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Sample records for strong gdp coatings

  1. Two Nucleolar Proteins, GDP1 and OLI2, Function As Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Are Preferentially Involved in Promotion of Leaf Cell Proliferation without Strongly Affecting Leaf Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf abaxial–adaxial patterning is dependent on the mutual repression of leaf polarity genes expressed either adaxially or abaxially. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this process is strongly affected by mutations in ribosomal protein genes and in ribosome biogenesis genes in a sensitized genetic background, such as asymmetric leaves2 (as2. Most ribosome-related mutants by themselves do not show leaf abaxialization, and one of their typical phenotypes is the formation of pointed rather than rounded leaves. In this study, we characterized two ribosome-related mutants to understand how ribosome biogenesis is linked to several aspects of leaf development. Previously, we isolated oligocellula2 (oli2 which exhibits the pointed-leaf phenotype and has a cell proliferation defect. OLI2 encodes a homolog of Nop2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a ribosome biogenesis factor involved in pre-60S subunit maturation. In this study, we found another pointed-leaf mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding an uncharacterized protein with a G-patch domain. Similar to oli2, this mutant, named g-patch domain protein1 (gdp1, has a reduced number of leaf cells. In addition, gdp1 oli2 double mutants showed a strong genetic interaction such that they synergistically impaired cell proliferation in leaves and produced markedly larger cells. On the other hand, they showed additive phenotypes when combined with several known ribosomal protein mutants. Furthermore, these mutants have a defect in pre-rRNA processing. GDP1 and OLI2 are strongly expressed in tissues with high cell proliferation activity, and GDP1-GFP and GFP-OLI2 are localized in the nucleolus. These results suggest that OLI2 and GDP1 are involved in ribosome biogenesis. We then examined the effects of gdp1 and oli2 on adaxial–abaxial patterning by crossing them with as2. Interestingly, neither gdp1 nor oli2 strongly enhanced the leaf polarity defect of as2. Similar results were obtained with as2 gdp1 oli2

  2. Strongly nonlinear wave dynamics in a chain of polymer coated beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    Strongly nonlinear phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of Parylene-C coated steel spheres in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) holder. This system exhibits strongly nonlinear properties and extends the range of materials supporting "sonic vacuum" type behavior. The combination of a high density core and a soft (low elastic modulus) coating ensures a relatively low velocity of wave propagation. The beads contact interaction caused by the deformation of the Parylene coating can be desc...

  3. Redundancy, Unilateralism and Bias beyond GDP – results of a Global Index Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Dill, Alexander; Gebhart, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Eight out of ten leading international indices to assess developing countries in aspects beyond GDP are showing strong redundancy, bias and unilateralism. The quantitative comparison gives evidence for the fact that always the same countries lead the ranks with a low standard deviation. The dependency of the GDP is striking: do the indices only measure indicators that are direct effects of a strong GDP? While the impact of GDP can be discussed reverse as well, the standard deviation sh...

  4. The Impact of Corruption on GDP Per Capita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. A panel data covers the period between 2003 and 2011. The objective is to test the hypothesis that there is a strong negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. Three tests were conducted, the pool OLS, The Fixed Effect and the Random effect estimations. The main result of this study is that all three tests had shown strong statistically significant negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita.

  5. Antireflection Coatings for Strongly Curved Glass Lenses by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Pfeiffer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antireflection (AR coatings are indispensable in numerous optical applications and are increasingly demanded on highly curved optical components. In this work, optical thin films of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and Ta2O5 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD, which is based on self-limiting surface reactions leading to a uniform film thickness on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Al2O3/TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/Ta2O5/SiO2 AR coatings were successfully applied in the 400–750 nm and 400–700 nm spectral range, respectively. Less than 0.6% reflectance with an average of 0.3% has been measured on a fused silica hemispherical (half-ball lens with 4 mm diameter along the entire lens surface at 0° angle of incidence. The reflectance on a large B270 aspherical lens with height of 25 mm and diameter of 50 mm decreased to less than 1% with an average reflectance < 0.3%. The results demonstrate that ALD is a promising technology for deposition of uniform optical layers on strongly curved lenses without complex in situ thickness monitoring.

  6. Comparison of the Electrochemical Behavior of Ti and Nanostructured Ti-Coated AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Strongly Acidic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Farid Reza; Elmkhah, Hassan; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the electrochemical behaviors of pure titanium (Ti) and nanostructured (NS) Ti-coated AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) in strongly acidic solutions of H2SO4 were investigated and compared. A type of physical vapor deposition method, cathodic arc evaporation, was applied to deposit NS Ti on 304 SS. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize surface coating morphology. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis were used to evaluate the passive behavior of the samples. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the passive behavior of NS Ti coating was better than that of pure Ti in 0.1 and 0.01 M H2SO4 solutions. M-S analysis indicated that the passive films behaved as n-type semiconductors in H2SO4 solutions and the deposition method did not affect the semiconducting type of passive films formed on the coated samples. In addition, this analysis showed that the NS Ti coating had lower donor densities. Finally, all electrochemical tests showed that the passive behavior of the Ti-coated samples was superior, mainly due to the formation of thicker, yet less defective passive films.

  7. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

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    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  8. THE GDP IMPACT ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND: A SLOVENIA BASED CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Rudez, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The paper empirically examines the relationship between Slovenian GDP and international tourism expenditures of Slovenia in the period 1994-2006. For this purpose, regression analysis in different functional forms was used to examine the impact of GDP on international tourism expenditures. The results reveal positive and strong impact of GDP on international tourism expenditure in Slovenia in the given period of time. Further, income elasticity of outbound tourism demand was calculated leadin...

  9. Experimental and numerical study of a modified ASTM C633 adhesion test for strongly-bonded coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardie, Raphaëlle; Berkouch, Reda; Valette, Stéphane; Absi, Joseph; Lefort, Pierre [University of Limoges, Limoges Cedex (France)

    2017-07-15

    When coatings are strongly bonded to their substrates it is often difficult to measure the adhesion values. The proposed method, which is suggested naming “silver print test”, consists in covering the central part of the samples with a thin layer of silver paint, before coating. The process used for testing this new method was the Air plasma spraying (APS), and the materials used were alumina coatings on C35 steel substrates, previously pre-oxidized in CO{sub 2}. The silver painted area was composed of small grains that did not oxidize but that significantly sintered during the APS process. The silver layer reduced the surface where the coating was linked to the substrate, which allowed its debonding, using the classical adhesion test ASTM C633-13, while the direct use of this test (without silver painting) led to ruptures inside the glue used in this test. The numerical modelling, based on the finite element method with the ABAQUS software, provided results in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This concordance validated the used method and allowed accessing to the values of adherence when the experimental test ASTM C633-13 failed, because of ruptures in the glue. After standardization, the “silver print test” might be used for other kinds of deposition methods, such as PVD, CVD, PECVD.

  10. GDP AND ENVIRONMENT RELATION: FOOTPRINT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aloísia da Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Footprint represents the amount needed land and water to produce the resources and assimilate the waste generated by the population. In contrast the consumption of resources with the carrying capacity of nature and showing, in the long term, these impacts will be sustainable. This article by means of a discriminant analysis in selected countries, investigates the relationship between the variables chosen, the Ecological Footprint and per capita real GDP. And although there are countries with GDP per capita Ecological Footprint up and below average in general countries with per capita GDP increased tend to have a higher environmental impact, or ecological footprint than the average. Therefore, for the year 2005, this study supports a direct relationship between per capita real GDP and Ecological Footprint.

  11. Design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of al bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This attachment contains design of strong wooden box coated with fiberglass reinforced resin for shipping and burial of contaminated glove boxes

  12. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GDP AND EXPORT IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    MUCAHIT AYDIN; MURAT SARI

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between GDP and export of Turkey using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and Granger causality test based on Toda-Yamamoto Analysis through EViews 7.1. To carry out the present study, the quarterly time series data reported by the OECD were used in the time period of 1980–2012. The results revealed that the series were not stationary.The obtined results concluded that there is a unidirectional causal relationship from the GDP ...

  14. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; CZECHOWICZ, D.; CHEN, K.C.; DICKEN, M.; MORRIS, C.; ANDREWS, R.; GREENWOOD, A.L; CASTILLO, E.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D 2 and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D 2 . In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells

  15. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C; Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 μm thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted ∼7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J c values of ∼3.1 MA cm -2 at 77 K and ∼43 MA cm -2 at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H irr , which reaches that of Nb 3 Sn (∼28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J c values are ∼15% of the depairing current density J d , much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  16. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: zhijun@asc.magnet.fsu.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 {mu}m thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted {approx}7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J{sub c} values of {approx}3.1 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and {approx}43 MA cm{sup -2} at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H{sub irr}, which reaches that of Nb{sub 3}Sn ({approx}28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J{sub c} values are {approx}15% of the depairing current density J{sub d}, much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  17. GDP and efficiency of Russian economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2018-01-01

    The goal is to study GDP (gross domestic product) as an unobservable characteristic of the Russian national economy state on the basis of more reliable observed data on gross output (systems output) and final consumption (systems control). To do this, the dynamic Leontief model is presented in a system-like form and its parameters and GDP dynamics are estimated by the Kalman filter (KF). We consider that all previous year's investments affect the growth of the gross output by the next year. The weights of these investments in the sum are equal to unity and decrease in geometric progression. The estimation of the model parameters was carried out by the maximum likelihood method. The original data on the gross output and final consumption in the period from 1995 to 2015 years where taken from the Rosstat website, where maximally aggregated economy of Russia is reflected in the system of national accounts. The growth of direct costs and capital expenditures at gross output increase has been discovered, which indicates the extensive character of the development of the economy. Investments are being absorbed 2 - 4 years; any change of them causes a surge of commissioned fixed assets fluctuation with a period of 2 years. Then these parameter values were used in the KF to estimate the states of the system. The emerging tendency of the transition of GDP growth to its fall means that the rate of growth of final consumption is higher than the rate of GDP growth. In general, the behavior of the curve of Rosstat GDP obviously follows the declared investments, whereas in the present calculation it is closer to the behavior of final consumption. Estimated GDP and investments that really increased it were significantly less after the crisis of 2008-2009 years than officially published data.

  18. Beyond GDP: Classifying Alternative Measures for Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleys, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Both the potential pitfalls of macro-economic policies focused on stimulating economic growth and the problems involved in using GDP as a measure of well-being or economic welfare have long been recognized by economists and researchers from other social sciences. Therefore, it is no surprise that alternative measures for policy-making have been…

  19. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  20. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

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    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  1. Wheelchair users: a guide for the GDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, L; Dickinson, C

    2018-03-23

    The number of wheelchair users in the UK is increasing, and it may be more convenient and appropriate for many of these individuals to receive their dental care in a general dental practice rather than in a community or tertiary facility. This article is intended to provide the average general dental practitioner (GDP) with the basic tools and increased confidence to effectively triage this cohort of the population, and accept them for treatment or refer appropriately.

  2. Causality between Indian Exports, Imports, and Agricultural, Manufacturing GDP.

    OpenAIRE

    László Kónya; Jai Pal Singh

    2007-01-01

    Singh and Kónya (2006) studied the relationship between Indian GDP, exports, and imports from 1950/51 to 2003/2004. A logical further step is to investigate the same issue for two major sectors of the Indian economy: agriculture and manufacturing. In both sectors there is evidence of Granger causality between GDP and total exports, imports. In particular, agricultural GDP causes imports, exports cause agricultural GDP, and any two variables jointly cause the third one. There is also some evid...

  3. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  4. Digital Transformation and Its Influence on GDP

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    Mićić Ljubiša

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital transformation as integration of digital technology into business results in fundamental changes of way world does business, communicate and develops on national and international level. There is increase of high-tech public spending which is connected with increase of need for high-tech as well as importance and benefits that it brings to development of economy. This so called digital or high-tech sector is one of the strategic sectors in the leading world economies, starting from the US and the European Union. EU recognized it in strategic document “Europe 2020” which sees this sector as key factor in smart growth based on tech knowledge and innovation. Europe, especially western and northern Europe, is trying to keep its competitiveness in global tech arena with USA and fast developing countries such as China and India as well as Asian tech giants such are Japan, South Korea and Singapore. There is increase of European countries investment in digital transformation through private and public ICT sector development which usually has positive impact on economic growth as well as key indicators such are GDP, productivity and employment. This paper provides basic review of digital transformation and high-tech sector in Europe as well as comparison between EU and Western Balkan countries. Additionally, there is analysis of influence of ICT spending on GDP growth. Paper could serve as basic for further research in area of influence of tech investment on key macroeconomics indicators.

  5. Causality between stock price and GDP in Turkey: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Tursoy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the dynamic relationship between stock prices and GDP in Turkey using quarterly data from 1989Q2-2014Q2. The study investigated the interrelationship between the variables via auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL framework and ECM to analyse the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between gross domestic product and stock prices. The results provide strong evidence that both the stock prices and GDP are strongly cointegrated in the long-run. The empirical estimation indicated a significantly positive relationship between GDP and stock prices. The robustness of the ARDL model was confirmed by using Johansen and Juselius’s cointegration test (1990. The Granger causality test results indicate a long-run bidirectional causality between stock prices and GDP, and also a uni-directional causality from GDP to stock prices in the short-run. Both the stock prices and the economic growth are directly linked with each other. The reliability and validity of our estimations are confirmed by the diagnostics and the CUSUM test.

  6. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  7. Selected aspects of GDP value and structure development in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Smutka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to the poorest regions of the world. This statement may be applied especially to its sub-Saharan part. The paper analyses some basic structural characteristics related to the economic development of sub-Saharan region. The article reveals existing differences between countries and regions of sub-Saharan Africa and analyses key problems which influence economic development of individual states. An emphasis is placed on analysing an unsuitable GDP structure and on external economic relations which affect this structure. Results of an investigation show that the GDP of sub-Saharan countries is to a large extend generated by the primary sector of their economies, which is dominant in the total GDP value and its position is continuously strengthening due to a high dynamics of its growth. Having regard to the external environment, there can be stated that the foreign trade has contributed to the GDP growth of the whole region only to a limited degree (this does not apply to all countries seen as individuals. The integration process in sub-Saharan Africa may be characterized as questionable. Many integration groupings are operating in the region, but their influence on economic growth is limited due a low potential for mutual cooperation based on specialisation and use of comparative advantages. The economies of sub-Saharan countries are very sensitive to changes in their external economic environment. In this regard, there is important to highlight the very strong sensitivity of the GDP in the sub-Saharan region in relation to the World GDP (mainly to European and US GDP because both regions belong to the most important trading partners of Africa as a whole.

  8. Analysis of value added services on GDP Growth Rate using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas KUNDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Information Technology has spawned large amount of databases and huge data in numerous areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this data for further decision making. In this paper certain data mining techniques were adopted to analyze the data that shows relevance with desired attributes. Regression technique was adopted to help us find out the influence of Agriculture, Service and Manufacturing on the performance of gross domestic product (GDP. Trend and time series technique was applied to the data to help us find out what trend of GDP with respect to service, agriculture and manufacturing sector for the past decade has been. Finally Correlation was also used to help us analyze the relationship among the variables (service, agriculture and manufacturing sector. From the three techniques analyzed, service value added variable was the most prominent variable which showed the strong influence on GDP growth rate.

  9. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Burke, John; McNeill, Graeme; Snow, Aisling; Torreggiani, William C

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications. The five highest impacting general radiology journals (according to the ISI Web of Knowledge database) were selected over a 6-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. Publications were totaled according to the country of the corresponding author. Publications (total and corrected for population size) were assessed according to the GDP of a given country and the percentage of GDP spent on research in that country. Correlation was determined using Spearman's rank. In total, 10,925 papers were identified. The top 10 nations produced 83.9% of the total number of papers. The United States was the most prolific country, with 41.7% of the total. The second-ranked and third-ranked countries were Germany (11.6%) and Japan (6.7%). Corrected for GDP, smaller European countries outperformed larger nations. Switzerland (0.925 publications per billion of GDP), Austria (0.694 publications per billion of GDP), and Belgium (0.648 publications per billion of GDP) produced the most papers per billion of GDP. When corrected for percentage of GDP spent on research, European countries again ranked highest, with Greece, Turkey, and Belgium having the best ratios. The percentage of GDP spent on research was positively correlated with the number of publications in high-ranking radiology journals (r = 0.603, P GDP and the percentage of GDP spent on research may give more meaningful results. When GDP is taken into consideration, smaller European countries are more productive. The importance of investment in radiologic research is emphasized by the association between increased funding of research and the number of publications in high-impacting radiology journals. Copyright (c) 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  10. How much have electricity shortages hampered China's GDP growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Wong, W.K.; Woo, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Based on an econometric analysis of the annual growth data for China's GDP and electricity generation from 1953 to 2010, we find that electricity generation growth Granger causes GDP growth, but not vice versa. We also find that the GDP elasticity of electricity generation is about 0.6, implying that a 1% increase in China's electricity generation growth would increase GDP growth by 0.6%. While Deng's reform raised China's GDP growth rate by about 5% per year, it did not alter the GDP elasticity of electricity generation. Hence, an obvious strategy to promote China's economic growth would be accelerating electricity generation expansion. Rapidly adding thermal generation units, however, could have large-scale, adverse environmental impacts. We therefore support China's 2011 five-year plan, which calls for expanding investments in renewable energy, conservation and energy efficiency as well as improving China's integrated electricity planning and cost-based pricing decisions. - Highlights: ► China's electricity generation growth is found to Granger cause GDP growth, but not vice versa. ► The estimate of the GDP elasticity of electricity generation is about 0.6. ► A 1% increase in China's electricity generation growth would increase GDP growth by 0.6%

  11. The Underground Economy and GDP Estimation in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) in most developing countries portrays a lot of meaning; most often it is very low. This could be true or false. The existence of underground economy in this economies tend to undermine the estimation of GDP in developing economies, because the size of such economy is ...

  12. Strong pinning in very fast grown reactive co-evaporated GdBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. MacManus-Driscoll

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on compositional tuning to create excellent field-performance of Jc in “self-doped,” GdBa2Cu3O7−y (GdBCO coated conductors grown by ultrafast reactive co-evaporation. In order to give excess liquid and Gd2O3, the overall compositions were all Ba-poor and Cu-rich compared to GdBCO. The precise composition was found to be critical to the current carrying performance. The most copper-rich composition had an optimum self-field Jc of 3.2 MA cm−2. A more Gd-rich composition had the best in-field performance because of the formation of low coherence, splayed Gd2O3 nanoparticles, giving Jc (77 K, 1 T of over 1 MA cm−2 and Jc (77 K, 5 T of over 0.1 MA cm−2.

  13. GDP AS THE INDICATOR OF LIVING STANDARDS: THE ANTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Maxim V. Klymas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every state is interested in improving the quality of life of the population. One of the indicators reflecting the living standards is GDP of the country in its general understanding, and in per capita terms. Therefore, increasing the country's GDP is the main goal of any state. GDP growth is limited by many factors. In developing countries with export-oriented and commodity-based economy the main factor is the price of resources in international market prices and the central rate. In this article, we addressed the issue of Russia's GDP, depending on oil prices, as well as the impact of exchange rate of the US dollar to the Russian Federation rouble. We tried to answer the question whether Russia's economy is export-oriented at the commodity sector, and whether it is possible to grow GDP excluding exchange rates.

  14. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  15. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  16. Inflation, GDP growth and population change in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kitov

    2005-01-01

    Inflation in the USA between 1960 and 2004 is studied in the framework of the revealed rigidity of the personal income distribution normalized to the total nominal GDP. Inflation is found to be a mechanism, which prevents changes in the relative incomes induced by economic growth and population changes - both in number and age structure. A model is developed linking CPI to GDP growth rate and relative change of the number of people of some specific age. The GDP growth rate is characterized by...

  17. Ultra strong silicon-coated carbon nanotube nonwoven fabric as a multifunctional lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Kara; Benson, Jim; Schauer, Mark; Kovalenko, Igor; Lashmore, David; Ready, W Jud; Yushin, Gleb

    2012-11-27

    Materials that can perform simultaneous functions allow for reductions in the total system mass and volume. Developing technologies to produce flexible batteries with good performance in combination with high specific strength is strongly desired for weight- and power-sensitive applications such as unmanned or aerospace vehicles, high-performance ground vehicles, robotics, and smart textiles. State of the art battery electrode fabrication techniques are not conducive to the development of multifunctional materials due to their inherently low strength and conductivities. Here, we present a scalable method utilizing carbon nanotube (CNT) nonwoven fabric-based technology to develop flexible, electrochemically stable (∼494 mAh·g(-1) for 150 cycles) battery anodes that can be produced on an industrial scale and demonstrate specific strength higher than that of titanium, copper, and even a structural steel. Similar methods can be utilized for the formation of various cathode and anode composites with tunable strength and energy and power densities.

  18. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  19. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship. Findings of this paper suggest that, because there is no long run relationship between Construction Production (Building and Non-Building and GDP and also in short run the causality runs from GDP to Construction Production, the growth strategy based on mainly Construction Sector growth is not a good idea for Turkey.

  20. Bank profitability and GDP growth in China: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Aaron Yong; Floros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the effect of GDP growth on bank profitability in China over the period 2003-2009. The one-step system GMM estimator is used to test the persistence of profitability in Chinese banking industry. The empirical findings suggest that cost efficiency is positively related to bank profitability, while lower profitability can also be explained by higher taxes paid by banks. In addition, there is a negative relationship between GDP growth and bank profitability. Furthermore, th...

  1. On the relationship between GDP and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarsono, B.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of a coupling between the growth in GDP and the growth in energy consumption is reviewed and its importance is discussed. The usefulness of a GDP energy consumption relationship for energy projections is investigated with particular reference to the case of Indonesia. A particular form of such a relationship is obtained for Indonesia with income elasticity decreasing as a function of time and its use is compared with other results. (author)

  2. Was the Recent Downturn in US GDP Predictable?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Balcilar; Rangan Gupta; Anandamayee Majumdar; Stephen M. Miller

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses small set of variables-- real GDP, the inflation rate, and the short-term interest rate -- and a rich set of models -- athoeretical and theoretical, linear and nonlinear, as well as classical and Bayesian models -- to consider whether we could have predicted the recent downturn of the US real GDP. Comparing the performance by root mean squared errors of the models to the benchmark random-walk model, the two theoretical models, especially the nonlinear model, perform well on th...

  3. Causal Relationship between Construction Production and GDP in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkı Kutay Bolkol

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the causal relationship between construction production and GDP for Turkey during 2005Q1-2013Q4 period. Because it is found that, there is no cointegration which means there is no long run relationship between variables, VAR Granger Causality Method is used to test the causality in short run. The findings reveal that, the causality runs from GDP to Building Production and Building Production to Non-Building Production (i.e. bidirectional relationship). Find...

  4. GDP Structure and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Smutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to important regions of the world economy with specific problems distinguishing this part of the world from other regions. The region is suffering because of limited economy structure and high level of poverty. Low economic performance ranks most of African countries among the worldwide poorest ones (both from the point of view of total economy performance and also individuals living standards; the development is hindered by political instability and also by other accompanied problems as high level of corruption, deficit of democracy, low level of education, limited investments, criminality, local conflicts, civil wars etc. On the other hand, African natural, economy and social resources and unexploited opportunities in many areas offer a potential for a considerable economic development. Understanding the current economic position of African states thus may reveal causes of problematic development and outline ways to overcome existing shortcomings. The aim of the paper is to analyze main changes in area of GDP structure formation (agricultural, industrial and services sector share in GDP and value performance which have occurred in selected African (Sub-Saharan countries. Changes are analyzed both in relation to the total GDP and GDP per capita. The authors identify main trends of economic development in the Sub-Saharan region and to specify differences among Sub-Saharan countries with the intention to identify particular groups of African countries according to their economic structure and to identify differences in their GDP formation.

  5. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei (China); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-08-15

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the ''expenditure approach''. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance. (author)

  6. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien Taichen [Chung-Hua Institute for Economic Research, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tcchien@hotmail.com; Hu Jinli [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan (China)

    2008-08-15

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance.

  7. Renewable energy: An efficient mechanism to improve GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien Taichen; Hu Jinli

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on GDP for 116 economies in 2003 through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. In order to decipher the mechanism of how the use of renewables improves macroeconomic efficiency, we decompose GDP by the 'expenditure approach'. Although previous theory predicts positive effects of renewables on capital formation and trade balance, the SEM results show that renewables have a significant positive influence on capital formation only. The result that renewables do not have a significant impact on trade balance implies that renewables do not have an import substitution effect. Thus, we confirm the positive relationship between renewable energy and GDP through the path of increasing capital formation, but not for the path of increasing trade balance

  8. Policy relevance of various proposals for greening GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, G.

    1996-02-01

    From the study on the title subject it appears that the use of a number of separate physical indicators is valuable for policy making but that it would be helpful for policy to develop (alongside the conventional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and these environmental indicators) an extra 'green' GDP. The analysis of the various surveyed proposals of greening GDP results into the conclusion that adjustments should be made as follows: (1) adjustment for the net depletion of natural resources according to the net price method, (2) adjustment for the degradation of nature by polluting emissions with the aid of shadow prices derived from politics, and (3) adjustment for certain categories of environmental defensive expenditures. The major reasons for this recommendation are: (1) such a GDP can facilitate government in decisions where trade-offs between production and a clean environment are at stake, (2) the recommended way of valuation minimizes the inherent subjectiveness of valuing nature, (3) the way of valuation of nature is not likely to lead to an overestimation, and (4) at least for the Netherlands the proposal is operational in the near future. In Chapter 2 a set of evaluation criteria is designed. One evaluation criterion is the potential policy relevance of a proposed indicator, i.e. its relevance when the indicator measures exactly what it is intended to measure. In Chapter 3 the potential policy relevance of an adjusted GDP is elaborated. Another evaluation criterion is the scientific validity of a proposed indicator: is the indicator really measuring what it is intended to measure? To judge whether this is the case for the various proposals for adjusting GDP, a theoretical framework that facilitates such a judgement is discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 actual evaluation of the various proposals for environmental indicators is carried out. In Chapter 5 proposals regarding the depletion of natural resources are evaluated. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Analysis of the Correlation between GDP and the Final Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the researches performed by the author regarding the evolution of Gross Domestic Product. One of the main aspects of GDP analysis is the correlation with the final consumption, an important macroeconomic indicator. The evolution of the Gross Domestic Product is highly influenced by the evolution of the final consumption. To analyze the correlation, the paper proposes the use of the linear regression model, as one of the most appropriate instruments for such scientific approach. The regression model described in the article uses the GDP as resultant variable and the final consumption as factorial variable.

