereafter, we formulate the reconciling hypothesis of a widespread weakness of additive components in tolerance to contaminants, which needs to be further tested to gain insight into the question of the likelihood of adaptation to contamination.

  12. The 5-HT2A receptor binding pattern in the human brain is strongly genetically determined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Lars H; Arfan, Haroon; Haugbol, Steven

    2007-01-01

    With the appropriate radiolabeled tracers, positron emission tomography (PET) enables in vivo human brain imaging of markers for neurotransmission, including neurotransmitter synthesis, receptors, and transporters. Whereas structural imaging studies have provided compelling evidence that the human...... brain anatomy is largely genetically determined, it is currently unknown to what degree neuromodulatory markers are subjected to genetic and environmental influence. Changes in serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors have been reported to occur in various neuropsychiatric disorders and an association between...

  13. Strong resilience of soil respiration components to drought-induced die-off resulting in forest secondary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Josep; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Poyatos, Rafael; Janssens, Ivan A; Lloret, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    How forests cope with drought-induced perturbations and how the dependence of soil respiration on environmental and biological drivers is affected in a warming and drying context are becoming key questions. The aims of this study were to determine whether drought-induced die-off and forest succession were reflected in soil respiration and its components and to determine the influence of climate on the soil respiration components. We used the mesh exclusion method to study seasonal variations in soil respiration (R S) and its components: heterotrophic (R H) and autotrophic (R A) [further split into fine root (R R) and mycorrhizal respiration (R M)] in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is undergoing a drought-induced die-off and is being replaced by holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Drought-induced pine die-off was not reflected in R S nor in its components, which denotes a high functional resilience of the plant and soil system to pine die-off. However, the succession from Scots pine to holm oak resulted in a reduction of R H and thus in an important decrease of total respiration (R S was 36 % lower in holm oaks than in non-defoliated pines). Furthermore, R S and all its components were strongly regulated by soil water content-and-temperature interaction. Since Scots pine die-off and Quercus species colonization seems to be widely occurring at the driest limit of the Scots pine distribution, the functional resilience of the soil system over die-off and the decrease of R S from Scots pine to holm oak could have direct consequences for the C balance of these ecosystems.

  14. Genetic and other factors determining mannose-binding lectin levels in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Lyle G; Ferrell, Robert E; Decroo, Susan

    2009-01-01

    control of MBL2 expression is complex and genetic background effects in specific populations are largely unknown. METHODS: The Strong Heart Study is a longitudinal, cohort study of cardiovascular disease among American Indians. A subset of individuals genotyped for the above mentioned case-control study...... in Caucasian and other populations, result in markedly reduced expression of functional protein. Prospective epidemiologic studies, including a nested, case-control study from the present population, have demonstrated the ability of MBL2 genotypes to predict complications of atherosclerosis,. The genetic...

  15. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200–750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11–0.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03–0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus. PMID:22393518

  16. Polygyny and strong genetic structuring within an isolated population of the wood ant Formica rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Dekoninck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social structuring of populations within some Formica species exhibits considerable variation going from monodomous and monogynous populations to polydomous, polygynous populations. The wood ant species Formica rufa appears to be mainly monodomous and monogynous throughout most of its distribution area in central and northern Europe. Only occasionally it was mentioned that F. rufa can have both polygynous and monogynous colonies in the same geographical region. We studied an isolated polydomous F. rufa population in a deciduous mixed forest in the north-west of Belgium. The level of polydomy within the colonies varied from monodomous to 11 nests per colony. Our genetic analysis of eight variable microsatellites suggest an oligo- to polygynous structure for at least the major part of the sampled nests. Relatedness amongst nest mate workers varies considerable within the population and colonies but confirms in general a polygynous structure. Additionally high genetic diversity (e.g. up to 8 out of 11 alleles per nest for the most variable locus and high within nest genetic variance (93% indicate that multiple queens contribute to the gene pool of workers of the same nest. Moreover significant genetic structuring among colonies indicates that gene flow between colonies is restricted and that exchange of workers between colonies is very limited. Finally we explain how possible factors as budding and the absence of Serviformica can explain the differences in genetic structure within this polygynous F. rufa population.

  17. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  18. Strong population structure but no equilibrium yet: Genetic connectivity and phylogeography in the kelp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, P.C.; van den Heuvel, F.H.M.; Rebours, C.; Witte, H.J.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Timmermans, K.

    2018-01-01

    Kelp aquaculture is globally developing steadily as human food source, along with other applications. One of the newer crop species is Saccharina latissima, a northern hemisphere kelp inhabiting temperate to arctic rocky shores. To protect and document its natural genetic variation at the

  19. Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartáková, Veronika; Reichard, Martin; Janko, Karel; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichwald, Kathrin; Cellerino, Alessandro; Bryja, Josef

    2013-09-12

    Intraspecific genetic variation of African fauna has been significantly affected by pronounced climatic fluctuations in Plio-Pleistocene, but, with the exception of large mammals, very limited empirical data on diversity of natural populations are available for savanna-dwelling animals. Nothobranchius furzeri is an annual fish from south-eastern Africa, inhabiting discrete temporary savannah pools outside main river alluvia. Their dispersal is limited and population processes affecting its genetic structure are likely a combination of those affecting terrestrial and aquatic taxa. N. furzeri is a model taxon in ageing research and several populations of known geographical origin are used in laboratory studies. Here, we analysed the genetic structure, diversity, historical demography and temporal patterns of divergence in natural populations of N. furzeri across its entire distribution range. Genetic structure and historical demography of N. furzeri were analysed using a combination of mitochondrial (partial cytochrome b sequences, 687 bp) and nuclear (13 microsatellites) markers in 693 fish from 36 populations. Genetic markers consistently demonstrated strong population structuring and suggested two main genetic groups associated with river basins. The split was dated to the Pliocene (>2 Mya). The northern group inhabits savannah pools across the basin of the intermittent river Chefu in south-western Mozambique and eastern Zimbabwe. The southern group (from southernmost Mozambique) is subdivided, with the River Limpopo forming a barrier (maximum divergence time 1 Mya). A strong habitat fragmentation (isolated temporary pools) is reflected in significant genetic structuring even between adjacent pools, with a major influence of genetic drift and significant isolation-by-distance. Analysis of historical demography revealed that the expansion of both groups is ongoing, supported by frequent founder effects in marginal parts of the range and evidence of secondary

  20. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  1. A Neolithic expansion, but strong genetic structure, in the independent history of New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Auckland, Kathryn; Robson, Kathryn; Attenborough, Robert; Alpers, Michael P; Koki, George; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter; Xue, Yali; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2017-09-15

    New Guinea shows human occupation since ~50 thousand years ago (ka), independent adoption of plant cultivation ~10 ka, and great cultural and linguistic diversity today. We performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping on 381 individuals from 85 language groups in Papua New Guinea and find a sharp divide originating 10 to 20 ka between lowland and highland groups and a lack of non-New Guinean admixture in the latter. All highlanders share ancestry within the last 10 thousand years, with major population growth in the same period, suggesting population structure was reshaped following the Neolithic lifestyle transition. However, genetic differentiation between groups in Papua New Guinea is much stronger than in comparable regions in Eurasia, demonstrating that such a transition does not necessarily limit the genetic and linguistic diversity of human societies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Genetic covariance components within and among linear type traits differ among contrasting beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jennifer L; Berry, Donagh P; Walsh, Siobhan W; Veerkamp, Roel F; Evans, Ross D; Carthy, Tara R

    2018-05-04

    Linear type traits describing the skeletal, muscular, and functional characteristics of an animal are routinely scored on live animals in both the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic parameters for certain performance traits may differ between breeds; no study, however, has attempted to determine if differences exist in genetic parameters of linear type traits among breeds or sexes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if genetic covariance components for linear type traits differed among five contrasting cattle breeds, and to also investigate if these components differed by sex. A total of 18 linear type traits scored on 3,356 Angus (AA), 31,049 Charolais (CH), 3,004 Hereford (HE), 35,159 Limousin (LM), and 8,632 Simmental (SI) were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed using animal linear mixed models which included the fixed effects of sex of the animal (except in the investigation into the presence of sexual dimorphism), age at scoring, parity of the dam, and contemporary group of herd-date of scoring. Differences (P covariance parameters estimated from the CH breed with a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the other breeds was estimated. Replacing the genetic covariance components estimated in the CH breed with those of the LM had least effect but the impact was considerable when the genetic covariance components of the AA were used. Genetic correlations between the same linear type traits in the two sexes were all close to unity (≥0.90) suggesting little advantage in considering these as separate traits for males and females. Results for the present study indicate the potential increase in accuracy of estimated breeding value prediction from considering, at least, the British breed traits separate to continental breed traits.

  3. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  4. Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigl K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Korbinian Weigl,1,2 Jenny Chang-Claude,3,4 Phillip Knebel,5 Li Hsu,6 Michael Hoffmeister,1 Hermann Brenner1,2,7 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 3Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 4University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Department for General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 7Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, Heidelberg, Germany Background and aim: Family history (FH and genetic risk scores (GRSs are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.Patients and methods: A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.Results: A total of 316 cases (13.4% and 214 controls (9.7% had a first-degree relative (FDR with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52–2.29. A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24–4.02 compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their

  5. Automatic Creation of Machine Learning Workflows with Strongly Typed Genetic Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, T.; Pilát, M.; Neruda, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 1760020. ISSN 0218-2130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19877S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : genetic programming * machine learning workflows * asynchronous evolutionary algorithm Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2016

  6. A Strong Impact of Genetic Background on Gut Microflora in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Esworthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background affects susceptibility to ileocolitis in mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2. The C57BL/6 (B6 GPx1/2 double-knockout (DKO mice have mild ileocolitis, and 129S1/Sv (129 DKO mice have severe inflammation. We used diet to modulate ileocolitis; a casein-based defined diet with AIN76A micronutrients (AIN attenuates inflammation compared to conventional LabDiets. Because luminal microbiota induce DKO ileocolitis, we assessed bacterial composition with automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA on cecal DNA. We found that mouse strain had the strongest impact on the composition of microbiota than diet and GPx genotypes. In comparing AIN and LabDiet, DKO mice were more resistant to change than the non-DKO or WT mice. However, supplementing yeast and inulin to AIN diet greatly altered microflora profiles in the DKO mice. From 129 DKO strictly, we found overgrowth of Escherichia coli. We conclude that genetic background predisposes mice to colonization of potentially pathogenic E. coli.

  7. Self-gravito-acoustic shock structures in a self-gravitating, strongly coupled, multi-component, degenerate quantum plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of self-gravito-acoustic (SGA) shock structures (SSs) associated with negative self-gravitational potential in a self-gravitating, strongly coupled, multi-component, degenerate quantum plasma (SGSCMCDQP) system is predicted for the first time. The modified Burgers (MB) equation, which is valid for both planar and non-planar (spherical) geometries, is derived analytically, and solved numerically. It is shown that the longitudinal viscous force acting on inertial plasma species of the plasma system is the source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of these SGA SSs in the plasma system. The time evolution of these SGA SSs is also shown for different values (viz., 0.5, 1, and 2) of Γ, where Γ is the ratio of the nonlinear coefficient to the dissipative coefficient in the MB equation. The SGSCMCDQP model and the numerical analysis of the MB equation presented here are so general that they can be applied in any type of SGSCMCDQP systems like astrophysical compact objects having planar or non-planar (spherical) shape.

  8. Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to late-onset Alzheimer's disease mortality: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S K Kauwe

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an international health concern that has a devastating effect on patients and families. While several genetic risk factors for AD have been identified much of the genetic variance in AD remains unexplained. There are limited published assessments of the familiality of Alzheimer's disease. Here we present the largest genealogy-based analysis of AD to date.We assessed the familiality of AD in The Utah Population Database (UPDB, a population-based resource linking electronic health data repositories for the state with the computerized genealogy of the Utah settlers and their descendants. We searched UPDB for significant familial clustering of AD to evaluate the genetic contribution to disease. We compared the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF between AD individuals and randomly selected controls and estimated the Relative Risk (RR for a range of family relationships. Finally, we identified pedigrees with a significant excess of AD deaths.The GIF analysis showed that pairs of individuals dying from AD were significantly more related than expected. This excess of relatedness was observed for both close and distant relationships. RRs for death from AD among relatives of individuals dying from AD were significantly increased for both close and more distant relatives. Multiple pedigrees had a significant excess of AD deaths.These data strongly support a genetic contribution to the observed clustering of individuals dying from AD. This report is the first large population-based assessment of the familiality of AD mortality and provides the only reported estimates of relative risk of AD mortality in extended relatives to date. The high-risk pedigrees identified show a true excess of AD mortality (not just multiple cases and are greater in depth and width than published AD pedigrees. The presence of these high-risk pedigrees strongly supports the possibility of rare predisposition variants not yet identified.

  9. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a major...

  10. Research on application of complex-genetic algorithm in nuclear component optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijing; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Wang Meng

    2010-01-01

    Complex algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods in the mechanical design optimization, such as the optimization of nuclear component. An improved method,complex-genetic algorithm(CGA), is developed based on traditional complex algorithm(TCA), in which the disadvantages of TCA have been overcome. An optimal calculation,which represents the pressurizer, is carried out in order to analyze the optimization capability of CGA. The results show that CGA has better optimizing performance than TCA. (authors)

  11. Glioblastomas with oligodendroglial component - common origin of the different histological parts and genetic subclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Barbara; Schlingelhof, Ben; Klink, Martin; Stout-Weider, Karen; Patt, Stephan; Schrock, Evelin

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO). Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data. The oligodendroglial and the "classic" glioblastoma parts of 13 GBMO were analyzed separately by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin sections using a custom probe set (regions 1p, 1q, 7q, 10q, 17p, 19q, cen18, 21q) and by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of microdissected paraffin embedded tumor tissue. We identified four distinct genetic subtypes in 13 GBMOs: an "astrocytic" subtype (9/13) characterized by +7/-10; an "oligodendroglial" subtype with -1p/-19q (1/13); an "intermediate" subtype showing +7/-1p (1/13), and an "other" subtype having none of the former aberrations typical for gliomas (2/13). The different histological tumor parts of GBMO revealed common genetic changes in all tumors and showed additional aberrations specific for each part. Our findings demonstrate the monoclonal origin of GBMO followed by the development of the astrocytic and oligodendroglial components. The diagnostic determination of the genetic signatures may allow for a better prognostication of the patients.

  12. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component – Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Barbara; Schlingelhof, Ben; Klink, Martin; Stout-Weider, Karen; Patt, Stephan; Schrock, Evelin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO). Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data. Methods: The oligodendroglial and the “classic” glioblastoma parts of 13 GBMO were analyzed separately by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on paraffin sections using a custom probe set (regions 1p, 1q, 7q, 10q, 17p, 19q, cen18, 21q) and by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of microdissected paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Results: We identified four distinct genetic subtypes in 13 GBMOs: an “astrocytic” subtype (9/13) characterized by +7/−10; an “oligodendroglial” subtype with −1p/−19q (1/13); an “intermediate” subtype showing +7/−1p (1/13), and an “other” subtype having none of the former aberrations typical for gliomas (2/13). The different histological tumor parts of GBMO revealed common genetic changes in all tumors and showed additional aberrations specific for each part. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the monoclonal origin of GBMO followed by the development of the astrocytic and oligodendroglial components. The diagnostic determination of the genetic signatures may allow for a better prognostication of the patients. PMID:20966543

  13. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insight into the genetic components of community genetics: QTL mapping of insect association in a fast-growing forest tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer DeWoody

    Full Text Available Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses conducted on data from a common garden experiment. The F2 offspring of a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides cross were assessed for seven categories of insect leaf damage at two time points, June and August. Positive and negative correlations were detected among damage categories and between sampling times. For example, sap suckers on leaves in June were positively correlated with sap suckers on leaves (P<0.001 but negatively correlated with skeletonizer damage (P<0.01 in August. The seven forms of leaf damage were used as a proxy for seven functional groups of insect species. Significant variation in insect association occurred among the hybrid offspring, including transgressive segregation of susceptibility to damage. NMDS analyses revealed significant variation and modest broad-sense heritability in insect community structure among genets. QTL analyses identified 14 genomic regions across 9 linkage groups that correlated with insect association. We used three genomics tools to test for putative mechanisms underlying the QTL. First, shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway genes co-located to 9 of the 13 QTL tested, consistent with the role of phenolic glycosides as defensive compounds. Second, two insect association QTL corresponded to genomic hotspots for leaf trait QTL as identified in previous studies, indicating that, in addition to biochemical attributes, leaf morphology may influence insect preference. Third, network analyses identified categories of gene models over-represented in QTL for certain damage types, providing direction for future functional studies. These results provide insight into the genetic components involved in insect community structure in a fast

  15. Genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, James S M; Tasker, Fiona; Cherkas, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry. Data from 1449 matched female twin pairs in the age range 19-85 years in four ordinal categories of increasing severity were employed in the analysis. Estimates of additive and dominance genetic components of 27% and 25% were found when all three levels of depression were included, and near zero and 33% when the recurrent/severe level was excluded. Shared environmental effects were not significant in either case, but the estimate for random environmental effects was greater when the severe level was excluded. These results suggest that the incidence of severe depression is associated with homozygotic alleles and the less severe with heterozygotic alleles. This is in accord with the finding that the hereditary component of severe depression is relatively high and that milder forms are more dependent on life-time environmental factors. Such conclusions have clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder by practicing psychiatrists. They also lead to the importance of focusing future genome-wide and linkage studies on those females with severe levels of depression if progress in identifying genetic risk loci is to be made.

  16. Identification of Methylosome Components as Negative Regulators of Plant Immunity Using Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Balgi, Aruna; Pan, Yaping; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaoran; Du, Lilin; Zhou, Ming; Roberge, Michel; Li, Xin

    2016-12-05

    Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins serve as immune receptors in both plants and animals. To identify components required for NLR-mediated immunity, we designed and carried out a chemical genetics screen to search for small molecules that can alter immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. From 13 600 compounds, we identified Ro 8-4304 that was able to specifically suppress the severe autoimmune phenotypes of chs3-2D (chilling sensitive 3, 2D), including the arrested growth morphology and heightened PR (Pathogenesis Related) gene expression. Further, six Ro 8-4304 insensitive mutants were uncovered from the Ro 8-4304-insensitive mutant (rim) screen using a mutagenized chs3-2D population. Positional cloning revealed that rim1 encodes an allele of AtICln (I, currents; Cl, chloride; n, nucleotide). Genetic and biochemical analysis demonstrated that AtICln is in the same protein complex with the methylosome components small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D3b (SmD3b) and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), which are required for the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) involved in mRNA splicing. Double mutant analysis revealed that SmD3b is also involved in the sensitivity to Ro 8-4304, and the prmt5-1 chs3-2D double mutant is lethal. Loss of AtICln, SmD3b, or PRMT5 function results in enhanced disease resistance against the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2, suggesting that mRNA splicing plays a previously unknown negative role in plant immunity. The successful implementation of a high-throughput chemical genetic screen and the identification of a small-molecule compound affecting plant immunity indicate that chemical genetics is a powerful tool to study whole-organism plant defense pathways. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for methane emission and postweaning traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, K A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Arthur, P F; Herd, R M; Hegarty, R F

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants contribute 80% of the global livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through the production of methane, a byproduct of enteric microbial fermentation primarily in the rumen. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data on 1,046 young bulls and heifers from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were analyzed to provide genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance estimates for methane emissions and production traits and to examine the interrelationships among these traits. The cattle were fed a roughage diet at 1.2 times their estimated maintenance energy requirements and measured for methane production rate (MPR) in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Traits studied included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means of 6.1 kg/d (SD 1.3), 132 g/d (SD 25), and 22.0 g/kg (SD 2.3) DMI, respectively. Four forms of residual methane production (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMP), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth and body composition traits evaluated were birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), final weight (FWT), and ultrasound measures of eye muscle area, rump fat depth, rib fat depth, and intramuscular fat. Heritability estimates were moderate for MPR (0.27 [SE 0.07]), MY (0.22 [SE 0.06]), and the RMP traits (0.19 [SE 0.06] for each), indicating that genetic improvement to reduce methane emissions is possible. The RMP traits and MY were strongly genetically correlated with each other (0.99 ± 0.01). The genetic correlation of MPR with MY as well as with the RMP traits was moderate (0.32 to 0.63). The genetic correlation between MPR and the growth traits (except BWT) was strong (0.79 to 0.86). These results indicate that

  18. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Froguel

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far.We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P(overall = 8.1 × 10(-59, explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance. The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.007. Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P(total cholesterol = 0.002 and P(LDL = 0.0008.Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact.

  19. Chymotrypsinogen C Genetic Variants, Including c.180TT, Are Strongly Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Alicja Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Kujko, Aleksandra Anna; Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Bal, Jerzy; Koziel, Dorota; Kowalik, Artur; Gluszek, Stanislaw; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies in adults/adolescent patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) identified chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) genetic variants but their association with CP risk has been difficult to replicate. To evaluate the risk of CP associated with CTRC variants in CP pediatric patients-control study. The distribution of CTRC variants in CP pediatric cohort (n = 136, median age at CP onset 8 years) with no history of alcohol/smoking abuse was compared with controls (n = 401, median age 45). We showed that p.Arg254Trp (4.6%) and p.Lys247_Arg254del (5.3%) heterozygous mutations are frequent and significantly associated with CP risk in pediatric patients (odds ratio [OR] = 19.1; 95% CI 2.8-160; P = 0.001 and OR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6-19.4; P = 0.001, respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that the c.180TT genotype of common p.Gly60Gly variant is strong, an independent CP risk factor (OR = 23; 95% CI 7.7-70; P A variant, both CA and AA genotype, is significantly underrepresented in CP compared with controls (15% vs 35%; OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.19-0.59; P risk factors. The c.493+51C>A variant may play a protective role against CP development.