  10. Stretchable and strong cellulose nanopaper structures based on polymer-coated nanofiber networks: an alternative to nonwoven porous membranes from electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Morimune, Seira; Nishino, Takashi; Berglund, Lars A

    2012-11-12

    Nonwoven membranes based on electrospun fibers are of great interest in applications such as biomedical, filtering, and protective clothing. The poor mechanical performance is a limitation, as is some of the electrospinning solvents. To address these problems, porous nonwoven membranes based on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) modified by a hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer coating are prepared. NFC/HEC aqueous suspensions are subjected to simple vacuum filtration in a paper-making fashion, followed by supercritical CO(2) drying. These nonwoven nanocomposite membranes are truly nanostructured and exhibit a nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area, as analyzed by nitrogen adsorption and FE-SEM. Mechanical properties evaluated by tensile tests show high strength combined with remarkably high strain to failure of up to 55%. XRD analysis revealed significant fibril realignment during tensile stretching. After postdrawing of the random mats, the modulus and strength are strongly increased. The present preparation route uses components from renewable resources, is environmentally friendly, and results in permeable membranes of exceptional mechanical performance.

  11. Functionalization of Strongly Interacting Magnetic Nanocubes with (Thermo)responsive Coating and their Application in Hyperthermia and Heat-Triggered Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Kakwere, Hamilton

    2015-04-03

    Herein we prepare nanohybrids by incorporating iron oxide nanocubes (cubic-IONPs) within a thermo-responsive polymer shell that can act as drug carriers for doxorubicin(doxo). The cubic-shaped nanoparticles employed are at the interface between superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior and have an exceptionally high specific absorption rate (SAR) but their functionalization is extremely challenging compared to bare superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as they strongly interact with each other. By conducting the polymer grafting reaction using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization in a viscous solvent medium, we have here developed a facile approach to decorate the nanocubes with stimuli-responsive polymers. When the thermo-responsive shell is composed of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-polyethylene glycolmethylether acrylate), nanohybrids have a phase transition temperature, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), above 37 °C in physiological conditions. Doxo loaded nanohybrids exhibited a negligible drug release below 37 °C but showed a consistent release of their cargo on demand by exploiting the capability of the nanocubes to generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Moreover, the drug free nanocarrier does not exhibit cytotoxicity even when administered at high concentration of nanocubes (1g/L of iron) and internalized at high extent (260 pg of iron per cell). We have also implemented the synthesis protocol to decorate the surface of nanocubes with poly(vinylpyridine) polymer and thus prepare pH-responsive shell coated nanocubes.

  12. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Crystal structures of the bacterial α1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop

  13. Persuasion is now 30 per cent of US GDP

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry Antioch

    2013-01-01

    Persuasion is the common thread in almost all voluntary transactions. With persuasion’s footprint in the modern economy substantial and growing, this paper briefly scans the recent literature and suggests the McCloskey-Klamer estimate of the persuasion content of GDP could now be higher.

  14. Evidence of A Bimodal US GDP Growth Rate Distribution: A Wavelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Claudio Lera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative characterisation of the fluctuations of the annualized growth rate of the real US GDP per capita at many scales, using a wavelet transform analysis of two data sets, quarterly data from 1947 to 2015 and annual data from 1800 to 2010. The chosen mother wavelet (first derivative of the Gaussian function applied to the logarithm of the real US GDP per capita provides a robust estimation of the instantaneous growth rate at different scales. Our main finding is that business cycles appear at all scales and the distribution of GDP growth rates can be well approximated by a bimodal function associated to a series of switches between regimes of strong growth rate $\\rho_\\text{high}$ and regimes of low growth rate $\\rho_\\text{low}$. The succession of such two regimes compounds to produce a remarkably stable long term average real annualized growth rate of 1.6% from 1800 to 2010 and $\\approx 2.0\\%$ since 1950, which is the result of a subtle compensation between the high and low growth regimes that alternate continuously. Thus, the overall growth dynamics of the US economy is punctuated, with phases of strong growth that are intrinsically unsustainable, followed by corrections or consolidation until the next boom starts. We interpret these findings within the theory of "social bubbles" and argue as a consequence that estimations of the cost of the 2008 crisis may be misleading. We also interpret the absence of strong recovery since 2008 as a protracted low growth regime $\\rho_\\text{low}$ associated with the exceptional nature of the preceding large growth regime.

  15. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications.

  16. A check of Maddison’s gdp data. Benford’s Law with some range problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper studies if the Maddison set of data for GDP per capita follows a statistical regu-larity, known as Benford’s Law. It is a simple logarithmic relation on the frequency of the first digit in a data set. These data ought to follow the law as they are Maddison’s calibration of data compiled...... by many independent agencies and researches. The data set consists of 12,411 observations, permitting a rather strong test. On visual inspection the relation appears to fit rather well, but the law is rejected by a formal test. The explanation of the rejection is found to be that the range of the data...

  17. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz (NCI); (Polish)

    2012-03-26

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition

  18. Estimation of real GDP and unrecorded economy in Turkey based on environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Ozkaya, Ata [Department of Economics, Galatasaray University. Ciragan Cad. No: 36, 34357 Ortakoy, Istanbul (Turkey); EUREQua, University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne. Maison des Sciences Economiques 106/112 Boulevard de l' Hopital 75647 Paris (France)

    2007-10-15

    This paper estimates the real gross domestic product (GDP) and unrecorded economy for Turkey using the Kalman filter technique. Using different tests, most of the research articles on energy policy investigate the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP for different countries. On the other hand, other studies on climate change try to show the effects of both energy consumption and GDP on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission. Since the unreported economy has an important weight in developing countries where the recorded (or official) GDP suffers from considerable measurement problems, investigation of the relationship between the recorded GDP and energy consumption may lead to biased results. In this paper, the economic variables (GDP, country population) as well as environmental variables (CO{sub 2} emission, forest area) are used in order to estimate GDP, which is an unobserved variable in our model. The results clearly indicate that: first, the true GDP in Turkey, that our model estimates, is higher than the observed (recorded) GDP in the whole period of observation (1973-2003) and the size of unrecorded economy varies between 12 and 30 percent of the observed GDP; second, the gap between the true GDP and the observed GDP has an increasing trend; third, if the change in GDP per primary energy supply is smaller than the change in CO{sub 2} per primary energy supply, then there may exist unrecorded economy. (author)

  19. Estimation of real GDP and unrecorded economy in Turkey based on environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Ozkaya, Ata

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the real gross domestic product (GDP) and unrecorded economy for Turkey using the Kalman filter technique. Using different tests, most of the research articles on energy policy investigate the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP for different countries. On the other hand, other studies on climate change try to show the effects of both energy consumption and GDP on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. Since the unreported economy has an important weight in developing countries where the recorded (or official) GDP suffers from considerable measurement problems, investigation of the relationship between the recorded GDP and energy consumption may lead to biased results. In this paper, the economic variables (GDP, country population) as well as environmental variables (CO 2 emission, forest area) are used in order to estimate GDP, which is an unobserved variable in our model. The results clearly indicate that: first, the true GDP in Turkey, that our model estimates, is higher than the observed (recorded) GDP in the whole period of observation (1973-2003) and the size of unrecorded economy varies between 12 and 30 percent of the observed GDP; second, the gap between the true GDP and the observed GDP has an increasing trend; third, if the change in GDP per primary energy supply is smaller than the change in CO 2 per primary energy supply, then there may exist unrecorded economy

  20. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  1. The Impact of GDP Structure on the Stability of Okun's Law in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Pesliakaite, Jurgita

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that the extent to which unemployment rate in Lithuania reacts to the fluctuations in GDP depends on the compositional characteristics of GDP growth. Decomposing GDP growth rate by expenditure approach and estimating simple version of Okun’s law, the evidence provided in this paper points towards the conclusion that the GDP growth driven by labour-intense private consumption contributes the most to a change in the unemployment rate. The elasticity of the unemploym...

  2. A note on the long-run elasticities from the energy consumption-GDP relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Popp, Stephan [Department of Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The goal of this paper is to examine the long-run elasticities of the impacts of energy consumption on GDP and GDP on energy consumption. The energy consumption-GDP relationship is amongst the most popular relationships examined in the energy economics literature. The bulk of the extant literature has assumed a positive relationship between energy consumption and real GDP. Our analysis shows that in only around 60% of the countries considered the relationship is positive. (author)

  3. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on causation with more predictors is needed.

  4. Estimation of Potential GDP and output Gap. Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Măntescu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to assess the impact of the crisis on the potential output and output gaps, to study their evolution by using a comparative approach for a sample of EU countries that were in majority included recently in financial assistance and macroeconomic adjustment programmes. The potential GDP growth rates calculated using the Cobb Douglas production function and Hodrick-Prescott methodology, decelerated substantially across the board in the countries studied once the international economic and financial crisis hit, recording even negative rates of growth in Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain. In addition to the specific factors that characterise each country, there is a series of common features that will affect the developments of the potential GDP on a long-term basis, such as the increase of global risk aversion correlated with the reduction of the banking exposures, the slow economic recovery in the EU, and last but not least the incoming ageing process, which will exert an additional negative impact on the growth potential of the EU member states. The article makes a series of economic policy recommendations to promote key measures aiming to increase the flexibility of the goods, services, and labour markets, to improve the prioritisation of public expenditures especially capital spending, and to improve the management of the public assets including real estate and public buildings by promoting a mix of measures including privatisation, monetisation and a wider involvement of the private sector in their management.

  5. A structural VAR analysis of electricity consumption and real GDP: Evidence from the G7 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance and Marketing, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Prasad, Arti [Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne (Australia)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we depart from the literature on electricity consumption-real GDP in that for the first time we examine the reaction of real GDP to shocks in electricity consumption. To achieve this goal, we use the structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model and examine the impact of electricity consumption shocks on real GDP for the G7 countries. We find that except for the USA, electricity consumption has a statistically significant positive impact on real GDP over short horizons. This finding implies that except for the USA, electricity conservation policies will hurt real GDP in the G7 countries. (author)

  6. A structural VAR analysis of electricity consumption and real GDP: Evidence from the G7 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Seema; Prasad, Arti

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we depart from the literature on electricity consumption-real GDP in that for the first time we examine the reaction of real GDP to shocks in electricity consumption. To achieve this goal, we use the structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model and examine the impact of electricity consumption shocks on real GDP for the G7 countries. We find that except for the USA, electricity consumption has a statistically significant positive impact on real GDP over short horizons. This finding implies that except for the USA, electricity conservation policies will hurt real GDP in the G7 countries

  7. Two missense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) are strongly associated with dark ventral coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, D I; Nieminen, M; Anderson, D G; Røed, K H

    2014-10-01

    The protein-coding region of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was sequenced to identify potential variation affecting coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). A T→C sequence variation at nucleotide position 218 (c.218T>C) causing an amino acid (aa) change from methionine to threonine at aa position 73 (p.Met73Thr) was identified. In addition, a T→G sequence variation was found at nucleotide position 839 (c.839T>G), causing phenylalanine to be exchanged by cysteine at aa position 280 (p.Phe280Cys). The two sequence variants (c.218C and c.839G) were found to be closely associated with a darker belly coat compared with animals not having any of these two variants. The aa acid change p.Met73Thr affects the same position as p.Met73Lys previously reported to give constitutive activation of MC1R in black sheep (Ovis aries), whereas p.Phe280Cys is identical to one of two variants previously reported to be associated with dark coat color in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), supporting that the two variants found in reindeer are functional. The complete absence of Thr73 and Cys280 among the 51 wild reindeer analyzed provides some evidence that these variants are more common in the domestic herds. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Regulation of hormone-receptor coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Effects of GTP and GDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, R; Abramowitz, J; Bordelon-Riser, M; Blume, A J; Birnbaumer, L

    1980-11-10

    GDP and GTP regulation of receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclases in membranes of S49 murine lymphoma cells (S49), NS-20 murine neuroblastoma cells (NS-20), rabbit corpora lutea (CL), and turkey erythrocytes were studied under assay conditions which minimized conversion of added GTP to GDP and of added GDP to GTP. Hormonal stimulation in all systems required guanine nucleotide addition. In the presence of GTP, adenylyl cyclase activity in S49, NS-20, and CL was stimulated respectively by isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), by PGE1 and the adenosine analog, phenylisopropyladenosine, and by PGE1 and isoproterenol, with the first of the listed stimulants eliciting higher activities than the second. Activity in turkey erythrocyte membranes was stimulated by isoproterenol. GDP was partially effective in promoting hormonal stimulation, being able to sustain stimulation by isoproterenol and PGE1 in S49 cell membranes and by PGE1 in CL membranes. In NS-20 membranes, both GDP and guanosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) were inhibitory on basal activity, yet promoted limited but significant stimulation by PGE1. In turkey erythrocytes, stimulation by isoproterenol could not be elicited with GDP or GDP beta S. Thus, although less effective than GTP in promoting hormonal stimulation of several adenylyl cyclase systems, GDP was clearly not inactive. Concentration effect curves for active hormone in the presence of GDP had higher apparent Ka values than in the presence of GTP. In spite of differences between the effects of GTP and GDP on hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activities, GTP and GDP affected equally well isoproterenol binding, regardless of whether or not its receptor could be shown to stimulate adenylyl cyclase in the presence of GDP. Determination of transphosphorylation of GDP to GTP showed that at saturating concentrations, the proportion of GDP converted to GTP is negligible and unaffected by hormonal stimulation. Concentrations

  9. High diversity in functional properties of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in divergent primate species is more strongly associated with phylogeny than coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Ringholm, Aneta; Kelly, Joanne; Mundy, Nicholas I; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-09-01

    We have characterized the biochemical function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a critical regulator of melanin synthesis, from 9 phylogenetically diverse primate species with varying coat colors. There is substantial diversity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding affinity and basal levels of activity in the cloned MC1Rs. MSH binding was lost independently in lemur and New World monkey lineages, whereas high basal levels of MC1R activity occur in lemurs and some New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Highest levels of basal activity were found in the MC1R of ruffed lemurs, which have the E94K mutation that leads to constitutive activation in other species. In 3 species (2 lemurs and the howler monkey), we report the novel finding that binding and inhibition of MC1R by agouti signaling protein (ASIP) can occur when MSH binding has been lost, thus enabling continuing regulation of the melanin type via ASIP expression. Together, these findings can explain the previous paradox of a predominantly pheomelanic coat in the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The presence of a functional, MSH-responsive MC1R in orangutan demonstrates that the mechanism of red hair generation in this ape is different from the prevalent mechanism in European human populations. Overall, we have found unexpected diversity in MC1R function among primates and show that the evolution of the regulatory control of MC1R activity occurs by independent variation of 3 distinct mechanisms: basal MC1R activity, MSH binding and activation, and ASIP binding and inhibition. This diversity of function is broadly associated with primate phylogeny and does not have a simple relation to coat color phenotype within primate clades.

  10. Account for sector heterogeneity in China's energy consumption. Sector price indices vs. GDP deflator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chunbo

    2010-01-01

    A common practice in decomposition analyses is to deflate output indicators to purge the impact of inflation by using a general deflator. This practice fails to account for sector heterogeneity and can be hazardous. Although the general identified patterns are largely correct, the calculated magnitudes can be misleading or even wrongly signed. Instead, it is strongly recommended that sector heterogeneity is accounted for by using individual sector price indices for all relevant sectors instead of one general (GDP) deflator. This paper analyzes this advanced decomposition using Chinese data and compares to the usual method of using only one deflator. It is found that while most differences are only of quantitative quality, some show even a qualitative difference. Furthermore, the rising energy intensity in the early 2000s, which has been discussed by previous studies, vanishes completely. (author)

  11. A strong adjuvant based on glycol-chitosan-coated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles potentiates mucosal immune responses against the recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis fusion antigen CTH522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Erbo Wern, Jeanette; Gavins, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Induction of mucosal immunity with vaccines is attractive for the immunological protection against pathogen entrance directly at the site of infection. An example is infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world......)-modified LPNs were engineered using an oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticle design was optimized in a highly systematic way by using a quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space and to gain maximal mechanistic information about the GC coating...

  12. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  13. The Role of SMEs in Assessing the Contribution of Entrepreneurship to GDP in the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the negative effects of the economic crisis on the Romanian economy, entrepreneurship represents one of the main pillars of economic recovery and the authorities need to act in support of private entrepreneurship initiative. Even though entrepreneurship does not equate to the small and medium-sized enterprises, there is strong support in literature regarding the importance of SMEs in national economies due to the authorities` potential of intervention and their contribution to gross value added. The fluctuating evolution of the Romanian business environment has led to a high volatility of its contribution to GDP, which is especially true in the case of SMEs due to their lack of technology and capital and difficult access to financing, as well as limited know-how compared to the large companies that control the Romanian market. Successful entrepreneurial initiative leads to sustainable businesses and ensures a smooth transition from business ideas to the creation of value added, thus supporting economic growth and the narrowing of macroeconomic gaps which have been generated during the economic recession. As a distinctive and dynamic component of Romanian entrepreneurship, the SME segment has a significant contribution to GDP. This study aims at assessing the contribution of entrepreneurship, through its SME segment, to Romania`s GDP in the main economic sectors and, at the same time, the estimation of output gap at sectoral level, thus filling a gap in entrepreneurship-related domestic literature.

  14. The causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania: Evidence from ARDL bound testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Ilhan [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cag University, 33800 Mersin (Turkey); Acaravci, Ali [Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya-Hatay (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy and economic growth in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 1980 to 2006 by employing energy use per capita, electric power consumption per capita and real GDP per capita variables. To examine this linkage, we use the two-step procedure from the Engle and Granger model: In first step, we explore the long-run relationships between the variables by using recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Secondly, we employ a dynamic vector error correction (VEC) model to test causal relationships between variables. The bounds test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between energy use per capita and real GDP per capita and evidence of two-way (bidirectional) strong Granger causality between these variables only in Hungary. On the other hand, the ARDL bounds test results show that there is no a unique long-term or equilibrium relationship between energy consumption variables and real GDP per capita in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. In other words, no cointegration exists between these variables in these three countries. The econometric analysis suggests that any causal relationships within dynamic error correction model for Albania, Bulgaria and Romania cannot be estimated. (author)

  15. Energy-GDP relationship revisited: An example from GCC countries using panel causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A.

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the causality relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and energy consumption in the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Recently developed panel cointegration and causality techniques are used to uncover the direction of energy-GDP causality in the GCC. Empirical results indicate a unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption. Evidence shows no support for the hypothesis that energy consumption is the source of GDP growth in the GCC countries. Such results suggest that energy conservation policies may be adopted without much concern about their adverse effects on the growth of GCC economies

  16. Does electricity consumption panel Granger cause GDP? A new global evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Economics, Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia); Narayan, Seema [School of Economics, Finance, and Marketing, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Popp, Stephan [Department of Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The goal of this paper is to undertake a panel data investigation of long-run Granger causality between electricity consumption and real GDP for seven panels, which together consist of 93 countries. We use a new panel causality test and find that in the long-run both electricity consumption and real GDP have a bidirectional Granger causality relationship except for the Middle East where causality runs only from GDP to electricity consumption. Finally, for the G6 panel the estimates reveal a negative sign effect, implying that increasing electricity consumption in the six most industrialised nations will reduce GDP. (author)

  17. A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao-Yen [Department of Economics, Shih-Hsin University, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2000-06-01

    This paper re-examines the causality between energy consumption and GDP by using updated Taiwan data for the period 1954-1997. As a secondary contribution, we investigate the causal relationship between GDP and the aggregate as well as several disaggregate categories of energy consumption, including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. Applying Granger's technique, we find bidirectional causality between total energy consumption and GDP. We find further that different directions of cause exist between GDP and various kinds of energy consumption. 7 refs.

  18. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  19. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey : Is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  20. Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey: is there a co-integration relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, C.A.G.M.; Lise, W.

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption and GDP are expected to grow by 5.9% and 7% annually until 2025 in Turkey. This paper tries to unfold the linkage between energy consumption and GDP by undertaking a co-integration analysis for Turkey with annual data over the period 1970-2003. The analysis shows that energy

  1. Exploring the relationship between energy consumption and GDP: Evidence from Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borozan, Djula

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between total energy consumption and real gross domestic product (GDP) covering the period between 1992 and 2010 in Croatia. The methodology employed in this paper is based on the bivariate vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality tests. Moreover, the impulse response function and variance decomposition analysis are employed to trace the dynamic response paths of shocks to the system. The empirical analysis shows that, when it is allowed for any deterministic component in the data, total energy consumption and real GDP are not co-integrated in the period observed. Furthermore, there is a unidirectional causality running from total energy consumption to GDP, and an impulse response to GDP caused by energy consumption, being mainly embodied in the first years. The results indicate that total energy consumption is an important component determining economic growth in Croatia and that energy conservation policy should be formulated and implemented wisely. This paper also tests the causality between real GDP and consumption of the five energy variables by using the bivariate VAR. The main implication of these tests is that individual energy forms matter when it comes to energy policy formulation. - Highlights: • There is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to real GDP in Croatia. • There is an impulse response to real GDP caused by energy consumption, being mainly embodied in the first years. • Energy consumption is an important component determining economic growth. • Individual energy forms matter when it comes to energy policy formulation

  2. GDP Spatialization and Economic Differences in South China Based on NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate data on gross domestic product (GDP) at pixel level are needed to understand the dynamics of regional economies. GDP spatialization is the basis of quantitative analysis on economic diversities of different administrative divisions and areas with different natural or humanistic attributes. Data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), carried by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, are capable of estimating GDP, but few studies have been conducted for mapping GDP at pixel level and further pattern analysis of economic differences in different regions using the VIIRS data. This paper produced a pixel-level (500 m × 500 m) GDP map for South China in 2014 and quantitatively analyzed economic differences among diverse geomorphological types. Based on a regression analysis, the total nighttime light (TNL) of corrected VIIRS data were found to exhibit R2 values of 0.8935 and 0.9243 for prefecture GDP and county GDP, respectively. This demonstrated that TNL showed a more significant capability in reflecting economic status (R2 > 0.88) than other nighttime light indices (R2 < 0.52), and showed quadratic polynomial relationships with GDP rather than simple linear correlations at both prefecture and county levels. The corrected NPP-VIIRS data showed a better fit than the original data, and the estimation at the county level was better than at the prefecture level. The pixel-level GDP map indicated that: (a) economic development in coastal areas was higher than that in inland areas; (b) low altitude plains were the most developed areas, followed by low altitude platforms and low altitude hills; and (c) economic development in middle altitude areas, and low altitude hills and mountains remained to be strengthened.

  3. News Related to Future GDP Growth as a Risk Factor in Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalou, Maria

    2001-01-01

    A model that includes a factor that captures news related to future Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth along with the market factor can explain the cross-section of equity returns about as well as the Fama-French model can. Furthermore, the Fama-French factors HML and SMB appear to contain mainly news related to future GDP growth. When news related to future GDP growth is present in the asset-pricing model, HML and SMB lose their ability to explain the cross-section.

  4. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  5. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  6. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Carina; Gessler, Ursula; Bartsch, Stephanie; El-Sayeh, Hany George; Fenton, Mark; Adams, Clive Elliott

    2003-12-05

    The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Ecological study--investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76). Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  7. Cointegration, error-correction, and the relationship between GDP and energy. The case of South Korea and Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasure, Yong U.; Lee, Aie-Rie

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the causality issue between energy consumption and GDP for South Korea and Singapore, with the aid of cointegration and error-correction modeling. Results of the cointegration and error-correction models indicate bidirectional causality between GDP and energy consumption for both South Korea and Singapore. However, results of the standard Granger causality tests show no causal relationship between GDP and energy consumption for South Korea and unidirectional causal relationship from energy consumption to GDP for Singapore

  8. Electricity supply, employment and real GDP in India: evidence from cointegration and Granger-causality tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study probes nexus between electricity supply, employment and real GDP for India within a multivariate framework using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Long-run equilibrium relationship has been established among these variables for the time span 1970-71 to 2005-06. The study further establishes long- and short-run Granger causality running from real GDP and electricity supply to employment without any feedback effect. Thus, growth in real GDP and electricity supply are responsible for the high level of employment in India. The absence of causality running from electricity supply to real GDP implies that electricity demand and supply side measures can be adopted to reduce the wastage of electricity, which would not affect future economic growth of India.

  9. A Probit Model for the State of the Greek GDP Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Degiannakis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides probability estimates of the state of the GDP growth. A regime-switching model defines the probability of the Greek GDP being in boom or recession. Then probit models extract the predictive information of a set of explanatory (economic and financial variables regarding the state of the GDP growth. A contemporaneous, as well as a lagged, relationship between the explanatory variables and the state of the GDP growth is conducted. The mean absolute distance (MAD between the probability of not being in recession and the probability estimated by the probit model is the function that evaluates the performance of the models. The probit model with the industrial production index and the realized volatility as the explanatory variables has the lowest MAD value of 6.43% (7.94% in the contemporaneous (lagged relationship.

  10. Sexual services, drugs and human trafficking, smuggling – in GDP figures: Quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years different kind of antisocial and criminal activities, according to the EU regulations, are being included in GDP indicators. The activities, included in GDP indicators are as follows: those of criminal nature (drugs, arms and human trafficking, corruptive activities, etc.; illegal activities, which are not of criminal nature (businesses without licenses and special permits, poaching, etc.; legal activities, though the income from them is not taxed and not recorded (prostitution, alcohol production, etc.; illegal use of intellectual property objects (illegal use of unlicensed programmes. Estimates on the inclusion of illegal, among them criminal activities in GDP indicators are important not only to learn the actual size of GDP, but also to give a chance to the law enforcement authorities to pay attention to separate areas of unregulated economic activities. The author of the article outlines the approximate extent of illegal and informal economic activities and their share in GDP, describes the methods of determination of the economic sector, as well as analyzes some separate informal economic sectors, which should be included into GDP.

  11. Functional expression of a human GDP-L-fucose transporter in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster-Fromme, Karin; Schneider, Sarah; Sprenger, Georg A; Albermann, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the translocation of nucleotide-activated sugars from the cytosol across a membrane into the endoplasmatic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus which is an important step in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids in eukaryotes. The heterologous expression of the recombinant and codon-adapted human GDP-L-fucose antiporter gene SLC35C1 (encoding an N-terminal OmpA-signal sequence) led to a functional transporter protein located in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. The in vitro transport was investigated using inverted membrane vesicles. SLC35C1 is an antiporter specific for GDP-L-fucose and depending on the concomitant reverse transport of GMP. The recombinant transporter FucT1 exhibited an activity for the transport of 3 H-GDP-L-fucose with a V max of 8 pmol/min mg with a K m of 4 µM. The functional expression of SLC35C1 in GDP-L-fucose overproducing E. coli led to the export of GDP-L-fucose to the culture supernatant. The export of GDP-L-fucose by E. coli provides the opportunity for the engineering of a periplasmatic fucosylation reaction in recombinant bacterial cells.