  20. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena; Koevoets, Iko Tamar; Mol, Selena; Hoefsloot, Huub CJ; Feron, Richard; Tester, Mark A.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Korte, Arthur; Haring, Michel A; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Testerink, Christa

    2017-01-01

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  1. Genetic Components of Root Architecture Remodeling in Response to Salt Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2017-11-07

    Salinity of the soil is highly detrimental to plant growth. Plants respond by a redistribution of root mass between main and lateral roots, yet the genetic machinery underlying this process is still largely unknown. Here, we describe the natural variation among 347 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions in root system architecture (RSA) and identify the traits with highest natural variation in their response to salt. Salt-induced changes in RSA were associated with 100 genetic loci using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Two candidate loci associated with lateral root development were validated and further investigated. Changes in CYP79B2 expression in salt stress positively correlated with lateral root development in accessions, and cyp79b2 cyp79b3 double mutants developed fewer and shorter lateral roots under salt stress, but not in control conditions. By contrast, high HKT1 expression in the root repressed lateral root development, which could be partially rescued by addition of potassium. The collected data and Multi-Variate analysis of multiple RSA traits, available through the Salt_NV_Root App, capture root responses to salinity. Together, our results provide a better understanding of effective RSA remodeling responses, and the genetic components involved, for plant performance in stress conditions.

  2. Two genetic loci produce distinct carbohydrate-rich structural components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto

    2004-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  3. [Nutritional components and sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichun; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the nutritional components of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin (hLf) with its parental rice, and to observe the sub-chronic toxicity of hLf rice. The nutritional components of hLf rice and its parental rice were determined by the National Standard Methods. Eighty weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups based on their gender and body weight: group A (hLf rice high-dose group with 71.45% rice), group B (hLf rice medium-dose group with 35. 725% rice), group C (parental rice group with 71.01% rice) and group D (AIN-93G diet group), and the latter two groups were used as the control. Body weight, dietary intake, blood routine test, blood biochemical examination, organ coefficient, bone density and the pathology of organs were investigated at the end of a 90-day feeding experiment. Except for human lactoferrin and Fe, there was no difference of main nutritional components, minerals and vitamins between groups. The differences of some indicators of blood routine (WBC, HGB, RBC and MCH), blood biochemistry (AST and GLU), organ coefficient and bone density between group A and B (hLf rice) with group C (parental rice) or group D (AIN-93G) were significant, while no difference of other indicators. Although some differences were observed, all indicators were still in the normal reference range. Therefore, there was no sign of toxic and adverse effects for hLf rice on rats.

  4. Quantification of genetically modified soya using strong anion exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Chih; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2014-09-01

    Stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was applied to the quantification of genetically modified (GM) soya. The herbicide-resistant gene-related protein 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) was labeled using a dimethyl labeling reagent, formaldehyde-H2 or -D2. The identification and quantification of CP4 EPSPS was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The CP4 EPSPS protein was separated from high abundance proteins using strong anion exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, the tryptic peptides from the samples and reference were labeled with formaldehyde-H2 and formaldehyde-D2, respectively. The two labeled pools were mixed and analyzed using MALDI-MS. The data showed a good correlation between the peak ratio of the H- and D-labeled peptides and the GM soya percentages at 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 %, with R (2) of 0.99. The labeling reagents are readily available. The labeling experiments and the detection procedures are simple. The approach is useful for the quantification of GM soya at a level as low as 0.5 %.

  5. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  6. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  7. 'Faceness' and affectivity: evidence for genetic contributions to distinct components of electrocortical response to human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert W; Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; He, Sheng

    2013-12-01

    The ability to recognize a variety of different human faces is undoubtedly one of the most important and impressive functions of the human perceptual system. Neuroimaging studies have revealed multiple brain regions (including the FFA, STS, OFA) and electrophysiological studies have identified differing brain event-related potential (ERP) components (e.g., N170, P200) possibly related to distinct types of face information processing. To evaluate the heritability of ERP components associated with face processing, including N170, P200, and LPP, we examined ERP responses to fearful and neutral face stimuli in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. Concordance levels for early brain response indices of face processing (N170, P200) were found to be stronger for MZ than DZ twins, providing evidence of a heritable basis to each. These findings support the idea that certain key neural mechanisms for face processing are genetically coded. Implications for understanding individual differences in recognition of facial identity and the emotional content of faces are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  9. Insight into the Genetic Components of Community Genetics: QTL Mapping of Insect Association in a Fast-Growing Forest Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWoody, J.; Viger, M.; Lakatos, F.; Tuba, K.; Taylor, G.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses conducted on data from a common

  10. Seagrass radiation after Messinian salinity crisis reflected by strong genetic structuring and out-of-Africa scenario (Ruppiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Triest

    Full Text Available Many aquatic plant and seagrass species are widespread and the origin of their continent-wide ranges might result from high gene flow levels. The response of species when extending northwards since the Last Glacial Maximum can be opposed to the structuring of their populations that survived glaciation cycles in southern regions. The peri-Mediterranean is a complex series of sea basins, coastlines, islands and river deltas with a unique history since the Messinian Crisis that potentially influenced allopatric processes of aquatic life. We tested whether vast ranges across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean of a global seagrass group (Ruppia species complexes can be explained by either overall high levels of gene flow or vicariance through linking population genetics, phylogeography and shallow phylogenetics. A multigene approach identified haplogroup lineages of two species complexes, of ancient and recent hybrids with most of the diversity residing in the South. High levels of connectivity over long distances were only observed at recently colonized northern ranges and in recently-filled seas following the last glaciation. A strong substructure in the southern Mediterranean explained an isolation-by-distance model across Europe. The oldest lineages of the southern Mediterranean Ruppia dated back to the period between the end of the Messinian and Late Pliocene. An imprint of ancient allopatric origin was left at basin level, including basal African lineages. Thus both vicariance in the South and high levels of connectivity in the North explained vast species ranges. Our findings highlight the need for interpreting global distributions of these seagrass and euryhaline species in the context of their origin and evolutionary significant units for setting up appropriate conservation strategies.

  11. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongman Cai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  12. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  13. Individual genetic variations related to satiety and appetite control increase risk of obesity in preschool-age children in the STRONG kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Wang, Anthony; Donovan, Sharon M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The burden of the childhood obesity epidemic is well recognized; nevertheless, the genetic markers and gene-environment interactions associated with the development of common obesity are still unknown. In this study, candidate genes associated to satiety and appetite control pathways with obesity-related traits were tested in Caucasian preschoolers from the STRONG Kids project. Eight genetic variants in genes related to obesity (BDNF, LEPR, FTO, PCSK1, POMC, TUB, LEP, and MC4R) were genotyped in 128 children from the STRONG Kids project (mean age 39.7 months). Data were analyzed for individual associations and to test for genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric traits (Z-scores, e.g. height-for-age Z-score, HAZ). Covariates included age, sex, and breastfeeding (BF) duration. Obesity and overweight prevalence was 6.3 and 19.5%, respectively, according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles. Individual genetic associations of MC4R and LEPR markers with HAZ were strengthened when BF duration was included as a covariate. Our GPSs show that, as the number of risk alleles increased, the risk of higher BMI and HAZ also increased. Overall, the GPSs assembled were able to explain 2-3% of the variability in BMI and HAZ phenotypes. Genetic associations with common obesity-related phenotypes were found in the STRONG Kids project. GPSs assembled for specific candidate genes were associated with BMI and HAZ phenotypes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Constant, cycling, hot and cold thermal environments: strong effects on mean viability but not on genetic estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, Tarmo; Kellermann, Vanessa; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2012-01-01

    and their fluctuations. How species will respond to these changes is uncertain, particularly as there is a lack of studies which compare genetic performances in constant vs. fluctuating environments. In this study, we used a nested full-sib/half-sib breeding design to examine how the genetic variances and heritabilities...

  15. Molecular basis for genetic deficiency of the second component of human complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, F.S.; Whitehead, A.S.; Auerbach, H.S.; Lint, T.; Zeitz, H.J.; Kilbridge, P.; Colten, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Genetic deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) is the most common complement-deficiency state among Western Europeans and is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases. To examine the molecular basis of this deficiency, the authors established cultures of blood monocytes from four families with C2-deficient members. Using a hemolytic-plaque assay, [ 35 S]methionine metabolic labeling of proteins in tissue culture and immunoprecipitation, RNA extraction and Northern blot analysis, and DNA restriction-enzyme digestion and Southern blot analysis, the authors found that C2 deficiency is not due to a major gene deletion or rearrangement but is the result of a specific and selective pretranslational regulatory defect in C2 gene expression. This leads to a lack of detectable C2 mRNA and a lack of synthesis of C2 protein. The approach used in this study should prove useful in examination of other plasma protein deficiencies, especially those in which the deficient gene is normally expressed in peripheral-blood monocytes or tissue macrophages and in which ethical considerations preclude the use of liver or other tissue for study

  16. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Semple Delaney

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding.We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation.Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  17. The Association of Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with the Metabolic Syndrome and its Individual Components: Prospective Evidence from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlen, Miranda J; Grau-Perez, Maria; Best, Lyle G; Yracheta, Joseph; Lazo, Mariana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Gamble, Mary V; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Cole, Shelley A; Umans, Jason G; Howard, Barbara V; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2018-03-15

    Inorganic arsenic exposure is ubiquitous and both exposure and inter-individual differences in its metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk. The association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, however, is relatively unknown. We used poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between baseline arsenic exposure (urine arsenic levels) and metabolism (relative percentage of arsenic species over their sum) with incident metabolic syndrome and its individual components (elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL, hypertension, elevated fasting plasma glucose) in 1,047 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective family-based cohort in American Indian communities (baseline visits in 1998-1999 and 2001-2003, follow-up visits in 2001-2003 and 2006-2009). 32% of participants developed metabolic syndrome over follow-up. An IQR increase in arsenic exposure was associated with 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.41) greater risk for elevated fasting plasma glucose but not with other individual components or overall metabolic syndrome. Arsenic metabolism, specifically lower MMA% and higher DMA% was associated with higher risk of overall metabolic syndrome and elevated waist circumference, but not with any other component. These findings support there is a contrasting and independent association between arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with metabolic outcomes which may contribute to overall diabetes risk.

  18. Genetic and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Cell Wall Components and Forage Digestibility in the Zheng58 × HD568 Maize RIL Population at Anthesis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hongwu; Hu, Xiaojiao; Ma, Feiqian; Wu, Yujin; Wang, Qi; Liu, Zhifang; Huang, Changling

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall plays vital roles in various aspects of the plant life cycle. It provides a basic structure for cells and gives mechanical rigidity to the whole plant. Some complex cell wall components are involved in signal transduction during pathogenic infection and pest infestations. Moreover, the lignification level of cell walls strongly influences the digestibility of forage plants. To determine the genetic bases of cell wall components and digestibility, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for six related traits were performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between Zheng58 and HD568. Eight QTL for in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility were observed, out of which only two increasing alleles came from HD568. Three QTL out of ten with alleles increasing in vitro dry matter digestibility also originated from HD568. Five-ten QTL were detected for lignin, cellulose content, acid detergent fiber, and NDF content. Among these results, 29.8% (14/47) of QTL explained >10% of the phenotypic variation in the RIL population, whereas 70.2% (33/47) explained ≤10%. These results revealed that in maize stalks, a few large-effect QTL and a number of minor-effect QTL contributed to most of the genetic components involved in cell wall biosynthesis and digestibility.

  19. Grain Yield, Its Components, Genetic Diversity and Heritability in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current research was carried out to investigate grain yield and components and their genetic diversity and heritability of some important agronomic traits, in 19 chickpea genotypes, based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications in Research Field of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran in 2011-2012 growing seasons. The ANOVA results showed that, there were highly significant differences (p < 0.01 among genotypes for the SPAD number, number of sub-branch per plant, pod number per plant, 100-kernel weight, grain yield, biological yield, and harvest index. The mean comparisons results indicated that the genotypes 14, 12, 4 and 19 (with 234.7, 240, 250.3 and 259.4 kilogram of grain yield per ha, respectively and the genotypes 18, 8, 15, and 6 (with 151.01, 167.6, 167.8 and 189 kilogram of grain yield per ha, respectively had the maximum and minimum economic yield, respectively. According to phonotypical correlation results, there were positive and significant (p < 0.01 correlations between grain yield and pod number per plant (0.623**, plant height (0.432**, harvest index (0.425** and biomass (0.349**. Step-wise regression indicated that the pod number per plant, harvest index, biomass, number of sub-branch per plant, and plant height were the most effective traits on economic yield and they explained 84.68 percent of the variation in economic yield. Furthermore, harvest index and seed number per plant had the maximum and minimum heritability, respectively, indicating that they could be hired as sources of variation for improving the grain yield and selecting superior genotypes.

  20. Insight into the genetics of hypertension, a core component of the metabolic syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 393-397 ISSN 1363-1950 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55005624; EURATOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetics * hypertension * genome-wide association studies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.690, year: 2008

  1. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component – Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Klink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO. Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data.

  2. Genome wide association studies on yield components using a lentil genetic diversity panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cool season food legume research community are now at the threshold of deploying the cutting-edge molecular genetics and genomics tools that have led to significant and rapid expansion of gene discovery, knowledge of gene function (including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses) and genetic ...

  3. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  4. Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, V.; Reichard, M.; Janko, Karel; Polačik, M.; Blažek, R.; Reichwald, K.; Cellerino, A.; Bryja, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 196 (2013), s. 1-15 ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : temporary pool * pyhlogeography * population genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/196

  5. Population Genetics of the São Tomé Caecilian (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae: Schistometopum thomense) Reveals Strong Geographic Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Measey, G. John; Drewes, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Islands provide exciting opportunities for exploring ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. The oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea exhibits high diversity of fauna including the endemic caecilian amphibian, Schistometopum thomense. Variation in pigmentation, morphology and size of this taxon over its c. 45 km island range is extreme, motivating a number of taxonomic, ecological, and evolutionary hypotheses to explain the observed diversity. We conducted a population genetic study of S. thomense using partial sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes (ND4 and 16S), together with morphological examination, to address competing hypotheses of taxonomic or clinal variation. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, we found evidence of four geographic clades, whose range and approximated age (c. 253 Kya – 27 Kya) are consistent with the spread and age of recent volcanic flows. These clades explained 90% of variation in ND4 (φCT = 0.892), and diverged by 4.3% minimum pairwise distance at the deepest node. Most notably, using Mismatch Distributions and Mantel Tests, we identified a zone of population admixture that dissected the island. In the northern clade, we found evidence of recent population expansion (Fu's Fs = −13.08 and Tajima's D = −1.80) and limited dispersal (Mantel correlation coefficient = 0.36, p = 0.01). Color assignment to clades was not absolute. Paired with multinomial regression of chromatic data, our analyses suggested that the genetic groups and a latitudinal gradient together describe variation in color of S. thomense. We propose that volcanism and limited dispersal ability are the likely proximal causes of the observed genetic structure. This is the first population genetic study of any caecilian and demonstrates that these animals have deep genetic divisions over very small areas in accordance with previous speculations of low dispersal abilities. PMID:25171066

  6. Strong population genetic structuring in an annual fish, Nothobranchius furzeri, suggests multiple savannah refugia in southern Mozambique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartáková, Veronika; Reichard, Martin; Janko, Karel; Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichwald, K.; Cellerino, A.; Bryja, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 196 (2013), s. 196 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0815; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Temporary pool * Phylogeography * Population genetics * Cyprinodontiformes * Senescence * Pluvials * Pleistocene climate changes * Dispersal * Founder effect * Killifish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/196

  7. Working Memory and Parent-Rated Components of Attention in Middle Childhood: A Behavioral Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential genetic and environmental correlations between working memory and three behavioral aspects of the attention network (i.e., executive, alerting, and orienting) using a twin design. Data were from 90 monozygotic (39% male) and 112 same-sex dizygotic (41% male) twins. Individual differences in working memory performance (digit span) and parent-rated measures of executive, alerting, and orienting attention included modest to moderate genetic variance, modest shared environmental variance, and modest to moderate nonshared environmental variance. As hypothesized, working memory performance was correlated with executive and alerting attention, but not orienting attention. The correlation between working memory, executive attention, and alerting attention was completely accounted for by overlapping genetic covariance, suggesting a common genetic mechanism or mechanisms underlying the links between working memory and certain parent-rated indicators of attentive behavior. PMID:21948215

  8. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component ? Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, Barbara; Schlingelhof, Ben; Klink, Martin; Stout-Weider, Karen; Patt, Stephan; Schrock, Evelin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO). Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data. Methods: The oligodendroglial and the ?classic? glioblastoma parts of 13 GBMO were analyzed separately by interphase flu...

  9. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  10. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  11. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  12. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  13. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  14. Population genomic analysis suggests strong influence of river network on spatial distribution of genetic variation in invasive saltcedar across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Rang; Jo, Yeong-Seok; Park, Chan-Ho; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Olson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the complex influences of landscape and anthropogenic elements that shape the population genetic structure of invasive species provides insight into patterns of colonization and spread. The application of landscape genomics techniques to these questions may offer detailed, previously undocumented insights into factors influencing species invasions. We investigated the spatial pattern of genetic variation and the influences of landscape factors on population similarity in an invasive riparian shrub, saltcedar (Tamarix L.) by analysing 1,997 genomewide SNP markers for 259 individuals from 25 populations collected throughout the southwestern United States. Our results revealed a broad-scale spatial genetic differentiation of saltcedar populations between the Colorado and Rio Grande river basins and identified potential barriers to population similarity along both river systems. River pathways most strongly contributed to population similarity. In contrast, low temperature and dams likely served as barriers to population similarity. We hypothesize that large-scale geographic patterns in genetic diversity resulted from a combination of early introductions from distinct populations, the subsequent influence of natural selection, dispersal barriers and founder effects during range expansion.

  15. A genetic component to size in queens of the ant, Formica truncorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargum, Katja; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Sundström, L.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic basis of morphological traits in social insects remains largely unexplored. This is even true for individual body size, a key life-history trait. In the social insects, the size of reproductive individuals affects dispersal decisions, so that small size in queens is often associated w...

  16. Studies of genetics of yield and yield component characters in F2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... 1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai ... the F3's of the cross ADT 38 x ADT 37 for hundred seed weight and the F3's the cross ADT 38 x ADT 44 ...... Recombination in species crosses.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF GENETIC VARIANTS OF κ-CASEIN ON MILK COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk production of 22 cows of Slovak Pied breed with Holstein-Friesian was analyzed according to the genetic variants of the polymorphic proteins determined by starch gel electrophoresis. The effect of genetic variants of the proteins was analyzed by selected properties of milk (milk yield, proteins, fats and lactose. Differences between the productive characters in testing groups were evaluated according to statistic method of t-test. Evaluation was carried out during throughout lactation. Based on the analyses we have obtained results frequency of genotypes: κ-CN AA in 9 cows (41%, AB in 12 cows (54.5% and BB in one cow, which is 4.5%. The average daily milk production of κ-CN AA was 13.5 l/day and in κ-CN AB 14.2 l/day. Contents of protein of genetic variation κ-CN AA was 3.1% in milk genotype κ-CN AB was found not significant lower protein proportion 3.0%. Based on the analyses, we can assume that cow’s nutrition higher influence the increase in the proportion of protein than polymorphism of κ-CN. In our research was found out the average fat content 4.0% in genetic variation of κ-CN AA and not significant lower in genetic variation κ-CN AB 3.8%. The average lactose content in the cow’s milk with κ-CN AA genotype was 4.9% and κ-CN AB was 5.0%. The difference between fat content wasn’t statistically significant.

  18. Short-term alteration of biotic and abiotic components of the pelagic system in a shallow bay produced by a strong natural hypoxia event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Rodrigo; Anabalón, Valeria; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2017-01-01

    In January 2008 there was an intensive and extensive upwelling event in the southern Humboldt Current System. This event produced an intrusion of water with low dissolved oxygen into Coliumo Bay, which caused massive mortality and the beaching of pelagic and benthic organisms, including zooplankton. During this event, which lasted 3 to 5 days, we studied and evaluated the effect of the hypoxic water in the bay on the abundance of macrozooplankton, nanoplankton and microphytoplankton, the concentration of several nutrients and hydrographic conditions. At the beginning of the hypoxia event the water column had very low dissolved oxygen concentrations (oxygen minimum zone from the Humboldt Current System. Redox, pH, nitrate, phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll-a values were the lowest, while nitrate and the phaeopigment values were the highest. The N:P ratio was below 16, and the abundance of nano- and microphytoplankton were at their lowest, the latter also with the lowest proportion of live organisms. Macrozooplankton had the greatest abundance during hypoxia, dominated mainly by crustacean, fish eggs and amphipods. The hypoxia event generated a strong short-term alteration of all biotic and abiotic components of the pelagic system in Coliumo Bay and the neighboring coastal zone. These negative effects associated with strong natural hypoxia events could have important consequences for the productivity and ecosystem functioning of the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current System if, as suggested by several models, winds favorable to upwelling should increase due to climate change. The effects of natural hypoxia in this coastal zone can be dramatic especially for pelagic and benthic species not adapted to endure conditions of low dissolved oxygen. PMID:28715447

  19. Buffering mechanisms in aging: a systems approach toward uncovering the genetic component of aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Bergman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An unrealized potential to understand the genetic basis of aging in humans, is to consider the immense survival advantage of the rare individuals who live 100 years or more. The Longevity Gene Study was initiated in 1998 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine to investigate longevity genes in a selected population: the "oldest old" Ashkenazi Jews, 95 years of age and older, and their children. The study proved the principle that some of these subjects are endowed with longevity-promoting genotypes. Here we reason that some of the favorable genotypes act as mechanisms that buffer the deleterious effect of age-related disease genes. As a result, the frequency of deleterious genotypes may increase among individuals with extreme lifespan because their protective genotype allows disease-related genes to accumulate. Thus, studies of genotypic frequencies among different age groups can elucidate the genetic determinants and pathways responsible for longevity. Borrowing from evolutionary theory, we present arguments regarding the differential survival via buffering mechanisms and their target age-related disease genes in searching for aging and longevity genes. Using more than 1,200 subjects between the sixth and eleventh decades of life (at least 140 subjects in each group, we corroborate our hypotheses experimentally. We study 66 common allelic site polymorphism in 36 candidate genes on the basis of their phenotype. Among them we have identified a candidate-buffering mechanism and its candidate age-related disease gene target. Previously, the beneficial effect of an advantageous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-VV genotype on lipoprotein particle size in association with decreased metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as with better cognitive function, have been demonstrated. We report an additional advantageous effect of the CETP-VV (favorable genotype in neutralizing the deleterious effects of the lipoprotein(a (LPA gene

  20. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hou-Min; Kadia, John F.; Li, Bailian; Sederoff, Ron

    2005-06-30

    In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem

  1. Genetic algorithm using independent component analysis in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting of periodic layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Tilli, J-M; Sormunen, J; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    A novel genetic algorithm (GA) utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) was developed for x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting. EFICA was used to reduce mutual information, or interparameter dependences, during the combinatorial phase. The performance of the new algorithm was studied by fitting trial XRR curves to target curves which were computed using realistic multilayer models. The median convergence properties of conventional GA, GA using principal component analysis and the novel GA were compared. GA using ICA was found to outperform the other methods with problems having 41 parameters or more to be fitted without additional XRR curve calculations. The computational complexity of the conventional methods was linear but the novel method had a quadratic computational complexity due to the applied ICA method which sets a practical limit for the dimensionality of the problem to be solved. However, the novel algorithm had the best capability to extend the fitting analysis based on Parratt's formalism to multiperiodic layer structures

  2. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  3. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants interact with the mediterranean diet modifying the inflammatory status and its relationship with aging: CORDIOPREV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition has been associated with age-related diseases. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants have been associated with LTL; whereas fatty acids (FAs) can interact with genetic factors and influence in aging. We explore whether variability at t...

  4. Application of DNA Hybridization Biosensor as a Screening Method for the Detection of Genetically Modified Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Filipiak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently attached by 5’-phosphate end to amino group of cysteamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM on gold electrode surface with the use of activating reagents – water soluble 1-ethyl-3(3’- dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxy-sulfosuccinimide (NHS. The hybridization reaction on the electrode surface was detected via methylene blue (MB presenting higher affinity to ssDNA probe than to DNA duplex. The electrode modification procedure was optimized using 19-mer oligoG and oligoC nucleotides. The biosensor enabled distinction between DNA samples isolated from soybean RoundupReady® (RR soybean and non-genetically modified soybean. The frequent introduction of investigated DNA sequences in other genetically modified organisms (GMOs give a broad perspectives for analytical application of the biosensor.

  5. Assessment of genetic divergence in tomato through agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Saleem, M.Y.; Hameed, A.; Asghar, M.

    2014-01-01

    For the improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits, existence of variability has prime importance in plant breeding. Data on different morphological and reproductive traits of 47 tomato genotypes were analyzed for correlation,agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) to select genotypes and traits for future breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between yield and yield components like fruit diameter, single fruit weight and number of fruits plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis depicted first three PCs with Eigen-value higher than 1 contributing 81.72% of total variability for different traits. The PC-I showed positive factor loadings for all the traits except number of fruits plant-1. The contribution of single fruit weight and fruit diameter was highest in PC-1. Cluster analysis grouped all genotypes into five divergent clusters. The genotypes in cluster-II and cluster-V exhibited uniform maturity and higher yield. The D2 statistics confirmed highest distance between cluster- III and cluster-V while maximum similarity was observed in cluster-II and cluster-III. It is therefore suggested that crosses between genotypes of cluster-II and cluster-V with those of cluster-I and cluster-III may exhibit heterosis in F1 for hybrid breeding and for selection of superior genotypes in succeeding generations for cross breeding programme. (author)

  6. [The genetic component of chronic respiratory diseases in workers of foundry productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, D V; Khamitova, R Ya

    Review of the literature shows that currently there is an accumulation of data on the genetic determination of individual susceptibility to adverse industrial factors. Material of the research were high molecular DNA samples isolated from epithelial mouth scrapings in 99 foundry workers. Study of polymorphic variants of interleukin genes was performed by means of the analysis ofproducts of amplification of specific regions of the genome. Homozygous genotype TNF-a (-308A/G) was established to increase the relative risk of shaping of chronic respiratory diseases: with AA alleles - by 6.4 times and GG alleles - by 2.4 times, while the heterozygous genotype (AG) decreases - by 1. 9 times. Polymorphism of gene IL-1β (+3953 T / C) had no significance for the development of respiratory disease. Genotyping interleukins, involved in the inflammatory responses of the bronchopulmonary tract, can be considered as an element ofprimary prevention in industries with a high risk for shaping of respiratory diseases.

  7. Developmental and genetic components explain enhanced pulmonary volumes of female Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Bigham, Abigail; Parra, Esteban; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2012-08-01

    High altitude natives have enlarged vital capacities and residual volumes (RV). Because pulmonary volumes are an indication of functionally relevant traits, such as diffusion capacity, the understanding of the factors (genetic/developmental) that influence lung volumes provides insight into the adaptive responses of highlanders. In order to test for the effect of growth and development at high altitude on lung volumes, we obtained forced vital capacities (FVC), RV, and total lung capacities (TLC) for a sample of 65 Peruvian females of mostly Quechua origins (18-34 years) who were sub-divided into two well-matched groups: 1) sea-level born and raised females (BSL, n = 34) from Lima, Peru (150 m), and 2) high-altitude born and raised females (BHA, n = 31) from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,338 m). To determine Quechua origins, Native American ancestry proportion (NAAP) for each individual was assessed using a panel of 70 ancestry informative markers. NAAP was similar between groups (BSL = 91.71%; BHA = 89.93%; P = 0.240), and the analysis confirmed predominantly Quechua origins. After adjusting for body size and NAAP, BHA females had significantly higher FVC (3.79 ± 0.06 l; P < 0.001), RV (0.98 ± 0.03 l; P < 0.001) and TLC (4.80 ± 0.07 l; P < 0.001) compared to BSL females (FVC = 3.33 ± 0.05 l; RV = 0.69 ± 0.03 l; TLC = 4.02 ± 0.06 l). NAAP was not associated with FVC (P = 0.352) or TLC (P = 0.506). However, NAAP was positively associated with RV (P = 0.004). In summary, results indicate that developmental exposure to high altitude in females constitutes an important factor for all lung volumes, whereas both genetic and developmental factors seem to be important for RV. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Clustering of immunological, metabolic and genetic features in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: evidence from principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, Giovanni Mario; Delitala, Alessandro Palmerio; Errigo, Alessandra; Delitala, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2016-06-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) which accounts for more than 10 % of all cases of diabetes is characterized by onset after age 30, absence of ketoacidosis, insulin independence for at least 6 months, and presence of circulating islet-cell antibodies. Its marked heterogeneity in clinical features and immunological markers suggests the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. The principal component (PC) analysis is a statistical approach used for finding patterns in data of high dimension. In this study the PC analysis was applied to a set of variables from a cohort of Sardinian LADA patients to identify a smaller number of latent patterns. A list of 11 variables including clinical (gender, BMI, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and insulin-free time period), immunological (anti-GAD65, anti-IA-2 and anti-TPO antibody titers) and genetic features (predisposing gene variants previously identified as risk factors for autoimmune diabetes) retrieved from clinical records of 238 LADA patients referred to the Internal Medicine Unit of University of Sassari, Italy, were analyzed by PC analysis. The predictive value of each PC on the further development of insulin dependence was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Overall 4 clusters were identified by PC analysis. In component PC-1, the dominant variables were: BMI, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and duration of insulin-free time period; in PC-2: genetic variables such as Class II HLA, CTLA-4 as well as anti-GAD65, anti-IA-2 and anti-TPO antibody titers, and the insulin-free time period predominated; in PC-3: gender and triglycerides; and in PC-4: total cholesterol. These components explained 18, 15, 12, and 12 %, respectively, of the total variance in the LADA cohort. The predictive power of insulin dependence of the four components was different. PC-2 (characterized mostly by high antibody titers and presence of predisposing genetic markers

  9. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, -nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M.; Silbaugh, Bryant C.; Ketchum, Myles J.; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and – nonpreferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests P rats prefer highly-concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter, and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP, and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically-influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3–40%), sucrose (0.01–1 M), quinine (0.01–3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003–1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant postabsorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically-mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits. PMID:22129513

  10. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of

  11. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

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    Elisabetta Versace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.

  12. Genome-wide association study identified genetic variations and candidate genes for plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Caixiang; Gu, Lijiao; Wang, Hantao; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Qibao; Huang, Long; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-06-01

    Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton were identified via GWAS. Four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits. A candidate gene, Gh_D03G0922, might be responsible for plant height in upland cotton. A compact plant architecture is increasingly required for mechanized harvesting processes in China. Therefore, cotton plant architecture is an important trait, and its components, such as plant height, fruit branch length and fruit branch angle, affect the suitability of a cultivar for mechanized harvesting. To determine the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel composed of 355 accessions and 93,250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing method. Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits were identified via GWAS. Most importantly, four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits, and these SNPs were harbored in one linkage disequilibrium block. Furthermore, 21 candidate genes for plant architecture were predicted in a 0.95-Mb region including the four peak SNPs. One of these genes (Gh_D03G0922) was near the significant SNP D03_31584163 (8.40 kb), and its Arabidopsis homologs contain MADS-box domains that might be involved in plant growth and development. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gh_D03G0922 was upregulated in the apical buds and young leaves of the short and compact cotton varieties, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) proved that the silenced plants exhibited increased PH. These results indicate that Gh_D03G0922 is likely the candidate gene for PH in cotton. The genetic variations and candidate genes identified in this study lay a foundation

  13. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

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    D. V. A. Khoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS, Duroc (DU, Berlin miniature pig (BMP, German Landrace (LR, Pietrain (PIE, and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig. Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK. Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9 as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future.

  14. The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

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    Alessia Viel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered. In this study we led a wide scale investigation of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity and population structure in the vineyards of three neighboring winemaking regions of Protected Appellation of Origin, in North-East of Italy. Combining mtDNA RFLP and microsatellite markers analyses we evaluated 634 grape samples collected over 3 years. We could detect major differences in the presence of S. cerevisiae yeasts, according to the winemaking region. The population structures revealed specificities of yeast microbiota at vineyard scale, with a relative Appellation of Origin area homogeneity, and transition zones suggesting a geographic differentiation. Surprisingly, we found a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low. Although geographical distance is a key element involved in strain distribution, the high presence of industrial strains in vineyard reduced the differences between populations. This finding indicates that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

  15. Strong genetic differentiation among east Atlantic populations of the sword razor shell ( Ensis siliqua) assessed with mtDNA and RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Alberto; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

    2011-03-01

    The sword razor shell Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) is a bivalve with a high commercial value being appreciated in fresh and processed markets. However, the genetic studies carried out in populations of E. siliqua are scarce. In this work, the genetic variability and differentiation of the sword razor shell was assessed using PCR-RFLPs of a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and random amplified polymorphic loci (RAPD) in nine localities from Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. In the 314 individuals examined for the mitochondrial fragment, 12 composite haplotypes were observed; meanwhile, a unique phenotype was observed for each of the 242 individuals analyzed with 61 RAPD loci. Two of the mitochondrial composite haplotypes accounted for the majority of individuals (89.81%) and showed a remarkably disjoint distribution between Irish and Iberian samples, with the exception of Aveiro which exhibited as the most frequent haplotype the same found in Ireland. The level of variability observed for each sample was generally correlated with both types of markers and the results obtained suggest the existence of a strong population differentiation between Irish and Iberian localities, except for the Portuguese sample from Aveiro which is surprisingly closer to Irish individuals, although it is probably highly differentiated.

  16. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Improving feed efficiency ([Formula: see text]) is a key factor for any pig breeding company. Although this can be achieved by selection on an index of multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction of breeding values with optimal economic weights, considering deviations of feed intake from actual needs ([Formula: see text]) should be of value for further research on biological aspects of [Formula: see text]. Here, we present a random regression model that extends the classical definition of [Formula: see text] by including animal-specific needs in the model. Using this model, we explore the genetic determinism of several [Formula: see text] components: use of feed for growth ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for backfat deposition ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for maintenance ([Formula: see text]), and unspecific efficiency in the use of feed ([Formula: see text]). Expected response to alternative selection indexes involving different components is also studied. Based on goodness-of-fit to the available feed intake ([Formula: see text]) data, the model that assumes individual (genetic and permanent) variation in the use of feed for maintenance, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed the best performance. Joint individual variation in feed allocation to maintenance, growth and backfat deposition comprised 37% of the individual variation of [Formula: see text]. The estimated heritabilities of [Formula: see text] using the model that accounts for animal-specific needs and the traditional [Formula: see text] model were 0.12 and 0.18, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for the regression coefficients were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.55 for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of [Formula: see text] were positive with amount of feed used for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] but negative for [Formula: see text]. Expected response in overall efficiency, reducing [Formula

  17. Glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component (GBM-O): molecular genetic and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appin, Christina L; Gao, Jingjing; Chisolm, Candace; Torian, Mike; Alexis, Dianne; Vincentelli, Cristina; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Hadjipanayis, Costas; Olson, Jeffrey J; Hunter, Stephen; Hao, Chunhai; Brat, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor with an average survival of approximately 1 year. A recently recognized subtype, glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component (GBM-O), was designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007. We investigated GBM-Os for their clinical and molecular characteristics as compared to other forms of GBM. Tissue samples were used to determine EGFR, PTEN, and 1p and 19q status by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); p53 and mutant IDH1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC); and MGMT promoter status by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GBM-Os accounted for 11.9% of all GBMs. GBM-Os arose in younger patients compared to other forms of GBMs (50.7 years vs. 58.7 years, respectively), were more frequently secondary neoplasms, had a higher frequency of IDH1 mutations and had a lower frequency of PTEN deletions. Survival was longer in patients with GBM-Os compared to those with other GBMs, with median survivals of 16.2 and 8.1 months, respectively. Most of the survival advantage for GBM-O appeared to be associated with a younger age at presentation. Among patients with GBM-O, younger age at presentation and 1p deletion were most significant in conferring prolonged survival. Thus, GBM-O represents a subset of GBMs with distinctive morphologic, clinical and molecular characteristics. © 2013 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2013 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Web-based genome-wide association study identifies two novel loci and a substantial genetic component for Parkinson's disease.

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    Chuong B Do

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of Parkinson's disease (PD are thought to be primarily environmental, recent studies suggest that a number of genes influence susceptibility. Using targeted case recruitment and online survey instruments, we conducted the largest case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS of PD based on a single collection of individuals to date (3,426 cases and 29,624 controls. We discovered two novel, genome-wide significant associations with PD-rs6812193 near SCARB2 (p = 7.6 × 10(-10, OR = 0.84 and rs11868035 near SREBF1/RAI1 (p = 5.6 × 10(-8, OR = 0.85-both replicated in an independent cohort. We also replicated 20 previously discovered genetic associations (including LRRK2, GBA, SNCA, MAPT, GAK, and the HLA region, providing support for our novel study design. Relying on a recently proposed method based on genome-wide sharing estimates between distantly related individuals, we estimated the heritability of PD to be at least 0.27. Finally, using sparse regression techniques, we constructed predictive models that account for 6%-7% of the total variance in liability and that suggest the presence of true associations just beyond genome-wide significance, as confirmed through both internal and external cross-validation. These results indicate a substantial, but by no means total, contribution of genetics underlying susceptibility to both early-onset and late-onset PD, suggesting that, despite the novel associations discovered here and elsewhere, the majority of the genetic component for Parkinson's disease remains to be discovered.

  19. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients of yield and its components analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch Ex Poir

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    GM Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient were studied for yield and yield component traits in twenty one diverse genotypes of pumpkin. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for fruit length (cm, single fruit weight (kg, Brix (% and yield per plant (kg. Heritability estimates in broad sense were higher for almost all the characters. The characters namely, fruit length, single fruit weight, yield per plant and brix% had high genotypic coefficient of variation coupled with heritability gave high genetic advance expressed as percentage of mean ranged from 76.84 to 96.06 which indicated that these characters were less influenced by environment confirming additive gene action, and therefore, selection of these characters would be more effective for yield improvement of pumpkins. Total six traits likely fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, single fruit weight and number of fruits per plant were positively and significantly associated with yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis also revealed maximum contribution of single fruit weight (0.869 to yield and this was followed by the contribution of number of fruit per plant (0.527 at genotypic level.

  20. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  1. Roles of Vascular and Metabolic Components in Cognitive Dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: Short- and Long-term Modification by Non-genetic Risk Factors

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    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD. Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of 1 compromised vascular reactivity, 2 vascular lesions, 3 hypo/hyperglycemia, and 4 exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. Beta-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: 1 functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, 2 MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, 3 clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, 4 amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  2. Roles of vascular and metabolic components in cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: short- and long-term modification by non-genetic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-11-05

    It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of (1) compromised vascular reactivity, (2) vascular lesions, (3) hypo/hyperglycemia, and (4) exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. β-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: (1) functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, (2) MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, (3) clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, (4) amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  3. Genetic Interactions Between the Meiosis-Specific Cohesin Components, STAG3, REC8, and RAD21L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ayobami; Hopkins, Jessica; Mckay, Matthew; Murray, Steve; Jordan, Philip W

    2016-06-01

    Cohesin is an essential structural component of chromosomes that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Previous studies have shown that there are cohesin complexes specific to meiosis, required to mediate homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. Meiosis-specific cohesin complexes consist of two structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMC1α/SMC1β and SMC3), an α-kleisin protein (RAD21, RAD21L, or REC8), and a stromal antigen protein (STAG1, 2, or 3). STAG3 is exclusively expressed during meiosis, and is the predominant STAG protein component of cohesin complexes in primary spermatocytes from mouse, interacting directly with each α-kleisin subunit. REC8 and RAD21L are also meiosis-specific cohesin components. Stag3 mutant spermatocytes arrest in early prophase ("zygotene-like" stage), displaying failed homolog synapsis and persistent DNA damage, as a result of unstable loading of cohesin onto the chromosome axes. Interestingly, Rec8, Rad21L double mutants resulted in an earlier "leptotene-like" arrest, accompanied by complete absence of STAG3 loading. To assess genetic interactions between STAG3 and α-kleisin subunits RAD21L and REC8, our lab generated Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double knockout mice, and compared them to the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. These double mutants are phenotypically distinct from one another, and more severe than each single knockout mutant with regards to chromosome axis formation, cohesin loading, and sister chromatid cohesion. The Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double mutants both progress further into prophase I than the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that cohesins containing STAG3 and REC8 are the main complex required for centromeric cohesion, and RAD21L cohesins are required for normal clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, the STAG3/REC8 and STAG3/RAD21L cohesins are the primary cohesins required for

  4. Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebregziabher Gebreyohannes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY, lactation length (LL, average milk yield per day (YD, initial milk yield (IY, peak milk yield (PY, days to peak (DP and parameters (ln(a and c of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus Boran (B and Horro (H and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F, Jersey (J and Simmental (S. There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001 by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F had the highest least squares means (LSM for LY (2,490±178.9 kg, IY (10.5±0.8 kg, PY (12.7±0.9 kg, YD (7.6±0.55 kg and LL (361.4±31.2 d, while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses

  5. Effect of NaCrSi2O6 component on Lindsley's pyroxene thermometer: An evaluation based on strongly metamorphosed LL chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Y.; Urata, K.; Shibata, Y.; Kuwahara, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Lindsley's thermometry, a revised sequence of calculation of components is proposed for clinopyroxene, in which kosmochlor component is added. Temperatures obtained for the components calculated by the revised method are about 50 °C lower than those obtained for the components calculated by the Lindsley's original method and agree well with temperatures obtained from orthopyroxenes. Ca-partitioning between clino- and orthopyroxenes is then thought to be equilibrated in types 5 to 7 ordinary chondrites. The temperatures for Tuxtuac (LL5), Dhurmsala (LL6), NWA 2092 (LL6/7), and Dho 011 (LL7) are 767-793°, 818-835°, 872-892°, and 917-936°C, respectively, suggesting that chondrites of higher petrographic types show higher equilibrium temperatures of pyroxenes. The regression equations which relate temperature and Wo and Fs contents in the temperature-contoured pyroxene quadrilateral of 1 atm of Lindsley (1983) are also determined by the least squares method. It is possible to reproduce temperatures with an error less than 20 °C (2SE) using the regression equations.