  12. The influence of energy consumption of China on its real GDP from aggregated and disaggregated viewpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels during the period of 1978–2009 by using a modified version of the Granger (1969) causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) within a multivariate framework. The empirical results suggested the existence of a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from aggregated energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated level of energy consumption, the results were complicated. For coal, empirical findings suggested that there was a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from coal consumption to real GDP. However, for oil and gas, empirical findings suggested a positive bi-directional Granger causality running from oil as well as gas consumption to real GDP. Though these results supported the feedback hypothesis, the negative relationship might be attributed to the growing economy production shifting towards less energy intensive sectors and excessive energy consumption in relatively unproductive sectors. The results indicated that policies with reducing aggregated energy consumption and promoting energy conservation may boost China's economic growth. - Highlights: ► A negative bi-directional Granger causality runs from energy consumption to real GDP. ► The same result runs from coal consumption to real GDP, but oil and gas it does not. ► The results partly derive from excessive energy consumption in unproductive sectors. ► Reducing aggregated energy consumption probably promotes the development of China's economy

  13. Energy consumption and real GDP in G7 countries: New evidence from panel cointegration with structural breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125 (Australia); Smyth, Russell [Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2008-09-15

    This paper examines the relationship between capital formation, energy consumption and real GDP in a panel of G7 countries using panel unit root, panel cointegration, Granger causality and long-run structural estimation. We find that capital formation, energy consumption and real GDP are cointegrated and that capital formation and energy consumption Granger cause real GDP positively in the long run. We find that a 1% increase in energy consumption increases real GDP by 0.12-0.39%, while a 1% increase in capital formation increases real GDP by 0.1-0.28%. (author)

  14. The energy-GDP nexus: Evidence from a panel of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vinod; Smyth, Russell; Sharma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Island countries are small island economies that are increasingly dependent on energy for growth and development, yet highly susceptible to climate change. Thus, the relationship between energy consumption and GDP is crucial for realizing their future development and growth objectives. This article tests for Granger causality and provides long-run structural estimates for the relationship between energy consumption, GDP and urbanization for a panel of Pacific Island countries. For the panel as a whole in the long-run there is bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP and these variables exert a positive impact on each other. A 1% increase in energy consumption increases GDP by 0.11%, while a 1% increase in GDP increases energy consumption by 0.23%. The findings suggest that for the panel as a whole these countries should increase investment in energy infrastructure and regulatory reform of energy infrastructure to improve delivery efficiency, continue to promote alternative energy sources and put in place energy conservation policies to reduce unnecessary wastage. These strategies seek to realize the dual objectives of reducing the adverse effects of energy use on the environment, while avoiding the negative effect on economic growth of reducing energy consumption. (author)

  15. Granger Causalities Between Interest Rate, Price Level, Money Supply and Real Gdp in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Urbanovský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate relationships between selected macroeconomic variables – interest rate, price level, money supply and real GDP – in the Czech Republic in order to find out definite implications of its interactions and give recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. Two implemented vector autoregression models with different lag length reached slightly different conclusions. VAR(1 suggests that three pairs of Granger causality exist, in particular between price level and interest rate, between real GDP and interest rate and between real GDP and price level. VAR(2 uncovered two more pairs of Granger causality between money supply and interest rate and between money supply and price level. Despite better prediction power of VAR(2 in case of money supply, low correlation coefficient comprising variable money supply raises doubts about the factual existence of causality between money supply and other variables. However, both models allow forecasting the direction of change in case of variables interest rate and real GDP with the same success rate nearly 82 %. Both VARs also agreed that interest rate could be changed by change of price level and that interest rate could be changed by change of real GDP. These conclusions represent potential recommendations to macroeconomic policy authorities. For the purpose of further research, exchange rate variable will be included in the model instead of interest rate, because effect of interest rate turned out to be limited in times of weakened state of Czech economy.

  16. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate regime on real GDP and prices in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqiri Izet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative costs and benefits associated with introducing a more active monetary and a different exchange rate regime in the Republic of Macedonia. In this finding, the econometrics result show that introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate targeting in order to promote rapid economic growth could easy disturb macroeconomic stability (after having achieved it at a substantial cost without any significant economic benefits. Therefore, introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate regime is likely to incur more costs than benefits, since changes of the monetary policy and exchange rate regime type do not show a persistent effect on real GDP, while changes of money stock and exchange rate regime do show a strong and persistent effect on prices level.

  17. Impact of GDP Information Technology in Developing of Regional Central Business (Case 50 Airports IT City Development in Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, Joko; Sukoco, Agus; Ikhsan Setiawan, M.; Suhermin; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia a great number of populations and demand of air transportation services keep increasing by the year in line with the increasing of population and welfare its people. Need for telematics solutions to support goods transport and distribution in cities is mainly due to the complexity of the processes taking place in urban transport systems and the importance of the optimisation of transport operations via ensuring adequate availability of linear and point infrastructure, while reducing the adverse impacts of the transport system on the environment. Efficient infrastructure supports economic growth, improves quality of life, and it is important for national security. Impact of GDP Information Technology in developing of Regional Central Business especially SME Business, are very large correlations and very significant supported by Passenger Arrival and Departure, Baggage Loaded and Unloaded, Cargo Loaded and Unloaded, Separated regional asset, Grant, Capital Expenditure, Investment of Regional Gov., GDP Agriculture-Forestry-Fishing, GDP Manufacturing, GDP Electricity-Gas, GDP Water supply- Sewerage-Waste Management-Remediation Activities, GDP Financial-Insurance Activities, GDP Business Activities, GDP Public Administration and Defense-Compulsory Social Security, GDP Education and GDP Other Services Activities

  18. The Remittance-GDP Relationship in the Liberalized Regime of Bangladesh: Cointegration and Innovation Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biru Paksha PAUL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, being one of the top remittance-recipient countries in the world, has drawn attention to the remittance-output relationship in recent years. The results on this aspect are nevertheless inconclusive. Working on a relatively liberalized regime from 1979 to 2009, this study finds a long run positive relationship between remittances and GDP in Bangladesh. The adjustment of this relation, however, goes against traditional belief in that GDP does not respond to the movements in remittances while correcting disequilibrium after a shock in the system, but the reverse is true. There is no evidence on remittance-led growth in the short run. Innovation accounting shows that the impact of output on remittances is remarkably stronger than that of remittances on output. These findings have policy implications for other emerging nations in that GDP growth is capable of attracting further remittances arguably through increasing investment demand and initiating institutional reforms in the economy.

  19. Disaggregated energy consumption and GDP in Taiwan: A threshold co-integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption growth is much higher than economic growth for Taiwan in recent years, worsening its energy efficiency. This paper provides a solid explanation by examining the equilibrium relationship between GDP and disaggregated energy consumption under a non-linear framework. The threshold co-integration test developed with asymmetric dynamic adjusting processes proposed by Hansen and Seo [Hansen, B.E., Seo, B., 2002. Testing for two-regime threshold cointegration in vector error-correction models. Journal of Econometrics 110, 293-318.] is applied. Non-linear co-integrations between GDP and disaggregated energy consumptions are confirmed except for oil consumption. The two-regime vector error-correction models (VECM) show that the adjustment process of energy consumption toward equilibrium is highly persistent when an appropriately threshold is reached. There is mean-reverting behavior when the threshold is reached, making aggregate and disaggregated energy consumptions grow faster than GDP in Taiwan

  20. Systems GMM estimates of the health care spending and GDP relationship: a note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saten

    2013-06-01

    This paper utilizes the systems generalized method of moments (GMM) [Arellano and Bover (1995) J Econometrics 68:29-51; Blundell and Bond (1998) J Econometrics 87:115-143], and panel Granger causality [Hurlin and Venet (2001) Granger Causality tests in panel data models with fixed coefficients. Mime'o, University Paris IX], to investigate the health care spending and gross domestic product (GDP) relationship for organisation for economic co-operation and development countries over the period 1960-2007. The system GMM estimates confirm that the contribution of real GDP to health spending is significant and positive. The panel Granger causality tests imply that a bi-directional causality exists between health spending and GDP. To this end, policies aimed at raising health spending will eventually improve the well-being of the population in the long run.

  1. Contribution of Forest Production to GDP, and its challenges in Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundessa Adugna Yadeta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the regional GDP of Oromiya national regional state based on 10 years data, to analyze the contribution of forest production and challenges in forestry accounting. The result shows that market value of forest production and its contribution to GDP of Oromia showed continuous increment.  Forest products are used as a source of fuel, production of timber and source of construction materials. On an average, forest production contributed about 6.10% to GDP and became the second least contributor to the GDP of Oromia. Reduction of forest coverage due to deforestation, underestimation of value of forestry products and existence of missing attributes of forestry in the SNA are the main challenges in forestry contribution to GDP of Oromia. Thus, Bureau of finance and economic development of Oromia should re-examine how economic growth can be achieved through contribution of forest production, taking awareness of existing capacity to increase growth and alleviate poverty.  Resources should be directed into areas where there is adequate evidence of potential growth. This will be achieved through enhancement of conservation and wise use of forest resources, so that it can contribute more to the domestic income directly and indirectly through its contribution to other sectors. It is also recommended that the concerned body need to incorporate the real value of forest resources in SNA and give due attention to forest, and increase awareness to the society, so as to make a proper use of forest resources and boost its contribution to GDP of Oromia.

  2. Thermal degradation process of poly (alpha-methylstyrene) microspheres coated with glow discharge polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Tang Yongjian; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; He Zhibing

    2009-01-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) shell was made by the decomposable mandrel technique using poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS) mandrel. The PAMS degradation rate and the GDP shell surface morphology at different equilibrium temperatures were investigated. Degradation rate was calculated from weight variation of PAMS before and after pyrolysis process. Experiment results indicate that the degradation rate decreases at the fixed equilibrium temperature and graded temperature can improve the rate. The degradation process has an effect on the GDP shell properties. The PAMS doesn't molten to flow liquid during degradation. But the degradation can reduce surface finish of GDP coatings. The GDP shell deffects are the result of the PAMS degradiation process. (authors)

  3. Biochemical and functional studies on the Burkholderia cepacia complex bceN gene, encoding a GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia A Sousa

    Full Text Available This work reports the biochemical and functional analysis of the Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 bceN gene, encoding a protein with GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase enzyme activity (E.C.4.2.1.47. Data presented indicate that the protein is active when in the tetrameric form, catalyzing the conversion of GDP-D-mannose into GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose. This sugar nucleotide is the intermediary necessary for the biosynthesis of GDP-D-rhamnose, one of the sugar residues of cepacian, the major exopolysaccharide produced by environmental and human, animal and plant pathogenic isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex species. Vmax and Km values of 1.5±0.2 µmol.min(-1.mg(-1 and 1024±123 µM, respectively, were obtained from the kinetic characterization of the B. cenocepacia J2315 BceN protein by NMR spectroscopy, at 25°C and in the presence of 1 mol MgCl2 per mol of protein. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the substrate, with an estimated Ki of 2913±350 µM. The lack of a functional bceN gene in a mutant derived from B. cepacia IST408 slightly reduced cepacian production. However, in the B. multivorans ATCC17616 with bceN as the single gene in its genome with predicted GMD activity, a bceN mutant did not produce cepacian, indicating that this gene product is required for cepacian biosynthesis.

  4. Electricity consumption-real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from a bootstrapped causality test for 30 OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Prasad, Arti

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine any causal effects between electricity consumption and real GDP for 30 OECD countries. We use a bootstrapped causality testing approach and unravel evidence in favour of electricity consumption causing real GDP in Australia, Iceland, Italy, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Korea, Portugal, and the UK. The implication is that electricity conservation policies will negatively impact real GDP in these countries. However, for the rest of the 22 countries our findings suggest that electricity conversation policies will not affect real GDP

  5. The progress of the regional GDP in the regions of the Czech Republic with regard to the methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Nováková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional GDP is used in the European Union as the important indicator to the distribution of the European funds. However in the Czech Republic this indicator has had only a short history because regional GDP started to be constructed in the half of the ninetieth. The aims of the paper are to present and evaluate the progress in the process of the regionalization of the GDP in the Czech Republic, review economic productivity of the Czech regions (level NUTS 2 and NUTS 3 and finally point out the persisting weaknesses of the regionalization of the GDP in the Czech Republic. First part of the paper describes problematic beginnings of the process of the regionalization of the GDP, evaluates changes of the methodology and discusses the actual state of this affair. Second part of the paper describes the variability of GDP among the Czech regions at level NUTS 2 and NUTS 3. Alternative modifications of the indicator GDP (for example GDP, GDP per capita, rate of growth are used in this regional analysis. Consecutively relative positions of individual regions in the Czech Republic are discussed. There are pointed out some contradictions in the Czech regional statistics in this paper. The defined drawbacks indicate possible way of the research into the future.

  6. The Egg or the Chick first; saving or GDP Growth: Case for Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds that a 1% increase in GDP growth rate leads to a 0.5% increase in private saving in the long run which is consistent with the life cycle hypothesis. A striking result in the saving function is the positive effect that population growth rate seems to have on private savings which puts into question the notion of a ...

  7. A Rac1--GDP trimer complex binds zinc with tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, displacing magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna, G.; Stebbins, C

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3221 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  8. A Rac1-GDP Trimer Complex Binds Zinc with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Coordination, Displacing Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehna,G.; Stebbins, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3{sub 2}21 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  9. Short-term forecasting of Czech quarterly GDP using monthly indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnoštová, K.; Havrlant, D.; Růžička, L.; Tóth, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2011), s. 566-583 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : GDP forecasting * bridge models * principal components Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1235_toth.pdf

  10. Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abad, Leticia Arroyo; Zanden, Jan Luiten van

    2016-01-01

    This article presents new estimations of per capita GDP in colonial times for the two pillars of the Spanish empire: Mexico and Peru. We find dynamic economies as evidenced by increasing real wages, urbanization, and silver mining. Their growth trajectories are such that both regions reduced the gap

  11. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Market economies are fundamentally characterized by economic growth. Growth rates may be higher or lower, but the GDP seldom stagnates or diminishes - and when it does, this is considered a symptom of crisis. During the past few decades environmental problems have caused increasing conce...

  12. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5% level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrolment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) ...

  13. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the explanatory variables included in the doublelog model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5% level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrolment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and ...

  14. Livestock production and population census in Pakistan: Determining their relationship with agricultural GDP using econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is a subsector of Pakistan agriculture which contributes approximately 56% of value addition in agriculture and nearly 11% to the gross domestic product (GDP. Livestock production makes a major contribution to agriculture value added services. In order to highlight the actual performance of livestock production and livestock and poultry products, the study explored the relationship between agricultural GDP and livestock product output, including milk, beef, mutton, poultry meat, eggs, wool, hair, skins, hides and bones, in Pakistan over the 35 year period from 1980 to 2015. Time series data were collected from the National Food Security and Research, the Economic Survey of Pakistan and the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (various publications. Livestock data were analysed using the ordinary least squares (OLS method and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF test, and the results were interpreted using the Johansen co-integration test. Our study found that the output of milk, fat, eggs, bones and mutton has a positive, significant relationship to the agricultural GDP of Pakistan, while the output of beef, poultry meat, wool, hair, skins and hides has a negative, insignificant relationship to the agricultural GDP of Pakistan. Therefore, the study suggests that the government of Pakistan initiates new funding schemes for the development of the livestock sector.

  15. Impact of interest rate changes on South African GDP and households

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    the repo rate will impact the real GDP, and if so, how this will impact SA households. (and by how much)?1 ..... Institutional agents (firms, households, government and the 'rest of economy' sector) are both buyers ..... opportunities, followed by real estate activities (-2 192), public administration (-1 971) and other business ...

  16. Carbon emissions, logistics volume and GDP in China: empirical analysis based on panel data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Ren, Dongfang; Shi, Jiaxing

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship among carbon emissions, GDP, and logistics by using a panel data model and a combination of statistics and econometrics theory. The model is based on the historical data of 10 typical provinces and cities in China during 2005-2014. The model in this paper adds the variability of logistics on the basis of previous studies, and this variable is replaced by the freight turnover of the provinces. Carbon emissions are calculated by using the annual consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas. GDP is the gross domestic product. The results showed that the amount of logistics and GDP have a contribution to carbon emissions and the long-term relationships are different between different cities in China, mainly influenced by the difference among development mode, economic structure, and level of logistic development. After the testing of panel model setting, this paper established a variable coefficient model of the panel. The influence of GDP and logistics on carbon emissions is obtained according to the influence factors among the variables. The paper concludes with main findings and provides recommendations toward rational planning of urban sustainable development and environmental protection for China.

  17. Modified GDP Through Health Cost Analysis of Air Pollution: The Case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim

    1999-02-01

    / Economic growth and performance is monitored through the gross domestic product (GDP) of a nation. It has long been recognized that the traditionally computed GDP does not account for gains and losses observed due to the consumption of natural resources and environmental services. Hence, the objective of this study is to modify the Turkish GDP by taking social cost associated with air pollution into consideration. To this end health benefits and economic costs of air-quality improvement are estimated. The computations are based on the dose-response coefficients reported in several studies. The results indicate that a decrease in PM10 and SO2 levels to the WHO guideline would have resulted in a total of 48.309 x 10(10) and 153.38 x 10(10) Turkish lira savings in 1990 and 1993, respectively. These correspond to 0.12% and 0.08% of 1990 and 1993 GDPs, respectively. KEY WORDS: Health costs; Air pollution; Modified GDP

  18. Calculating China’s Historical Economic Aggregate: A GDP-centered Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, Yi; Ni, Yuping; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, thanks to the concerted efforts of domestic and international scholars, the research on China’s historical GDP that began in the 1930s has received widespread attention, and is becoming a widely discussed issue at the forefront of research on world economic history. At the same

  19. GDP per capita and the biological standard of living in contemporary developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Drukker, J.W.; Slot, Brigitte

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates whether a divergence between the biological standard of living (commonly measured by some anthropometric indicator) and GDP per capita during the early phases of industrialization, as observed for many now-developed countries in the nineteenth century, can also be found for

  20. Regional GDP Convergence in the European Regions in the light of the Economic Recession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Karl; Cornett, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the implications of the slowdown of the European economies since 2007 on the process of GDP convergence at the regional NUTS 2 level. We use a nominal data set on GPD per capita divided into the periods 1995-2006 and 2007-2010. Using the notion of β-convergence we find...

  1. Rare events in the american GDP time series, 1790 -present : Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies the cyclical behaviour of the annual American Gross Domestic Product (GDP) series. We show that rare events have varied effects, which give useful information on the nature and the amplitude of economic shocks. Our methodology is, more precisely, an efficient testing procedure to control the ...

  2. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  3. CORRECTION OF CHAIN-LINKING METHOD BY MEANS OF LLOYD-MOULTON-FISHER-TÖRNQVIST INDEX ON CROATIAN GDP DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available National statistical agencies of European Union use chain-linking method to achieve the best possible decomposition of GDP. The main advantage of this method is its simplicity, thus it can be applied in practice, which makes it particularly attractive in the situation when GDP has to be compiled on due time. By this method transformation-substitution effect – inherent to rational producers and consumers, has been implicitly built into GDP compilation, which is prior assumption of normative economic theory. On empirical (ex-post ground it gives more precise volume-price decomposition. In this paper, by means of constructing LMTF index and Fisher index derived from the previous one, it is suggested how to improve chain linking method, due to following reasons: a it is theoretically restrictive, b it gives only rough GDP decomposition into volume and price and, what seems to be its main disadvantage, c it gives additively inconsistent GDP.

  4. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  5. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Arti [The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji). Faculty of Business and Economics, School of Economics; Narayan, Paresh Kumar [Deakin University, Melbourne (Australia). Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance; Narayan, Jashwini [The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji). Faculty of Business and Economics, School of Management and Public Administration

    2007-12-15

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output. (author)

  6. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in African Countries: Evidence from Semiparametric Estimation with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature studies on the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE and GDP have been analyzed using data intensively from developed countries, but little is known for other regions. This paper considers a semiparametric panel data analysis for the study of the relationship between per capita HCE and per capita GDP for 42 African countries over the period 1995–2009. We found that infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births has a negative effect on per capita HCE, while the proportion of the population aged 65 is statistically insignificant in African countries. Furthermore, we found that the income elasticity is not constant but varies with income level, and health care is a necessity rather than a luxury for African countries.

  7. Exploring the oil price and real GDP nexus for a small island economy, the Fiji Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Arti; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Narayan, Jashwini

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between real GDP and oil prices using time series data for the period 1970-2005. Our main finding is that an increase in oil has a positive, albeit inelastic, impact on real GDP, inconsistent with the bulk of the literature. We argue that this is not a surprising result for the Fiji Islands. Our central argument focuses on two aspects of the Fijian economy: (1) the fact that actual output in Fiji has been around 50 per cent less than potential output; thus, Fiji's actual output has not reached a threshold level at which oil prices can negatively impact output; and (2) a rise in oil prices filters through to value added, which in turn is reflected in a larger actual output. (author)

  8. The impact of investment in Public Private Partnerships on Public, Private investment and GDP in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Inácia; St.Aubyn, Miguel; Ribeiro, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we test the macroeconomic impact of investment in public-private partnerships, public and private investment in Portugal through a VAR model with four variables: public and private investment, PPP investment and GDP, to the period 1998- 2013. An assessment of crowding-in / crowding-out effects of investment in PPPs is carried out. We also proceed to the calculation of macroeconomic rates of return on investment in PPP, public investment and private investment. The...

  9. An Analysis of Revisions to Annual GDP Estimates of Six ADB Regional Members

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Benson; de Castro, Modesta; Pascua, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the histories of revisions of official annual real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates for six regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) - People's Republic of China; India; Indonesia; Republic of Korea; Taipei,China; and Thailand - for the period 1990–2004 as computed from successive editions of ADB's flagship annual statistical publication, Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific. A number of revisions indicators for each economy are computed. The result...

  10. Determination of stochastic vs. deterministic trend in quarterly GDP of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Zahid; Asghar, Zahid

    2009-01-01

    Many economic and financial time series show evidence of trending behavior or non stationarity in the mean. An important econometric goal is determining the most proper form of the trend in the data. The transformations of series depend on whether the series is trend stationary or difference stationary. In this paper, study is conducted to declare the nature of trend component in quarterly GDP of Pakistan whether it is trend stationary or difference stationary. It is necessary to know, becaus...

  11. GDP Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Susan D; Tucci, Debara L; Smith, Magteld; Macharia, Isaac M; Ndegwa, Serah N; Nakku, Doreen; Mukara, Kaitesi B; Kaitesi, Mukara B; Ibekwe, Titus S; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Gong, Wenfeng; Francis, Howard W; Saunders, James E

    2015-09-01

    Cochlear implantation and deaf education are cost effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cost effectiveness of pediatric cochlear implantation has been well established in developed countries but is unknown in low resource settings, where access to the technology has traditionally been limited. With incidence of severe-to-profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss 5 to 6 times higher in low/middle-income countries than the United States and Europe, developing cost-effective management strategies in these settings is critical. Costs were obtained from experts in Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Malawi using known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability adjusted life years (DALY) model was applied using 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost effectiveness was determined using the WHO standard of cost-effectiveness ratio/gross domestic product per capita (CER/GDP) less than 3. Cochlear implantation was cost effective in South Africa and Nigeria, with CER/GDP of 1.03 and 2.05, respectively. Deaf education was cost effective in all countries investigated, with CER/GDP ranging from 0.55 to 1.56. The most influential factor in the sensitivity analysis was device cost, with the cost-effective threshold reached in all countries using discounted device costs that varied directly with GDP. Cochlear implantation and deaf education are equally cost effective in lower-middle and upper-middle income economies of Nigeria and South Africa. Device cost may have greater impact in the emerging economies of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Malawi.

  12. Meta-Analysis of the Oil Price Elasticity of the GDP for Policy Analysis: Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, David Charles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Megan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of oil in economic activities, policy makers are interested in estimates of the potential damage to the economy from oil price shocks, particularly during periods of rapid and large increases that accompany severe shocks. Such estimates are needed to quantify the economic costs of oil price shocks, and to evaluate the potential benefits of alternative policy responses. Although research on the economic impacts of oil price shocks is extensive and has generally found that large increases in oil prices exert negative economic impacts, the range of estimates, summarized by the oil price elasticity of the GDP or other aggregate measure of economic activity, is very wide. There are also conditions under which the relationship between the oil price and the economy could be positive. The range of estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States is typified by averages from the studies of Hamilton (2005, 2012) and Kilian and Vigfusson (2014), in which the implied elasticities were -0.014 to - 0.069 and +0.004 to -0.052, respectively. We employ a meta-regression approach to systematically summarize available estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for oil importing economies, and examine the role of key factors. The resulting regression model was used to estimate the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States. Based on this we estimate the mean elasticity for the United States at -0.0238, with a 68% confidence interval of -0.0075 to -0.0402, four quarters after a shock.

  13. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence from OPEC Data, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. Objectives: This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. Patients & Methods: We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Results: Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. Conclusions: The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries. PMID:26383195

  14. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  15. GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) as electron donors: new wine in old bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D A; Peterson, D C; Reeve, H L; Archer, S L; Weir, E K

    1999-01-01

    G proteins are membrane-bound regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of ion channels and other effector systems. The GTP and GDP analogs GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) have been used to study the role of G proteins in numerous physiologic systems. The prolonged effects of these analogs have been thought to be due to the fact that they are nonhydrolyzable. However, in this paper we show that the GTP (gammaS) and GDP (betaS) analogs are potent reducing agents at physiologic pH. This observation suggests that previous data obtained using these compounds may need to be reinterpreted.

  16. Cointegration and Causality among Foreign Direct Investment in Tourism Sector, GDP, and Exchange Rate Volatility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sekmen, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    The Granger-causality (GC) and error correction (ECM) techniques were applied 1980-2005 data for Turkey to examine cointegration and causality among foreign direct investment(FDI) in tourism sector, overall GDP, and exchange rate volatility (EX). According to the ECM technique, the hypothesis that “no cointegration” was rejected for all three variables. The GC results detect causality runs from one-way from GDP to FDI, but the GC results detect bi-directional causality between GDP and EX sugg...

  17. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures......Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport...... accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development....

  18. COINTEGRATION AND CAUSALITY BETWEEN TURKISH, IMPORTS AND GDP: A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri Levent Uslu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the relation between imports and growth rate in Turkey for the period between the first quarter of 1998 and last quarter of 2014. The touchstone in Turkish economy is the January 24 regulations of 1980. The import led growth strategy of the Turkish economy switched to export led growth strategy after this date. It is an indisputable fact that trade openness triggered to the economic growth progress of Turkey. Yet, the issue should be further investigated. It is being argued by both scholars and politicians that the high growth rates in the mentioned period is achieved by importing raw materials and intermediate goods, thus, growth in Turkish economy has to be accompanied by the increase in imports and thus increase in trade deficit and current account deficit. In the literature, the relations between GDP growth and exports are intensively investigated, however, the relation between the second component of international trade, imports, and GDP growth did not attract that much attention. The main objective of this study is to reveal the presence and direction of Granger causality between Turkish Imports and GDP. The model to be employed in Granger causality (i.e. VAR vs. VECM depends on whether the variables under question are stationary and/or co integrated. In testing the unit roots, we have followed the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Dickey and Fuller, 1979 test which eventually became the standard practice in unit root testing. Next, to find the number of co integrating vectors Johansen Maximum Likelihood (Johansen and Juselius, 1990 test is employed.

  19. Manganese phosphate-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese phosphate-coating is one of the numerous chemical surface treatment which is used industrially. Its applications are usual for improving the friction properties of a lot of mechanical parts. Used for the treatment of steels and cast steels, baths (containing phosphoric acid, manganese phosphate and different additives) lead to the formation of nonmetal coatings of a few micrometers. These manganese-iron or manganese phosphates crystals reduce the friction coefficient and retain the lubricant film in contact with the moving parts. The running noises, the wear and the seizure risks are then strongly reduced. Pure manganese phosphate-coating is currently developing because the obtained coatings are thinner and more regular. (O.M.)

  20. The Suitability of Different Nighttime Light Data for GDP Estimation at Different Spatial Scales and Regional Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light data offer a unique view of the Earth’s surface and can be used to estimate the spatial distribution of gross domestic product (GDP. Historically, using a simple regression function, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS has been used to correlate regional and global GDP values. In early 2013, the first global Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS nighttime light data were released. Compared with DMSP/OLS, they have a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range. This paper aims to study the suitability of the two nighttime light data sources for estimating the GDP relationship between the provincial and city levels in Mainland China, as well as of different regression functions. First, NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data for 2014 are corrected with DMSP/OLS data for 2013 to reduce the background noise in the original data. Subsequently, three regression functions are used to estimate the relationship between nighttime light data and GDP statistical data at the provincial and city levels in Mainland China. Then, through the comparison of the relative residual error (RE and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE parameters, a systematical assessment of the suitability of the GDP estimation is provided. The results show that the NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data are better than the DMSP/OLS data for GDP estimation, whether at the provincial or city level, and that the power function and polynomial models are better for GDP estimation than the linear regression model. This study reveals that the accuracy of GDP estimation based on nighttime light data is affected by the resolution of the data and the spatial scale of the study area, as well as by the land cover types and industrial structures of the study area.

  1. ECONOMETRIC MODELING OF GDP BY EMPLOYMENT AND THE VALUE OF TANGIBLE FIXED ASSESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic potential of a country is consistently a primary goal of existence and sustainable development, to ensure the livelihood of all residents, increase living standards. To achieve this major goal rigorous study must be complex to formulate a diagnosis and real economic status and rationale, on the basis of economic and legislative policy decisions, decisions addressing both immediate time horizons as well as longer periods of time. In this context, we analyzed dynamics of GDP according to the dynamics of employment and dynamics of tangible fixed assets of the economy by applying a rigorous econometric modeling methodology.

  2. The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship among electricity consumption, its price and real GDP at the aggregate and sectoral level in Pakistan. Using annual data for the period 1960-2008, the study finds the presence of unidirectional causality from real economic activity to electricity consumption. In particular, growth in output in commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors tend to increase electricity consumption, while in residential sector, growth in private expenditures is the cause of rising electricity consumption. The study concludes that electricity production and management needs to be better integrated with overall economic planning exercises. This is essential to avoid electricity shortfalls and unplanned load shedding. (author)

  3. ARE THE REAL GDP SERIES IN ASIAN COUNTRIES NONSTATIONARY OR NONLINEAR STATIONARY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurun Nahar Jannati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper checks whether per capita real gross domestic product (GDP series in 16 Asian countries are nonstationary or nonlinear and globally stationary during the period from 1970 to 2009, by applying the nonlinear unit root tests developed by Kapitanios, Shin and Snell (2003. In five out of the sixteen countries that is approximately one-third of the countries, the series are found to be stationary with asymmetric or nonlinear mean reversion. Analyses depict that nonlinear unit root test are suitable for some cases compare to the commonly used unit root test, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Dickey-Fuller Generalized Least Square (DF-GLS tests.

  4. CZ GDP Prediction via neural networks and Box-Jenkins Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořáková Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators are nowadays ones of the most observed, their development does not only serve for comparing individual countries among each other but also show how the given country is prospering. That is why economists are trying to predict also the future development of these indicators via different statistical instruments. Neural networks or Box-Jenkins Method, able to predict future development based on data from the past, are one of the many instruments. The aim of this contribution is to find CZ GDP prediction per individual quarters using neural networks and Box-Jenkins Method, compare them mutually, and evaluate which of them is better.

  5. The crystal structure of elongation factor G complexed with GDP, at 2.7 A resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Czworkowski, J; Wang, J; Steitz, T A; Moore, P B

    1994-01-01

    Elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes the translocation step of protein synthesis in bacteria, and like the other bacterial elongation factor, EF-Tu--whose structure is already known--it is a member of the GTPase superfamily. We have determined the crystal structure of EF-G--GDP from Thermus thermophilus. It is an elongated molecule whose large, N-terminal domain resembles the G domain of EF-Tu, except for a 90 residue insert, which covers a surface that is involved in nucleotide exchange in E...

  6. Discovering the Impact of ICT, FDI and Human Capital on GDP: a Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Campisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.

  7. Mechanism of adenylate cyclase activation through the beta-adrenergic receptor: catecholamine-induced displacement of bound GDP by GTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, D; Selinger, Z

    1978-09-01

    The fate of the guanyl nucleotide bound to the regulatory site of adenylate cyclase was studied on a preparation of turkey erythrocyte membranes that was incubated with [3H]GTP plus isoproterenol and subsequently washed to remove hormone and free guanyl nucleotide. Further incubation of this preparation in the presence of beta-adrenergic agonists resulted in the release from the membrane of tritiated nucleotide, identified as [3H]GDP. The catecholamine-induced release of [3H]GDP was increased 2 to 3 times in the presence of the unlabeled guanyl nucleotides GTP, guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate [gpp(NH)p], GDP, and GMP, whereas adenine nucleotides had little effect. In the presence of Gpp(NH)p, isoproterenol induced the release of [3H]GDP and the activation of adenylate cyclase, both effects following similar time courses. The findings indicate that the inactive adenylate cyclase possesses tightly bound (GDP, produced by the hydrolysis of GTP at the regulatory site. The hormone stimulates adenylate cyclase activity by inducing an "opening" of the guanyl nucleotide site, resulting in dissociation of the bound GDP and binding of the activating guanosine triphosphate.

  8. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  9. GDP-mannose transporter paralogues play distinct roles in polarized growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Hayes, Loretta; Hill, Terry W; Loprete, Darlene M; Gordon, Barbara S; Groover, Chassidy J; Johnson, Laura R; Martin, Stuart A

    2010-01-01

    GDP-mannose transporters (GMT) carry GDP-mannose nucleotide sugars from the cytosol across the Golgi apparatus membrane for use as substrates in protein glycosylation in plants, animals and fungi. Genomes of some fungal species, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contain only one gene encoding a GMT, while others, including Aspergillus nidulans, contain two (gmtA and gmtB). We previously showed that cell wall integrity and normal hyphal morphogenesis in A. nidulans depend upon the function of GmtA and that GmtA localizes to a Golgi-like compartment. Cells bearing the calI11 mutation in gmtA also have reduced cell surface mannosylation. Here we show that GmtB colocalizes with GmtA, suggesting that the role of GmtB is similar to that of GmtA, although the respective transcript levels differ during spore germination and early development. Transcript levels of gmtB are high in ungerminated spores and remain so throughout the first 16 h of germination. In contrast, transcript levels of gmrtA are negligible in ungerminated spores but increase to levels comparable to those of gmtB during germination. These observations suggest that although GmtA and GmtB reside within the same subcellular compartments, they nevertheless perform distinct functions at different stages of development.

  10. GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilio, Mariana; Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for a sample of 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries during the 1970–2007 period. The investigation is made on the bases of the Energy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EEKC) hypothesis, using a panel data analysis. Energy consumption at aggregate level is used as an indicator of human environmental pressure and GDP per capita as an indicator of economic activity. Based in a cointegration approach, our results does not support the existence of a stable long run relationship between the series, rejecting the validity of such hypothesis for the selected sample over the 1970–2007 period. - Highlights: ► We analyze the relationship between energy consumption and per capita GDP. ► The main objective is to study the environmental pressure of energy consumption. ► We use the theoretical framework of EKC hypothesis. ► We found a U-shaped pattern instead of an inverted one. ► Socio-economic and institutional factors of the sample could explain our results.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND GROSS DOMESTIC INCOME (GDP IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖZGE KORKMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reach a sustainable economic growth of countries initially depends on the usage of energy resources efficiently. But an unequal  distribution of energy resources in the world increases the dependency on energy in countries which have insufficient energy resources such as Turkey. Therefore, it has a great importance to analyze the share of imported energy resources for economic growth. The correlation between energy consumption and changes in gross domestic product, increases the importance of energy policies while determining  the economical policies of countries. In this study, the causality relationship between energy consumption, energy generation  and GDP in Turkey are examined using annual data for the period 1960-2009. Johansen Cointegration Causality Test and Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM is used for this study. Empirical results for the period under discussion there is a relationship between the variables and error correction mechanism based on long-term Granger causality test. It showed that  bileteral causality  with the energy consumption to GDP.

  12. Is It What You Measure That Really Matters? The Struggle to Move beyond GDP in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hayden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In light of Gross Domestic Product’s (GDP well-known limitations as a wellbeing indicator, many alternative measures have been developed around the world. Some advocates of “beyond GDP” measures argue that they are key to shifting societal priorities away from economic growth toward sustainability, equity, and well-being. Is there any evidence to date that alternative indicators have lived up to their supporters’ expectations, whether the hope is for a radical transformation of social priorities away from GDP growth or a reformist vision of better policymaking without challenging the growth paradigm? What are the obstacles to fulfilling those expectations? This article examines the Canadian experience, drawing on interviews with researchers, non-governmental organization (NGO leaders, public-sector officials, and politicians, along with analysis of relevant documents. The hopes of Canadian proponents of new wellbeing measures have been largely disappointed to date, as no impact on federal or provincial policy is evident. Obstacles facing both a transformative and more limited reformist vision are examined. The Canadian case also suggests that use of new socio-economic indicators is best seen as one product of political efforts to bring ecological and social values into decision-making, rather than as the transformative force that will cause a change in societal priorities.

  13. Climate change - 50 grams of CO2 per dollar GDP as a goal for 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crastan, V.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the world-wide energy economy. The author quotes figures that show that, although the gross domestic product (GDP) has grown by 60% world-wide during the period 1990 to 2004, energy consumption has only increased by 34%, thus showing that energy efficiency is improving as a result of technological progress and a market that is calling for efficiency in the use of energy. An increase of energy-related emissions of CO 2 is quoted at 30% for the same period, so that the increase in efficiency has been insufficient for the protection of the climate. Grams of CO 2 per Dollar GDP are proposed as a measurement aid. The Swiss figure (2004: 185 g/$) is far away from the goal of reaching 50 g/$. Three sectors are proposed for further investigation concerning CO 2 emissions: Comfort and process heat, fuels for mobility, and electricity. Data is presented in graphical and tabular form. Finally, world-wide scenarios for various factors for the years 2030 and 2050 are presented

  14. CO{sub 2}, GDP and RET: An aggregate economic equilibrium analysis for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Karali, Nihan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Bogazici University, 34342 Bebek, Istanbul (Turkey); Arikan, Yildiz [Faculty of Management, Sabanci University, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    There is a worldwide interest in renewable electricity technologies (RETs) due to growing concerns about global warming and climate change. As an EU candidate country whose energy demand increases exponentially, Turkey inevitably shares this common interest on RET. This study, using an aggregate economic equilibrium model, explores the economic costs of different policy measures to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions in Turkey. The model combines energy demands, capital requirements and labor inputs at a constant elasticity of substitution under an economy-wide nested production function. Growing energy demand, triggered by economic growth, is met by increased supply and initiates new capacity additions. Investment into RET is encouraged via the incorporation of (a) endogenous technological learning through which the RET cost declines as a function of cumulative capacity, and (b) a willingness to pay (WTP) function which imposes the WTP of consumers as a lower bound on RET installation. The WTP equation is obtained as a function of consumer income categories, based on data gathered from a pilot survey in which the contingent valuation methodology was employed. The impacts of various emission reduction scenarios on GDP growth and RET diffusion are explored. As expected, RET penetration is accelerated under faster technological learning and higher WTP conditions. It is found that stabilizing CO{sub 2} emissions to year 2005 levels causes economic losses amounting to 17% and 23% of GDP in the years 2020 and 2030, respectively. (author)

  15. INFLUENCE OF TOURISM SECTOR IN ALBANIAN GDP: STIMATION USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina HYSA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During last years, tourism sector has significantly increased in Albania, since after year 1990 Albania has passed from a centralized economy to a liberal one. Tourism sector plays an important role in economic and social development. The contributions of this sector reflect directly into the generation of national income. The two main components matching the tourism movements are the number of tourists and the number of overnights in hotels. Investments done in this sector could be expected to have high positive influence in the country's GDP. This study seeks to identify the influence of tourists, their overnights in hotels and capital investment spending by all sectors directly involved in tourism sector on tourism total contribution to gross domestic product of Albania during 1996-2009. A regression analysis has been performed taking as dependent variable GDP generated by tourism sector and as independent variables, capital investment, tourist number and overnights in hotels. Even if all the variables have been found to be positivlye related, the variable ‘overnights of foreigners and Albanians in hotels' have beenfound insignificant.

  16. The Impact of E-Commerce and GDP on the Revenue of “One”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Zhaku - Hani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to e-commerce it has never been easier to conduct business throughout the world and it has never been timelier enriching international customers. E-commerce is also an incurable tool for new businesses as it allows them to rapidly broaden their customers, interact with customers in businesses throughout the world, an inexpensive market and advertise the company worldwide. In the other hand the impact of GDP, positive or negative, is a very important one for the revenue of organizations within a country. Given the fact that e-commerce has become a very profitable way to conduct business and GDP is another important factor for organizations, we have decided through this paper to analyze their impact on the revenue of one of the biggest mobile operators in Macedonia called “ONE”. At the end of the research we will be able to show whether investing in e-commerce has been profitable for the Macedonian mobile operator “ONE”.

  17. A multifactor approach to forecasting Romanian gross domestic product (GDP in the short run.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of a generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM based on dynamic principal components analysis to forecasting short-term economic growth in Romania. We have used a generalized principal components approach to estimate a dynamic model based on a dataset comprising 86 economic and non-economic variables that are linked to economic output. The model exploits the dynamic correlations between these variables and uses three common components that account for roughly 72% of the information contained in the original space. We show that it is possible to generate reliable forecasts of quarterly real gross domestic product (GDP using just the common components while also assessing the contribution of the individual variables to the dynamics of real GDP. In order to assess the relative performance of the GDFM to standard models based on principal components analysis, we have also estimated two Stock-Watson (SW models that were used to perform the same out-of-sample forecasts as the GDFM. The results indicate significantly better performance of the GDFM compared with the competing SW models, which empirically confirms our expectations that the GDFM produces more accurate forecasts when dealing with large datasets.

  18. The Impact of the Airline Freight Transportation on GDP in Turkey

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    Okşan Kibritçi Artar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of passenger and freight transportation has been increasing tremendously each day due to the globalization process. Therefore, the acceleration in the transportation demand has a natural impact on the distances that the freights have been carried through in overall. In this prospect, international logistics provides an economic utility from the sustainability viewpoint in the global competition arena. World-wide supply and distribution channels have become so sophisticated, resulting in having vitality in the field therefore boosting its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. High impact of liberalization in the air transportation markets has been affecting the market of Turkey as well as USA and EU. Moreover, it is one of the industries that have survived from the global financial crises which is also critical from the competition based strategies. In this study, the relation between the GDP and the air freight traffic of Turkey has been analyzed by using an econometric model. As a result, it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between those parameters.

  19. Vehicle Ownership Analysis Based on GDP per Capita in China: 1963–2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Gompertz function of per capita GDP and vehicle stock to forecast the vehicle ownership of China through to 2050 against a background of increasing energy use and CO2 emissions associated with the potential demands of on-road vehicles. We forecast the level of vehicle stock in China based on the extant patterns of vehicle development in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries, Europe, the United States and Japan. The results show that the OECD pattern and European pattern are more suitable for describing China’s vehicle stock growth when compared with Japanese and U.S. patterns. The study finds that China’s vehicle stock has developed as an S-shaped curve. During the forecast period, the inflection point of the increasing curve appears around the year 2030, with the annual growth of vehicle ownership increasing from 6.13% to 9.50% in the prior period prior and subsequently dropping to 0.45% in 2050. Based on the sensitivity analysis and robustness check, the impact of different Gompertz curve parameters and GDP growth rates on vehicle stock projection are analyzed.

  20. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  1. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Arab world: impact of GDP and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Usmani, A M; Qalbani, E

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a rapidly growing and most challenging health issue of the 21st century. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of type-2 DM and its association with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and energy consumption in the Arab world countries. We identified 88 articles through systematic searches including Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE databases published between 1980-2015. The related literature was searched by using the keywords including diabetes mellitus, prevalence, incidence, epidemiology of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and names of the individual Arab world countries. The articles were selected and investigated for the prevalence of T2DM. No limitations were imposed in the design of the study or publication language. Finally, 50 peer-reviewed publications were included and the rest were excluded. Arab world countries with the highest prevalence of T2DM are: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 31.6%, Oman 29%, Kuwait 25.4%, Bahrain 25.0% and United Arab Emirates 25.0%. The lowest prevalence was found in Mauritania (4.7%) and Somalia (3.9%). The highest prevalence was observed in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (25.45%) whilst non-GCC countries had the lowest prevalence (12.69%). The combined mean prevalence of T2DM in both GCC and Non-GCC Arab countries was 16.17%. The prevalence of T2DM was found to be significantly associated with higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (p=0.020) and energy consumption (p=0.017). In the Arab world, the countries with the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are: Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain and UAE, whilst the countries with the lowest prevalence are Mauritania and Somalia. This prevalence was significantly associated with high GDP per capita and energy consumption. Arab states must incorporate diabetes preventive policies on a war-footing basis to minimize the burden of the disease.

  2. Alcohol-Attributable Fraction in Liver Disease: Does GDP Per Capita Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Paul T; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Dalapathi, Vijay; Shroff, Kavin; Abed, Jean; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) quantifies alcohol's disease burden. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is influenced by alcohol consumption per capita, duration, gender, ethnicity, and other comorbidities. In this study, we investigated the association between AAF/alcohol-related liver mortality and alcohol consumption per capita, while stratifying to per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). Data obtained from the World Health Organization and World Bank for both genders on AAF on liver disease, per-capita alcohol consumption (L/y), and per-capita GDP (USD/y) were used to conduct a cross-sectional study. Countries were classified as "high-income" and "very low income" if their respective per-capita GDP was greater than $30,000 or less than $1,000. Differences in total alcohol consumption per capita and AAF were calculated using a 2-sample t test. Scatterplots were generated to supplement the Pearson correlation coefficients, and F test was conducted to assess for differences in variance of ALD between high-income and very low income countries. Twenty-six and 27 countries met the criteria for high-income and very low income countries, respectively. Alcohol consumption per capita was higher in high-income countries. AAF and alcohol consumption per capita for both genders in high-income and very low income countries had a positive correlation. The F test yielded an F value of 1.44 with P = .357. No statistically significant correlation was found among alcohol types and AAF. Significantly higher mortality from ALD was found in very low income countries relative to high-income countries. Previous studies had noted a decreased AAF in low-income countries as compared to higher-income countries. However, the non-statistically significant difference between AAF variances of low-income and high-income countries was found by this study. A possible explanation is that both high-income and low-income populations will consume sufficient amount of alcohol, irrespective of its

  3. GDP and life expectancy in Italy and Spain over the long run: A time-series approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Felice

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between life expectancy and GDP per capita. However, available studies to date are overwhelmingly based on either cross-country or cross-sectional data. We address the issue from a novel, more historically grounded approach, i.e., comparing long-run consistent time series. Objective: To investigate what, if any, is the causal link between life expectancy and GDP. Methods: We provide consistent and updated long-term yearly time series of GDP and life expectancy for Italy and Spain and compare them with those available for France. Results: Both Italy and Spain converged towards the European core (France earlier in life expectancy than in GDP. We find it necessary to split the series into two sub-periods, and we find that, in general, both improvements in life expectancy cause GDP growth and economic growth causes improvements in life expectancy. For the countries and the periods considered there are, however, exceptions in both cases. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the hypothesis of a non-monotonic relationship between life expectancy and income, but they also emphasize the importance of empirical qualifications, imposed by the historical experience of each national case.

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  5. Kondratiev type cyclicality of the Romanian economy, grounded in three key statistical indicators: GDP, CPI or CLI and debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the economies is certainly cyclical, and the “K” type waves, or type Kondratiev cycles, represent a perennial piece of evidence of this. Relatively criticized by many economic theories, with the ignorance typical of all those who try to disprove forecasts and projections in the field of business, and at the same time highly appreciated by those who prove a validated predictive power (which is the case of the Austrian school of economics, Kondratiev cycles, currently in their fifth stage, are the main target of the presnet paper. The introductory section is a reflection, simultaneously critical and appreciative, on cyclicality, while the arguments have a strong technological emphasis. To be credible and pragmatic, the applied method section has recourse to three favourite tools: gross domestic product (GDP price consumer index (PCI or cost of living index (CLI, and debt (public or external, paying due tribute to the constructors and international harmonizers, in point of statistics and instruments (from Nicholas Georgescu Roengen to Victor Axenciuc, who initiated and, respectively, completed a genuine epistemological process of the long cycle in modern Romanian economy, which this article presents, recognizing the quality of a supercycle to the Kondratiev cycle. The logic and useful nature of cyclical thinking, and its major importance today, conferred by the contribution of the Austrian school of economics, are included at the end of this article, generating a series of concluding remarks in a double perspective: that of an essay or statistical description, and and no less a ritical analysis of the Kondratiev type cyclicity of the national economy.

  6. Why Globally GDP, Trade, Profits, Wages, Employment Decrease and Why Poverty Increases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Štrukelj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to propose a scientific explanation ofwhy GDP, trade, profits, wages and employment have been globallydecreasing and why poverty has been globally increasing betweenthe 2nd quarter of 2008 and the 3rd quarter of 2009. I explainthese facts in a scientific manner, that is, by deriving thepresent state of the global economy (crisis from the principles ofthe present global economy (predominately organized in a capitalisticmanner. I therefore prove that the crisis necessarily followsfrom the way the present global economy functions. I arguethat the reason for the crisis is the fundamental contradiction betweenthe purpose of companies (increasing profits and necessaryways in which companies try to increase profits, and that theconsequences of this fundamental contradiction are triggered bya general lack of credits.

  7. LIMITATIONS OF THE GDP AS A MEASURE OF PROGRESS AND WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Frajman Ivković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the gross domestic product that has become a universal measure of progress and well-being. However, its usage for this purpose is inadequate, inappropriate and wrong since this economic measure does not reflect anything more than productivity. Moreover, it was never designed to be more than just a monetary measure and, besides that, it has a lot of limitations and weaknesses that are not sufficiently presented to the general public or in academic papers. In this paper the limitations of the GDP are shown by defining and describing its historical aspects Moreover, the SWOT analysis is used to emphasize the weaknesses and restrictions of this monetary measure. Structured critiques of the gross domestic product make way for other measures of progress and well-being to be recognized and used in a more comprehensive way.

  8. The relationship between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-T.; Kuo, H.-I; Chen, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationships between GDP and electricity consumption in 10 newly industrializing and developing Asian countries using both single data sets and panel data procedures. The empirical results from single data set indicate that the causality directions in the 10 Asian countries are mixed while there is a uni-directional short-run causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption and a bi-directional long-run causality between electricity consumption and economic growth if the panel data procedure is implemented. These empirical findings imply that electricity conservation policies through both rationalizing the electricity supply efficiency improvement to avoid the wastage of electricity and managing demand side to reduce the electricity consumption without affecting the end-user benefits could be initiated without adverse effect on economic growth. The findings on the long-run relationship indicate that a sufficiently large supply of electricity can ensure that a higher level of economic growth

  9. CAUSALITY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GDP AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN GEORGIA, AZERBAIJAN AND ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kalyoncu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia during the period of 1995–2009. The Engle-Granger cointegration and Granger causality tests are used in order to analyse the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. It is crucial to see the directions of causality between two variables for the policy makers. For Georgia and Azerbaijan it is found that these two variables are not cointegrated. In case of Armenia these two variables are cointegrated. Accordingly, causality analysis is conducted for Armenia. The research outcomes reveal that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita energy consumption for Armenia.

  10. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  11. A Map Spectrum-Based Spatiotemporal Clustering Method for GDP Variation Pattern Analysis Using Nighttime Light Images of the Wuhan Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of gross domestic product (GDP play a significant role in evaluating the economic performance of a country or region. Understanding the spatiotemporal process of GDP growth is important for estimating or monitoring the economic state of a region. Various GDP studies have been reported, and several studies have focused on spatiotemporal GDP variations. This study presents a map spectrum-based clustering approach to analyze the spatiotemporal variation patterns of GDP growth. First, a sequence of nighttime light images (from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS is used to support the spatial distribution of statistical GDP data. Subsequently, the time spectrum of each spatial unit is generated using a time series of dasymetric GDP maps, and then the spatial units with similar time spectra are clustered into one class. Each category has a similar spatiotemporal GDP variation pattern. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of GDP growth in the Wuhan urban agglomeration. The experimental results illustrated regional discrepancies of GDP growth existed in the study area.

  12. Detection of UCP1 protein and measurements of dependent GDP-sensitive proton leak in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kieran J; Carroll, Audrey M; O'Brien, Gemma; Porter, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Over several years we have provided evidence that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is present in thymus mitochondria. We have demonstrated the conclusive evidence for the presence of UCP1 in thymus mitochondria and we have been able to demonstrate a GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent proton leak in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. In this chapter, we show how to detect UCP1 in mitochondria isolated from whole thymus using immunoblotting. We show how to measure GDP-sensitive UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption in non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria and we show that increased reactive oxygen species production occurs on addition of GDP to non-phosphorylating thymus mitochondria. We conclude that reactive oxygen species production rate can be used as a surrogate for detecting UCP1 catalyzed proton leak activity in thymus mitochondria.

  13. Increasing household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price: Malaysia’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sharezan; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    The increase in household debts in Malaysia which has escalated to about 86% of total GDP is deemed to be at worrying stage as it may in turn trigger another financial crisis. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the increase in household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price via time series techniques. Data collected from Datastream and monthly statistical bulletin span from 1999 to 2014 on quarterly basis. The results show that there is a cointegrating long run r...