  6. Methodological approach for substantiating disease freedom in a heterogeneous small population. Application to ovine scrapie, a disease with a strong genetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marie-José; Durand, Benoit; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Demonstrating disease freedom is becoming important in different fields including animal disease control. Most methods consider sampling only from a homogeneous population in which each animal has the same probability of becoming infected. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to calculate the probability of detecting the disease if it is present in a heterogeneous population of small size with potentially different risk groups, differences in risk being defined using relative risks. To calculate this probability, for each possible arrangement of the infected animals in the different groups, the probability that all the animals tested are test-negative given this arrangement is multiplied by the probability that this arrangement occurs. The probability formula is developed using the assumption of a perfect test and hypergeometric sampling for finite small size populations. The methodology is applied to scrapie, a disease affecting small ruminants and characterized in sheep by a strong genetic susceptibility defining different risk groups. It illustrates that the genotypes of the tested animals influence heavily the confidence level of detecting scrapie. The results present the statistical power for substantiating disease freedom in a small heterogeneous population as a function of the design prevalence, the structure of the sample tested, the structure of the herd and the associated relative risks. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting

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    Robert Suchting

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior.Objectives: The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5 polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults.Methods: The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability.Results: From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ total score, with R2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect, childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect, and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780. The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R2.Conclusions: Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  8. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchting, Robert; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Lane, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    Rationale : Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML) provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior. Objectives : The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults. Methods : The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a) select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b) reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability. Results : From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) total score, with R 2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect), childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect), and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780). The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R 2 . Conclusions : Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  9. Characterization of the triple-component linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 by genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Qi, H; Gu, Z; Zhang, H; Chen, W; Chen, H; Chen, Y Q

    2017-11-01

    To assess the mechanism for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. CLA has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anticancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates. To characterize the genetic determinants for generating CLA, a cre-lox-based system was utilized to delete the genes encoding myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA), short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (DH) and acetoacetate decarboxylase (DC) in Lact. plantarum ZS2058, respectively. Neither intermediate was detected in the corresponding gene deletion mutant. Meanwhile all those mutants could recover the ability to convert linoleic acid to CLA when the corresponding gene was completed. The results indicated that CLA production was a multiple-step reaction catalysed by triple-component linoleate isomerase system encoded by mcra, dh and dc. Multicomponent linoleic acid isomerase provided important results for illustration unique mechanism for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058. Lactobacilli with CLA production ability offer novel opportunities for functional food development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  11. A large-scale genetic analysis reveals a strong contribution of the HLA class II region to giant cell arteritis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, F David; Mackie, Sarah L; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J; Hoffman, Gary S; Khalidi, Nader A; Koening, Curry L; Langford, Carol A; McAlear, Carol A; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G; Warrington, Kenneth J; Ytterberg, Steven R; Gregersen, Peter K; Pease, Colin T; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P C; de Bakker, Paul I W; Barrett, Jennifer H; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A; González-Gay, Miguel A; Morgan, Ann W; Martín, Javier

    2015-04-02

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10(-40), OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1(∗)04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10(-43)) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10(-46)), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10(-45)) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10(-6), OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10(-5), OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Applying genetic algorithms for calibrating a hexagonal cellular automata model for the simulation of debris flows characterised by strong inertial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, G.; D'Ambrosio, D.; Di Gregorio, S.

    2005-03-01

    In modelling complex a-centric phenomena which evolve through local interactions within a discrete time-space, cellular automata (CA) represent a valid alternative to standard solution methods based on differential equations. Flow-type phenomena (such as lava flows, pyroclastic flows, earth flows, and debris flows) can be viewed as a-centric dynamical systems, and they can therefore be properly investigated in CA terms. SCIDDICA S 4a is the last release of a two-dimensional hexagonal CA model for simulating debris flows characterised by strong inertial effects. S 4a has been obtained by progressively enriching an initial simplified model, originally derived for simulating very simple cases of slow-moving flow-type landslides. Using an empirical strategy, in S 4a, the inertial character of the flowing mass is translated into CA terms by means of local rules. In particular, in the transition function of the model, the distribution of landslide debris among the cells is obtained through a double cycle of computation. In the first phase, the inertial character of the landslide debris is taken into account by considering indicators of momentum. In the second phase, any remaining debris in the central cell is distributed among the adjacent cells, according to the principle of maximum possible equilibrium. The complexities of the model and of the phenomena to be simulated suggested the need for an automated technique of evaluation for the determination of the best set of global parameters. Accordingly, the model is calibrated using a genetic algorithm and by considering the May 1998 Curti-Sarno (Southern Italy) debris flow. The boundaries of the area affected by the debris flow are simulated well with the model. Errors computed by comparing the simulations with the mapped areal extent of the actual landslide are smaller than those previously obtained without genetic algorithms. As the experiments have been realised in a sequential computing environment, they could be

  13. BNN-20, a synthetic microneurotrophin, strongly protects dopaminergic neurons in the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of dopamine-denervation, acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsakis, Konstantinos; Mourtzi, Theodora; Panagiotakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vreka, Malamati; Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Pediaditakis, Iosif; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achilleas; Delis, Foteini; Antoniou, Katerina; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios; Georgiou, Christos D; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos T; Matsokis, Nikolaos; Angelatou, Fevronia

    2017-07-15

    Neurotrophic factors are among the most promising treatments aiming at slowing or stopping and even reversing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in most cases, they cannot readily cross the human blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Herein, we propose as a therapeutic for PD the small molecule 17-beta-spiro-[5-androsten-17,2'-oxiran]-3beta-ol (BNN-20), a synthetic analogue of DHEA, which crosses the BBB and is deprived of endocrine side-effects. Using the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of PD, which exhibits progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the Substantia Nigra (SN), we have shown that long-term administration (P1-P21) of BNN-20 almost fully protected the dopaminergic neurons and their terminals, via i) a strong anti-apoptotic effect, probably mediated through the Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) neurotrophin receptor's PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway, ii) by exerting an efficient antioxidant effect, iii) by inducing significant anti-inflammatory activity and iv) by restoring Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels. By intercrossing "weaver" with NGL mice (dual GFP/luciferase-NF-κΒ reporter mice, NF-κΒ.GFP.Luc), we obtained Weaver/NGL mice that express the NF-κB reporter in all somatic cells. Acute BNN-20 administration to Weaver/NGL mice induced a strong NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response in the brain as detected by bioluminescence imaging, which was abolished by co-administration of the TrkB inhibitor ANA-12. This indicates that BNN-20 exerts its beneficial action (at least in part) through the TrkB-PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway. These results could be of clinical relevance, as they suggest BNN-20 as an important neuroprotective agent acting through the TrkB neurotrophin receptor pathway, mimicking the action of the endogenous neurotrophin BDNF. Thus BNN-20 could be proposed for treatment of PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  15. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  16. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    results of preexisting genetic components. Future work will be required to characterize the expression patterns of these orthologous genes in natural populations and will provide further insights into the adaptive mechanisms underlying the wide range of B. humilis adaptations.

  17. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasawin, Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a closely related B. carambolae

  18. Nonlinear fitness-space-structure adaptation and principal component analysis in genetic algorithms: an application to x-ray reflectivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Tilli, J-M; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Airaksinen, V-M; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Two novel genetic algorithms implementing principal component analysis and an adaptive nonlinear fitness-space-structure technique are presented and compared with conventional algorithms in x-ray reflectivity analysis. Principal component analysis based on Hessian or interparameter covariance matrices is used to rotate a coordinate frame. The nonlinear adaptation applies nonlinear estimates to reshape the probability distribution of the trial parameters. The simulated x-ray reflectivity of a realistic model of a periodic nanolaminate structure was used as a test case for the fitting algorithms. The novel methods had significantly faster convergence and less stagnation than conventional non-adaptive genetic algorithms. The covariance approach needs no additional curve calculations compared with conventional methods, and it had better convergence properties than the computationally expensive Hessian approach. These new algorithms can also be applied to other fitting problems where tight interparameter dependence is present

  19. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David Carmona, F.; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castaneda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jose; Prieto-Gonzalez, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; Francisca Gonzalez-Escribano, M.; Ortiz-Fernandez, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narvaez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, Jose A.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schoenau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Oyvind; Molberg, Oyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip

  20. The Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of a Rare Piscivorous Life History Form in Brown Trout after Secondary Contact and Strong Introgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Jacobs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis underlying phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation is a longstanding problem in evolutionary biology. Genetic signals of adaptation and reproductive isolation are often confounded by a wide range of factors, such as variation in demographic history or genomic features. Brown trout (Salmo trutta in the Loch Maree catchment, Scotland, exhibit reproductively isolated divergent life history morphs, including a rare piscivorous (ferox life history form displaying larger body size, greater longevity and delayed maturation compared to sympatric benthivorous brown trout. Using a dataset of 16,066 SNPs, we analyzed the evolutionary history and genetic architecture underlying this divergence. We found that ferox trout and benthivorous brown trout most likely evolved after recent secondary contact of two distinct glacial lineages, and identified 33 genomic outlier windows across the genome, of which several have most likely formed through selection. We further identified twelve candidate genes and biological pathways related to growth, development and immune response potentially underpinning the observed phenotypic differences. The identification of clear genomic signals divergent between life history phenotypes and potentially linked to reproductive isolation, through size assortative mating, as well as the identification of the underlying demographic history, highlights the power of genomic studies of young species pairs for understanding the factors shaping genetic differentiation.

  1. Population genetic structure of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) in Uganda: evidence for a strong philopatry among warthogs and social structure breakdown in a disturbed population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanka, V.B.; Nyakaana, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2007-01-01

    populations from five localities in Uganda are genetically structured using both mitochondrial control region sequence and microsatellite allele length variation. Four of the localities (Queen Elizabeth, Murchison Falls, Lake Mburo and Kidepo Valley) are national parks with relatively good wildlife protection...

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on last-year major depression in adulthood: a highly heritable stable liability but strong environmental effects on 1-year prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Gardner, C O

    2017-07-01

    This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves. The best-fit model was simple and included genetic and unique environmental influences on the latent liability to MD and unique wave-specific environmental effects. The path from latent liability to MD in the last year was constant over time, moderate in magnitude (+0.65) and weaker than the impact of occasion-specific environmental effects (+0.76). Heritability of the latent stable liability to MD was much higher (78%) than that estimated for last-year MD (32%). Of the total unique environmental influences on MD, 13% reflected enduring consequences of earlier environmental insults, 17% diagnostic error and 70% wave-specific short-lived environmental stressors. Both genetic influences on MD and MD heritability are stable over middle adulthood. However, the largest influence on last-year MD is short-lived environmental effects. As predicted by genetic theory, the heritability of MD is increased substantially by measurement at multiple time points largely through the reduction of the effects of measurement error and short-term environmental risk factors.

  3. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  4. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  5. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  6. Genomic selection strategies in breeding programs: Strong positive interaction between application of genotypic information and intensive use of young bulls on genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) breeding schemes with genomic selection are superior to breeding schemes without genomic selection regarding annual genetic gain of the aggregate genotype (ΔGAG), annual genetic gain of the functional traits and rate of inbreeding per generation (ΔF), (ii......) a positive interaction exists between the use of genotypic information and a short generation interval on ΔGAG and (iii) the inclusion of an indicator trait in the selection index will only result in a negligible increase in ΔGAG if genotypic information about the breeding goal trait is known. We examined......, greater contributions of the functional trait to ΔGAG and lower ΔF than the two breeding schemes without genomic selection. Thus, the use of genotypic information may lead to more sustainable breeding schemes. In addition, a short generation interval increases the effect of using genotypic information...

  7. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  8. Genetic background strongly modifies the severity of symptoms of Hirschsprung disease, but not hearing loss in rats carrying Ednrb(sl mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Dang

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is thought to result as a consequence of multiple gene interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate the developing gut. However, it remains unknown whether the single complete deletion of important HSCR-associated genes is sufficient to result in HSCR disease. In this study, we found that the null mutation of the Ednrb gene, thought indispensable for enteric neuron development, is insufficient to result in HSCR disease when bred onto a different genetic background in rats carrying Ednrb(sl mutations. Moreover, we found that this mutation results in serious congenital sensorineural deafness, and these strains may be used as ideal models of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 (WS4. Furthermore, we evaluated how the same changed genetic background modifies three features of WS4 syndrome, aganglionosis, hearing loss, and pigment disorder in these congenic strains. We found that the same genetic background markedly changed the aganglionosis, but resulted in only slight changes to hearing loss and pigment disorder. This provided the important evidence, in support of previous studies, that different lineages of neural crest-derived cells migrating along with various pathways are regulated by different signal molecules. This study will help us to better understand complicated diseases such as HSCR and WS4 syndrome.

  9. Enriching an intraspecific genetic map and identifying QTL for fiber quality and yield component traits across multiple environments in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Teng, Zhonghua; Wang, Jinxia; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianping; Fang, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhaoyun; Ali, Iftikhar; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhengsheng

    2017-12-01

    Cotton is a significant commercial crop that plays an indispensable role in many domains. Constructing high-density genetic maps and identifying stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling agronomic traits are necessary prerequisites for marker-assisted selection (MAS). A total of 14,899 SSR primer pairs designed from the genome sequence of G. raimondii were screened for polymorphic markers between mapping parents CCRI 35 and Yumian 1, and 712 SSR markers showing polymorphism were used to genotype 180 lines from a (CCRI 35 × Yumian 1) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Genetic linkage analysis was conducted on 726 loci obtained from the 712 polymorphic SSR markers, along with 1379 SSR loci obtained in our previous study, and a high-density genetic map with 2051 loci was constructed, which spanned 3508.29 cM with an average distance of 1.71 cM between adjacent markers. Marker orders on the linkage map are highly consistent with the corresponding physical orders on a G. hirsutum genome sequence. Based on fiber quality and yield component trait data collected from six environments, 113 QTLs were identified through two analytical methods. Among these 113 QTLs, 50 were considered stable (detected in multiple environments or for which phenotypic variance explained by additive effect was greater than environment effect), and 18 of these 50 were identified with stability by both methods. These 18 QTLs, including eleven for fiber quality and seven for yield component traits, could be priorities for MAS.

  10. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  11. [Supervision of foods containing components of genetically modified organisms and the problems of labeling this type of products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2010-01-01

    Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops as food or feed is regarded as a promising social area in the development of modern biotechnology. The Russian Federation has set up a governmental system to regulate the use of biotechnology products, which is based on Russian and foreign experience and the most up-to-date scientific approaches. The system for evaluating the quality and safety of GM foodstuffs envisages the postregistration monitoring of their circulation as an obligatory stage. For these purposes, the world community applies two methods: enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. It should be noted that there are various approaches to GM food labeling in the world; this raises the question of whether the labeling of foods that are prepared from genetically modified organisms, but contain no protein or DNA is to be introduced in Russia, as in the European Union.

  12. Genetic variability, trait association and path analysis of yield and yield components in mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasum, A.; Saleem, M.; Aziz, I.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability, heritability along with genetic advance of traits, their association and direct and indirect effects on yield are essential for crop improvement. Ten mungbean genotypes were studied to assess variability and degree to which various plant traits associate with seed yield. Primary and secondary branches, pods per cluster and pod length showed lesser variability while clusters per plant, 100 seed weight and harvest index exhibited intermediate range of variability. Sufficient genetic variability was observed for plant height, pods per plant, total plant weight and seed yield. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for all traits. Primary and secondary branches per plant, pod length and 100-seed weight exhibited negative and non significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Plant height showed positive non-significant and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation. Pods per cluster correlated significantly negative with seed yield. Clusters per plant, pods per plant, total plant weight and harvest index showed positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Positive direct effects were exerted through secondary branches, pods per plant, pod length, 100 seed weight, total plant weight and harvest index while primary branches, plant height, clusters per plant and pods per cluster had negative direct effects. The present findings could be useful for establishing selection criteria for high seed yield in the mungbean breeding. (author)

  13. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  14. Identification of exotic genetic components and DNA methylation pattern analysis of three cotton introgression lines from Gossypium bickii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-Pu; Sun, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Chao; Du, Xiong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alien DNA fragments on plant genome has been studied in many species. However, little is known about the introgression lines of Gossypium. To study the consequences of introgression in Gossypium, we investigated 2000 genomic and 800 epigenetic sites in three typical cotton introgression lines, as well as their cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum) and wild parents (Gossypium bickii), by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The results demonstrate that an average of 0.5% of exotic DNA segments from wild cotton is transmitted into the genome of each introgression line, with the addition of other forms of genetic variation. In total, an average of 0.7% of genetic variation sites is identified in introgression lines. Simultaneously, the overall cytosine methylation level in each introgression line is very close to that of the upland cotton parent (an average of 22.6%). Further dividing patterns reveal that both hypomethylation and hypermethylation occurred in introgression lines in comparison with the upland cotton parent. Sequencing of nine methylation polymorphism fragments showed that most (7 of 9) of the methylation alternations occurred in the noncoding sequences. The molecular evidence of introgression from wild cotton into introgression lines in our study is identified by AFLP. Moreover, the causes of petal variation in introgression lines are discussed.

  15. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, William W; Hennig, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr–Cu–Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design. (paper)

  16. A grand canonical genetic algorithm for the prediction of multi-component phase diagrams and testing of empirical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, William W; Hennig, Richard G

    2013-12-11

    We present an evolutionary algorithm which predicts stable atomic structures and phase diagrams by searching the energy landscape of empirical and ab initio Hamiltonians. Composition and geometrical degrees of freedom may be varied simultaneously. We show that this method utilizes information from favorable local structure at one composition to predict that at others, achieving far greater efficiency of phase diagram prediction than a method which relies on sampling compositions individually. We detail this and a number of other efficiency-improving techniques implemented in the genetic algorithm for structure prediction code that is now publicly available. We test the efficiency of the software by searching the ternary Zr-Cu-Al system using an empirical embedded-atom model potential. In addition to testing the algorithm, we also evaluate the accuracy of the potential itself. We find that the potential stabilizes several correct ternary phases, while a few of the predicted ground states are unphysical. Our results suggest that genetic algorithm searches can be used to improve the methodology of empirical potential design.

  17. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  18. On the road to quantitative genetic/genomic analyses of root growth and development components underlying root architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, X.; Dorlodot, S. de; Lavigne, T.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative genetic and functional genomic analyses of root development, growth and plasticity will be instrumental in revealing the major regulatory pathways of root architecture. Such knowledge, combined with in-depth consideration of root physiology (e.g. uptake, exsudation), form (space-time dynamics of soil exploration) and ecology (including root environment), will settle the bases for designing root ideotypes for specific environments, for low-input agriculture or for successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. This report summarizes root research initiated in our lab between 2000 and 2004 in the following areas: quantitative analysis of root branching in bananas, high throughput characterisation of root morphology, image analysis, QTL mapping of detailed features of root architecture in rice, and attempts to settle a Crop Root Research Consortium. (author)

  19. Global genetic analyses reveal strong inter-ethnic variability in the loss of activity of the organic cation transporter OCT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Tina; Stalmann, Robert; Dalila, Nawar; Chen, Jiayin; Pojar, Sherin; Dos Santos Pereira, Joao N; Krätzner, Ralph; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2015-01-01

    The organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) mediates the uptake of vitamin B1, cationic drugs, and xenobiotics into hepatocytes. Nine percent of Caucasians lack or have very low OCT1 activity due to loss-of-function polymorphisms in OCT1 gene. Here we analyzed the global genetic variability in OCT1 to estimate the therapeutic relevance of OCT1 polymorphisms in populations beyond Caucasians and to identify evolutionary patterns of the common loss of OCT1 activity in humans. We applied massively parallel sequencing to screen for coding polymorphisms in 1,079 unrelated individuals from 53 populations worldwide. The obtained data was combined with the existing 1000 Genomes data comprising an additional 1,092 individuals from 14 populations. The identified OCT1 variants were characterized in vitro regarding their cellular localization and their ability to transport 10 known OCT1 substrates. Both the population genetics data and transport data were used in tandem to generate a world map of loss of OCT1 activity. We identified 16 amino acid substitutions potentially causing loss of OCT1 function and analyzed them together with five amino acid substitutions that were not expected to affect OCT1 function. The variants constituted 16 major alleles and 14 sub-alleles. Six major alleles showed improper subcellular localization leading to substrate-wide loss in activity. Five major alleles showed correct subcellular localization, but substrate-specific loss of activity. Striking differences were observed in the frequency of loss of OCT1 activity worldwide. While most East Asian and Oceanian individuals had completely functional OCT1, 80 % of native South American Indians lacked functional OCT1 alleles. In East Asia and Oceania the average nucleotide diversity of the loss-of-function variants was much lower than that of the variants that do not affect OCT1 function (ratio of 0.03) and was significantly lower than the theoretically expected heterozygosity (Tajima's D = -1

  20. Genetic Variation in Complement Component 2 of the Classical Complement Pathway is Associated with Increased Mortality and Infection: A Study of 627 Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A.; Francois, Cedric; Olson, Paul K.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Summar, Marshall; Jenkins, Judith M.; Norris, Patrick R.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Anna E.; McNew, Brent S.; Canter, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Trauma is a disease of inflammation. Complement Component 2 (C2) is a protease involved in activation of complement through the classical pathway and has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that genetic variation in C2 (E318D) identifies a high-risk subgroup of trauma patients reflecting increased mortality and infection (Ventilator associated pneumonia: VAP). Consequently, genetic variation in C2 may stratify patient risk and illuminate underlying mechanisms for therapeutic intervention. Methods DNA samples from 702 trauma patients were genotyped for C2 E318D and linked with covariates (age: mean 42.8 years, gender: 74% male, ethnicity: 80% Caucasian, mechanism: 84% blunt, ISS: mean 25.0, admission lactate: mean 3.13 mEq/L) and outcomes: mortality 9.9% and VAP: 18.5%. VAP was defined by quantitative bronchoalveolar lavage (>104). Multivariate regression determined the relationship of genotype and covariates to risk of death and VAP. However, patients with ISS ≥ 45 were excluded from the multivariate analysis, as magnitude of injury overwhelms genetics and covariates in determining outcome. Results 52 patients (8.3%) had the high-risk heterozygous genotype, associated with a significant increase in mortality and VAP. Conclusion In 702 trauma patients, 8.3% had a high-risk genetic variation in C2 associated with increased mortality (OR=2.65) and infection (OR=2.00). This variation: 1) Identifies a previously unknown high risk group for infection and mortality; 2) Can be determined on admission; 3) May provide opportunity for early therapeutic intervention; and 4) Requires validation in a distinct cohort of patients. PMID:19430225

  1. Systematic genetic array analysis links the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 component Tra1 to multiple cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Brenda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tra1 is an essential 437-kDa component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. It is a member of a group of key signaling molecules that share a carboxyl-terminal domain related to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase but unlike many family members, it lacks kinase activity. To identify genetic interactions for TRA1 and provide insight into its function we have performed a systematic genetic array analysis (SGA on tra1SRR3413, an allele that is defective in transcriptional regulation. Results The SGA analysis revealed 114 synthetic slow growth/lethal (SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413. The interacting genes are involved in a range of cellular processes including gene expression, mitochondrial function, and membrane sorting/protein trafficking. In addition many of the genes have roles in the cellular response to stress. A hierarchal cluster analysis revealed that the pattern of SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413 most closely resembles deletions of a group of regulatory GTPases required for membrane sorting/protein trafficking. Consistent with a role for Tra1 in cellular stress, the tra1SRR3413 strain was sensitive to rapamycin. In addition, calcofluor white sensitivity of the strain was enhanced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, a phenotype shared with the Ada components of the SAGA/SLIK complex. Through analysis of a GFP-Tra1 fusion we show that Tra1 is principally localized to the nucleus. Conclusion We have demonstrated a genetic association of Tra1 with nuclear, mitochondrial and membrane processes. The identity of the SSL genes also connects Tra1 with cellular stress, a result confirmed by the sensitivity of the tra1SRR3413 strain to a variety of stress conditions. Based upon the nuclear localization of GFP-Tra1 and the finding that deletion of the Ada components of the SAGA complex result in similar phenotypes as tra1SRR3413, we suggest that the effects of tra1SRR3413

  2. CREB1 is a strong genetic predictor of the variation in exercise heart rate response to regular exercise: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Argyropoulos, George; Rice, Treva; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude

    2010-06-01

    A genome-wide linkage scan identified a quantitative trait locus for exercise training-induced changes in submaximal exercise (50 W) heart rate (DeltaHR50) on chromosome 2q33.3-q34 in the HERITAGE Family Study (n=472). To fine-map the region, 1450 tag SNPs were genotyped between 205 and 215 Mb on chromosome 2. The strongest evidence of association with DeltaHR50 was observed with 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 5' region of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) gene (rs2253206: P=1.6x10(-5) and rs2360969: P=4.3x10(-5)). The associations remained significant (P=0.01 and P=0.023, respectively) after accounting for multiple testing. Regression modeling of the 39 most significant SNPs in the single-SNP analysis identified 9 SNPs that collectively explained 20% of the DeltaHR50 variance. CREB1 SNP rs2253206 had the strongest effect (5.45% of variance), followed by SNPs in the FASTKD2 (3.1%), MAP2 (2.6%), SPAG16 (2.1%), ERBB4 (3 SNPs approximately 1.4% each), IKZF2 (1.4%), and PARD3B (1.0%) loci. In conditional linkage analysis, 6 SNPs from the final regression model (CREB1, FASTKD2, MAP2, ERBB4, IKZF2, and PARD3B) accounted for the original linkage signal: The log of the odds score dropped from 2.10 to 0.41 after adjusting for all 6 SNPs. Functional studies revealed that the common allele of rs2253206 exhibits significantly (P<0.05) lower promoter activity than the minor allele. Our data suggest that functional DNA sequence variation in the CREB1 locus is strongly associated with DeltaHR50 and explains a considerable proportion of the quantitative trait locus variance. However, at least 5 additional SNPs seem to be required to fully account for the original linkage signal.

  3. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  4. A method to optimize the shield compact and lightweight combining the structure with components together by genetic algorithm and MCNP code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yao; Hu, Huasi; Pan, Ziheng; Hu, Guang; Zhang, Tao

    2018-05-17

    To optimize the shield for neutrons and gamma rays compact and lightweight, a method combining the structure and components together was established employing genetic algorithms and MCNP code. As a typical case, the fission energy spectrum of 235 U which mixed neutrons and gamma rays was adopted in this study. Six types of materials were presented and optimized by the method. Spherical geometry was adopted in the optimization after checking the geometry effect. Simulations have made to verify the reliability of the optimization method and the efficiency of the optimized materials. To compare the materials visually and conveniently, the volume and weight needed to build a shield are employed. The results showed that, the composite multilayer material has the best performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    Selection experiment was performed for weight gain in 13 generations of outbred mice. A total of 18 lines were included in the experiment. Nine lines were allotted to each of the two treatment diets (19.3 and 5.1 % protein). Within each diet three lines were selected upwards, three lines were...... selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...

  6. Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up, Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Macagno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. MR and CT imaging showed a heavily ossified central mass surrounded by a peripheral fatty component. No connection with the underlying bone was detected on imagery and during surgery. After surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed a tumor harboring combined features of well-differentiated liposarcoma and low-grade osteosarcoma. Tumor cells displayed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4, and P16 by immunohistochemistry and CGH revealed amplification of 12q13-15 as the only genetic imbalance. MDM2 FISH analysis was performed but was inconclusive. The pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, the differential diagnoses, and the therapeutic management of this unusual tumor are discussed. No complementary treatment was performed initially. Following first treatment, two recurrences occurred 6 and 9 years later, both displaying histological features similar to the first occurrence. Radiotherapy was started after the second recurrence. Follow-up shows no evidence of disease 11 years after initial diagnosis. This case was unusual due to the paravertebral location of the tumor and its divergent differentiation.

  7. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (ratio (0.52 ± 0.29 and 0.45 ± 0.31, respectively), 18:2-6 (0.45 ± 0.18 and 0.40 ± 0.19, respectively), -6 (0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.38 ± 0.19, respectively), PUFA (0.42 ± 0.18 and 0.36 ± 0.20, respectively), and 9-16:1 (-0.43 ± 0.20 and -0.33 ± 0.22, respectively) were observed. Hence, selection for low-RFI or more efficient beef cattle will improve fatty acid profiles by lowering the content of -6 PUFA, thus reducing the ratio of -6 to -3 along with increasing the amount of 9-16:1. Moderate to moderately high genetic correlations were also observed for DMI with 9-14:1 (-0.32 ± 0.17) and the sum of CLA analyzed (SumCLA; -0.45 ± 0.21), suggesting that selection of beef cattle with lower DMI will lead to an increase amount of 9-14:1 and SumCLA in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, unfavorable genetic correlations were detected for ADG with 11-18:1 (-0.38 ± 0.23) and SumCLA (-0.73 ± 0.26), implying that selection of beef

  8. Implications of recurrent disturbance for genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C

    2016-02-01

    Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes.

  9. Genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component C1q and Prnp polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Scribner, Kim T.; Libants, Scot V.; Johnson, Chad; Aiken, Judd M.; Langenberg, Julia A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. Association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. We used an innovative matched case–control design and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between polymorphisms of complement C1q and prion protein (Prnp) genes and CWD infection in white-tailed deer from the CWD endemic area in south-central Wisconsin. To reduce problems due to admixture or disease-risk confounding, we used neutral genetic (microsatellite) data to identify closely related CWD-positive (n = 68) and CWD-negative (n = 91) female deer to serve as matched cases and controls. Cases and controls were also matched on factors (sex, location, age) previously demonstrated to affect CWD infection risk. For Prnp, deer with at least one Serine (S) at amino acid 96 were significantly less likely to be CWD-positive relative to deer homozygous for Glycine (G). This is the first characterization of genes associated with the complement system in white-tailed deer. No tests for association between any C1q polymorphism and CWD infection were significant at p of CWD infection in deer with at least one Glycine (G) at amino acid 56 of the C1qC gene. While we documented numerous amino acid polymorphisms in C1q genes none appear to be strongly associated with CWD susceptibility.

  10. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  11. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  12. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  13. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  14. Identification of potential genetic components involved in the deviant quorum-sensing signaling pathways of Burkholderia glumae through a functional genomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxi eChen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae is the chief causal agent for bacterial panicle blight of rice. The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL-mediated quorum-sensing (QS system dependent on a pair of luxI and luxR homologs, tofI and tofR, is the primary cell-to-cell signaling mechanism determining the virulence of this bacterium. Production of toxoflavin, a major virulence factor of B. glumae, is known to be dependent on the tofI/tofR QS system. In our previous study, however, it was observed that B. glumae mutants defective in tofI or tofR produced toxoflavin if they grew on the surface of a solid medium, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways independent of tofI or tofR are activated in that growth condition for the production of toxoflavin. In this study, potential genetic components involved in the tofI- and tofR-independent signaling pathways for toxoflavin production were sought through screening random mini-Tn5 mutants of B. glumae to better understand the intercellular signaling pathways of this pathogen. Fifteen and three genes were initially identified as the potential genetic elements of the tofI- and tofR-independent pathways, respectively. Especially, the ORF (bglu_2g06320 divergently transcribed from toxJ, which encodes an orphan LuxR protein and controls toxoflavin biosynthesis, was newly identified in this study as a gene required for the tofR-independent toxoflavin production and named as toxK. Among those genes, flhD, dgcB, and wyzB were further studied to validate their functions in the tofI-independent toxoflavin production, and similar studies were also conducted with qsmR and toxK for their functions in the tofR-independent toxoflavin production. This work provides a foundation for future comprehensive studies of the intercellular signaling systems of B. glumae and other related pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping in dogs enables identification of the homeobox gene, NKX2-8, as a genetic component of neural tube defects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Safra

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome  =3.0 × 10(-5, after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525 were found to be significantly over-represented (p=0.036. This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs.

  16. Migraine genetics : from monogenic to complex forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanmolkot, Kaate Raymond Josepha

    2008-01-01

    Migraine has a strong genetic component, but the identification of these factors has proven difficult mainly because of the complex interaction of multiple loci and environmental factors. Unraveling its molecular basis and deciphering pathways leading to migraine attacks will help identifying novel

  17. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  18. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. Part VIII. The concept of mutation component and its use in risk estimation for multifactorial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denniston, C. [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (United States); Chakraborty, R. [Human Genetics Center, University of Texas School of Public Health, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX (United States); Sankaranarayanan, K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Sylvius Laboratories, Leiden University Medical Centre, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-08-31

    Multifactorial diseases, which include the common congenital abnormalities (incidence: 6%) and chronic diseases with onset predominantly in adults (population prevalence: 65%), contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality. Their transmission patterns do not conform to Mendelian expectations. The model most frequently used to explain their inheritance and to estimate risks to relatives is a Multifactorial Threshold Model (MTM) of disease liability. The MTM assumes that: (1) the disease is due to the joint action of a large number of genetic and environmental factors, each of which contributing a small amount of liability, (2) the distribution of liability in the population is Gaussian and (3) individuals whose liability exceeds a certain threshold value are affected by the disease. For most of these diseases, the number of genes involved or the environmental factors are not fully known. In the context of radiation exposures of the population, the question of the extent to which induced mutations will cause an increase in the frequencies of these diseases has remained unanswered. In this paper, we address this problem by using a modified version of MTM which incorporates mutation and selection as two additional parameters. The model assumes a finite number of gene loci and threshold of liability (hence, the designation, Finite-Locus Threshold Model or FLTM). The FLTM permits one to examine the relationship between broad-sense heritability of disease liability and mutation component (MC), the responsiveness of the disease to a change in mutation rate. Through the use of a computer program (in which mutation rate, selection, threshold, recombination rate and environmental variance are input parameters and MC and heritability of liability are output estimates), we studied the MC-heritability relationship for (1) a permanent increase in mutation rate (e.g., when the population sustains radiation exposure in every generation) and (2) a one-time increase in

  19. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  20. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  1. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  2. Genetics of ischemic stroke: future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael M

    2006-11-01

    Ischemic stroke has long been thought to have a genetic component that is independent of conventional vascular risk factors. It has been estimated that over one half of stroke risk is determined by inherited genes. However, until recently, strong evidence of genetic influence on ischemic stroke has been subject to criticism because the risk factors for stroke are also inherited and because previous studies suffered from limitations imposed by this highly heterogeneous neurological disorder. Recent advances in molecular genetics have led to the identification of specific genetic loci that impart susceptibility to ischemic stroke. We review the studies of these genes and discuss the future potential applications of genetic markers on the management of ischemic stroke patients.

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. The role of the environment in Ukraine after Chernobyl accident and the genetic component in cancer development in female reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganina, K.P.; Naleskina, L.A.; Nesina, I.P.; Borodaj, N.V.; Fedorenko, Z.P.; Vojkshnaras, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    An increase in breast cancer and tumors of reproductive organs was revealed both in a group of women from the regions which are subject to radiation control after the Chernobyl NPP accident and a wider group of Ukrainian female population non-restricted to the above region. Geographical distribution of morbidity is demonstrated. Both genetic and environmental factors are proved to play a part in the susceptibility to development of breast and corpus uteri cancers. The contribution of each of the above factors is assessed.Chromosomal instability was revealed in endometrium cancer patients, even more pronounced in the individuals with a tumor development history aggregated in families. The need for further investigation of development of cancer against genetic background is underlined

  5. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large

  6. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  7. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  8. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  9. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  10. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  11. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on risk of death due to infections assessed in Danish twins, 1943-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Christensen, Kaare; Petersen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Genetic differences have been proposed to play a strong role in risk of death from infectious diseases. The study base of 44,005 included all same-sex twin pairs born in 1870-2001, with both twins alive on January 1, 1943, or those born thereafter. Cause of death was obtained from the Danish Cause...... from infectious diseases could be demonstrated, the absolute effect of the genetic component on mortality was small....... genetic influence on the risk of death...

  13. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Oost John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially complementary to a region of the target. Key components of the RNAi systems are proteins of the Argonaute-PIWI family some of which function as slicers, the nucleases that cleave the target RNA that is base-paired to a guide RNA. Numerous prokaryotes possess the CRISPR-associated system (CASS of defense against phages and plasmids that is, in part, mechanistically analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi systems. Many prokaryotes also encode homologs of Argonaute-PIWI proteins but their functions remain unknown. Results We present a detailed analysis of Argonaute-PIWI protein sequences and the genomic neighborhoods of the respective genes in prokaryotes. Whereas eukaryotic Ago/PIWI proteins always contain PAZ (oligonucleotide binding and PIWI (active or inactivated nuclease domains, the prokaryotic Argonaute homologs (pAgos fall into two major groups in which the PAZ domain is either present or absent. The monophyly of each group is supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved PIWI-domains. Almost all pAgos that lack a PAZ domain appear to be inactivated, and the respective genes are associated with a variety of predicted nucleases in putative operons. An additional, uncharacterized domain that is fused to various nucleases appears to be a unique signature of operons encoding the short (lacking PAZ pAgo form. By contrast, almost all PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to be active nucleases. Some proteins of this group (e.g., that from Aquifex aeolicus have been experimentally shown to possess nuclease activity, and are not typically associated with genes for other (putative nucleases. Given these observations, the apparent extensive

  14. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  15. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  16. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  17. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  18. Environmental variation partitioned into separate heritable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Rohde, Palle Duun; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2018-01-01

    Trait variation is normally separated into genetic and environmental components, yet genetic factors also control the expression of environmental variation, encompassing plasticity across environmental gradients and within-environment responses. We defined four components of environmental variation......: plasticity across environments, variability in plasticity, variation within environments, and differences in within-environment variation across environments. We assessed these components for cold tolerance across five rearing temperatures using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP...

  19. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  20. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  1. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  4. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  5. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  6. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  7. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  8. Behavior of genetic (covariance components in populations simulated from non-additive genetic models of dominance and overdominance Comportamento dos componentes de (covariância genética em populações simuladas a partir de modelos genéticos não-aditivos de dominância e sobredominância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Emídio Cunha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term behavior of the genetic variability of quantitative traits simulated from models with additive and non-additive gene action in control and phenotypic selection populations. Both traits, one with low (h² = 0.10 and the other with high (h² = 0.60 heritability, were controlled by 600 biallelic loci. From a standard genome, it was obtained six genetic models which included the following: only the additive gene effects; complete and positive dominance for 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the loci; and positive overdominance for 50% of the loci. In the models with dominance deviation, the additive allelic effects were also included for 100% of the loci. Genetic variability was quantified from generation to generation using the genetic variance components. In the absence of selection, genotypic and additive genetic variances were higher. In the models with non-additive gene action, a small magnitude covariance component raised between the additive and dominance genetic effects whose correlation tended to be positive on the control population and negative under selection. Dominance variance increased as the number of loci with dominance deviation or the value of the deviation increased, implying on the increase in genotypic and additive genetic variances among the successive models.Objetivou-se estudar a variabilidade genética a curto prazo de características quantitativas simuladas a partir de modelos com ação gênica aditiva e não-aditiva em populações controle e de seleção fenotípica. As duas características, uma de baixa (h² = 0,10 e outra de alta (h² = 0,60 herdabilidade, foram controladas por 600 locos bialélicos. A partir de um genoma-padrão, foram obtidos seis modelos genéticos que incluíram: apenas efeitos aditivos dos genes; dominância completa e positiva para 25, 50, 75 e 100% dos locos; e sobredominância positiva para 50% dos locos. Nos modelos com desvio da dominância tamb

  9. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  13. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  14. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  15. Gorduras de descarte e componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos Trim fat and external components of the body of steers and cull cows from different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Cattelan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar as proporções das diferentes gorduras de descarte e os componentes externos do corpo de novilhos e vacas de descarte 5/8Charolês (Ch 3/8Nelore (Ne e 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. A idade média dos animais ao final do período experimental foi de 23 meses para os novilhos e 68 meses para as vacas de descarte. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento até atingirem acabamento para o abate. A dieta alimentar continha relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60 (base na matéria seca, com 14,2% de proteína bruta e 2.869kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2x2 (2 categorias x 2 grupos genéticos. Houve maior peso de abate (PAB (509,67 contra 414,50kg e de corpo vazio (PCVZ (433,01 contra 355,27kg para as vacas em relação aos novilhos. Quando os componentes foram expressos em valores absolutos e ajustados para PCVZ e PAB, as vacas apresentaram maiores pesos de gordura inguinal/úbere, gordura renal e no total de gordura interna. Quando os pesos dos componentes foram ajustados para PAB e PCVZ, os novilhos foram superiores no peso da cabeça, patas, vassoura da cauda e no total dos componentes externos. Os animais 5/8Ch 3/8Ne apresentaram maior peso absoluto da cabeça e maior peso relativo ao PCVZ da gordura ruminal, em relação aos 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. Por outro lado, os 5/8N e 3/8Ch apresentaram maiores pesos relativos ao PAB e PCVZ do couro e do PAB do total de componentes externos, quando comparados aos 5/8Ch 3/8Ne. Não houve correlação entre o rendimento de carcaça e os componentes não integrantes da carcaça.The objective of this research was to evaluate the trim fat and external components of the body of two categories, steers and cull cows, from two genetic groups: 5/8 Charolais (Ch 3/8 Nellore (Ne and 5/8Ne 3/8Ch. The average age of animals at the end of the experimental period was of 23 and 68 months, for steers and cull

  16. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  17. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

  18. Trill performance components vary with age, season, and motivation in the banded wren

    OpenAIRE

    Vehrencamp, S. L.; Yantachka, J.; Hall, M. L.; de Kort, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic displays with difficult-to-execute sounds are often subject to strong sexual selection, because performance levels are related to the sender’s condition or genetic quality. Performance may also vary with age, breeding stage, and motivation related to social context. We focused on within-male variation in four components of trill performance in banded wren (Thryophilus pleurostictus) songs: note consistency, frequency bandwidth, note rate and vocal deviation. The latter is a composite...

  19. Web components and the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Maire; Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Component-based software engineering on the Web differs from traditional component and software engineering. We investigate Web component engineering activites that are crucial for the development,com position, and deployment of components on the Web. The current Web Services and Semantic Web initiatives strongly influence our work. Focussing on Web component composition we develop description and reasoning techniques that support a component developer in the composition activities,fo cussing...

  20. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  1. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  2. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  4. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  5. The Breda Study: Search for genetic factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a defined Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jonathan Hendrik Otto van

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of genetic variation underlying complex diseases in humans. The recognition that susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus has a strong inherited component provides a mechanism for developing the molecular understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes

  6. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  7. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  8. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  9. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maklakov AA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female choice by indirect genetic benefits relies on the presence of genetic variation for fitness. Female choice by genetic benefits fall broadly into good genes (additive models and compatibility (non-additive models where the strength of selection is dictated by the genetic architecture of fitness. To characterize the genetic architecture of fitness, we employed a quantitative genetic design (the diallel cross in a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is known to exhibit post-copulatory female choice. From reciprocal crosses of inbred lines, we assayed egg production, egg-to-adult survival, and lifetime offspring production of the outbred F1 daughters (F1 productivity. Results We used the bio model to estimate six components of genetic and environmental variance in fitness. We found sizeable additive and non-additive genetic variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should be inclusive and should include quantifications of offspring reproductive success. We note that our estimate of additive genetic variance in F1 productivity (CVA = 14% is sufficient to generate indirect selection on female choice. However, our results also show that the major determinant of offspring fitness is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis

  10. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  11. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.