  14. Analyzing The Relationship Among The GDP - Current Account Deficit and Short Term Capital Flows: The Case of Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ekrem AKBAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there was causal relationship among the current deficit, short term capital flows and economic growth in emerging markets. Before causality test was done, CDLM tests were done in order to the fact that to be able to determine if there was cross section dependence in countries form the panel. At the end of CDLM tests cross section dependence in emerging markets form the panel was determined. Then, panel causality test developed was done. According to the result of panel causality test bidirectional causality between current account deficit and GDP, unidirectional causality from short term capital flows to current deficit and GDP were determined.

  15. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak.

  16. Global impact of a climate treaty if the Human Development Index replaces GDP as a welfare proxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the implications of shifting the narrative of climate policy evaluation from one of costs/benefits or economic growth to a message of improving social welfare. Focusing on the costs of mitigation and the associated impacts on gross domestic product (GDP) may translate into a

  17. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with 3H-GDP binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial 3 H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27 0 C although 3 H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although 3 H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria

  18. An enzymatic method of analysis for GDP-L-fucose in biological samples, involving high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Katsuhisa; Miyoshi, Eiji; Nakahara, Susumu; Ihara, Hideyuki; Gao, Cong Xiao; Honke, Koichi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Akinori; Hori, Masatsugu; Hayashi, Norio; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the biological significance of GDP-L-fucose, we established a unique method for the determination of GDP-L-fucose levels in microsomal fractions, using an HPLC assay of alpha 1-6-fucosyltransferase (alpha1-6-FucT), an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of core fucosylation in N-glycans. A microsomal protein and a large excess of fluorescence-labeled synthetic oligosaccharide (a substrate) were incubated with a large excess of alpha1-6-FucT. The fluorescent intensity of the fucosylated reaction product, which was analyzed by isocratic reverse phase HPLC, was proportional to the level of GDP-L-fucose in the microsomal fractions over the range 0.20-10 pmol. This assay is applicable to the determination of the GDP-L-fucose content in various cancer cell lines as well as rat liver and would be useful in developing a better understanding of the fucosylation potential of such cells and tissues.

  19. Multivariate Granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP. Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption, exports and gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of Middle Eastern countries. We find that for the panel as a whole there are statistically significant feedback effects between these variables. A 1 per cent increase in electricity consumption increases GDP by 0.04 per cent, a 1 per cent increase in exports increases GDP by 0.17 per cent and a 1 per cent increase in GDP generates a 0.95 per cent increase in electricity consumption. The policy implications are that for the panel as a whole these countries should invest in electricity infrastructure and step up electricity conservation policies to avoid a reduction in electricity consumption adversely affecting economic growth. Further policy implications are that for the panel as a whole promoting exports, particularly non-oil exports, is a means to promote economic growth and that expansion of exports can be realized without having adverse effects on energy conservation policies. (author)

  20. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-05-17

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction's network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic

  1. Labelled drug-related public expenditure in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) in Europe: a luxury good?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prieto, Luis

    2010-01-01

    "Labelled drug-related public expenditure" is the direct expenditure explicitly labelled as related to illicit drugs by the general government of the state. As part of the reporting exercise corresponding to 2005, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction\\'s network of national focal points set up in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway, and the candidates countries to the EU, were requested to identify labelled drug-related public expenditure, at the country level. This was reported by 10 countries categorised according to the functions of government, amounting to a total of EUR 2.17 billion. Overall, the highest proportion of this total came within the government functions of Health (66%), and Public Order and Safety (POS) (20%). By country, the average share of GDP was 0.023% for Health, and 0.013% for POS. However, these shares varied considerably across countries, ranging from 0.00033% in Slovakia, up to 0.053% of GDP in Ireland in the case of Health, and from 0.003% in Portugal, to 0.02% in the UK, in the case of POS; almost a 161-fold difference between the highest and the lowest countries for Health, and a 6-fold difference for POS. Why do Ireland and the UK spend so much in Health and POS, or Slovakia and Portugal so little, in GDP terms? To respond to this question and to make a comprehensive assessment of drug-related public expenditure across countries, this study compared Health and POS spending and GDP in the 10 reporting countries. Results found suggest GDP to be a major determinant of the Health and POS drug-related public expenditures of a country. Labelled drug-related public expenditure showed a positive association with the GDP across the countries considered: r = 0.81 in the case of Health, and r = 0.91 for POS. The percentage change in Health and POS expenditures due to a one percent increase in GDP (the income elasticity of demand) was estimated to be 1.78% and 1.23% respectively. Being highly income elastic

  2. The causality relationship between energy consumption and GDP in G-11 countries revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores whether energy conservation policies can be implemented in countries with the same level of development. That is, is restraining energy consumption without compromising economic growth feasible in all industrialized countries? A new Granger non-causality testing procedure developed by Toda and Yamamoto [1995, Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] is applied to re-investigate the relationship, if any, between energy consumption and income in 11 major industrialized countries. The results clearly do not support the view that energy consumption and income are neutral with respect to each other, except in the case of the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden where a neutral relationship is found. Bi-directional causality in the United States and uni-directional running from energy consumption to GDP in Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland are found. This indicates that energy conservation may hinder economic growth in the latter five countries. Further, the causality relationship appears to be uni-directional but reversed for France, Italy and Japan which implies that, in these three countries, energy conservation may be viable without being detrimental to economic growth

  3. Analysis of Correlations between Economic Growth (Rate of Real GDP and the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pripoaie Silviu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance of any economy involves the measurement and correlation of threebasic elements: the rate of economic growth, the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. When the rateof growth (rate of real GDP is high, the production of goods and services is growing and thereforeincreasing the number of jobs, decrease unemployment and raise living standards. If the economy is inrecession phase, increasing fiscal pressure to ensure the necessary budgetary funds triggers complexeconomic mechanisms. Rules more strictly is that those who are not able to operate in the normaleconomy to slide towards the underground economy, and this not because he wants to tax evasion, butbecause they simply can not cope with new regulations. It is widely accepted in economic theory andpractice the idea that reliability scale macroeconomic indicators of a country is affected by size ofunderground economy and the various tests made so far on this subject, focusing either on the socialaspect or the economic or moral, or emphasizes the illegal or the edge of legality. This has led to variousstudies in this area do not provide comparable data or provide data to the contrary. Worldwide were putin place, however, some calculation methods provided that applied the same country and same period,the results are rarely consistent, sometimes even in fundamentally different.

  4. The Valuation of Equities and the GDP Growth Effect: A Global Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián A. Rey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the (recently proposed non-arbitrage valuation of equities framework is the reduction in pricing subjectivity. This is evidenced in terms of the dividends discount rate and the outlook of future performance (dividends projection of the company that is being valued. Under this framework, as in the case of derivatives pricing, the discount rate is the risk-free interest rate (not the cost of equity, and the subjectively-determined drift of the stochastic process that drives the operating profits of the company is eliminated. The challenge that emerges is that the structure of the new drift of the operating profits process is undetermined under the methodology (this is a similar feature that is observed in the case of derivatives related to non-tradable assets. This paper proposes that the structure of this new drift is represented by the (country-specific GDP nominal growth effect. This proposition is tested through an empirical study that involves several companies of 10 equity indices worldwide, for two different periods (1995–2004 and 2005–2014. The results of the test are reasonably successful, meaning that further research related to the framework could provide useful information for the understanding of financial assets and their links to the macro-economy.

  5. Nuclear microbeam analysis of ICF target material made by GDP technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, C.; He, X. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Meng, J., E-mail: eleanor920@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621000 (China); Gao, D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Lyu, H.; Zhu, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zheng, Y. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Wang, X. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Germanium doped carbon–hydrogen polymer (CH) by Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) technique has become the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target material. The nondestructive measurement of elements content in the ICF target has become a significant work in recent years. This paper presents the compositional and distributional results of the Germanium doped CH analysis. The Ge doped CH materials as thin film and as hollow sphere were investigated by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) combined with the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The samples are thin film with 36 μm thickness and ICF target with 500–2000 μm diameter. The calibration and geometrical arrangement in the analysis of spherical target should be carefully considered in order to acquire accurate results. In the work, the uniformity of the sphere is shown and the ratio of carbon, hydrogen and germanium has been measured. The ratio values are in good agreement with the results obtained by the combustion method. In addition, the difference of the composition from thin film to hollow sphere is also discussed. This work demonstrates that nuclear microbeam analysis is an ideal method to evaluate the ICF target quality.

  6. Visualization of time series statistical data by shape analysis (GDP ratio changes among Asia countries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yukari; Hashimoto, Takako; Fitri Sari, Riri

    2018-03-01

    It has been very significant to visualize time series big data. In the paper we shall discuss a new analysis method called “statistical shape analysis” or “geometry driven statistics” on time series statistical data in economics. In the paper, we analyse the agriculture, value added and industry, value added (percentage of GDP) changes from 2000 to 2010 in Asia. We handle the data as a set of landmarks on a two-dimensional image to see the deformation using the principal components. The point of the analysis method is the principal components of the given formation which are eigenvectors of its bending energy matrix. The local deformation can be expressed as the set of non-Affine transformations. The transformations give us information about the local differences between in 2000 and in 2010. Because the non-Affine transformation can be decomposed into a set of partial warps, we present the partial warps visually. The statistical shape analysis is widely used in biology but, in economics, no application can be found. In the paper, we investigate its potential to analyse the economic data.

  7. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  8. Brazilian inflation and GDP from 1850 to 2000: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurilton Araujo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether a policy that leads to low inflation can hamper real economic activity and growth is a recurrent one in Brazil. In this essay we used yearly data to study the behavior of Brazilian inflation and GDP from 1850 to 2000. We used econometric and business cycles techniques to study the behavior of these variables in time and frequency domains. The results suggest the absence of positive comovement between the series. Thus, the empirical evidence apparently implies that the option of easing up on inflation to avoid a slowdown in real economic activity and growth is not available to Brazilian policy makers.A possibilidade de que políticas de combate à inflação possuam efeitos negativos sobre a atividade econômica real e o crescimento é um assunto recorrente no Brasil. Neste trabalho foram utilizados dados anuais para se estudar o comportamento da inflação e do PIB brasileiro de 1850 até 2000. Adotaram-se técnicas econométricas e da literatura de ciclos econômicos para se estudar o comportamento dessas duas variáveis nos domínios do tempo e da freqüência. Os resultados sugerem que as duas séries não são positivamente relacionadas. Assim sendo, a evidência empírica aparentemente indica que a opção de abrandar a política de combate à inflação com intuito de não prejudicar a atividade econômica real e o crescimento não está disponível para os condutores da política econômica brasileira.

  9. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  10. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  11. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  12. Advanced optical coatings for astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Leplan, Hervé; Vayssade, Hervé; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Recently Safran Reosc worked and progressed on various thin film technology for: Large mirrors with low stress and stable coatings. Large lens elements with strong curvature and precise layer specifications. Large filters with high spectral response uniformity specifications. IR coatings with low stress and excellent resistance to cryogenic environment for NIR to LWIR domains. Pixelated coatings. Results will be presented and discussed on the basis of several examples.

  13. Implementing the essential medicine concept in the country with the highest GDP per capita in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, A M

    2013-01-01

    Qatar, an oil-exporting country with a population of about 1.7 million, achieved the highest gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in the world in 2010. Total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP in 2010 in Qatar was 2.0%, with the government's share at 75% of the total health care budget. Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals and the independent public Qatar Primary Health Care PHC) centres are the main public health care service providers. PHC consists of 24 centres providing a wide range of health services. The PHC medicines list is a subset of the Hamad Medical Corporation medicine list. However, the PHC list of medicines could be improved both in its selection procedures and medicines included to correlate more directly to type of medical services provided by the Qatar PHC system in its different types of centres.

  14. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shna@kins.re.kr; Kim, Sun G. [School of Business, Daejeon University, Yong Woon-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sunkim@dju.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  15. Causal relationship between CO₂ emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia over the period of 1971-2012. The long-run relationship is investigated by the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction method (ECM). The results of the analysis reveal a positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that the financial development in Tunisia has taken place at the expense of environmental pollution. The Tunisian case also shows a positive monotonic relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions. This means that the results do not support the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. In addition, the paper explores causal relationship between the variables by using Granger causality models and it concludes that financial development plays a vital role in the Tunisian economy.

  16. CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Renewable Energy and Tourism: Evidence from Panel of the Most-Visited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Doğan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the energy-environment-growth literature overlook the investigation of the most-visited countries. Since these countries do not only belong to the largest economies and the top carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters in the world but are also listed in renewable energy country attractiveness index, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the level of CO2 emissions for the top 10 mostvisited countries. Applying several panel econometric approaches, we find out that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to the level of emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play a significant role in CO2 mitigation.

  17. Fuel-Specific Carbon Dioxide Emissions and GDP Elasticities of Energy Consumption: a Bounds Test Analysis for Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel M. KAYA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates the short-run and the long-run relationships between energy use, GDP and fuel-specific CO2 emissions (namely solid, liquid and gas by developing separate models for each emission for Israel in 1971-2011. ARDL Bounds Test is utilized for cointegration and we find that each model has cointegrating relationship. Then the short-run and the long-run coefficients are estimated. Error-correction models for all models suggest that long-run equilibriums take about 15-19 months. According to the long-run coefficient estimates, when elasticities of CO2 emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are 0.04, 0.30 and -0.02, respectively; GDP elasticities for all models vary between 0.66 and 0.96.

  18. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Seong H.; Kim, Sun G.

    2009-01-01

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  19. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  20. The Analysis and Application of Energy Consumption per Myriad GDP in Shandong Province Based on Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jianliang Liu; Junhai Ma

    2013-01-01

    With the development of social economy, energy intensity in Shandong has decreased obviously. To solve the issue by taking proper measures, this paper analyze the energy consumption per myriad GDP of 17 cities in Shandong Province based on Entropy Method and rank them according to general energy consumption. It tells the difference of energy consumption in different cities and helps to make measures to solve current energy crisis. This study has certain theory significance and practical appli...

  1. The impact of HIV prevalence, conflict, corruption, and GDP/capita on treatment cascades: data from 137 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jacob; Pozniak, Anton; Heath, Katherine; Hill, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    In 2014, UNAIDS and partners set the 90-90-90 targets for the HIV treatment cascade. Multiple social, political and structural factors might influence progress towards these targets. We assessed how close countries and regions are to reaching these targets, and compared cascade outcomes with HIV prevalence, gross domestic product (GDP)/capita, conflict and corruption. Country-level HIV cascade data on diagnosis, ART coverage and viral suppression, from 2010 to 2016 were extracted from national reports, published papers and the www.AIDSinfoOnline database, and analysed. Weighted least-squares regression was used to assess predictors of cascade achievement: region, HIV prevalence, GDP/capita, the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), which is an international ranking system, and the 2016 Global Peace Index (GPI), which ranks all countries based on three main categories: societal safety, militarisation and conflict. Data were available for diagnosis for 84 countries, ART coverage for 137 countries, and viral suppression for 94 countries. Regions with the lowest ART coverage were South-east Asia and Pacific (36%), Eastern Europe and Central Asia (17%), and Middle East and North Africa (13%). Lower HIV prevalence was associated with poorer cascade results. Countries with higher GDP/capita achieved higher ART coverage ( P corruption had lower ART coverage ( P 2.5 all had ART coverage of corruption and conflict levels.

  2. Testing for causality between the foreign direct investment, current account deficit, GDP and total credit: Evidence from G7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Yusuf Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, countries were analyzed between 1990 and 2011 in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists among current account deficit, GDP, foreign direct investment, and total credits of G7. Analysis took into account the cross-sectional dependence and was applied to test the causality among the variables form the panel. Firstly, panel unit root tests were used for determining stationary of variables. As a result of the panel unit root tests, it was found that GDP and foreign direct investment have a stationary structure and that total credits and current account deficit contain unit root. In order to see whether there is a long-term relationship among the variables or not, the panel co-integration test was used. As a result of the test, it was concluded that there is a co-integration relationship among the series. The possibility of a causal relationship was analyzed among the variables using the causality test developed by Elena Ivona Dumitrescu and Christophe Hurlin (2012. Results of the analysis showed a unidirectional causal relationship from current account deficit and foreign direct investment to GDP. Bidirectional causality was found between current account deficit and total credits. Finally, a unidirectional relationship was found from foreign direct investment to current account deficit and total credits.

  3. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Kyle R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Hamel, S.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-03-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - for example regarding the role of chemical dissociation during shock compression, we find that the dissociation regime along the Hugoniot extends from 50 GPa to 250 GPa. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken at Sandia's Z-machine. The GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Shock compression of glow discharge polymer (GDP): density functional theory (DFT) simulations and experiments on Sandia's Z-machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, K. R.; Ao, T.; Lemke, R. W.; Flicker, D. G.; Schoff, M. E.; Blue, B. E.; Hamel, S.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) is used extensively as capsule/ablation material in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules. Accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) under shock and release is particularly important for high-fidelity design, analysis, and optimization of ICF experiments since the capsule material is subject to several converging shocks as well as release towards the cryogenic fuel. We performed Density Functional Theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, to gain knowledge of the behavior of GDP - including the effect of changes in chemical composition. The shock pressures calculated from DFT are compared experimental data taken on magnetically launched flyer plate impact experiments on at Sandia's Z-machine. Large GDP samples were grown in a planar geometry to improve the sample quality and maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere following manufacturing, thus allowing for a direct comparison to the DFT/QMD simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. The dynamic links between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, health spending and GDP growth: A case study for 51 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Sami; Saidi, Kais

    2017-10-01

    This document investigated the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, health spending and GDP growth for 51 countries (divided into three groups of countries: low-income countries; group of countries with lower and upper middle income; group of middle income countries) covering the annual period 1995-2013. Dynamic simultaneous-equations models and generalized method of moments (GMM) are used to investigate this relationship. The main results provide evidence of a causal relationship between the three variables. The empirical results show that there is a bidirectional causality between CO 2 emissions and GDP per capita, between health spending and economic growth for the three groups of estimates. The results also indicate that there is a unidirectional causality from CO 2 emissions to health spending, except low income group countries. We found that health plays an important role in GDP per capita; it limits its effect on a growing deterioration in the quality of the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Angelita; Marzi, Stefano; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue

  7. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Angelita [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Marzi, Stefano [Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002 CNRS, IBMC (Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology), 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Fabbretti, Attilio [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale -INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gualerzi, Claudio O. [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  8. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  9. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  10. Modelling of piezoresistance sliding coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, M.; Rakowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer composites based on PEI filling metal powders and lubricating additions: graphite and MoS 2 have strong sensor properties appearing as resistance change with external load and temperature. These materials have also good tribological properties and can be applied as slide bearings material or coatings on steel substrate, which in the same time are diagnostic elements - sensors. Electrical conductance of these coatings is strongly correlated with thermomechanical model of composites. The mean distance between conducting particles of filler has decisive influence on resistivity of coatings. modelling of semi-conducting polymer composites allows for designating of materials, whose mechanical properties and sensor characteristics will assure high reliability of bearings and gives the possibility their diagnosis without additional sensors. (author)

  11. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  12. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ian N; Batty, Ian H; Prescott, Alan R; Gray, Alex; Kular, Gursant S; Stewart, Hazel; Downes, C Peter

    2004-09-15

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P(2). Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo.

  13. Strong correlation between Jc(T, H||c) and Jc(77 K, 3 T||c) in Zr-added (Gd, Y)BaCuO coated conductors at temperatures from 77 down to 20 K and fields up to 9 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, A; Delgado, L; Heydari Gharahcheshmeh, M; Khatri, N; Liu, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a critical current density J c (T, H) study over a wide temperature T from 77 down to 20 K and a magnetic field H up to 9 T on more than 50 ∼ 0.9 μm-thick REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (RE = rare earth) thin films containing different concentrations of BaZrO 3 (BZO). We found that, independent of the composition, there is a linear correlation between J c (77 K, 3 T||c) and J c (T, H||c) at T down to 20 K and H up to 9 T. Moreover, J c (77 K, 3 T||c) is also linearly correlated to J c (T, H||ab) below 40 K. We ascribed this linear correlation to the dominant pinning source of BZO nanorods, which act as a strong correlated pinning at T above ∼30 K and provide weak uncorrelated point pins at lower temperatures. Our result emphasizes that J c (77 K, 3 T||c) is a key metric for metal-organic chemical vapor deposited REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ coated conductors. (fast track communication)

  14. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  16. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  17. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  18. G Protein-coupled receptors: Multi-turnover GDP/GTP exchange catalysis on heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott M

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins can diffuse laterally in the plasma membrane such that one receptor can catalyze the activation (GDP/GTP exchange) of multiple G proteins. In some cases, these processes are fast enough to support molecular signal amplification, where a single receptor maintains the activation of multiple G proteins at steady-state. Amplification in cells is probably highly regulated. It depends upon the identities of the G receptor and G protein - some do and some don't - and upon the activities of GTPase-activating proteins, membrane scaffolds, and other regulatory partners.

  19. The estimation of a basic(α0) of radiological protection by the method of GDP calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhai

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate α basic cost (α 0 ) of radiological protection. Methods: Using the method of GDP calculation in China. Results: From 1990 to 2000, α 0 increased from dollar 336 to dollar 981, an average increase of 11.98% a year. Conclusion: in China the IAEA recommended cost (dollar 3000) can serve as α basic cost (α 0 ) of radiological protection before it is achieved. The ICRP recommended cost (dollar 10,000-20,000) as a basic cost(d) of radiological protection when the IAEA is surpassed. IAEA is considered applicable for the developing countries and the recommended cost of ICRP for developed nations

  20. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications among Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the bibliometric indicators, including total number of research documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social sciences subjects during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus and Web of Science; Thomson Reuters. The mean per capita GDP for all the Asian countries is 14448.31±2854.40 US$, yearly per capita spending on R&D 0.64±0.16 US$, number of universities 72.37±18.32 and mean number of ISI indexed journal per country is 17.97±7.35. The mean of research documents published in various science and social science subjects among all the Asian countries during the period 1996-2011 is 158086.92±69204.09; citations per document 8.67±0.48; and H-index 122.8±19.21. Spending on R&D, number of universities and indexed journals have a positive correlation with number of published documents, citations per document and H-index in various science and social science subjects. However, there was no association between the per capita GDP and research outcomes. The Asian countries who spend more on R&D have a large number of universities and scientific indexed journals produced more in research outcomes including total number of research publication, citations per documents and H-index in various science and social science subjects.

  1. Coupling an Intercalibration of Radiance-Calibrated Nighttime Light Images and Land Use/Cover Data for Modeling and Analyzing the Distribution of GDP in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatialized GDP data is important for studying the relationships between human activities and environmental changes. Rapid and accurate acquisition of these datasets are therefore a significant area of study. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS radiance-calibrated nighttime light (RC NTL images exhibit the potential for providing superior estimates for GDP spatialization, as they are not restricted by the saturated pixels which exist in nighttime stable light (NSL images. However, the drawback of light overflow is the limited accuracy of GDP estimation, and GDP data estimations based on RC NTL images cannot be directly used for temporal analysis due to a lack of on-board calibration. This study develops an intercalibration method to address the comparability problem. Additionally, NDVI images are used to reduce the light overflow effect. In this way, the secondary and tertiary industry outputs are estimated by using intercalibrated RC NTL images. Primary industry production is estimated by using land use/cover data. Ultimately, four 1 km gridded GDP maps of Guangdong for 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2010 are generated. The verification results of the proposed intercalibration method demonstrate that this method is reasonable and can be effectively implemented. These maps can be used to analyze the distribution and spatiotemporal changes of GDP density in Guangdong.

  2. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  4. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  5. A GPR-protein interaction surface of Gi(alpha): implications for the mechanism of GDP-release inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Michael; Gasimov, Karim G; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2002-01-08

    Proteins containing G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs represent a novel family of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) for G(alpha) subunits from the Gi family. They selectively interact with the GDP-bound conformation of Gi(alpha) and transducin-alpha (Gt(alpha)), but not with Gs(alpha). A series of chimeric proteins between Gi(alpha)(1) and Gs(alpha) has been constructed to investigate GPR-contact sites on G(alpha) subunits and the mechanism of GPR-protein GDI activity. Analysis of the interaction of two GPR-proteins-AGS3GPR and Pcp2-with the chimeric G(alpha) subunits demonstrated that the GPR-Gi(alpha)(1) interface involves the Gi(alpha)(1) switch regions and Gi(alpha)(1)-144-151, a site within the helical domain. Residues within Gi(alpha)(1)-144-151 form conformation-sensitive contacts with switch III, and may directly interact with a GPR-protein or form a GPR-binding surface jointly with switch III. The helical domain site is critical to the ability of GPR-proteins to act as GDIs. Our data suggest that a mechanism of the GDI activity of GPR-proteins is different from that of GDIs for monomeric GTPases and from the GDI-like activity of G(betagamma) subunits. The GPR-proteins are likely to block a GDP-escape route on G(alpha) subunits.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce 2'-fucosyllactose via salvage pathway of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Wook; Seo, Nari; Kim, Jae-Han; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of the key oligosaccharides in human milk. In the present study, the salvage guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic pathway from fucose was employed in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) for efficient production of 2-FL. Introduction of the fkp gene coding for fucokinase/GDP-l-fucose pyrophosphorylase (Fkp) from Bacteroides fragilis and the fucT2 gene encoding α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori allows the engineered E. coli to produce 2-FL from fucose, lactose and glycerol. To enhance the lactose flux to 2-FL production, the attenuated, and deleted mutants of β-galactosidase were employed. Moreover, the 2-FL yield and productivity were further improved by deletion of the fucI-fucK gene cluster coding for fucose isomerase (FucI) and fuculose kinase (FucK). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) deleting lacZ and fucI-fucK, and expressing fkp and fucT2 resulted in 23.1 g/L of extracellular concentration of 2-FL and 0.39 g/L/h productivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2443-2452. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hierarchical structure of the European countries based on debts as a percentage of GDP during the 2000-2011 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    We investigate hierarchical structures of the European countries by using debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries as they change over a certain period of time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on debt as a percentage of GDP of European countries over the period 2000-2011 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). This period is also divided into two sub-periods related to 2004 enlargement of the European Union, namely 2000-2004 and 2005-2011, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. The bootstrap techniques is applied to see a value of statistical reliability of the links of the MSTs and HTs. The clustering linkage procedure is also used to observe the cluster structure more clearly. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their level of debts. Our results show that by the debt crisis, the less and most affected Eurozone’s economies are formed as a cluster with each other in the MSTs and hierarchical trees.

  8. Modulation of IgG1 immunoeffector function by glycoengineering of the GDP-fucose biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronan M; Kowle, Ronald L; Lian, Zhirui; Strifler, Beth A; Witcher, Derrick R; Parekh, Bhavin S; Wang, Tongtong; Frye, Christopher C

    2018-03-01

    Cross-linking of the Fcγ receptors expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells by IgG immune complexes triggers the activation of key immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). A conserved N-glycan positioned at the N-terminal region of the IgG C H 2 domain is critical in maintaining the quaternary structure of the molecule for Fcγ receptor engagement. The removal of a single core fucose residue from the N-glycan results in a considerable increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an enhanced receptor-mediated immunoeffector function. The enhanced potency of the molecule translates into a number of distinct advantages in the development of IgG antibodies for cancer therapy. In an effort to significantly increase the potency of an anti-CD20, IgG1 molecule, we selectively targeted the de novo GDP-fucose biosynthesis pathway of the host CHO cell line to generate >80% afucosylated IgG1 resulting in enhanced FcγRIIIa binding (13-fold) and in vitro ADCC cell-based activity (11-fold). In addition, this effective glycoengineering strategy also allowed for the utilization of the alternate GDP-fucose salvage pathway to provide a fast and efficient mechanism to manipulate the N-glycan fucosylation level to modulate IgG immune effector function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cloning, expression, and mapping of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase cDNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Li, Han-Xia; Ouyang, Bo; Zhang, Jun-Hong; Ye, Zhi-Biao

    2006-08-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP, EC 2.7.7.22) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose and represents the first committed step in plant ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Using potato GMP cDNA sequence as a querying probe, 65 highly homologous tomato ESTs were obtained from dbEST of GenBank and the putative cDNA sequence of tomato GMP was assembled. The full-length GMP cDNA of tomato was cloned by RACE-PCR with primers designed according to the assembled cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA sequence contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1,086 bp, which encoded 361 amino acid residues. This gene was designated as LeGMP (GenBank accession No. AY605668). Homology analysis of LeGMP showed a 96% identity with potato GMP and the deduced amino acid showed 99%, 97%, 91% and 89% homology with GMP from potato, tobacco, alfalfa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that LeGMP was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of tomato; but the expression levels varied. LeGMP was mapped to 3-D using 75 tomato introgression lines (ILs), each containing a single homozygous RFLP-defined chromosome segment from the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii.

  10. THE OPTIMAL RATE OF R&D EXPENDITURES ÎN GDP – BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana SANDU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relation between economic growth, competitiveness, productivity, on one hand, and investment in research and development (R&D, on the other, has been the research subject of numerous scientific studies. The significant contribution of the investment in R&D to productivity growth, competitiveness and economic growth is generally acknowledged. Some authors have attempted to empirically and theoretically estimate the optimal level of R&D investment at the micro and mezo level, following different paths, according to their option for the aggregation level of analysis or to the different indicators selected as most relevant. Yet, the identification of the R&D investment level that maximizes the productivity growth rate at macroeconomic level seems to have been rather marginal to the general research interest. Available scientific papers estimate it by relating the share of R&D spending in GDP to productivity, expressed through the Total Factor Productivity or labour productivity per hour worked. This paper looks into the correlation between the spending for research and development in some EU countries, as a share of GDP, underlining the relative positions to the optimal interval for R&D investment, according to Mario Coccia estimations, and the corresponding rates of labour productivity growth, during the 2000-2009 period. Special attention will be given to Romania’s positioning in European context, in order to identify potential solutions to future improvement.

  11. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  12. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  13. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  15. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  16. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  17. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  18. Simulation of magnetic coatings on textile fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    While the properties of conductive fibres and coatings on textiles can easily be measured and calculated, magnetic coatings of fibres, yarns and fabrics still lack descriptions of their physical properties. Since magnetic textiles can be used for a variety of applications, from magnetic filters to invisible water-marks to magnetic coils and sensors, simulations would be supportive to understand and utilize their properties. The article gives an overview of different coatings on textile fibres, varying the magnetic materials as well as the fibre composition, giving rise to the interactions between neighbouring coated fibres. In this way, it is possible to understand the strong shape anisotropy which must be taken into account when the magnetic properties of textiles are to be tailored. Additionally, the differences between several possible magnetic coating materials become visible. This study can help adjusting the magnetic properties of textile fabrics to a desired application.

  19. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries. Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto - via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies. (author)

  20. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario, E-mail: m.coccia@ceris.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto-via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  1. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO HOLLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing an major actuality at national level and also at European Union level. In this paper it is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Holland in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit and its GDP, as also the real public debt’s variation in time series for Romania and Holland, in tandem with the variation in time of ARX model, highlighting the residuum.

  2. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  3. Measuring Welfare beyond GDP : 'Objective' and 'Subjective' Indicators in Sweden, 1968-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kullenberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a series of negotiations on how to measure welfare and quality of life in Sweden beyond economic indicators. It departs from a 2015 Government Official Report that advanced a strong recommendation to measure only 'objective indicators' of quality of life, rather than relying on what is referred to as 'subjective indicators' such as life satisfaction and happiness. The assertion of strictly 'objective' indicators falls back on a sociological perspective developed in the 1970s, which conceived of welfare as being measurable as 'levels of living', a framework that came to be called 'the Scandinavian model of welfare research'. However, in the mid-2000s, objective indicators were challenged scientifically by the emerging field of happiness studies, which also found political advocates in Sweden who argued that subjective indicators should become an integral part of measuring welfare. This tension between 'subjective' and 'objective' measurements resulted in a controversy between several actors about what should count as a valuable measurement of welfare. As a consequence, we argue that the creation of such value meters is closely intertwined with how welfare is defined, and by what measures welfare should be carried through.

  4. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  5. Biocompatible wear-resistant thick ceramic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to immunologically active elements like chromium, cobalt or nickel and debris particle due to wear are serious problems for patients with metallic implants. We tested the approach of using a hard and thick ceramic coating as a wear-resistant protection of titanium implants, avoiding those sensitisation and foreign body problems. We showed that the process parameters strongly influence the coating porosity and, as a consequence, also its hardness.

  6. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  7. Microstructural aspects of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T. E.; Suhr, D. S.; Keller, R. J.; Lanteri, V.; Heuer, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Various combination of plasma-sprayed bond coatings and zirconia ceramic coatings on a nickel-based superalloy substrate were tested by static thermal exposure at 1200 C and cyclic thermal exposure to 1000 C. The bond coats were based on Ni-Cr-Al alloys with additions of rare earth elements and Si. The ceramic coats were various ZrO2-Y2O3 compositions, of which the optimum was found to be ZrO2-8.9 wt percent Y2O3. Microstructural analysis showed that resistance to cracking during thermal exposure is strongly related to deleterious phase changes. Zones depleted of Al formed at the bond coat/ceramic coat interface due to oxidation and at the bond coat/substrate interface due to interdiffusion, leading eventually to breakdown of the bond coat. The 8.9 percent Y2O3 coating performed best because the as-sprayed metastable tetragonal phase converted slowly into the low-Y2O3 tetragonal plus high-Y2O3 cubic-phase mixture, so that the deleterious monoclinic phase was inhibited from forming. Failure appeared to start with the formation of circumferential cracks in the zirconia, probably due to compressive stresses during cooling, followed by the formation of radial cracks due to tensile stresses during heating. Cracks appeared to initiate at the Al2O3 scale/bond coat interface and propagate through the zirconia coating. Comparisons were made with the behavior of bulk ZrO2-Y2O3 and the relationship between the microstructure of the tetragonal phase and the phase diagram. A separate investigation was also made of the ZrO2-Al2O3 interface.

  8. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, P.R.P.; TERADA, M.; JUNIOR, O.R.A.; LOPES, A.C.; COSTA, I.; BANCZEK, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  12. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  13. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... and durability of anticorrosive coatings have been included. The different types of anticorrosive coatings are presented, and the most widely applied generic types of binders and pigments in anticorrosive coatings are listed and described. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms of barrier, sacrificial...

  14. Thermal stability of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings with various coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Zhong Xinghua; Li Jiayan; Zhang Yanfei; Meng Jian; Cao Xueqiang

    2006-01-01

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) coatings with various thickness ratios composed of YSZ (6-8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 + ZrO 2 ) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ, La 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) were produced by the atmospheric plasma spraying. Chemical stability of LZ in contact with YSZ in DCL coatings was investigated by calcining powder blends at different temperatures. No obvious reaction was observed when the calcination temperature was lower than 1250 deg. C, implying that LZ and YSZ had good chemical applicability for producing DCL coating. The thermal cycling test indicate that the cycling lives of the DCL coatings are strongly dependent on the thickness ratio of LZ and YSZ, and the coatings with YSZ thickness between 150 and 200 μm have even longer lives than the single-layer YSZ coating. When the YSZ layer is thinner than 100 μm, the DCL coatings failed in the LZ layer close to the interface of YSZ layer and LZ layer. For the coatings with the YSZ thickness above 150 μm, the failure mainly occurs at the interface of the YSZ layer and the bond coat

  15. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  16. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  17. Seal coat research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of seal coating as a method to protect bituminous pavements from oxidation, water infiltration, and raveling. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) applied seal coating to a roadway segment of Trunk Highway ...

  18. Evaluation of masonry coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-08-01

    This report describes the evaluation of five coating systems to replace the conventional Class 2 rubbed finish now required on concrete structures. The evaluation consisted of preparing test specimens with each of the five coatings and conducting abs...

  19. Electric power consumption and GDP in Brazil: a cointegration analysis; Consumo de energia eletrica e PIB no Brasil: uma analise de cointegracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bruno Goncalves da; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], emails: brunosilva@usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    There are many studies aimed at estimating the long-run relationship between GDP and energy. The main objective of this paper is to analyze this relationship for Brazil, taking as a starting point to other studies already done with cointegration methodology to other countries of the world, in order to determine how the Brazilian domestic product is related to energy consumption country.

  20. Relative sea-level rise and the conterminous United States : Consequences of potential land inundation in terms of population at risk and GDP loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kearney, Michael; Moll, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Global sea-level rise poses a significant threat not only for coastal communities as development continues but also for national economies. This paper presents estimates of how future changes in relative sea-level rise puts coastal populations at risk, as well as affect overall GDP in the

  1. Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Lake and Reservoir Water Quality in China and Changes in Its Relationship with GDP from 2005 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Meng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the spatial distribution of lake and reservoir water quality in China, and the trends from 2005 to 2010, based on monitoring data from 28 large Chinese lakes and reservoirs. We used a comprehensive water pollution index (WPI to describe water quality and also identified the major pollutants. Using GDP data, we analyzed the relationships between economic factors and water quality. We found that although the water quality of large reservoirs is improving or remaining stable, despite economic growth, the water quality of most lakes either did not change or worsened. The outlook is pessimistic, as water quality in most lakes has decreased to Grade V or worse. The water quality was lowest for northern lakes and highest for southern lakes due to a combination of the local industrial structure and lower rainfall in the north. The primary pollutants generally remained stable during the study period. For some lakes, fluoride and volatile phenols became the primary pollutants, indicating more diverse sources of contamination. We divided the 28 bodies of water into four types based on the median WPI and GDP. The dominant combinations were low WPI with low GDP and high WPI with high GDP, as a result of the balance among economic development, the natural environment and environmental policy.

  2. METHOD FOR TESTING COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.

    1958-09-01

    A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakapibal, Rattavut; Gui, Yue; Yu, Lian

    2018-01-05

    Inhibit the fast surface crystallization of amorphous drugs with gelatin nano-coatings. The free surface of amorphous films of indomethacin or nifedipine was coated by a gelatin solution (type A or B) and dried. The coating's effect on surface crystallization was evaluated. Coating thickness was estimated from mass change after coating. For indomethacin (weak acid, pK a  = 4.5), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 and 10 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. The coating thickness was 20 ± 10 nm. A gelatin coating deposited at pH 3, however, provided no protective effect. These results suggest that an effective gelatin coating does not require that the drug and the polymer have opposite charges. The ineffective pH 3 coating might reflect the poor wetting of indomethacin's neutral, hydrophobic surface by the coating solution. For nifedipine (weak base, pK a  = 2.6), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. Gelatin nano-coatings can be conveniently applied to amorphous drugs from solution to inhibit fast surface crystallization. Unlike strong polyelectrolyte coatings, a protective gelatin coating does not require strict pairing of opposite charges. This could make gelatin coating a versatile, pharmaceutically acceptable coating for stabilizing amorphous drugs.

  7. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  8. Ceramic with zircon coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  9. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  10. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  11. Radiation-hardening coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellmer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Lacquers and coating agents hardened by radiation have replaced conventional coating in some fields. By means of single developments (glass-fiber coating, photosensitive lacquers for films and printing plates, photoresists, additives and fillers) the latest tendencies are shown in a survey. (HP) [de

  12. Coating of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  13. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Bi, Q.; Ziegele, H.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, thicknesses, and surface roughnesses, by changing the N 2 flow rate, applying multilayering techniques and changing the substrate finish prior to coating. The microstructure of such coatings is investigated by various analytical techniques such as glancing angle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which are also correlated with the corrosion performance of the coated steel. Both dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of Cr-N coated steel in a 0.5N NaCl solution. It has been found that the N 2 flow rate during reactive deposition strongly determines the microstructure of Cr-N coatings (due to the changing nitrogen content in the film) and can thus affect the corrosion resistance of coated systems. The surface finish of the steel substrate also affects the uniformity and coverage of PVD coatings; grooves and inclusions on the original substrate can raise the susceptibility of coated

  14. Kindlin-2 Association with Rho GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor α Suppresses Rac1 Activation and Podocyte Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Guo, Chen; Ma, Ping; Lai, Yumei; Yang, Fan; Cai, Jun; Cheng, Zhehao; Zhang, Kuo; Liu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Yeteng; Sheng, Yue; Tian, Ruijun; Deng, Yi; Xiao, Guozhi; Wu, Chuanyue

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of podocyte behavior is critically involved in the development and progression of many forms of human glomerular diseases. The molecular mechanisms that control podocyte behavior, however, are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Kindlin-2, a component of cell-matrix adhesions, in podocyte behavior in vivo Ablation of Kindlin-2 in podocytes resulted in alteration of actin cytoskeletal organization, reduction of the levels of slit diaphragm proteins, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and ultimately massive proteinuria and death due to kidney failure. Through proteomic analyses and in vitro coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we identified Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDI α ) as a Kindlin-2-associated protein. Loss of Kindlin-2 in podocytes significantly reduced the expression of RhoGDI α and resulted in the dissociation of Rac1 from RhoGDI α , leading to Rac1 hyperactivation and increased motility of podocytes. Inhibition of Rac1 activation effectively suppressed podocyte motility and alleviated the podocyte defects and proteinuria induced by the loss of Kindlin-2 in vivo Our results identify a novel Kindlin-2-RhoGDI α -Rac1 signaling axis that is critical for regulation of podocyte structure and function in vivo and provide evidence that it may serve as a useful target for therapeutic control of podocyte injury and associated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  16. Second NATO Workshop on Passive Infrared Optical Materials and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    bias voltage, deposition technique ( PACVD ). This new iq the most important parameter which coating is the forerunner of a family of strongly influences...the optical and me- superdurable multilayer coatings which chanical properties of the films. The can be prepared through the use of PACVD . typf of

  17. Refractory metal carbide coatings for LMFBR applications: a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotschall, H.L.; Ople, F.S.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, testing and improvement of high density, tightly bonded plasma and detonation gun coatings designed to meet LMFBR core component criteria are described. The process descriptions include a review of the important developments in substrate surface preparation which were required to ensure strong bonding and to minimize interface contamination. Coating finishing techniques which were developed to optimize friction behavior are also described

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  20. Metallic coating of microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  1. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  2. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  3. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Yi; Wu, Qingtian; Xia, Hongying

    2016-12-01

    Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  4. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  5. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang; Hedhammar, My; Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus; Johansson, Jan; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently,

  6. Investigation of interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bifeng; Gao Feng; Ao Limei

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and the protein serum albumin. The investigation was based on the fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residue of serum albumin after binding with the dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The extent of the interactions between bovine serum albumin and dendrimer-coated MNPs strongly depends on their surface groups and pH value

  7. Microstructure and durability of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhr, D.S.; Mitchell, T.E.; Keller, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Various combinations of plasma-sprayed bond coatings and zirconia ceramic coatings on a nickel-based superalloy substrate were tested by static thermal exposure at 1200 0 C and cyclic thermal exposure to 1000 0 C. The bond coats were based on Ni-Cr-Al alloys with additions of rare earth elements and Si. The ceramic coats were various ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 compositions, of which the optimum was found to be ZrO 2 -8.9 wt% Y 2 O 3 . Microstructural analysis showed that resistance to cracking during thermal exposure is strongly related to deleterious phase changes

  8. Organic coatings for marine and shipping applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Bos, W.M.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the maritime environment is strongly aggressive, coatings needed to protect steel can be classifi ed as ‘heavy duty coatings’. In most maritime applications because of maintenance diffi culties a long service life is generally required. This, together with safety and environmental issues,

  9. Enzymatic synthesis and characterizations of cyclic GDP-ribose. A procedure for distinguishing enzymes with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, R M; Walseth, T F; Fryxell, K; Branton, W D; Lee, H C

    1994-12-02

    Cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP are second messengers subserving various signaling pathways. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a recently discovered member of the family, is derived from NAD+ and is a mediator of Ca2+ mobilization in various cellular systems. The synthesis and degradation of cADPR are, respectively, catalyzed by ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cADPR hydrolase. CD38, a differentiation antigen of B lymphocytes, has recently been shown to be a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both the formation and hydrolysis of cADPR. The overall reaction catalyzed by CD38 is the formation of ADP-ribose and nicotinamide from NAD+, identical to that catalyzed by NADase. The difficulties in detecting the formation of cADPR have led to frequent identification of CD38 as a classical NADase. In this study, we show that both ADP-ribosyl cyclase and CD38, but not NADase, can cyclize nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD+) producing a new nucleotide. Analyses by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicate the product is cyclic GDP-ribose (cGDPR) with a structure similar to cADPR except with guanine replacing adenine. Compared to cADPR, cGDPR is a more stable compound showing 2.8 times more resistance to heat-induced hydrolysis. These results are consistent with a catalytic scheme for CD38 where the cyclization of the substrate precedes the hydrolytic reaction. Spectroscopic analyses show that cGDPR is fluorescent and has an absorption spectrum different from both NGD+ and GDPR, providing a very convenient way for monitoring its enzymatic formation. The use of NGD+ as substrate for assaying the cyclization reaction was found to be applicable to pure enzymes as well as crude tissue extracts making it a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing CD38-like enzymes from degradative NADases.

  10. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  11. Bacterial adhesion and growth on a polymer brush-coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadnik, M Reza; van der Mei, Henny C; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J

    2008-10-01

    Biomaterials-related infections pose serious problems in implant surgery, despite the development of non-adhesive coatings. Non-adhesive coatings, like polymer brush-coatings, have so far only been investigated with respect to preventing initial bacterial adhesion, but never with respect to effects on kinetics of bacterial growth. Here, we compare adhesion and 20 h growth of three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) on pristine and brush-coated silicone rubber in a parallel plate flow chamber. Brush-coatings were made using a tri-block copolymer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO). Brush-coatings prevented adhesion of staphylococci to below 5 x 10(5)cm(-2) after 30 min, which is a 10-fold reduction compared to pristine silicone rubber. Biofilms grew on both brush-coated and pristine silicone rubber, while the viability of biofilms on brush-coatings was higher than on pristine silicone rubber. However, biofilms on brush-coatings developed more slowly and detached almost fully by high fluid shear. Brush-coating remained non-adhesive after S. epidermidis biofilm formation and subsequent removal whereas a part of its functionality was lost after removal of S. aureus biofilms. Adhesion, growth and detachment of P. aeruginosa were not significantly different on brush-coatings as compared with pristine silicone rubber, although here too the viability of biofilms on brush-coatings was higher. We conclude that polymer brush-coatings strongly reduce initial adhesion of staphylococci and delay their biofilm growth. In addition, biofilms on brush-coatings are more viable and easily removed by the application of fluid shear.

  12. Mechanical properties of molybdenum coated with titanium carbide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, T.; Shinno, H.; Fukutomi, M.; Fujitsuka, M.; Okada, M.

    1983-01-01

    TiC-coated molybdenum is mechanically tensile tested. The 6 μm thick TiC-coated molybdenum has a higher 0.2% proof strength with a slight decrease in uniform and rupture elongation than the uncoated one. This strengthening effect of the TiC coating can be explained by the constrained effect of the high strength TiC film. The 1.2 μm thick TiC-coated molybdenum starts its plastic deformation at a lower stress than the uncoated one. Also, the coating makes the stress-strain curve more smooth. These effects are attributed to the surface effect, namely, that the interface between the molybdenum substrate and the strong and brittle TiC film acts as a strong dislocation source. The compressive stress in the TiC film will also help the start of plastic deformation at lower external stresses. (author)

  13. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped the influe......Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped......, impact, hardness, and abrasion experiments, were also conducted. The ranking of abrasion resistance of the blade coatings was in agreement with the ranking of rain erosion resistance measured in the whirling arm rig (an industrial standard).Results of this work, with more pertinent parameters explored...

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. UK and Twenty Comparable Countries GDP-Expenditure-on-Health 1980-2013: The Historic and Continued Low Priority of UK Health-Related Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.E. Harding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that for a considerable period the United Kingdom has spent proportionally less of its gross domestic product (GDP on health-related services than almost any other comparable country. Average European spending on health (as a % of GDP in the period 1980 to 2013 has been 19% higher than the United Kingdom, indicating that comparable countries give far greater fiscal priority to its health services, irrespective of its actual fiscal value or configuration. While the UK National Health Service (NHS is a comparatively lean healthcare system, it is often regarded to be at a ‘crisis’ point on account of low levels of funding. Indeed, many state that currently the NHS has a sizeable funding gap, in part due to its recently reduced GDP devoted to health but mainly the challenges around increases in longevity, expectation and new medical costs. The right level of health funding is a political value judgement. As the data in this paper outline, if the UK ‘afforded’ the same proportional level of funding as the mean averageEuropean country, total expenditure would currently increase by one-fifth.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  19. Synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite coating on AZ31 using hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing, E-mail: qzhaoyuping@bit.edu.cn; Mahmood, Waqas; Zhu, Yanying

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of dittmarite Mg(OH){sub 2} coating on AZ31 alloy by hydrothermal method. • The mechanism of composite coating growth and its characterizations. • The coating is corrosion resistant significantly. • Lack of hydroxyl deposition on the coating surface. • Strong adhesion between the coating and the substrate. • The synthesized coating meets the cytotoxicity standards. - Abstract: In this work, we have used hydrothermal method for the synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite (DMC) layer on AZ31 alloy of magnesium. The synthesized coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In a test immersion into the Hank's mixture for 31 days, the synthesized coating inhibited corrosion of AZ31 significantly and the amorphous calcium apatite precursor deposited on the coating surface. In another tape test, we noticed strong adhesion between the coating and substrate that eventually concludes that the synthesized coating is hydrophilic and a promising candidate to be used in the absorbable implant materials. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the AZ31 alloy with DMC coating, grown under different conditions on L-929 cells in vitro was examined indirectly through the growth inhibition method (MTT assay). The cytotoxicity of the deposited coating lie between 0 ∼ 1 that indicates it as a promising biomaterial.

  20. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, number of universities and scientific journals on research publications in pharmacological sciences in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Usmani, A M; Vohra, M S; Bukhari, I A

    2013-10-01

    Research in pharmacological science is vital to support the health needs of human beings. Measuring the research output provides information that forms the basis of strategic decisions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities and scientific journals on research documents (papers), citable documents, citations per document and H-index in pharmacological science among Middle East countries. All the 16 Middle East countries were included in the study. The information regarding GDP, spending on R&D, total number of universities and indexed scientific journals were collected. We recorded the total number of research documents, citable documents, citations per document and H-index in pharmacological science during the period 1996-2011. The main sources for information were World Bank, Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports (Thomson Reuters) and SCI-mago/Scopus. The mean per capita GDP of all the Middle East countries is 18125.49±5386.28 US$, spending on R&D 0.63±0.28% of GDP in US$, number of universities 36.56±11.33 and mean ISI indexed journal are 8.25±3.93. The number of research documents published in pharmacological science among the Middle East countries during the period 1996-2011 is 1344.44±499.34; citable documents 1286.37±476.34; citations per document 7.62± 0.84; and H-index is 30.68±6.32. There was a positive correlation between spending on R&D and citations per documents (r = 0.56, p = 0.02), H-Index (r = 0.56, p = 0.02); number of universities and research documents (r = 0.72, p = 0.002), citable documents (r = 0.72, p = 0.001); ISI indexed journals and research documents (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001), citable documents (r = 0.88, p = 0.0001), H-Index (r = 0.67, p = 0.004). However, there was no correlation between the GDP per capita and research outcome in pharmacological science. There is a positive association between spending on R&D, number of

  1. Water soluble cellulose acetate: a versatile polymer for film coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of water soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) as a film coating material for tablets. Aspirin (ASA) tablets were prepared by direct compression and coated with either WSCA or HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) dispersions. Coatings of 1-3%, depending on the intended application, were applied to the model drug (ASA) tablets employing a side-vented coating pan. Free films of WSCA, prepared by cast method, are crystal clear and, depending on the viscosity grade, are flexible, strong and durable. WSCA has the capability of forming free films without plasticizers and the films dry at room temperature. Glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg of WSCA is significantly higher relative to HPMC. Inclusion of plasticizer lowers the Tg of WSCA and effective plasticizers were PEG 400 and glycerin. Low viscosity WSCA was more soluble in water (25-30%) relative to medium viscosity WSCA (10-15%). WSCA solutions exhibited no increase in viscosity with an increase in temperature. Samples of coated (WSCA and HPMC) tablets and uncoated ASA cores were packaged for stability studies at room and elevated temperature storage. Physical stability of ASA tablets coated with 2:1 LV: MV (low viscosity: medium viscosity) WSCA formulations was better when compared to tablets coated with HPMC. Dissolution stability of WSCA coated ASA was similar to the physical stability results. After three months at elevated temperature (35 and 45 degrees C), the WSCA coated tablets complied with USP dissolution requirements for ASA, while the HPMC coated tablets did not. There was no difference in moisture (weight) gain of ASA tablets coated with either WSCA or HPMC. The WSCA coated tablets were not sticky or tacky, while the HPMC coated tablets were tacky and stuck together.

  2. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  3. Metallurgical coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-05-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer.

  4. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  5. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  6. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  7. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  8. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  9. LEVELING METAL COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for applying metallic coatings to a cylinder of uranium. An aluminum-silicon coat is applied by a process consisting of first cleaning the article by immersion for 5 minutes in 50% nitric acid at 65 C. The article then is dipped through a flux, prepared by adding 10% sodium fluoride to 90% of a flux comprising 53% potassium chloride, 42% lithium chloride, and 5% sodium chloride at 560 for 2 minutes and then directly into a molten metal bath comprising 99% aluminun and 12% silicon at 620 C for 3 minutes. While the coating is yet molten the article is transferred to a pair of steel rollers and rolled until the coating solidifies. By varying the composition of the flux other metals such as zinc, lead or the like may be coated on uranium in a similar manner.