  12. Genetic basis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolford, Johanna K; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    influenced by the relatively recent changes in diet and physical activity levels. There is also strong evidence supporting a genetic component to type 2 diabetes susceptibility and several genes underlying monogenic forms of diabetes have already been identified. However, common type 2 diabetes is likely...... and in the responsiveness to pharmacologic therapies, identification and characterization of the genetic variants underlying type 2 diabetes susceptibility will be important in the development of individualized treatment. Findings from linkage analyses, candidate gene studies, and animal models will be valuable...... in the identification of novel pathways involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and will augment our understanding of the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, which impact on type 2 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis. In addition, identification of genetic variants that determine differences...

  13. Genetic variations in multiple myeloma I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A.; Klausen, T.W.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Few risk factors have been established for the plasma cell disorder multiple myeloma, but some of these like African American ethnicity and a family history of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases suggest a genetic component for the disease. Genetic variation represents the genetic basis of variab......Few risk factors have been established for the plasma cell disorder multiple myeloma, but some of these like African American ethnicity and a family history of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases suggest a genetic component for the disease. Genetic variation represents the genetic basis...

  14. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of rapid development in Drosophila melanogaster. M. Rajamani N. Raghavendra ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster.

  15. Colony formation of C57BL/6J mice in visible burrow system: Identification of eusocial behaviors in a background strain for genetic animal models of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Deficits in social interaction are primary characteristics of autism, which has strong genetic components. Genetically-manipulated mouse models may provide a useful research tool to advance the investigation of genes associated with autism. To identify these genes using mouse models, behavioral assays for social relationships in the background strains must be developed. The present study examined colony formation in groups of one male and three female mice (Experiment 1) and, groups of three ...

  16. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  17. The genetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All definitions of the metabolic syndrome include some form of obesity as one of the possible features. Body mass index (BMI) has a known genetic component, currently estimated to account for about 70% of the population variance in weight status for non-syndromal obesity. Much research effort has be...

  18. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  20. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. A strongly interacting polaritonic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ningyuan; Schine, Nathan; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Ryou, Albert; Clark, Logan W.; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    Polaritons are promising constituents of both synthetic quantum matter1 and quantum information processors2, whose properties emerge from their components: from light, polaritons draw fast dynamics and ease of transport; from matter, they inherit the ability to collide with one another. Cavity polaritons are particularly promising as they may be confined and subjected to synthetic magnetic fields controlled by cavity geometry3, and furthermore they benefit from increased robustness due to the cavity enhancement in light-matter coupling. Nonetheless, until now, cavity polaritons have operated only in a weakly interacting mean-field regime4,5. Here we demonstrate strong interactions between individual cavity polaritons enabled by employing highly excited Rydberg atoms as the matter component of the polaritons. We assemble a quantum dot composed of approximately 150 strongly interacting Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a cavity, and observe blockaded transport of photons through it. We further observe coherent photon tunnelling oscillations, demonstrating that the dot is zero-dimensional. This work establishes the cavity Rydberg polariton as a candidate qubit in a photonic information processor and, by employing multiple resonator modes as the spatial degrees of freedom of a photonic particle, the primary ingredient to form photonic quantum matter6.

  2. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...... to the number of patients suffering from the disease. This hypothesis is based on a study of bipolar disorder....

  3. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  4. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  5. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  6. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  7. Primary prevention in patients with a strong family history of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora A

    2003-01-01

    The interplay of genetic and environmental factors places first-degree relatives of individuals with premature coronary heart disease at greater risk of developing the disease than the general population. Disease processes, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose and insulin metabolism, and lifestyle habits, such as eating and exercise patterns, as well as socioeconomic status aggregate in families with coronary heart disease. The degree of risk associated with a family history varies with the degree of relationship and the age at onset of disease. All individuals with a family history of premature heart disease should have a thorough coronary risk assessment performed, which can be initiated in an office visit. Absolute risk for coronary heart disease determination will predict the intensity of preventive interventions. This article reviews the components of risk determination and primary prevention in individuals with a strong family history of coronary heart disease.

  8. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  9. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  10. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  11. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  14. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  15. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  16. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  17. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  18. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  19. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  20. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  1. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  2. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  3. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  4. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  5. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  6. Metal binding by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning

    for zinc binding by the investigated amino acids, peptides and proteins. The thiol group or imidazole group containing amino acids, peptides and proteins which exhibited strong zinc binding ability were further selected for interacting with zinc salts in relation to zinc absorption. The interactions...... between the above selected food components and zinc citrate or zinc phytate will lead to the enhanced solubility of zinc citrate or zinc phytate. The main driving force for this observed solubility enhancement is the complex formation between zinc and investigated food components as revealed by isothermal...... titration calorimetry and quantum mechanical calculations. This is due to the zinc binding affinity of the relatively softer ligands (investigated food components) will become much stronger than citrate or phytate when they present together in aqueous solution. This mechanism indicates these food components...

  7. Recent developments in the genetics of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S

    1999-09-01

    Schizophrenia, which is also called "split personality," is a complex and multifactorial mental disorder with variable clinical manifestations. It perhaps represents several diseases and occurs throughout the world. It is a more-prevalent disorder among homeless people and is clinically characterized by hallucinations and delusions. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is not localized to a single region of the brain and the etiology of this illness is not understood. Because of its complex pattern of inheritance, genetic techniques are not readily applicable in identifying the genes responsible for this disorder. Family, twin, and adoption studies, however, provide strong but indirect support for genetic components in the etiology of schizophrenia. Extensive linkage analyses now suggest that susceptibility genes may be present on chromosomes 5q, 6p, 8p, 13q, 18p, and 22q. Identification and characterization of these and other genes, as well as non-genetic factors, is one of the greatest challenges in biomedicine. This may ultimately lead to the development of a new line of effective and safe drugs or treatments for its prevention or cure.

  8. Elevational patterns of genetic variation in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum (Bryaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Sergio; Werner, Olaf; Vanderpoorten, Alain; Magdy, Mahmoud; Ros, Rosa M

    2013-10-01

    The Baas Becking tenet posits that 'everything is everywhere, but the environment selects' to explain cosmopolitan distributions in highly vagile taxa. Bryophyte species show wider distributions than vascular plants and include examples of truly cosmopolitan ranges, which have been interpreted as a result of high dispersal capacities and ecological plasticity. In the current study, we documented patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum along an elevational gradient to determine if genetic diversity and structure is homogenized by intense migrations in the lack of ecological differentiation. • 60 specimens were collected in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain) between 100 and 2870 m and sequenced for ITS and rps4. Comparative analyses, genetic diversity estimators, and Mantel's tests were employed to determine the relationship between genetic variation, elevation, and geographic distance and to look for signs of demographic shifts. • Genetic diversity peaked above 1900 m and no signs of demographic shifts were detected at any elevation. There was a strong phylogenetic component in elevational variation. Genetic variation was significantly correlated with elevation, but not with geographic distance. • The results point to the long-term persistence of Bryum argenteum in a range that was glaciated during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for an environmentally driven pattern of genetic differentiation suggests adaptive divergence. This supports the Baas Becking tenet and indicates that ecological specialization might play a key role in explaining patterns of genetic structure in cosmopolitan mosses.

  9. A Powerful Approach to Estimating Annotation-Stratified Genetic Covariance via GWAS Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Li, Boyang; Ou, Derek; Erlendsdottir, Margret; Powles, Ryan L; Jiang, Tony; Hu, Yiming; Chang, David; Jin, Chentian; Dai, Wei; He, Qidu; Liu, Zefeng; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-12-07

    Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, we demonstrate that our method provides accurate covariance estimates, thereby enabling researchers to dissect both the shared and distinct genetic architecture across traits to better understand their etiologies. Among 50 complex traits with publicly accessible GWAS summary statistics (N total ≈ 4.5 million), we identified more than 170 pairs with statistically significant genetic covariance. In particular, we found strong genetic covariance between late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two major neurodegenerative diseases, in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high minor allele frequencies and in SNPs located in the predicted functional genome. Joint analysis of LOAD, ALS, and other traits highlights LOAD's correlation with cognitive traits and hints at an autoimmune component for ALS. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  12. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  13. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  14. Experiencing the genetic body: parents' encounters with pediatric clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry, Kelly; Skinner, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Because of advancements in genetic research and technologies, the clinical practice of genetics is becoming a prevalent component of biomedicine. As the genetic basis for more and more diseases are found, it is possible that ways of experiencing health, illness, identity, kin relations, and the body are becoming geneticized, or understood within a genetic model of disease. Yet, other models and relations that go beyond genetic explanations also shape interpretations of health and disease. This article explores how one group of individuals for whom genetic disorder is highly relevant formulates their views of the body in light of genetic knowledge. Using data from an ethnographic study of 106 parents or potential parents of children with known or suspected genetic disorders who were referred to a pediatric genetic counseling and evaluation clinic in the southeastern United States, we find that these parents do, to some degree, perceive of their children's disorders in terms of a genetic body that encompasses two principal qualities: a sense of predetermined health and illness and an awareness of a profound historicity that reaches into the past and extends into the present and future. They experience this genetic body as both fixed and historical, but they also express ideas of a genetic body made less deterministic by their own efforts and future possibilities. This account of parents' experiences with genetics and clinical practice contributes to a growing body of work on the ways in which genetic information and technologies are transforming popular and medical notions of the body, and with it, health, illness, kinship relations, and personal and social identities.

  15. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing statistically-based genetics problems. This issue is at the emerging edge of modern college-level genetics instruction, and this study attempts to identify key theoretical components for creating a specialized biological statistics curriculum. The goal of this curriculum will be to prepare biology students with the skills for assimilating quantitatively-based genetic processes, increasingly at the forefront of modern genetics. To fulfill this, two college level classes at two universities were surveyed. One university was located in the northeastern US and the other in the West Indies. There was a sample size of 42 students and a supplementary interview was administered to a select 9 students. Interviews were also administered to professors in the field in order to gain insight into the teaching of statistics in genetics. Key findings indicated that students had very little to no background in statistics (55%). Although students did perform well on exams with 60% of the population receiving an A or B grade, 77% of them did not offer good explanations on a probability question associated with the normal distribution provided in the survey. The scope and presentation of the applicable statistics/mathematics in some of the most used textbooks in genetics teaching, as well as genetics syllabi used by instructors do not help the issue. It was found that the text books, often times, either did not give effective explanations for students, or completely left out certain topics. The omission of certain statistical/mathematical oriented topics was seen to be also true with the genetics syllabi reviewed for this study. Nonetheless

  16. Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.

  17. Human genetics as a tool to identify progranulin regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alexandra M; Finch, NiCole A; Rademakers, Rosa

    2011-11-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects individuals under the age of 65. It is known that the most common pathological subtype is FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). FTLD has a strong genetic component with about 50% of cases having a positive family history. Mutations identified in the progranulin gene (GRN) have been shown to cause FTLD-TDP as a result of progranulin haploinsufficiency. These findings suggest a progranulin-dependent mechanism in this pathological FTLD subtype. Thus, identifying regulators of progranulin levels is essential for new therapies and treatments for FTLD and related disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of genetic studies in identifying progranulin regulators, beginning with the discovery of pathogenic GRN mutations and additional GRN risk variants. We also cover more recent genetic advances, including the detection of variants in the transmembrane protein 106 B gene that increase FTLD-TDP risk presumably by modulating progranulin levels and the identification of a potential progranulin receptor, sortilin. This review highlights the importance of genetic studies in the context of FTLD and further emphasizes the need for future genetic and cell biology research to continue the effort in finding a cure for progranulin-related diseases.

  18. Crystal Genetics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Bahram G

    2016-07-01

    Crystal Genetics, Inc. is an early-stage genetic test company, focused on achieving the highest possible clinical-grade accuracy and comprehensiveness for detecting germline (e.g., in hereditary cancer) and somatic (e.g., in early cancer detection) mutations. Crystal's mission is to significantly improve the health status of the population, by providing high accuracy, comprehensive, flexible and affordable genetic tests, primarily in cancer. Crystal's philosophy is that when it comes to detecting mutations that are strongly correlated with life-threatening diseases, the detection accuracy of every single mutation counts: a single false-positive error could cause severe anxiety for the patient. And, more importantly, a single false-negative error could potentially cost the patient's life. Crystal's objective is to eliminate both of these error types.

  19. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  20. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  1. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  2. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  3. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole F; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Over recent years, statistical support for the presence of genetic factors operating at the level of the environmental variance has come from fitting a genetically structured heterogeneous variance model to field or experimental data in various species. Misleading results may arise due to skewness of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box-Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box-Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis in the original metric. In the pig data, the statistical evidence is stronger, but the coefficient of correlation between additive genetic effects affecting mean and variance changes sign, compared to the results in the untransformed scale. The study confirms that inferences on variances can be strongly affected by the presence of asymmetry in the distribution of data. We recommend that to avoid one important source of spurious inferences, future work seeking support for a genetic component acting on environmental variation using a parametric approach based on normality assumptions confirms that these are met.

  4. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  5. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  7. An Introductory Review of Parallel Independent Component Analysis (p-ICA and a Guide to Applying p-ICA to Genetic Data and Imaging Phenotypes to Identify Disease-Associated Biological Pathways and Systems in Common Complex Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey D Pearlson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010. Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g. genome wide association (GWA. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e. simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information independent component analysis (p-ICA, which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method.

  8. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  9. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  10. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  11. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  12. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  13. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  14. Principal component analysis (PCA of volatile terpene compounds dataset emitted by genetically modified sweet orange fruits and juices in which a D-limonene synthase was either up- or down-regulated vs. empty vector controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorized the dataset from content and emission of terpene volatiles of peel and juice in both Navelina and Pineapple sweet orange cultivars in which D-limonene was either up- (S, down-regulated (AS or non-altered (EV; control (“Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception”(A. Rodríguez, J.E. Peris, A. Redondo, T. Shimada, E. Costell, I. Carbonell, C. Rojas, L. Peña, (2016 [1]. Data from volatile identification and quantification by HS-SPME and GC–MS were classified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA individually or as chemical groups. AS juice was characterized by the higher influence of the oxygen fraction, and S juice by the major influence of ethyl esters. S juices emitted less linalool compared to AS and EV juices.

  15. Loss of genetic diversity in Maculinea populations over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Lomborg, Andreas Eg

    I will present the results of research on the population genetics of Maculinea alcon and M. arion in Southern scandinavia, which shows a strong decrease in genetic diversity in most populations, even if those populations are apparently otherwise healthy....

  16. Genetic Counseling and Evaluation for BRCA1/2 Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Options Talking to Family Family Stories Diseases Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Recommend on ... mutation, your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. Understanding and dealing with a strong family health ...

  17. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  18. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  19. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  20. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  1. Off-fault tip splay networks: a genetic and generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation, and a major component of off-fault damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Faults grow over the long-term by accumulating displacement and lengthening, i.e., propagating laterally. We use fault maps and fault propagation evidences available in literature to examine geometrical relations between parent faults and off-fault splays. The population includes 47 worldwide crustal faults with lengths from millimeters to thousands of kilometers and of different slip modes. We show that fault splays form adjacent to any propagating fault tip, whereas they are absent at non-propagating fault ends. Independent of parent fault length, slip mode, context, etc, tip splay networks have a similar fan shape widening in direction of long-term propagation, a similar relative length and width (~30 and ~10 % of parent fault length, respectively), and a similar range of mean angles to parent fault (10-20°). Tip splays more commonly develop on one side only of the parent fault. We infer that tip splay networks are a genetic and a generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation. We suggest that they represent the most recent damage off-the parent fault, formed during the most recent phase of fault lengthening. The scaling relation between parent fault length and width of tip splay network implies that damage zones enlarge as parent fault length increases. Elastic properties of host rocks might thus be modified at large distances away from a fault, up to 10% of its length. During an earthquake, a significant fraction of coseismic slip and stress is dissipated into the permanent damage zone that surrounds the causative fault. We infer that coseismic dissipation might occur away from a rupture zone as far as a distance of 10% of the length of its causative fault. Coseismic deformations and stress transfers might thus be significant in broad regions about principal rupture traces. This work has been published in Comptes Rendus Geoscience under doi:10.1016/j.crte.2015.05.002 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631071315000528).

  2. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Resilience and lessons from studies in genetics of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, I

    2017-04-01

    Production environments are expected to change, mostly to a hotter climate but also possibly more extreme and drier. Can the current generation of farm animals cope with the changes or should it be specifically selected for changing conditions? In general, genetic selection produces animals with a smaller environmental footprint but also with smaller environmental flexibility. Some answers are coming from heat-stress research across species, with heat tolerance partly understood as a greater environmental flexibility. Specific studies in various species show the complexities of defining and selecting for heat tolerance. In Holsteins, the genetic component for effect of heat stress on production approximately doubles in second and quadruples in third parity. Cows with elevated body temperature have the greatest production under heat stress but probably are at risk for increased mortality. In hot but less intensive environments, the effect of heat stress on production is minimal, although the negative effect on fertility remains. Mortality peaks under heat stress and increases with parity. In Angus, the effect of heat stress is stronger only in selected regions, probably because of adaptation of calving seasons to local conditions and crossbreeding. Genetically, the direct effect shows variability because of heat stress, but the maternal effect does not, probably because dams shield calves from environmental challenges. In pigs, the effect of heat stress is strong for commercial farms but almost nothing for nucleus farms, which have lower pig density and better heat abatement. Under intensive management, heat stress is less evident in drier environments because of more efficient cooling. A genetic component of heat stress exists, but it is partly masked by improving management and selection based on data from elite farms. Genetic selection may provide superior identification of heat-tolerant animals, but a few cycles may be needed for clear results. Also, simple

  3. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  4. The rRNA methyltransferase Bud23 shows functional interaction with components of the SSU processome and RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Richa; White, Joshua P; Johnson, Arlen W

    2013-06-01

    Bud23 is responsible for the conserved methylation of G1575 of 18S rRNA, in the P-site of the small subunit of the ribosome. bud23Δ mutants have severely reduced small subunit levels and show a general failure in cleavage at site A2 during rRNA processing. Site A2 is the primary cleavage site for separating the precursors of 18S and 25S rRNAs. Here, we have taken a genetic approach to identify the functional environment of BUD23. We found mutations in UTP2 and UTP14, encoding components of the SSU processome, as spontaneous suppressors of a bud23Δ mutant. The suppressors improved growth and subunit balance and restored cleavage at site A2. In a directed screen of 50 ribosomal trans-acting factors, we identified strong positive and negative genetic interactions with components of the SSU processome and strong negative interactions with components of RNase MRP. RNase MRP is responsible for cleavage at site A3 in pre-rRNA, an alternative cleavage site for separating the precursor rRNAs. The strong negative genetic interaction between RNase MRP mutants and bud23Δ is likely due to the combined defects in cleavage at A2 and A3. Our results suggest that Bud23 plays a role at the time of A2 cleavage, earlier than previously thought. The genetic interaction with the SSU processome suggests that Bud23 could be involved in triggering disassembly of the SSU processome, or of particular subcomplexes of the processome.

  5. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  6. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  7. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Istanbul has a 65% chance of having a magnitude 7 or above earthquake within the next 30 years. As part of the preparations for the future earthquake, strong motion networks have been installed in and around Istanbul. The Marmara Strong Motion Network, operated by the Department of Earthquake Engineering of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, encompasses permanent systems outlined below. It is envisaged that the networks will be run by a single entity responsible for technical management and maintanence, as well as for data management, archiving and dissemination through dedicated web-based interfaces. • Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System - IERREWS (one hundred 18-bit accelerometers for rapid response; ten 24-bit accelerometers for early warning) • IGDAŞ Gas Shutoff Network (100 accelerometers to be installed in 2010 and integrated with IERREWS) • Structural Monitoring Arrays - Fatih Sultan Mehmet Suspension Bridge (1200m-long suspension bridge across the Bosphorus, five 3-component accelerometers + GPS sensors) - Hagia Sophia Array (1500-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Süleymaniye Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers) - Fatih Mosque Array (237-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers) - Kanyon Building Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - Isbank Tower Array (high-rise office building, 5 accelerometers) - ENRON Array (power generation facility, 4 acelerometers) - Mihrimah Sultan Mosque Array (450-year-old historical edifice,9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) - Sultanahmet Mosque Array, (390-year-old historical edifice, 9 accelerometers + tiltmeters, to be installed in 2009) • Special Arrays - Atakoy Vertical Array (four 3-component accelerometers at 25, 50, 75, and 150 m depths) - Marmara Tube Tunnel (1400 m long submerged tunnel, 128 ch. accelerometric data, 24 ch. strain data, to be installed in 2010) - Air-Force Academy

  8. The capture of heritable variation for genetic quality through social competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Harris, W Edwin; Royle, Nick J

    2008-09-01

    In theory, females of many species choose mates based on traits that are indicators of male genetic quality. A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is why genetic variation for such indicator traits persists despite strong persistent selection imposed by female preference, which is known as the lek paradox. One potential solution to the lek paradox suggests that the traits that are targets of mate choice should evolve condition-dependent expression and that condition should have a large genetic variance. Condition is expected to exhibit high genetic variance because it is affected by a large number of physiological processes and hence, condition-dependent traits should 'capture' variation contributed by a large number of loci. We suggest that a potentially important cause of variation in condition is competition for limited resources. Here, we discuss a pair of models to analyze the evolutionary genetics of traits affected by success in social competition for resources. We show that competition can contribute to genetic variation of 'competition-dependent' traits that have fundamentally different evolutionary properties than other sources of variation. Competition dependence can make traits honest indicators of genetic quality by revealing the relative competitive ability of males, can provide a component of heritable variation that does not contribute to trait evolution, and can help maintain heritable variation under directional selection. Here we provide a general introduction to the concept of competition dependence and briefly introduce two models to demonstrate the potential evolutionary consequences of competition-dependent trait expression.

  9. Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.

    2018-05-01

    Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.

  10. Evolutionary genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard Smith, John

    1989-01-01

    .... It differs from other textbooks of population genetics in applying the basic theory to topics, such as social behaviour, molecular evolution, reiterated DNA, and sex, which are the main subjects...

  11. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  12. Arthropod Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalde, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on arthropod genetics that involves phenotype and genotype identification of the creature and the construction process. Includes a list of required materials and directions to build a model arthropod. (YDS)

  13. Desktop Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learni...

  14. Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    In this work, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the genetic ... Key words: Vitis vinifera L., simple sequence repeat (SSR), genetic diversity, .... The data were used for the following statistical analyses.

  15. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  16. [Genetics and epigenetics in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Atsuo; Masaki, Shiego; Aoki, Eiko

    2006-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted, stereotyped interests and behaviors. Several lines of evidence support the contention that genetic factors are a large component to autism etiology. However, in spite of vigorous genetic studies, no single causative or susceptibility gene common in autism has been identified. Thus multiple susceptibility genes in interaction are considered to account for the disorder. Furthermore, environmental risk factors can accelerate the autism development of. Recent advances in understanding the epigenetic regulation may shed light on the interaction among multiple genetic factors and environmental factors.

  17. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVean, Gil

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  18. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  19. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  20. Genetic determination of mortality rate in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel; Ask, Birgitte; Madsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    : a sire random component with pedigree representing the sire genetic effects and a herd-year-season component. Moreover, the level of heterozygosity and the sire breed proportions were included in the models as covariates in order to account for potential non-additive genetic effects due to the massive...... introduction of genetic material from other populations. The correlations between the sire components for death rate and slaughter rate were negative and small for the 3 populations, suggesting the existence of specific genetic mechanisms for each culling reason and common concurrent genetic mechanisms...

  1. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  2. EXPLOITATION OF GENETIC POTENTIAL OF SWEETPOTATO FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is a staple food globally, but it has remained ... The strong positive genetic association between dry matter and starch .... Storage roots selected were approximately 3 cm ...... gelatinisation properties.

  3. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  4. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong_cqupt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  5. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box–Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed...... in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box–Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis...... in the original metric. In the pig data, the statistical evidence is stronger, but the coefficient of correlation between additive genetic effects affecting mean and variance changes sign, compared to the results in the untransformed scale. The study confirms that inferences on variances can be strongly affected...

  6. Componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos para caracteres produtivos à desmama de bezerros Angus criados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Covariance components and genetic parameters for weaning production traits of Angus calves raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Flores Cardoso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos para peso ao nascer (PN, ganho do nascimento à desmama (G205 e escores de conformação (CD, precocidade de terminação (GD, musculatura (MD e tamanho (TD à desmama, utilizando-se registros de desmama de 40.915 bezerros Angus, criados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Desses, 12.706 tinham pesagem ao nascer e 11.863, avaliação completa para escores visuais (EV. Os dados foram analisados por meio de um modelo animal, em análises uni e multivariadas, e os componentes de variância estimados pela máxima verossimilhança restrita. As herdabilidades aditivas diretas estimadas foram 0,29; 0,25; 0,18; 0,19; 0,19; e 0,21, respectivamente, para PN, G205, CD, GD, MD e TD. A herdabilidade materna para G205 foi 0,16 e a correlação entre efeito genético direto e materno, -0,51. Essa correlação negativa indica antagonismo entre esses efeitos e provocou decréscimo na herdabilidade total para G205, que foi 0,18. A contribuição do ambiente permanente da vaca para a variância fenotípica esteve entre um mínimo de 0,05 para PN e máximo de 0,12 para G205. A correlação genética entre PN e G205 foi --0,06, mostrando que estes caracteres são independentes geneticamente. As correlações genéticas encontradas entre G205 e EV foram entre 0,71 e 0,86 e de EV entre si, 0,58 a 0,91. Essas associações positivas entre os escores visuais e destes com o crescimento na fase pré-desmama favorecem a seleção conjunta destes caracteres, por meio de índices de seleção.(Co variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW, adjusted weaning gain (AWG and for conformation (WC, precocity (WP, muscling (WM and size (WS scores at weaning were estimated, from records of 40,915 Angus calves, raised in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. From that data, 12,706 had birth weight records and 11,863 had complete records for visual scores (VS. The data were

  7. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  8. Genetic evolution, plasticity, and bet-hedging as adaptive responses to temporally autocorrelated fluctuating selection: A quantitative genetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufto, Jarle

    2015-08-01

    Adaptive responses to autocorrelated environmental fluctuations through evolution in mean reaction norm elevation and slope and an independent component of the phenotypic variance are analyzed using a quantitative genetic model. Analytic approximations expressing the mutual dependencies between all three response modes are derived and solved for the joint evolutionary outcome. Both genetic evolution in reaction norm elevation and plasticity are favored by slow temporal fluctuations, with plasticity, in the absence of microenvironmental variability, being the dominant evolutionary outcome for reasonable parameter values. For fast fluctuations, tracking of the optimal phenotype through genetic evolution and plasticity is limited. If residual fluctuations in the optimal phenotype are large and stabilizing selection is strong, selection then acts to increase the phenotypic variance (bet-hedging adaptive). Otherwise, canalizing selection occurs. If the phenotypic variance increases with plasticity through the effect of microenvironmental variability, this shifts the joint evolutionary balance away from plasticity in favor of genetic evolution. If microenvironmental deviations experienced by each individual at the time of development and selection are correlated, however, more plasticity evolves. The adaptive significance of evolutionary fluctuations in plasticity and the phenotypic variance, transient evolution, and the validity of the analytic approximations are investigated using simulations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Equilibrium statistical mechanics of strongly coupled plasmas by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical experiments using the Monte Carlo method have led to systematic and accurate results for the thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled one-component plasmas and mixtures of two nuclear components. These talks are intended to summarize the results of Monte Carlo simulations from Paris and from Livermore. Simple analytic expressions for the equation of state and other thermodynamic functions have been obtained in which there is a clear distinction between a lattice-like static portion and a thermal portion. The thermal energy for the one-component plasma has a simple power dependence on temperature, (kT)/sup 3 / 4 /, that is identical to Monte Carlo results obtained for strongly coupled fluids governed by repulsive l/r/sup n/ potentials. For two-component plasmas the ion-sphere model is shown to accurately represent the static portion of the energy. Electron screening is included in the Monte Carlo simulations using linear response theory and the Lindhard dielectric function. Free energy expressions have been constructed for one and two component plasmas that allow easy computation of all thermodynamic functions

  10. Improvement of ECM Techniques through Implementation of a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Townsend, James D

    2008-01-01

    This research effort develops the necessary interfaces between the radar signal processing components and an optimization routine, such as genetic algorithms, to develop Electronic Countermeasure (ECM...

  11. Desktop Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learning techniques can transform this information into a cognitive therapeutic development tool that will revolutionize medicine.

  12. Diffraction analysis of materials under strong plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of X-ray diffraction in analyses of the microstructure texture and intrinsic stresses of materials under strong plastic deformation is illustrated by examples and discussed. The experimental methods and findings are supplemented by numeric calculations. It is shown how the microstructure, texture and intrinsic stresses can thus be optimized already in the production process. Analyses of changes in materials during operation of a component provide information on loads and material response to loads which can then be used for optimization of the component, e.g. by constructional modifications or selective heat treatment [de

  13. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  14. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  15. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  16. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  17. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  18. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  19. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  20. Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bal Krishna Joshi; Dhruba Bahadur Thapa; Madan Raj Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correla...

  1. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the booklet. » more Chapter 1: How Genes Work Covers DNA, RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » ...

  2. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  3. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  4. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance

  5. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  6. LDA+DMFT Approach to Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Strong Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xin Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges posed by the need of finding strong rare-earth-free magnets demand methods that can predict magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE. We argue that correlated electron effects, which are normally underestimated in band-structure calculations, play a crucial role in the development of the orbital component of the magnetic moments. Because magnetic anisotropy arises from this orbital component, the ability to include correlation effects has profound consequences on our predictive power of the MAE of strong magnets. Here, we show that incorporating the local effects of electronic correlations with dynamical mean-field theory provides reliable estimates of the orbital moment, the mass enhancement, and the MAE of YCo_{5}.

  7. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  8. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. Jinping Wang. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 91 Issue 3 December 2012 pp 303-312 Research Article. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components · Lin Wang Fa Cui Jinping Wang Li Jun Anming Ding Chunhua ...

  9. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Abrahamson, S.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major classes of genetic diseases that would be increased as a result of an increased gonadal radiation exposure to a human population. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The major classes of genetic disease will be induced at different frequencies, and will also impact differentially in terms of survivability and fertility on the affected individuals and their descendants. Some classes of disease will be expected to persist for only a few generations at most. Other types of genetic disease will persist through a longer period. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. For each of these classes we have derived the general equations of mutation induction for the male and female germ cells of critical importance in the mutation process. The frequency of induced mutations will be determined initially by the dose received, the type of radiation and, to some extent at high dose, by the manner in which the dose is received. We have used the modeling analyses to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population receives a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50-year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives an acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations

  10. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Equation of state of strongly coupled plasma mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled (high density) plasmas of mixtures of light elements have been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For an assumed uniform charge background the equation of state of ionic mixtures is a simple extension of the one-component plasma EOS. More realistic electron screening effects are treated in linear response theory and with an appropriate electron dielectric function. Results have been obtained for the ionic pair distribution functions, and for the electric microfield distribution

  12. Variable-number-of-tandem-repeats analysis of genetic diversity in Pasteuria ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, L; Ebert, D

    2008-05-01

    Variable-number-of-tandem-repeats (VNTR) markers are increasingly being used in population genetic studies of bacteria. They were recently developed for Pasteuria ramosa, an endobacterium that infects Daphnia species. In the present study, we genotyped P. ramosa in 18 infected hosts from the United Kingdom, Belgium, and two lakes in the United States using seven VNTR markers. Two Daphnia species were collected: D. magna and D. dentifera. Six loci showed length polymorphism, with as many as five alleles identified for a single locus. Similarity coefficient calculations showed that the extent of genetic variation between pairs of isolates within populations differed according to the population, but it was always less than the genetic distances among populations. Analysis of the genetic distances performed using principal component analysis revealed strong clustering by location of origin, but not by host Daphnia species. Our study demonstrated that the VNTR markers available for P. ramosa are informative in revealing genetic differences within and among populations and may therefore become an important tool for providing detailed analysis of population genetics and epidemiology.

  13. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  14. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  15. A parallel attractor-finding algorithm based on Boolean satisfiability for genetic regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Guo

    Full Text Available In biological systems, the dynamic analysis method has gained increasing attention in the past decade. The Boolean network is the most common model of a genetic regulatory network. The interactions of activation and inhibition in the genetic regulatory network are modeled as a set of functions of the Boolean network, while the state transitions in the Boolean network reflect the dynamic property of a genetic regulatory network. A difficult problem for state transition analysis is the finding of attractors. In this paper, we modeled the genetic regulatory network as a Boolean network and proposed a solving algorithm to tackle the attractor finding problem. In the proposed algorithm, we partitioned the Boolean network into several blocks consisting of the strongly connected components according to their gradients, and defined the connection between blocks as decision node. Based on the solutions calculated on the decision nodes and using a satisfiability solving algorithm, we identified the attractors in the state transition graph of each block. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked on a variety of genetic regulatory networks. Compared with existing algorithms, it achieved similar performance on small test cases, and outperformed it on larger and more complex ones, which happens to be the trend of the modern genetic regulatory network. Furthermore, while the existing satisfiability-based algorithms cannot be parallelized due to their inherent algorithm design, the proposed algorithm exhibits a good scalability on parallel computing architectures.

  16. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS, and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY and Tongling (TL and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Critically Endangered Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as Revealed by Mitochondrial and Microsatellite DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minmin; Zheng, Jinsong; Wu, Min; Ruan, Rui; Zhao, Qingzhong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Ecological surveys have indicated that the population of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP, Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is becoming increasingly small and fragmented, and will be at high risk of extinction in the near future. Genetic conservation of this population will be an important component of the long-term conservation effort. We used a 597 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 11 microsatellite loci to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the YFP. The analysis of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci suggested that the genetic diversity of the YFP will possibly decrease in the future if the population keeps declining at a rapid rate, even though these two types of markers revealed different levels of genetic diversity. In addition, mtDNA revealed strong genetic differentiation between one local population, Xingchang–Shishou (XCSS), and the other five downstream local populations; furthermore, microsatellite DNA unveiled fine but significant genetic differentiation between three of the local populations (not only XCSS but also Poyang Lake (PY) and Tongling (TL)) and the other local populations. With an increasing number of distribution gaps appearing in the Yangtze main steam, the genetic differentiation of local populations will likely intensify in the future. The YFP is becoming a genetically fragmented population. Therefore, we recommend attention should be paid to the genetic conservation of the YFP. PMID:24968271

  19. Assessing the impact of a combined analysis of four common low-risk genetic variants on autism risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carayol Jerome

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a complex disorder characterized by deficits involving communication, social interaction, and repetitive and restrictive patterns of behavior. Twin studies have shown that autism is strongly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. In other disease states with a complex etiology, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease, combined analysis of multiple genetic variants in a genetic score has helped to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Genetic scores are designed to test for association of genetic markers with disease. Method The accumulation of multiple risk alleles markedly increases the risk of being affected, and compared with studying polymorphisms individually, it improves the identification of subgroups of individuals at greater risk. In the present study, we show that this approach can be applied to autism by specifically looking at a high-risk population of children who have siblings with autism. A two-sample study design and the generation of a genetic score using multiple independent genes were used to assess the risk of autism in a high-risk population. Results In both samples, odds ratios (ORs increased significantly as a function of the number of risk alleles, with a genetic score of 8 being associated with an OR of 5.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45 to 12.49. The sensitivities and specificities for each genetic score were similar in both analyses, and the resultant area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were identical (0.59. Conclusions These results suggest that the accumulation of multiple risk alleles in a genetic score is a useful strategy for assessing the risk of autism in siblings of affected individuals, and may be better than studying single polymorphisms for identifying subgroups of individuals with significantly greater risk.

  20. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  1. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  3. An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, R Fredrik; West, Stuart; Buckling, Angus

    2014-02-01

    Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that cooperative punishers can indeed invade cheats, but only when the traits are tightly linked. These results emphasize that punishment is only likely to be favoured when the punishment itself leads to a direct or indirect fitness benefit to the actor.

  4. Effects of functionally asexual reproduction on quantitative genetic variation in the evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Ryan M; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-11-01

    It has long been predicted that a loss of sexual reproduction leads to decreased heritable variation within populations and increased differentiation between populations. Despite an abundance of theory, there are few empirical tests of how sex affects genetic variation in phenotypic traits, especially for plants. Here we test whether repeated losses of two critical components of sex (recombination and segregation) in the evening primroses (Oenothera L., Onagraceae) affect quantitative genetic variation within and between populations. We sampled multiple genetic families from 3-5 populations from each of eight Oenothera species, which represented four independent transitions between sexual reproduction and a functionally asexual genetic system called "permanent translocation heterozygosity." We used quantitative genetics methods to partition genetic variation within and between populations for eight plant traits related to growth, leaf physiology, flowering, and resistance to herbivores. Heritability was, on average, 74% higher in sexual Oenothera populations than in functionally asexual populations, with plant growth rate, specific leaf area, and the percentage of leaf water content showing the strongest differences. By contrast, genetic differentiation among populations was 2.8× higher in functionally asexual vs. sexual Oenothera species. This difference was particularly strong for specific leaf area. Sexual populations tended to exhibit higher genetic correlations among traits, but this difference was weakly supported. These results support the prediction that sexual reproduction maintains higher genetic variation within populations, which may facilitate adaptive evolution. We also found partial support for the prediction that a loss of sex leads to greater population differentiation, which may elevate speciation rates. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Components of the Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint Pathway in Fission Yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadura, Shelia

    2001-01-01

    .... The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is a useful system for discovering and characterizing components of this regulatory pathway because genetic approaches can be coupled with excellent cytology...

  6. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Malignant renal cysts: Diagnostic performance and strong predictors at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Kon; Cho, Kyoung-Sik; Min, Gyeong-Eun; Ahn, Han-Jong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Utilization of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) is anticipated to improve the diagnostic accuracy and reliability for determining malignant cysts. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy, interobserver agreement, benefit of consensus reading, and strong predictors of malignancy in determining malignant cystic renal masses at MDCT. Material and Methods: Two radiologists independently rated the probability of malignancy at MDCT in 72 benign and 53 malignant cysts. The accuracy and interobserver agreement for determining malignant cysts were evaluated. The strong predictors of malignancy were determined, and in patients with interobserver disagreement for determining malignant cysts, consensus readings were performed. Results: Az value of the two readers was 0.905-0.936 and the sensitivity and specificity were 85-89% and 83-93%, respectively. The overall interobserver agreement for determining the malignant cyst was good as the κ value was 0.696 (% agreement, 61% (76/125)). Thickened irregular wall, thickened irregular septa, and enhancing soft tissue component were strong predictors for malignancy with both readers. In the 17 patients with interobserver disagreement for determining malignant cysts, the sensitivity was improved from 38-63% to 89% by the consensus reading. Conclusion: At MDCT, some false negative decisions for determining malignant cysts can be corrected by consensus reading, and thickened irregular septa, thickened irregular wall, and enhancing soft tissue component are the strong predictors of malignant cysts

  8. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model’s prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF. Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain—the heat control unit of a spacecraft—where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  9. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  10. Diagnosing a Strong-Fault Model by Conflict and Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhou, Gan; Feng, Wenquan

    2018-03-29

    The diagnosis method for a weak-fault model with only normal behaviors of each component has evolved over decades. However, many systems now demand a strong-fault models, the fault modes of which have specific behaviors as well. It is difficult to diagnose a strong-fault model due to its non-monotonicity. Currently, diagnosis methods usually employ conflicts to isolate possible fault and the process can be expedited when some observed output is consistent with the model's prediction where the consistency indicates probably normal components. This paper solves the problem of efficiently diagnosing a strong-fault model by proposing a novel Logic-based Truth Maintenance System (LTMS) with two search approaches based on conflict and consistency. At the beginning, the original a strong-fault model is encoded by Boolean variables and converted into Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). Then the proposed LTMS is employed to reason over CNF and find multiple minimal conflicts and maximal consistencies when there exists fault. The search approaches offer the best candidate efficiency based on the reasoning result until the diagnosis results are obtained. The completeness, coverage, correctness and complexity of the proposals are analyzed theoretically to show their strength and weakness. Finally, the proposed approaches are demonstrated by applying them to a real-world domain-the heat control unit of a spacecraft-where the proposed methods are significantly better than best first and conflict directly with A* search methods.

  11. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  12. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  13. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection.

  14. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling analyses are used to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population received a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50 year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  15. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Corresponding author: kamara.nabieu@yahoo.com. (Received 1 February, 2017; accepted 16 November, 2017). ABSTRACT. The number one goal of most rice ...

  16. (Co) variance Components and Genetic Parameter Estimates for Re

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapula

    The magnitude of heritability estimates obtained in the current study ... traits were recently introduced to supplement progeny testing programmes or for usage as sole source of ..... VCE-5 User's Guide and Reference Manual Version 5.1.

  17. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  18. Genetic basis of some yield components in gossypium hirsutum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Azhar, F.M.; Khan, I.A.; Rana, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 diallel analysis was conducted to study the inheritance of seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight in Gossypium hirsutum L. using combining ability technique. The analysis of the data revealed that variance due to specific combining ability was significant for all the three traits signifying the importance of non additive gene action. The comparison of the parents showed that NF-801-2-37 was the best general combiner for seed cotton yield, number of bolls and boll weight followed by Acala-63-75. Best hybrid combinations identified were Acala-63-75 * NF-801-2-37 for seed cotton yield and DPL-61 * NF-801-2-37 for number of bolls and boll weight. Higher proportion of dominance variance in all three traits suggested delayed selection or use of heterosis breeding in crop improvement programs. (author)

  19. Modeling of genetic algorithms with a finite population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.M. van Kemenade

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCross-competition between non-overlapping building blocks can strongly influence the performance of evolutionary algorithms. The choice of the selection scheme can have a strong influence on the performance of a genetic algorithm. This paper describes a number of different genetic

  20. Genetic Causes of Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Ahmet O.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Over the past decade, genetic tests have become available for numerous heritable disorders, especially those whose inheritance follows the Mendelian model. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent a group of developmental disorders with a strong genetic basis. During the past few years, genetic research in ASDs has been successful in…

  1. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  2. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  3. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune-related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS.