  10. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  11. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  12. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  13. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  14. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  15. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Aktaş, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  16. Microstructure and fatigue behavior of cold spray coated Al5052

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghelichi, R.; MacDonald, D.; Bagherifard, S.; Jahed, H.; Guagliano, M.; Jodoin, B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cold spray coating in inducing residual stresses in the substrate and its effect on delaying crack initiation under cyclic loading have been studied on Al5052 alloy specimens. Different sets of Al5052 specimens have been coated with pure Al and Al7075 feedstock powder, using a low-pressure cold spray coating technique. Some sets of specimens were grit blasted (GB) before coating. The microstructural evolution of the substrate after coating and the fatigue behavior of the coated structure have been studied. In order to obtain the fatigue S–N diagram for each set, as-received and coated specimens with and without preceding GB treatment have been tested in a load-controlled condition. X-ray diffraction has been used to measure the residual stresses both in the deposited materials and the substrates. The results are discussed to highlight the effect of this emerging surface treatment on the characteristics of the treated material. Compressive residual stresses, which led to appreciable increase in the fatigue life, have been observed in all the coated sets. The results indicate that the fatigue strength was significantly improved up to 30% in the case of Al7075 coatings. The results show a strong dependency of the fatigue strength on the deposited material and the spray parameters.

  17. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-01-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  18. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  19. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Coating with colloids by receding contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteloot, Guillaume; Laurent, Limat; Francois, Lequeux; Pham, Chi-Tuong; Daerr, Adrian; Receveur, Mathieu

    2008-11-01

    Many coating processes use evaporation. But such coatings are usually inhomogeneous because of the evaporation singularity at the contact line. We are thus investigating the effect of this singularity on dip-coating. In dip-coating, two flows are in competition: one inwards due to the receding contact line, the other outwards due to evaporation, and the equiibrium of thes flows predicts the thicknes of the deposit. There are two dip-coating regimes: one controlled by evaporation, and the known Landau-Levich regime. A minimum deposit thickness is expected between these two regimes. Using different microscopy techniques, we found out that there was a minimum in the deposit thickness, but that the actual mesoscopic order strongly varies depending on the contact line velocity. In the stick-slip regime, we can also link the spatial frequency of the stick-slip motion with the contact line velocity. Eventually, the thinnest deposits exhibits iridescence, which means that we are close to a photonic cristal structure.

  3. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K V; Petrov, M I; Babicheva, V E; Belov, P A

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  4. National income inequality and declining GDP growth rates are associated with increases in HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs in Europe: a panel data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Nikolopoulos

    Full Text Available There is sparse evidence that demonstrates the association between macro-environmental processes and drug-related HIV epidemics. The present study explores the relationship between economic, socio-economic, policy and structural indicators, and increases in reported HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID in the European Economic Area (EEA.We used panel data (2003-2012 for 30 EEA countries. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. The dependent variable was taking value 1 if there was an outbreak (significant increase in the national rate of HIV diagnoses in PWID and 0 otherwise. Explanatory variables included the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP, the share of the population that is at risk for poverty, the unemployment rate, the Eurostat S80/S20 ratio, the Gini coefficient, the per capita government expenditure on health and social protection, and variables on drug control policy and drug-using population sizes. Lags of one to three years were investigated.In multivariable analyses, using two-year lagged values, we found that a 1% increase of GDP was associated with approximately 30% reduction in the odds of an HIV outbreak. In GDP-adjusted analyses with three-year lagged values, the effect of the national income inequality on the likelihood of an HIV outbreak was significant [S80/S20 Odds Ratio (OR = 3.89; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.15 to 13.13]. Generally, the multivariable analyses produced similar results across three time lags tested.Given the limitations of ecological research, we found that declining economic growth and increasing national income inequality were associated with an elevated probability of a large increase in the number of HIV diagnoses among PWID in EEA countries during the last decade. HIV prevention may be more effective if developed within national and European-level policy contexts that promote income equality, especially among vulnerable groups.

  5. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Disturbing the GTP/GDP Binding Pocket of RAB11B Cause Intellectual Disability and a Distinctive Brain Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Ideke J C; Reijnders, Margot R F; Venselaar, Hanka; Kraus, Alison; Jansen, Sandra; de Vries, Bert B A; Houge, Gunnar; Gradek, Gyri Aasland; Seo, Jieun; Choi, Murim; Chae, Jong-Hee; van der Burgt, Ineke; Pfundt, Rolph; Letteboer, Stef J F; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Dusseljee, Simone; Brunner, Han G; Doherty, Dan; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Roepman, Ronald

    2017-11-02

    The Rab GTPase family comprises ∼70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de novo missense mutations in RAB11B; c.64G>A; p.Val22Met in three individuals and c.202G>A; p.Ala68Thr in two individuals. An overlapping neurodevelopmental phenotype, including severe intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, and hypotonia was observed in all affected individuals. Additionally, visual problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly were present in the majority of cases. Re-evaluation of brain MRI images of four individuals showed a shared distinct brain phenotype, consisting of abnormal white matter (severely decreased volume and abnormal signal), thin corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and mild ventriculomegaly. To compare the effects of both variants with known inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound RAB11B mutants, we modeled the variants on the three-dimensional protein structure and performed subcellular localization studies. We predicted that both variants alter the GTP/GDP binding pocket and show that they both have localization patterns similar to inactive RAB11B. Evaluation of their influence on the affinity of RAB11B to a series of binary interactors, both effectors and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), showed induction of RAB11B binding to the GEF SH3BP5, again similar to inactive RAB11B. In conclusion, we report two recurrent dominant mutations in RAB11B leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome, likely caused by altered GDP/GTP binding that inactivate the protein and induce GEF binding and protein mislocalization. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  6. National income inequality and declining GDP growth rates are associated with increases in HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs in Europe: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kanavou, Eleftheria; Richardson, Clive; Detsis, Marios; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E; Semenza, Jan C; Costa-Storti, Claudia; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Malliori, Melpomeni-Minerva; Friedman, Samuel R; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    There is sparse evidence that demonstrates the association between macro-environmental processes and drug-related HIV epidemics. The present study explores the relationship between economic, socio-economic, policy and structural indicators, and increases in reported HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the European Economic Area (EEA). We used panel data (2003-2012) for 30 EEA countries. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. The dependent variable was taking value 1 if there was an outbreak (significant increase in the national rate of HIV diagnoses in PWID) and 0 otherwise. Explanatory variables included the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the share of the population that is at risk for poverty, the unemployment rate, the Eurostat S80/S20 ratio, the Gini coefficient, the per capita government expenditure on health and social protection, and variables on drug control policy and drug-using population sizes. Lags of one to three years were investigated. In multivariable analyses, using two-year lagged values, we found that a 1% increase of GDP was associated with approximately 30% reduction in the odds of an HIV outbreak. In GDP-adjusted analyses with three-year lagged values, the effect of the national income inequality on the likelihood of an HIV outbreak was significant [S80/S20 Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.89; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15 to 13.13]. Generally, the multivariable analyses produced similar results across three time lags tested. Given the limitations of ecological research, we found that declining economic growth and increasing national income inequality were associated with an elevated probability of a large increase in the number of HIV diagnoses among PWID in EEA countries during the last decade. HIV prevention may be more effective if developed within national and European-level policy contexts that promote income equality, especially among vulnerable groups.

  7. Relative effectiveness of electron-proton damage on organic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolomei, P.; Cabrini, A.

    1988-01-01

    With aim to verify the validity of simulation with photon irradiators, of damage caused on internal containment coatings by beta plus gamma mixed field following to a LOCA in LWR, irradiation tests with Co 60 photon and with nearly 1.5 MeV mean energy electrons have been performed. Changes of some properties of coating film have been verified versus absorbed doses up to 1000 KGy (100 Mrad). A special technique for measurement of dose absorbed in thin film of coating has been tested, to be related to absorbed dose in organic dosimeters and in water (Fricke solution) dosimeter. The changes of considered properties (tensile strength, ease to decontamination, color, brightness) do not allow at the moment, to determine undoubtedly the degree of equivalence between radiation damage to coatings by two types of radiation. A strong backscatter effect mainly evident in electron irradiation, has been pointed out, which contribute to damage to coating film

  8. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  9. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity. (letter)

  10. Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Taoye; Chen Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Rohani, Sohrab, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn, E-mail: srohani@uwo.ca [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO{sub 2} layer and a top fully covered protective SiO{sub 2} layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165 deg. after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm{sup -2} for 12 h.

  11. The Analysis of the Long-Run Relationship Between Oil Consumption and Real GDP in Turkey Through Johansen Co-Integration Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Reşat; Başer, Seda

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a long run relationship between oil consumption and real GDP in Turkey during the period 1965-2011 or not. If there is any relationship between these variables, to determine the direction of this relationship. For this purpose, the Johansen-Juselius Co-integration Method (1990) is used together with the Error Correction Model. According to the findings, there is one co-integration relationship between the series. Error correction m...

  12. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  13. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  14. Powder-Derived High-Conductivity Coatings for Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2003-01-01

    Makers of high-thermal-flux engines prefer copper alloys as combustion chamber liners, owing to a need to maximize heat dissipation. Since engine environments are strongly oxidizing in nature and copper alloys generally have inadequate resistance to oxidation, the liners need coatings for thermal and environmental protection; however, coatings must be chosen with great care in order to avoid significant impairment of thermal conductivity. Powder-derived chromia- and alumina- forming alloys are being studied under NASA's programs for advanced reusable launch vehicles to succeed the space shuttle fleet. NiCrAlY and Cu-Cr compositions optimized for high thermal conductivity have been tested for static and cyclic oxidation, and for susceptibility to blanching - a mode of degradation arising from oxidation-reduction cycling. The results indicate that the decision to coat the liners or not, and which coating/composition to use, depends strongly on the specific oxidative degradation mode that prevails under service conditions.

  15. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  16. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Sankar (Chicago, IL); Steiner, Kimberly A. (Chicago, IL); Rangan, Krishnaswamy K. (Evanston, IL)

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  17. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  18. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  19. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  20. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  1. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  2. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  3. Study the polymer coating for detecting and surface decontamination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Quynh Luong; Nguyen Van Chinh

    2011-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination. It has been developed in both detecting and removing the radioactive isotope and heavy metal elements from contaminated surfaces. A polymer coating is produced to be sprayed or brushed on contaminated material of uranium. The places of U contamination is shown by color change of polymer coating. As the polymer coating is dried up to form a strong film, the contaminations are absorbed in to the coating and contaminated surfaces are cleaned by removing the film. (author)

  4. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  5. How to improve the performance of UV cured wood coatings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariane Poitoux

    2007-01-01

    Adhesion, scratch and wear resistance are key properties for industrial wood coatings, both for furniture and parquet flooring. Different techniques can be used to evaluate the performances of a coating and results can be strongly affected only by changing the measuring tool used. This paper will explain the different methods available to assess the adhesion, the scratch and wear resistance and their relevancy. The role played by the different oligomers and monomers will be shown, as the impact of the photoinitiator package. (Author)

  6. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  7. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  8. The power vacuum: the effect of the electricity power crisis on GDP in South Africa in the context of an uncertain coal supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, P. [Freyaafdrammen (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    In 1988 the South African government released a white paper advocating an increased electricity supply to meet social obligations. Large sectors of the rural population in South Africa were not electrified. The National Electrification Program (NEP) was launched in 1994 to wipe out the electrification backlog by 2012. The target of the first phase of NEP was achieved. By 2003, a basic 50kWh electricity per month was supplied free of charge, due to the poverty of the population. In 1996, the GEAR (Growth, Employment and Redistribution) strategy was introduced to generate 6% GDP growth, create 400,000 new jobs each year and increase foreign investment. But the race for GDP growth could result in high electricity consumption and frequent interruptions, particularly in energy-intensive industries which had been introduced in South Africa. The national coal production rate has been reached and surpassed its peak, leading to the end of the cheap coal era in South Africa but more expensive coal could slow down industrial development.

  9. Enhancement of adhesion between resin coating materials and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoaki; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Weerasinghe, Dinesh S; Harada, Naoko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    Resin coating technique is a unique method that improves the dentin bond strength of resin cements in indirect restorations. However, the weak link of a specimen bonded using the resin coating technique was reported to be the bonded interface between the resin coating material and resin cement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to enhance the bonding performance between a resin coating material and a resin cement. Two light-cured flowable composites, Protect Liner F and Clearfil Flow FX, were used as coating materials, and two dual-cure composite materials, Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfil DC Core Automix, were used as resin cements. The ultimate tensile strength of each material and the microtensile bond strengths of the bonded specimens of resin coating material and resin cement were measured using a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Three-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the highest microtensile bond strength was obtained using a combination of Clearfil Flow FX and Clearfil DC Core Automix, and when the surface of the coating material was treated with ED Primer II. It was strongly suggested that materials with a higher ultimate tensile strength, when used in both resin coating and cementation, could enhance the bond strength between the two.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of modified-hydroxyapatite/polyetheretherketone coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fang, Lin, E-mail: fanglinhit@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luo, Zhongkuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zheng, Ruisheng [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Song, Shenhua; Weng, Luqian; Lei, JinPing [Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate is successfully fabricated by solution casting method. • Strong bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate is achieved. • HA/PEEK coating materials exhibit better bioactivity. - Abstract: 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate were successfully fabricated by solution casting method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile testing. The modified HA fillers were obtained to be uniformly distributed in the HA/PEEK coating, which has better properties of tensile strength and fracture toughness than those of the unmodified specimen. A good bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate was achieved by solution casting method, resulting in integral-fracture without falling apart or delaminating during tensile loading. The modified specimens dipped into simulated body fluid (SBF) were characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR, indicating that the bioactivity of the dipped materials was demonstrated more apparent with extending the dipping time. Therefore, the coating materials may become the substitutes for the hard tissues of the human body in the future, which could realize the balance between the mechanical properties and the bioactivity by modifying the structural design of the coating.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of modified-hydroxyapatite/polyetheretherketone coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Rui; Fang, Lin; Luo, Zhongkuan; Zheng, Ruisheng; Song, Shenhua; Weng, Luqian; Lei, JinPing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate is successfully fabricated by solution casting method. • Strong bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate is achieved. • HA/PEEK coating materials exhibit better bioactivity. - Abstract: 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate were successfully fabricated by solution casting method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile testing. The modified HA fillers were obtained to be uniformly distributed in the HA/PEEK coating, which has better properties of tensile strength and fracture toughness than those of the unmodified specimen. A good bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate was achieved by solution casting method, resulting in integral-fracture without falling apart or delaminating during tensile loading. The modified specimens dipped into simulated body fluid (SBF) were characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR, indicating that the bioactivity of the dipped materials was demonstrated more apparent with extending the dipping time. Therefore, the coating materials may become the substitutes for the hard tissues of the human body in the future, which could realize the balance between the mechanical properties and the bioactivity by modifying the structural design of the coating

  12. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  13. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  14. White coat, patient gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  16. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  17. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  18. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  19. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  20. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jinjin [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Chengjian [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Zhou, Jingfang [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA, 5095 (Australia); Li, Chunxia [National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, Department of ECLSS, China Astronaut Researching and Training Center, Beijing, 100094 (China); Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/Ag feedstock powders containing 1–10,000 ppm silver nanoparticles were double sintered and deposited by plasma spray. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings were composed of pure rutile phase and homogeneously-distributed metallic silver. • TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm silver nanoparticles exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: Rutile titania (TiO{sub 2}) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO{sub 2} coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO{sub 2}/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO{sub 2} powders containing 1–10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2}/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO{sub 2} structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with 100–1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO{sub 2}/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the

  1. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  2. Facile preparation of acid-resistant magnetite particles for removal of Sb(?) from strong acidic solution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong; Guan, Kaiwen; Bai, Zhiping; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new facile coating strategy based on the hydrophobicity of methyl groups was developed to prevent nano-sized magnetite particles from strong acid corrosion. In this method, three steps of hydrolysis led to three layers of protection shell coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Filled with hydrophobic methyl groups, the middle layer mainly prevented the magnetic core from strong acid corrosion. These magnetite particles managed to resist 1 M HCl solution and 2.5 M H2SO4 solution. The acid res...

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  4. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, the number of universities and scientific journals on research publications in environmental sciences in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, spending on Research and Development (R&D, the number of universities and scientific journals on the published research documents, citable documents, citations per document and H-index in environmental sciences in the Middle East countries. Materials and Methods: All the 16 Middle East countries were included in the study. Information regarding the GDP, spending on R&D, the total number of universities and indexed journals was collected. Total number of research documents (papers, citable documents, citations per document and H-index in environmental sciences during the period 1996-2011 was recorded. The study used the World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus, Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports (Thomson Reuters as the main sources of information. Results: The mean GDP per capita of all the Middle East countries amounted to 18 125.49±5386.28 US$, spending on R&D was 0.63±0.28 US$, the number of universities equaled 36.56±11.33 and mean ISI indexed journals amounted to 8.25±3.93. The mean number of research documents published in environmental sciences in the Middle East countries during the period 1996-2011 was 2202.12±883.98; citable documents: 2156.87±865.09; citations per document: 8.74±0.73; and the H-index: 35.37±6.17. There was a positive correlation between the money spent on R&D and citations per documents (r = 0.6, p = 0.01, H-Index (r = 0.6, p = 0.01; the number of universities and a total of research documents (r = 0.65, p = 0.006, citable documents (r = 0.65, p = 0.006, H-Index (r = 0.50, p = 0.04, as well as ISI indexed journals and total research documents (r = 0.94, p = 0.0001, citable documents (r = 0.94, p = 0.0001, H-Index (r = 0.73, p = 0.001. Conclusions: The Middle East countries which spend more on R&D and which have a large number of universities and ISI indexed journals are likely to produce more significant volume of research papers in

  5. Impact of GDP, spending on R&D, the number of universities and scientific journals on research publications in environmental sciences in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Halepoto, Dost Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), spending on Research and Development (R&D), the number of universities and scientific journals on the published research documents, citable documents, citations per document and H-index in environmental sciences in the Middle East countries. All the 16 Middle East countries were included in the study. Information regarding the GDP, spending on R&D, the total number of universities and indexed journals was collected. Total number of research documents (papers), citable documents, citations per document and H-index in environmental sciences during the period 1996-2011 was recorded. The study used the World Bank, SCI-mago/Scopus, Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports (Thomson Reuters) as the main sources of information. The mean GDP per capita of all the Middle East countries amounted to 18 125.49±5386.28 US$, spending on R&D was 0.63±0.28 US$, the number of universities equaled 36.56±11.33 and mean ISI indexed journals amounted to 8.25±3.93. The mean number of research documents published in environmental sciences in the Middle East countries during the period 1996-2011 was 2202.12±883.98; citable documents: 2156.87±865.09; citations per document: 8.74±0.73; and the H-index: 35.37±6.17. There was a positive correlation between the money spent on R&D and citations per documents (r = 0.6, p = 0.01), H-Index (r = 0.6, p = 0.01); the number of universities and a total of research documents (r = 0.65, p = 0.006), citable documents (r = 0.65, p = 0.006), H-Index (r = 0.50, p = 0.04), as well as ISI indexed journals and total research documents (r = 0.94, p = 0.0001), citable documents (r = 0.94, p = 0.0001), H-Index (r = 0.73, p = 0.001). The Middle East countries which spend more on R&D and which have a large number of universities and ISI indexed journals are likely to produce more significant volume of research papers in the field of environmental science.

  6. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  7. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  8. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  9. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...... direction. Although the airflow compromised the anti-ice properties to some extent, the application of the hydrophobic coating in a heat recovery ventilation experiment extended the time interval between defrosting cycles by a factor of 2.3....

  10. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  11. Characterization of wet powder-sprayed zirconia/calcium phosphate coating for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Li Destri, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-02-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) is used for dental applications because of its low toxicity and beneficial mechanical properties, but it does not stimulate bone regeneration around the implant due to its bioinertness. Therefore, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are often utilized to increase the surface bioactivity and to achieve a better osseointegration. These coatings, however, are chemically nonstable and provide a weak bonding to the substrate surface. In this study, zirconia substrates were coated with a calcium phosphate/zirconia mixture to achieve ceramic coatings with a high bioactivity potential and a good mechanical stability. The coatings were obtained by wet powder spraying (WPS). Pure HA and TZ coatings were employed as reference materials. The coatings were characterized with regard to microstructure, surface roughness, and phase composition. Scratch tests were carried out to investigate the coating adhesion. The influence of the coating on the mechanical strength was evaluated with the ball on three balls test (B3B). In addition, zirconia dental implant screws were also coated and inserted in a biomechanical test block and bovine rip bone. After sintering, the mixed coating exhibited a porous morphology with a surface roughness of about 4 μm and a total porosity of 17%. Phase analysis showed a transformation from TZ and HA to calcium zirconium oxide and tricalcium phosphate. Investigations of the bond strength confirmed a strong adhesion of the mixed coating to the substrate, while the biaxial fracture strength was only slightly affected. Insertion experiments confirmed the scratch test results and evidenced an intact mixed coating on the zirconia screw. The present study revealed a higher stability and firm adhesion of the mixed coating compared with a pure calcium phosphate coating. We also successfully demonstrate the particular versatility of the WPS technique for dental implants by coating a complex curved surface. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, O. [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34720 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500, B. Cekmece-Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Functional Materials Division, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Yildirim Beyazit University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulus-Ankara (Turkey); Coruh, Ali [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Aktas, B., E-mail: aktas@gyte.edu.tr [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni, Co and Ni-Co alloyed coatings on PAN were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles leads to interfacial polarization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite prepared in Ni bath at 0.5 min leads to a wider absorption bandwidth and minimum coefficient of reflection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About of -42 dB, more than 99.99% of the microwave absorption.

  13. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  14. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  15. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  16. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  17. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  18. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  19. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao

    the region near coating top surface is mostly amorphous. TEM/STEM observation of FGHA coating with incorporated Ag has also demonstrated that the metallic silver particles in size of 10 ˜ 50 nm distribute at the coating cross section throughout the coating thickness. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have shown that coatings consist of HA and various calcium phosphate compounds. The pull off tests have shown that the average adhesion strength of FGHA coatings (both with and without Ag) to substrate are in the range of 83.44 +/- 5.71 ˜ 89.36 +/- 5.13 MPa. Further optical observation of pull off area of coating shows that no coating delamination is observed and epoxy failure is dominant, indicating a well-boned interface and a strong coating itself. It has been concluded that the high adhesion strength of coating to substrate is attributed to the atomic intermixed interface and dense structure of coating, which is resulted from the increased mobility of coating atoms at high substrate temperature under bombardment of assisted ion beam. Culture tests have shown a distinct increase in osteoblast cell attachment to FGHA surface after 24 hours culture test when compared to blank Ti controls. Both calcium and silver release tests of Ag-doped FGHA coatings have shown the release rate is high at the initial stage and it steadily decreases, which is the expected performance of FGHA coatings. Antibacterial test using S. aureus has revealed that Ag doped FGHA coatings show an inhibitory effect when compared to coating without Ag and blank Ti. In particular, with higher amounts of Ag in coatings, the inhibition of S. aureus is stronger. Cytotoxicity test indicates that the FGHA coating with the highest amounts of Ag shows a negative effect on the osteoblast response.

  20. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  1. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  2. Self-Cleaning Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    4 Removal of filler from PSX-700...particles with filler -removed PSX-700 ............................................ 4 Filtration of the modified paint...700 which is a replacement of Amercoat 7229C. PSX-700 is a weatherable epoxy based polysiloxane coating. What the supplier could provide is the final

  3. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...

  4. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  5. Durable superhydrophobic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2017-11-28

    A superhydrophobic coating including a plurality of particles and a resin. The particles covalently bond to the resin and the resin does not fill the pores of the superhydrophobic particles such that the three dimensional surface topology of the superhydrophobic particles is preserved.

  6. Comparison of W–TiC composite coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying and supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Qing Yu; Luo, Lai Ma; Huang, Zhen Yi; Wang, Ping; Ding, Ting Ting; Wu, Yu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • W–TiC composite coatings were fabricated by APS and SAPS technologies. • TiC had filling effect on pores and coating/fixing effect on un-melted particles. • Porosity and oxygen content in SAPS coating were lower than that in APS coating. • Thermal conductivity of SAPS coating was higher than that of APS coating. • SAPS coating has better ability to resist to elastic fracture than APS coating does. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings with 1.5 wt.% TiC (W/TiC) were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS) techniques, respectively. The results showed that the typical lamellar structure of plasma spraying and columnar crystalline grains formed in the coatings. Pores located mainly at lamellar gaps in association with oxidation were also observed. TiC phase, distributed at lamellar gaps filled the gaps; and that distributed around un-melted tungsten particles and splashed debris coated the particles or debris that were linked with the TiC at lamellar gaps. The coating and linking of the retained TiC phase prevented the tungsten particles to come off from the coatings. The porosity and the oxygen content of the SAPS-W/TiC were lower than those of the APS-W/TiC coating. The mechanical response of the coatings was strongly dependent on the H/E* ratio (H and E* are the hardness and effective Young’s modulus, respectively). The SAPS-W/TiC coating with a higher H/E* ratio had a better ability to resist to elastic fracture and better fracture toughness as compared with the APS-W/TiC coating with a smaller H/E* ratio. The thermal conductivity of the SAPS-W/TiC coating was greater than that of the APS-W/TiC coating.

  7. Mechanical characterization of copper coatings realized by thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassot, H.; Junquera, T.; Legoff, A.; Lescornet, J.C.; Ji, V.; Grandsire, L.

    2000-11-01

    The stiffening of superconducting cavities is required to assure mechanical stability. The stiffening method used for the tesla test facility (TTF) is non-sufficient for the Tesla project (TeV energy superconducting linear accelerator). A new method has been developed, this method is based on the thermal spraying of a copper coating on the backside of a niobium cavity, simulations show a promising future for this technique. This report presents the structure, the behaviour and the characteristics of a copper coating realized by thermal spraying. The elastic properties of the coating plays an important role for the stiffening of the cavity. A stress analysis has been achieved on samples by using X-ray diffraction, this technique is the only one that takes into account anisotropy effects. From the results of tensile tests it appears that copper coatings are very fragile and far less ductile than massive metal, it is mainly due to the strong oxidation rate of the coating (about 12%). The hardness of a coating is 20% higher than of massive copper. Other tensile tests have been performed to evaluate the adherence of the coating to the niobium, an adherence force of 50 MPa has been deduced from testing. (A.C.)