  4. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  5. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  6. Component Structure of Individual Differences in True and False Recognition of Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C.; Shastri, Kalyan K.; Abdi, Herve; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Principal-component analyses of 4 face-recognition studies uncovered 2 independent components. The first component was strongly related to false-alarm errors with new faces as well as to facial "conjunctions" that recombine features of previously studied faces. The second component was strongly related to hits as well as to the conjunction/new…

  7. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  8. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  9. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  10. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  11. Diet, Cardiometabolic Factors and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent condition and is associated with a number of metabolic risk factors such as excess of weight, impaired lipid profile and higher levels of blood pressure. As other complex diseases, it is strongly related to an environmental component such as sedentarism and unhealthy diet, and also to a genetic component. A cluster of variants (polymorphisms) in a large number of genes seem to interact with nutrients/dietary factors in modulating cardiometabolic parameters in healthy individuals. The role of total calories intake and also different kind of carbohydrates and dietary fats in worsening the excess of weight and/or metabolic profile in patients with diabetes is well known, but the extent to which genetic factors can modify these associations is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this mini-review is to discuss the interaction of genetics and diet in the T2DM setting, since both are strongly involved in the genesis and development of the disease.

  12. Genetic variation in dieback resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; McKinney, Lea Vig

    2014-01-01

    -eastern Zealand, Denmark, and confirmed the presence of substantial genetic variation in ash dieback susceptibility. The average crown damage increased in the trial from 61% in 2009 to 66% in 2012 and 72% in 2014, while the estimated heritability was 0.42 in both 2009 and 2012 but increased to 0.53 in 2014....... Genetic correlation between assessments was 0.88 between 2009 and 2012 and 0.91 between 2009 and 2014, suggesting fairly good possibilities for early selection of superior genotypes in the presence of high infection levels in the trial. The level of crown damage had strong negative effect on growth...

  13. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  14. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  15. Explosion source strong ground motions in the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, C.A.; Bodin, P.; Powell, C.; Withers, M.; Horton, S.; Mooney, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two strong-motion arrays were deployed for the October 2002 Embayment Seismic Excitation Experiment to study the spatial variation of strong ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment because there are no comparable strong-motion data from natural earthquakes in the area. Each linear array consisted of eight three-component K2 accelerographs spaced 15 m apart situated 1.2 and 2.5 kin from 2268-kg and 1134-kg borehole explosion sources, respectively. The array data show distinct body-wave and surface-wave arrivals that propagate within the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary column, the high-velocity basement rocks, and small-scale structure near the surface. Time-domain coherence of body-wave and surface-wave arrivals is computed for acceleration, velocity, and displacement time windows. Coherence is high for relatively low-frequency verticalcomponent Rayleigh waves and high-frequency P waves propagating across the array. Prominent high-frequency PS conversions seen on radial components, a proxy for the direct S wave from earthquake sources, lose coherence quickly over the 105-m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed by using the ratio of particle velocity to estimates of the strain based on a plane-wave-propagation model. The resulting time-dependent phase-velocity map is a useful way to infer the propagation mechanisms of individual seismic phases and time windows of three-component waveforms. Displacement gradient analysis is a complementary technique for processing general spatial-array data to obtain horizontal slowness information.

  16. Disentangling privacy from property: toward a deeper understanding of genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2004-04-01

    With the mapping of the human genome, genetic privacy has become a concern to many. People care about genetic privacy because genes play an important role in shaping us--our genetic information is about us, and it is deeply connected to our sense of ourselves. In addition, unwanted disclosure of our genetic information, like a great deal of other personal information, makes us vulnerable to unwanted exposure, stigmatization, and discrimination. One recent approach to protecting genetic privacy is to create property rights in genetic information. This Article argues against that approach. Privacy and property are fundamentally different concepts. At heart, the term "property" connotes control within the marketplace and over something that is disaggregated or alienable from the self. "Privacy," in contrast, connotes control over access to the self as well as things close to, intimately connected to, and about the self. Given these different meanings, a regime of property rights in genetic information would impoverish our understanding of that information, ourselves, and the relationships we hope will be built around and through its disclosure. This Article explores our interests in genetic information in order to deepen our understanding of the ongoing discourse about the distinction between property and privacy. It develops a conception of genetic privacy with a strong relational component. We ordinarily share genetic information in the context of relationships in which disclosure is important to the relationship--family, intimate, doctor-patient, researcher-participant, employer-employee, and insurer-insured relationships. Such disclosure makes us vulnerable to and dependent on the person to whom we disclose it. As a result, trust is essential to the integrity of these relationships and our sharing of genetic information. Genetic privacy can protect our vulnerability in these relationships and enhance the trust we hope to have in them. Property, in contrast, by

  17. Nurses' knowledge and educational needs regarding genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Elbüken, Burcu; Skirton, Heather; Öztürk, Hatice

    2015-03-01

    Nurses now require a basic knowledge of genetics to provide patient care in a range of settings. To determine Turkish registered nurses' current knowledge and educational needs in relation to genetics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Turkish registered nurses working in a university hospital in Turkey were recruited. All registered nurses were invited to participate and 175 completed the study. The survey instrument, basic knowledge of health genetics, confidence in knowledge and the nurses' need for genetics education were used to collect data. The majority (81.1%, n=142) of participants indicated that genetics was not taught during their degree program, although 53.1% to 96% of respondents felt confident in defining different genetic concepts. The average genetics knowledge score was 6.89±1.99 of a possible 11 (range 0-11). The majority (70.3%) expressed a strong wish to attend a continuing nursing education program in genetics. The study shows that although Turkish nurses are not sufficiently knowledgeable to apply genetics in practice, they are willing to have more education to support their care of patients. Nurses need to have more education related to genetics in accordance with advances in human genetics to optimize health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of molecular genetic tools for forest pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; John Hanna; Amy Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to address critical issues in forest pathology to help promote resilient forests. Although molecular genetic tools are initially applied to understand individual components of forest pathosystems, forest pathosystems involve dynamic interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the...

  19. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-10-25

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  1. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  2. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  3. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  4. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  5. Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class

  6. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  7. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  8. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  9. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...

  10. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  11. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  12. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  13. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as "dauer pheromones" because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development.Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were strongly dependent on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, strongly supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone. After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides strongly correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions.Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings

  14. The evolution of strong reciprocity: cooperation in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2004-02-01

    How do human groups maintain a high level of cooperation despite a low level of genetic relatedness among group members? We suggest that many humans have a predisposition to punish those who violate group-beneficial norms, even when this imposes a fitness cost on the punisher. Such altruistic punishment is widely observed to sustain high levels of cooperation in behavioral experiments and in natural settings. We offer a model of cooperation and punishment that we call STRONG RECIPROCITY: where members of a group benefit from mutual adherence to a social norm, strong reciprocators obey the norm and punish its violators, even though as a result they receive lower payoffs than other group members, such as selfish agents who violate the norm and do not punish, and pure cooperators who adhere to the norm but free-ride by never punishing. Our agent-based simulations show that, under assumptions approximating likely human environments over the 100000 years prior to the domestication of animals and plants, the proliferation of strong reciprocators when initially rare is highly likely, and that substantial frequencies of all three behavioral types can be sustained in a population. As a result, high levels of cooperation are sustained. Our results do not require that group members be related or that group extinctions occur.

  15. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  16. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  17. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  18. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  19. Hyperspherical Treatment of Strongly-Interacting Few-Fermion Systems in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    We examine a one-dimensional two-component fermionic system in a trap, assuming that all particles have the same mass and interact through a strong repulsive zero-range force. First we show how a simple system of three strongly interacting particles in a harmonic trap can be treated using...

  20. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  2. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  3. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  4. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias" - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids. Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals. Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony. Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  5. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-10-28

    Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias") - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids.Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals). Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals) even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony.Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  6. Mapping determinants of gene expression plasticity by genetical genomics in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetical genomics studies have provided intimate views on gene regulatory networks. Gene expression variations between genetically different individuals have been mapped to the causal regulatory regions, termed expression quantitative trait loci. Whether the environment-induced plastic response of gene expression also shows heritable difference has not yet been studied. Here we show that differential expression induced by temperatures of 16 degrees C and 24 degrees C has a strong genetic component in Caenorhabditis elegans recombinant inbred strains derived from a cross between strains CB4856 (Hawaii and N2 (Bristol. No less than 59% of 308 trans-acting genes showed a significant eQTL-by-environment interaction, here termed plasticity quantitative trait loci. In contrast, only 8% of an estimated 188 cis-acting genes showed such interaction. This indicates that heritable differences in plastic responses of gene expression are largely regulated in trans. This regulation is spread over many different regulators. However, for one group of trans-genes we found prominent evidence for a common master regulator: a transband of 66 coregulated genes appeared at 24 degrees C. Our results suggest widespread genetic variation of differential expression responses to environmental impacts and demonstrate the potential of genetical genomics for mapping the molecular determinants of phenotypic plasticity.

  7. Genomic patterns in Acropora cervicornis show extensive population structure and variable genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Crawford; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Goergen, Elizabeth; Bartels, Erich; Nedimyer, Ken; Johnson, Meaghan; Maxwell, Kerry; Galvan, Victor; Manfrino, Carrie; Lirman, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis , across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed. Patterns of genetic diversity have a strong spatial component, and our results show Broward and the Lower Keys are among the most diverse populations in Florida. The genetic diversity of Caribbean staghorn coral is concentrated within populations and within individual reefs (AMOVA), highlighting the complex mosaic of population structure. This variance structure is similar over regional and local scales, which suggests that in situ nurseries are adequately capturing natural patterns of diversity, representing a resource that can replicate the average diversity of wild assemblages, serving to increase intraspecific diversity and potentially leading to improved biodiversity and ecosystem function. Results presented here can be translated into specific goals for the recovery of A. cervicornis , including active focus on low diversity areas, protection of high diversity and connectivity, and practical thresholds for responsible restoration.

  8. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed ν e /c increases and as the temperature ratio T i /T e of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on ν e /c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T i /T e . The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of ν e /c. For ν e /c e /c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all ν e /c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as ν e /c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  9. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  10. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  11. Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)

  12. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  13. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.

  14. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  15. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  16. Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data

  17. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  18. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  19. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  20. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  1. Disentangling the intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouteillé

    Full Text Available Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root--shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines, we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools.

  2. Do species conservation assessments capture genetic diversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C. Rivers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The best known system for classifying threat status of species, the IUCN Red List, currently lacks explicit considerations of genetic diversity, and consequently may not account for potential adaptation of species to future environmental change. To address this gap, we integrate range-wide genetic analysis with IUCN Red List assessments.We calculated the loss of genetic diversity under simulated range loss for species of Delonix (Leguminosae. Simulated range loss involved random loss of populations and was intended to model ongoing habitat destruction. We found a strong relationship between loss of genetic diversity and range. Moreover, we found correspondence between levels of genetic diversity and thresholds for ‘non-threatened’ versus ‘threatened’ IUCN Red List categories.Our results support the view that current threat thresholds of the IUCN Red List criteria reflect genetic diversity, and hence evolutionary potential; although the genetic diversity distinction between threatened categories was less evident. Thus, by supplementing conventional conservation assessments with genetic data, new insights into the biological robustness of IUCN Red List assessments for targeted conservation initiatives can be achieved. Keywords: Conservation assessment, Conservation genetics, Extinction risk, Genetic diversity, IUCN Red List, Range

  3. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the nature and action of lethal and mutagenic lesions in DNA and the mechanisms by which these are produced in bacteria by ionizing radiation or by decay of radioisotopes incorporated in DNA. Studies of radioisotope decay provide the advantages that the original lesion is localized in the genetic material and the immediate physical and chemical changes that occur at decay are known. Specific types of DNA damage were related to characteristic decay properties of several radioisotopes. Incorporated 125 I, for example, induces a double-stranded break in DNA with almost every decay, but causes remarkably little damage of any other kind to the DNA. (U.S.)

  4. Wigner functions for fermions in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xin-li; Rischke, Dirk H.; Vasak, David; Wang, Qun

    2018-02-01

    We compute the covariant Wigner function for spin-(1/2) fermions in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field by exactly solving the Dirac equation at non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge densities. The Landau energy levels as well as a set of orthonormal eigenfunctions are found as solutions of the Dirac equation. With these orthonormal eigenfunctions we construct the fermion field operators and the corresponding Wigner-function operator. The Wigner function is obtained by taking the ensemble average of the Wigner-function operator in global thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., at constant temperature T and non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge chemical potentials μ and μ_5, respectively. Extracting the vector and axial-vector components of the Wigner function, we reproduce the currents of the chiral magnetic and separation effect in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field.

  5. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  7. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  8. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  9. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Spectral contents of electron waves under strong Langmuir turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Maria Virginia; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Prado, Fabio do [Centro Universitario UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Karfidov, Dmitry Mikhailovich [General Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results of electron plasma waves excited in a beam plasma system are presented. Based on our experimental results we determine the transition from the quasi-linear to non-linear regime. We present the space evolution of the electron beam distribution function for both regimes. The spectrum of the electron plasma wave in the non-linear regime shows a component with frequency larger than the plasma frequency besides the plasma frequency itself. We show that the higher frequency component is strongly affected by Landau damping, indicating a dissipation region. The measured experimental power spectrum of this wave shows a dependence on wave number k given by W{sub k} {proportional_to} k{sup -7/2} as theoretically predicted. (author)

  11. Effective potential kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The effective potential theory (EPT) is a recently proposed method for extending traditional plasma kinetic and transport theory into the strongly coupled regime. Validation from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have shown it to be accurate up to the onset of liquid-like correlation parameters (corresponding to Γ ≃ 10-50 for the one-component plasma, depending on the process of interest). Here, this theory is briefly reviewed along with comparisons between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusivity and viscosity of the one-component plasma. A number of new results are also provided, including calculations of friction coefficients, energy exchange rates, stopping power, and mobility. The theory is also cast in the Landau and Fokker-Planck kinetic forms, which may prove useful for enabling efficient kinetic computations.

  12. Principal Component Analysis of Some Quantitative and Qualitative Traits in Iranian Spinach Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebodini Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.

  13. Cooperative fluorescence from a strongly driven dilute cloud of atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cooperative fluorescence in a dilute cloud of strongly driven two-level emitters. Starting from the Heisenberg equations of motion, we compute the first-order scattering corrections to the saturation of the excited-state population and to the resonance-fluorescence spectrum, which...... both require going beyond the state-of-the-art linear-optics approach to describe collective phenomena. A dipole blockade is observed due to long-range dipole-dipole coupling that vanishes at stronger driving fields. Furthermore, we compute the inelastic component of the light scattered by a cloud...

  14. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L; Ahufinger, V; Kantian, A; Zakrzewski, J; Sanpera, A; Lewenstein, M

    2006-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes

  15. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  16. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud XI, Bat 503, Centre scientifique, F-91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Ahufinger, V [ICREA and Grup d' optica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kantian, A [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zakrzewski, J [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego i Centrum Badan Ukladow Zlozonych imienia Marka Kaca, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sanpera, A [ICREA and Grup de FIsica Teorica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M [ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la TecnologIa, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2006-05-28

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  17. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  18. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  19. A orientação homossexual e as investigações acerca da existência de componentes biológicos e genéticos determinantes; The homosexual orientation and investigations about the existence of components biological and genetics determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2013-01-01

    The male and female homosexual orientation has substantial prevalence in humans and can be explained by determinants of various levels: biological, genetic, psychological, social and cultural. However, the biological and genetic evidence have been the main hypotheses tested in scientific research in the world. This article aims to review research studies about the existence of genetic and biological evidence that determine homosexual orientation. Was conducted a review of ...

  20. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  2. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  3. Supporting aboriginal knowledge and practice in health care: lessons from a qualitative evaluation of the strong women, strong babies, strong culture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara

    2015-02-05

    The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health

  4. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  5. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  6. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  7. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  8. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  9. Ethics in reproductive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Evans, M I

    1992-12-01

    Ethics in reproductive genetics comprise descriptive ethics and normative ethics. Ethical problems before prenatal diagnosis involve genetic counseling and informed consent for the choice patients must make. Prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis is controversial. An international survey of geneticists showed that 25% would do prenatal diagnosis for sex selection, and 17% would refer the couple elsewhere. Hungary (60%), India (37%), the US (34%), Canada (30%), Greece (29%), and Sweden (28%) would do prenatal diagnosis. The statistical incidence of positive findings after prenatal diagnosis does not exceed 4% of all cases when most couples choose abortion. Respect for parental choice and for nondirective counseling was supported in responses to 3 cases in the international survey that also had disclosure dilemmas included with abortion choices. 84% of respondents would be nondirective for XYY and 88% for XO. In India, Hungary, Turkey, and Norway, 46%, 40%, 40%, and 33%, respectively, would advise aborting an XO (Turner) fetus. A survey of 737 genetics and obstetricians and ethicists and clergy showed acceptability of abortion in singleton pregnancies and in twins associated strongly with the trimester of pregnancy, indication for selective termination, and fetal number. Prior group review of risks and benefits of experimental fetal therapy, case selection for experimental fetal therapy, the optimal informed-consent process for fetal therapy, twin pregnancies, refusal of proven fetal therapy, the lack of federal support for research in fetal diagnosis (preimplantation embryo diagnosis) and therapy, and sources of a moral obligation are also addressed. The Belmont Report on the ethics of biomedical research in the US proposed ethical principles to guide research with human subjects including the fetus: respect for parsons, beneficence, and justice.

  10. Genetic evaluations for growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, H L; Fragomeni, B O; Bertrand, J K; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date. Therefore, a weaning (yearling) heat load of 5 units corresponded to 80 (75) for the corresponding period prior to the weigh date. For all analyses, 82,669 WW and 69,040 YW were used with 3 ancestral generations in the pedigree. Univariate models were a proxy for the Angus growth evaluation, and reaction norms using 2 B-splines for heat load were fit separately for weaning and yearling heat loads. For both models, random effects included direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment (WW only), and residual. Fixed effects included a linear age covariate, age-of-dam class (WW only), and contemporary group for both models and fixed regressions on the B-splines in the reaction norm. Direct genetic correlations for WW were strong for modest heat load differences but decreased to less than 0.50 for large differences. Reranking of proven sires occurred for only WW direct effects for the reaction norms with extreme heat load differences. Conversely, YW results indicated little effect of heat stress on genetic merit. Therefore, weaning heat tolerance was a better candidate for developing selection tools. Maternal heritabilities were consistent across heat loads, and maternal genetic correlations were greater than 0.90 for nearly all heat load combinations. No evidence existed for a genotype × environment interaction for the maternal component of growth. Overall, some evidence exists for phenotypic plasticity for the direct genetic effects of WW

  11. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  12. Genetics of frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathy P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD is a highly heterogenous group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by atrophy of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices. Recently, the research in the field of FTLD has gained increased attention due to the clinical, neuropathological, and genetic heterogeneity and has increased our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. FTLD is a genetically complex disorder. It has a strong genetic basis and 50% of patients show a positive family history for FTLD. Linkage studies have revealed seven chromosomal loci and a number of genes including MAPT, PGRN, VCP, and CHMB-2B are associated with the disease. Neuropathologically, FTLD is classified into tauopathies and ubiquitinopathies. The vast majority of FTLD cases are characterized by pathological accumulation of tau or TDP-43 positive inclusions, each as an outcome of mutations in MAPT or PGRN, respectively. Identification of novel proteins involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, such as progranulin and TDP-43, may prove to be excellent biomarkers of disease progression and thereby lead to the development of better therapeutic options through pharmacogenomics. However, much more dissections into the causative pathways are needed to get a full picture of the etiology. Over the past decade, advances in research on the genetics of FTLD have revealed many pathogenic mutations leading to different clinical manifestations of the disease. This review discusses the current concepts and recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of FTLD.

  13. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  14. Genetic programming in microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, D A

    1981-11-01

    Formerly, when microbiologists had only existing organisms at their disposal whose characteristics could only be changed randomly by genetic experiments, they used to dream of programmed genetic changes. This dream has come true with modern genetic engineering.

  15. Genetic determinants of circulating sphingolipid concentrations in European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Hicks

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids have essential roles as structural components of cell membranes and in cell signalling, and disruption of their metabolism causes several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. Increasingly, variants within a few of the genes that encode enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism are being associated with complex disease phenotypes. Direct experimental evidence supports a role of specific sphingolipid species in several common complex chronic disease processes including atherosclerotic plaque formation, myocardial infarction (MI, cardiomyopathy, pancreatic beta-cell failure, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, sphingolipids represent novel and important intermediate phenotypes for genetic analysis, yet little is known about the major genetic variants that influence their circulating levels in the general population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS between 318,237 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and levels of circulating sphingomyelin (SM, dihydrosphingomyelin (Dih-SM, ceramide (Cer, and glucosylceramide (GluCer single lipid species (33 traits; and 43 matched metabolite ratios measured in 4,400 subjects from five diverse European populations. Associated variants (32 in five genomic regions were identified with genome-wide significant corrected p-values ranging down to 9.08x10(-66. The strongest associations were observed in or near 7 genes functionally involved in ceramide biosynthesis and trafficking: SPTLC3, LASS4, SGPP1, ATP10D, and FADS1-3. Variants in 3 loci (ATP10D, FADS3, and SPTLC3 associate with MI in a series of three German MI studies. An additional 70 variants across 23 candidate genes involved in sphingolipid-metabolizing pathways also demonstrate association (p = 10(-4 or less. Circulating concentrations of several key components in sphingolipid metabolism are thus under strong genetic control, and variants in these loci can be

  16. Genetic Architecture of Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections in the Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chella Krishnan, Karthickeyan; Mukundan, Santhosh; Alagarsamy, Jeyashree

    2016-01-01

    Host genetic variations play an important role in several pathogenic diseases, and we have previously provided strong evidences that these genetic variations contribute significantly to differences in susceptibility and clinical outcomes of invasive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections, includi...

  17. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  18. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  19. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  20. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.