  8. Computer analysis of transient heat transfer from coated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, A.; Holmes, D.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal response of internally heated, coated surfaces in contact with liquid helium was investigated with a previously developed computer model. The coatings were found to affect the time required to initiate film boiling or to quench a superconductor in the substrate. The energy which can be absorbed without an unacceptably large temperature rise depends most strongly upon the coating thermal property group (kpC /SUB p/ ) /SUP 1/2/ and on the peak nucleate boiling heat flux. Dielectric materials for electrical insulation usually have low thermal property group values, but a new class of ceramic materials shows great promise for application with superconducting devices as electrical insulations with good thermal properties. Coating materials with thermal property group values greater than that of OFHC copper at liquid helium temperatures provide the same thermal stability as a bare copper surface exposed to the helium bath. Possible applications of the new materials to potted windings are also discussed

  9. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA...

  10. Effect of a dielectric coating on terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present measurements and calculations on the effect of thin dielectric coatings on the propagation of terahertz pulses along the surface of metal wires. Our measurements show that propagation over only a few centimeters of wire having a thin dielectric coating, strongly distorts the

  11. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  12. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  13. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  14. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  15. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  16. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  17. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  18. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  19. Effect of an Opaque Reflecting Layer on the Thermal Behavior of a Thermal Barrier Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuckler, Charles M.

    2007-01-01

    A parametric study using a two-flux approximation of the radiative transfer equation was performed to examine the effects of an opaque reflective layer on the thermal behavior of a typical semitransparent thermal barrier coating on an opaque substrate. Some ceramic materials are semitransparent in the wavelength ranges where thermal radiation is important. Even with an opaque layer on each side of the semitransparent thermal barrier coating, scattering and absorption can have an effect on the heat transfer. In this work, a thermal barrier coating that is semitransparent up to a wavelength of 5 micrometers is considered. Above 5 micrometers wavelength, the thermal barrier coating is opaque. The absorption and scattering coefficient of the thermal barrier was varied. The thermal behavior of the thermal barrier coating with an opaque reflective layer is compared to a thermal barrier coating without the reflective layer. For a thicker thermal barrier coating with lower convective loading, which would be typical of a combustor liner, a reflective layer can significantly decrease the temperature in the thermal barrier coating and substrate if the scattering is weak or moderate and for strong scattering if the absorption is large. The layer without the reflective coating can be about as effective as the layer with the reflective coating if the absorption is small and the scattering strong. For low absorption, some temperatures in the thermal barrier coating system can be slightly higher with the reflective layer. For a thin thermal barrier coating with high convective loading, which would be typical of a blade or vane that sees the hot sections of the combustor, the reflective layer is not as effective. The reflective layer reduces the surface temperature of the reflective layer for all conditions considered. For weak and moderate scattering, the temperature of the TBC-substrate interface is reduced but for strong scattering, the temperature of the substrate is increased

  20. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  1. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  2. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  3. Nanobiomaterial Coatings in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Andy H; Cazalbou, Sophie; Ben-Nissan, Besim

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of nanostructured materials in advanced technologies for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of applications within the dental and biomedical field, for example nanoparticles in drug delivery systems and nanostructured scaffolds in tissue engineering. More importantly, nanotechnology has also been linked with the modification of surface properties of synthetic implants in an attempt to improve their bioactivity, reliability and protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. This is achieved through the use of nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings. These new-generation coatings based on inorganic materials and biological materials such as proteins and peptides are currently investigated and applied. This chapter aims to give an overview of the recent advances in nanocoatings and their composites being investigated or used in dentistry. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Acrylic purification and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzniak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  5. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  6. Comparative characterization of Cu–Ni substrates for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, H.; Suo, H.L.; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2014-01-01

    Three Cu100xNix alloys, with x = 23, 33 and 45 at.%Ni, have been evaluated for use as substrates for coated conductors on the basis of measurements of their microstructure, crystallographic texture and hardness. It is found that high-temperature annealing after heavy rolling generates strong cube...... it better suited for large scale production of superconducting tapes....

  7. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong -axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content ...

  8. High Solids Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    SITATEMENT rot tho ahatrai .nti,,ed in IfllorM 0, It diIIIorenl Itroft I.port) 15L %UPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19, KEY WORDS (Continiou on roveaou oido It...yji1 :𔃻ppeŽ r prt rni j Lr ,, [VQ I urt, her eL ve.Luprnent into high solids coating systems. The Acryloid AU-568 hns many of the desirable properties

  9. Thermal Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    rigid, intumescent coating Monokote 5 W. R. Grace and Co. One part fireproofing system mixed with water Sodium Silicate L. A. Chemical Co. Dow Corning 325...percent chemically combined water . Perlite, when rapidly heated to its softening temperature, (1400*F to 25000F suddenly pops or expands (one to two...81) .09 (.44) Zonolite MK-5 Fireproofing 4 - 1 Same As #4 Same As #4 61 (.15) .14 (.68) 5 Sodium Silicate - Perlite #1120 - 110 (.28) .59 (2.e8) 347

  10. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    sample is included in Figure 5.5.3. After one minute exposure, there was no detectable change in the surface of the coating or the polycarbonate. After...surface de 1/600 000 square meter of a blackbody at the 1/600 000 rnitre carr-6 d’un corps noir L ha temperature of freezing platinum under a temp6rature

  11. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  12. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  13. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  14. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  15. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  16. Flux pinning characteristics of YBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukumoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Flux pinning properties of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors deposited on IBAD substrate are investigated. The thickness of YBCO layer is changed in the range of 0.27-1.0 μm. The thickness dependence of critical current density, n-value and irreversibility field are measured in a wide range of magnetic field. The results are compared with the theoretical flux creep-flow model. It is found that these pinning properties are strongly influenced by the thickness as well as the pinning strength. Optimum condition for high field application of this superconductor is discussed

  17. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  18. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  19. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  20. Novel chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite film coatings for modified-release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2011-04-04

    Chitosan (CS), a positively charged polysaccharide, and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay with silicate layers, can electrostatically interact to form nanocomposite films. In this study, CS-MAS nanocomposite films were evaluated for use in tablet film coating. Effects of CS-MAS ratio and coating level on water uptake and drug release from the coated tablets were investigated. Surface and film matrix morphology of the coated film and the effect of enzymes in the simulated gastro-intestinal fluid on drug release were also examined. The results demonstrated that the CS-MAS coated tablets had a rough surface and a layered matrix film, whereas a smooth surface and dense matrix film on the CS coated tablets was found. However, the CS-MAS coated tablets provided fewer film defects than the CS coated tablets. Nanocomposite formation between CS and MAS could retard swelling and erosion of CS in the composite films in acidic medium. The higher MAS ratio of the CS-MAS coated tablets gave lower water uptake and slower drug release when compared with the CS coated tablets. Moreover, the CS-MAS films on the tablets presented good stability towards enzymatic degradation in simulated intestinal fluid. The release of drug from the CS-MAS coated tablets could be modulated by varying CS-MAS ratios and coating levels. Additionally, drug solubility also influenced drug release characteristics of the CS-MAS coated tablets. These findings suggest that the CS-MAS nanocomposites displays a strong potential for use in tablet film coating intended for modifying drug release from tablets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser ablation and competitive technologies in paint stripping of heavy anticorrosion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuöcker, Georg D.; Bielak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    During the last years surface preparation prior to coating operations became an important research and development task, since tightened environmental regulations have to be faced in view of the deliberation of hazardous compounds of coatings. Especially, ship-yards get more and more under pressure, because the environmental commitment of their Asian competitors is fairly limited. Therefore, in the US and in Europe several technology evaluation projects have been launched to face this challenge. The majority of coating service providers and ship yards use grit blasting; this process causes heavy emissions as of dust and enormous amounts of waste as polluted sand. Coating removal without any blasting material would reduce the environmental impact. Laser processing offers ecological advantages. Therefore thermal processes like laser ablation have been studied thoroughly in several published projects and also in this study. Many of these studies have been focused on the maintenance of airplanes, but not on de-coating of heavy protective coatings. In this case the required laser power is extra-high. This study is focused on the maintenance of heavy anti-corrosion coatings and compares the industrial requirements and the opportunities of the innovative laser processes. Based on the results of this analysis similar approaches as e.g. plasma jet coating ablation have been studied. It was concluded that none of these methods can compete economically with the conventional processes as grit blasting and water jetting since the required ablation rate is very high (>60m2/h). A new process is required that is not based on any blasting operation and which does not depend strongly on the coating's characteristic. The delamination of the coating where the coatings is not removed by evaporation, but in little pieces of the complete coating system meets these requirements. The delamination can be accomplished by the thermal destruction of the primer coating by an intense heat pulse

  2. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  3. Platelet adhesion on to polyamide microcapsules coated with lipid bilayer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K; Ito, Y; Kimura, S; Imanishi, Y

    1989-09-01

    Polyamide microcapsules with diameters of 3-4 microns were coated with lipid bilayer membrane and their interaction with canine platelets was investigated. Platelet adhesion on to the microcapsules was significantly suppressed by the lipid-coating. Coating with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (liquid-crystalline state) reduced platelet adhesion on to the microcapsules to a greater extent than that with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (gel state) at 37 degrees C. The surface properties of the microcapsule in adsorption of plasma proteins were also changed by lipid coating. The amount of gamma-globulin and fibrinogen adsorbed on to the microcapsule was slightly decreased by lipid coating, while the amount of adsorbed albumin was increased. Platelet adhesion on to the lipid-coated microcapsules was suppressed most strongly in the presence of gamma-globulin. Apparently platelet adhesion on to the polyamide microcapsules is controlled by the nature of lipid membrane and gamma-globulin adsorbed on to the microcapsules.

  4. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  5. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  6. Coatings on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Coatings have always been spearheading technology developments, as they have to function faultlessly in very demanding conditions. Coatings for use on spacecraft and launch vehicle launch environments offer technological challenges beyond the normal boundaries of most coatings service environments. Among all the space environments, the most treacherous is that of the launch environment. To ensure the success of space missions, NASA must rely on the best materials available, and that very much includes coatings. What kind of technology can meet those challenges? What is expected of coatings manufacturers wanting to join the space race? What insights can the whole industry gain? Luz Marina Calle will present an overview of corrosion protective coatings at NASA.

  7. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  8. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  9. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  10. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  11. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial and bioactive coatings on titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni Aranya, Anupama; Pushalkar, Smruti; Zhao, Minglei; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Zhang, Yu; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-08-01

    Various surface modifications have been tried for enhancing osseointegration of the dental implants like mechanical and/or chemical treatments and deposition of calcium phosphate coatings. The objective of this research was to develop calcium-phosphate based thin coatings with antibacterial and bioactive properties for potential application in dental implants. Titanium (Ti) discs were immersed in different calcifying solutions: CaP (positive control), F-CaP, Zn-CaP, and FZn-CaP and incubated for 24 h. Negative control was uncoated Ti discs. Coated surfaces were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Antibacterial properties were tested using Porphyromonas gingivalis because of its strong association with periodontal and peri-implant infections. Bacterial adhesion and colonization were studied at different timepoints. The coated surfaces had compositional characteristics similar to that of bone mineral and they inhibited the growth, colonization and adherence of P. gingivalis, resulted in reduced thickness of biofilms and bacterial inhibition in the culture medium as compared to the positive and negative controls (p  0.05). It has been previously demonstrated that these coatings have excellent in vitro bioactivity (formed carbonate hydroxyapatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid). Such coatings can enhance osseointegration and prevent infection in implants, thereby improving the success rates of implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2218-2227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coating nanoparticles with cell membranes for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery allows drug molecules to preferentially accumulate at the sites of action and thus holds great promise to improve therapeutic index. Among various drug-targeting approaches, nanoparticle-based delivery systems offer some unique strengths and have achieved exciting preclinical and clinical results. Herein, we aim to provide a review on the recent development of cell membrane-coated nanoparticle system, a new class of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine both the functionalities of cellular membranes and the engineering flexibility of synthetic nanomaterials for effective drug delivery and novel therapeutics. This review is particularly focused on novel designs of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles as well as their underlying principles that facilitate the purpose of drug targeting. Three specific areas are highlighted, including: (i) cell membrane coating to prolong nanoparticle circulation, (ii) cell membrane coating to achieve cell-specific targeting and (iii) cell membrane coating for immune system targeting. Overall, cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have emerged as a novel class of targeted nanotherapeutics with strong potentials to improve on drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy for treatment of various diseases.

  14. Obtaining of nanostructured ZnO coatings using mechanoactivated oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muktepavela, F; Bakradze, G; Tamanis, E; Grigorjeva, L; Kulis, P; Krutohvostovs, R

    2007-01-01

    The concept to use nanostructured state of metal at the instant of destruction in air environment was used to obtain nanostructured Zn-ZnO coatings on glass and quartz by mechanical method. Subsequent annealing in the ambient atmosphere, annealing in vacuum and irradiation with 532-nm YAG:Nd laser were used to obtain completely oxidized, transparent ZnO coatings. The saturated with oxygen nanostructured coatings were transformed into nanostructured ZnO coatings after annealing above 773K or irradiation with laser (allowing to reach 673K) in ambient atmosphere. AFM and SEM images show that after annealing ZnO coatings have multi-shaped structure. The formation of ZnO need-like whiskers (d = 100nm, l = 2μm) was observed after laser irradiation. Obtained ZnO coatings have high microhardness (10--12GPa), strong adhesion with substrates and show green and blue luminescence at room temperature. The oxidation process is mechanoactivated due to the facilitated oxygen diffusion along deformation defects: vacancies, dislocation, microcracks, and developed network of grain boundaries

  15. Interfaces in graded coatings on titanium-based implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Esteban, S.; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C. F.; Gremillard, L.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Graded bilayered glass-ceramic composite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates were fabricated using an enameling technique. The layers consisted of a mixture of glasses in the CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 system with different amounts of calcium phosphates (CPs). Optimum firing conditions have been determined for the fabrication of coatings having good adhesion to the metal, while avoiding deleterious reactions between the glass and the ceramic particles. The final coatings do not crack or delaminate. The use of high-silica layers (>60 wt % SiO2) in contact with the alloy promotes long-term stability of the coating; glass-metal adhesion is achieved through the formation of a nanostructured Ti5Si3 layer. A surface layer containing a mixture of a low-silica glass (~53 wt % SiO2) and synthetic hydroxyapatite particles promotes the precipitation of new apatite during tests in vitro. The in vitro behavior of the coatings in simulated body fluid depends both on the composition of the glass matrix and the CP particles, and is strongly affected by the coating design and the firing conditions. PMID:18384170

  16. Interfaces in graded coatings on titanium-based implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Esteban, S; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C F; Gremillard, L; Saiz, E; Tomsia, A P

    2009-03-15

    Graded bilayered glass-ceramic composite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates were fabricated using an enameling technique. The layers consisted of a mixture of glasses in the CaO-MgO-Na(2)O-K(2)O-P(2)O(5) system with different amounts of calcium phosphates (CPs). Optimum firing conditions have been determined for the fabrication of coatings having good adhesion to the metal, while avoiding deleterious reactions between the glass and the ceramic particles. The final coatings do not crack or delaminate. The use of high-silica layers (>60 wt % SiO(2)) in contact with the alloy promotes long-term stability of the coating; glass-metal adhesion is achieved through the formation of a nanostructured Ti(5)Si(3) layer. A surface layer containing a mixture of a low-silica glass ( approximately 53 wt % SiO(2)) and synthetic hydroxyapatite particles promotes the precipitation of new apatite during tests in vitro. The in vitro behavior of the coatings in simulated body fluid depends both on the composition of the glass matrix and the CP particles, and is strongly affected by the coating design and the firing conditions.

  17. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of GumI, a monotopic membrane GDP-mannose:glycolipid 4-{beta}-D-mannosyltransferase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Silvina R; Bianco, María I; Barreras, Máximo; Ielpi, Luis

    2011-07-01

    We describe the first biochemical characterization of the gumI gene product, an essential protein for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis. Cellular fractionation experiments reveal the presence of a protein associated with the membrane fraction, even in the absence of the other proteins responsible for the synthesis of glycolipid intermediates and the proteins involved in the polymerization and transport of the xanthan chains. By alkaline buffer extraction and detergent phase partitioning, GumI was categorized as a monotopic membrane protein. GumI was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, solubilized and purified in an active and stable form using a simple and reproducible two-step procedure. The purified recombinant GumI is a nonprocessive β-mannosyltransferase that uses GDP-Man as a donor substrate and glucuronic acid-β-1,2-mannose-α-1,3-glucose-β-1,4-glucose-PP-polyisoprenyl as an acceptor. We also established the optimal biochemical conditions for GumI enzymatic activity. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a conserved domain for glycosyltransferases (GTs) of the GT-B superfamily and homologous proteins in several prokaryote organisms. On the basis of this biochemical characterization, GumI may represent the founding member of a new GT family in the Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes classification.

  18. Analysis of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene promoter from acerola (Malpighia glabra) and increase in ascorbate content of transgenic tobacco expressing the acerola gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2008-01-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is an important enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler's pathway for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in plants. We have reported recently that the expression of the acerola (Malpighia glabra) GMP gene, designated MgGMP, correlates with the AsA content of the plant. The acerola plant has very high levels of AsA relative to better studied model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here we found that the GMP mRNA levels in acerola are higher than those from Arabidopsis and tomato. Also, the transient expression of the uidA reporter gene in the protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum cultures showed the MgGMP gene promoter to have higher activity than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and Arabidopsis GMP promoters. The AsA content of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the MgGMP gene including its promoter was about 2-fold higher than that of the wild type.

  19. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: SHARE OF GDP, EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Veselinova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the analysis of the role of the textile industry in the national economy of the Republic of Macedonia. The main objective is to consider what determines the actual structure in this particular industry and how it affects the national economic categories, such as: the gross domestic product, exports and the level of employment. The research resultspresent that more than one third of the total exports, as well as more than one third of the employed population in the manufacturing sector accounted for the textile industry, but this industry creates only 3% of the national GDP. Conclusions reveal that the above mentioned statistics is due to the very low level of additional value among all the products that consist this industry’s exports. It is expected that the developed countrieswould tend to keep the creative activities of the manufacturing process in their own terms and transfer the basic production activities in other less developed countries. But the textile companies from the countries in the South-East Europe (among which is the Republic of Macedonia could play the role of a bridge between the modern textile brands and the niche producers in MiddleandFar East.

  20. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  1. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    shows the dense microstructure and moderate hardness in the bcc Ta coatings . The white tetragonal beta Ta fingers were observed in the darker bcc... hard dense quality coatings . HIPIMS technology can grow coatings of zone 2 and 3 microstructure with equiaxed structure in Thorton‟s...nucleation and growth properties; 6) Coatings characterization. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electroplated high contraction chromium (HC Cr) coatings ; Physical

  2. Ultrasonic guided wave sensing characteristics of large area thin piezo coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, V. T.; Jeyaseelan, A. Antony; Dutta, Soma; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the characterization method and performance enhancement of thin piezo coating for ultrasonic guided wave sensing applications. We deposited the coatings by an in situ slurry coating method and studied their guided wave sensing properties on a one-dimensional metallic beam as a substrate waveguide. The developed piezo coatings show good sensitivity to the longitudinal and flexural modes of guided waves. Sensing voltage due to the guided waves at various different ultrasonic frequencies shows a linear dependence on the thickness of the coating. The coatings also exhibit linear sensor output voltage with respect to the induced dynamic strain magnitude. Diameter/size of the piezo coatings strongly influences the voltage response in relation to the wavelength. The proposed method used a characterization set-up involving coated sensors, reference transducers and an analytical model to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient of the piezo coating. The method eliminates the size dependent effect on the piezo property accurately and gives further insight to design better sensors/filters with respect to frequency/wavelength of interest. The developed coatings will have interesting applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) and internet of things (IOT).

  3. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  4. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  5. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites....... A range of coating processesased on the formation of HT surface layers has been developed to examine its effect on the coating's thicknessnd corrosion resistance properties. These varieties include pre-coating cleaning (grid blasting vs. chemicaltching), metal species in HT compounds (Al-Zn HT coating vs....... Al-Li HT coating), oxidizer additives (K2S2O8,a2SO4, NH4NO3, KNO3), and post-coating treatment (Mg(CH3COO)2, Mg(CH3COO)2+Ce(NO3)3+H2O2, MgCH3COO)2+La(NO3)3). Results showed that grid blasting can increase the coating surface area, while chemical etching improves the chemical bonding connection...

  6. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Maeda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    A coating material composition is provided which can easily be cross-linked by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, using a mixture of a prepolymer (a) with an addition reaction product (b). Such compositions have coating properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The prepolymer (a) is produced by primarily reacting at least 0.1 mol of saturated cyclocarboxylic acid anhydrides and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acid anhydrides by addition reaction with one mol of hydroxyl radicals of a basic polymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 to 100,000, the basic polymer being obtained from 1%-40% of a hydroxyl radical containing vinyl monomer and at least 30% of (meth)acrylate monomer. One mol of the sum of hydroxyl radicals and carboxyl radicals of the primary reaction product undergoes a secondary addition reaction with at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer to form the prepolymer(a). The addition reaction product(b) is produced by reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The coating material composition contains a majority of a mixture consisting of 10%-90% of (a) and 90%-10% of (b) above by weight. Four examples of the production of basic polymers, seven examples of the production of prepolymers, seven examples of the production of oligomers, and five examples of applications are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  7. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles with different polymer coatings for photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Fan, Lu; Xu, Yanhong; Xia, Jindong

    2017-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) have attracted significant attention in view of their potential applications in biomedicine. Surface coatings or modifications are generally needed to improve the colloidal stability of Fe3O4 NPs in a physiological environment. In this study, Fe3O4 NPs in the size range of 12-15 nm coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were synthesized through a mild reduction route to investigate their potential for photothermal therapy. The polymer-coated Fe3O4 NPs dispersed well in water and formed stable colloids; the surface charges of the particles were dependent on the nature of the surface coating. The strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region enabled the coated Fe3O4 NPs to be used as agents in photothermal therapy. The photothermal conversion efficiency of PEI-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PEI-Fe3O4 NPs) distinctly decreased when exposed to a cell culture medium. In addition, PEI-Fe3O4 NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular uptake efficiency when compared to PAA-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PAA-Fe3O4 NPs) and PVA-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PVA-Fe3O4 NPs). This study highlights the importance of optimizing the surface properties of Fe3O4 NPs when using them in biomedical applications and provides guidelines for the design and development of functional Fe3O4 NPs for cancer therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  10. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 4 MECHANICAL TEST Single edge notched, square-bar ( Charpy ) specimens, bare or coated, were tested under four-point bending at...Treated 4340 Steel Tested in Air NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 APPENDIX 100 150 200 250 300 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 M ax . S tr es s ( ks i...Fatigue Life, N (cycle) Bare No. 1 ST No. 3 ST Figure 10: Stress-Life Fatigue Curves for Bare and Surface-Treated 4340 Steel Tested in 3.5% NaCl

  11. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  12. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  13. Monitoring of tablet coating processes with colored coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Endpoints of coating processes for colored tablets were determined using in-line Raman spectroscopy. Coatings were performed with six commercially available formulations of pink, yellow, red, beige, green and blue color. The coatings were comprising pigments and/or dyes, some causing fluorescence and interfering the Raman signal. Using non-contact optics, a Raman probe was used as process analytical technology (PAT) tool, and acquired spectra were correlated to the sprayed mass of aqueous coating suspension. Process endpoints were determined using univariate (UV) data analysis and three multivariate analysis methods, namely Projection to Latent Structures (PLS)-regression, Science-Based Calibration (SBC) and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). The methods were compared regarding model performance parameters. The endpoints of all coating experiments could be predicted until a total coating time of 50min corresponding to coating thicknesses between 21 and 38µm, depending on the density of the coat formulation. With the exception of SBC, all calibration methods resulted in R 2 values higher than 0.9. Additionally, the methods were evaluated regarding their capability for in-line process monitoring. For each color, at least two methods were feasible to do this. Overall, PLS-regression led to best model performance parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G. [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica]|[INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce

    1996-09-01

    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  15. Characterization of mechanical properties of aluminized coatings in advanced gas turbine blades using a small punch method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Y.; Ito, M. [Chuba Electric Power Co., Nagoya (Japan). Electric Power R and D Center; Sakurai, S. [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Bloomer, T.E.; Kameda, J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Advanced Technology Development

    1997-04-01

    Advanced technologies of superalloy casting and coatings enable one to enhance the performance of combined cycle gas turbines for electric power generation by increasing the firing temperature. This paper describes examination of the microstructure/composition and mechanical properties (22--950 C) in aluminized CoCrAlY coatings of advanced gas turbine blades using scanning Auger microprobe and a small punch (SP) testing method. Aluminized coatings consisted of layered structure divided into four regimes: (1) Al enriched and Cr depleted region, (2) Al and Cr graded region, (3) fine grained microstructure with a mixture of Al and Cr enriched phases and (4) Ni/Co interdiffusion zone adjacent to the interface. SP specimens were prepared in order that the specimen surface would be located in the various coating regions. SP tests indicated strong dependence of the fracture properties on the various coatings regimes. Coatings 1 and 2 with very high microhardness showed much easier formation of brittle cracks in a wide temperature range, compared to coatings 3 and 4 although the coating 2 had ductility improvement at 950 C. The coating 3 had lower room temperature ductility than the coating 4. However, the ductility in the coating 3 exceeded that in the region 4 above 730 C due to a precipitous ductility increase. The integrity of aluminized coatings while in-service is discussed in light of the variation of the low cycle fatigue life as well as the ductility in the layered structure.

  16. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  17. Coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Yoshimuta, Hideharu.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuels used for an HTGR type reactor or the like have to sufficiently keep mechanical integrity and nuclear fission products even at a high temperature above 1300degC. In coated fuel particles having a ceramic layer as an intermediate layer, the ceramics layer is divided into a ZrC layer and a SiC layer in order to compensate the drawbacks of SiC and ZrC with each other and, in addition, ZrC layer is disposed at a position nearer to the fuel core in the present invention. With such a constitution, the ZrC layer can prevent corrosion of the SiC layer caused by Sr and Pd. Further, since ZrC is not degradated by dissociation at a temperature lower than 2850degC, high temperature stability as the coating layer can be improved. In addition, since the SiC layer which is less oxidized compared with ZrC is disposed on the side outer to the ZrC layer, oxidative-degradation of the ZrC layer can be prevented even if the outermost high density thermal decomposition carbon layer should be injured accidentally. (T.M.)

  18. Ceramic protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbach, F.; Nicoll, A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic material of the above-mentioned layer consists of pure aluminium oxide or essentially aluminium oxide. To improve this protective layer metal oxides from the groups IIA, IIIA, IIIB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIII of the periodic system are added to its basic material before the said protective coating is applied. In this way a corundum structure is formed in the case of aluminium oxide. Gallium oxide, vanadium oxide, chromium oxide or iron oxide are particularly suited for the correlation of such a corundum structure. The formation of the corundum structure increases the resistance of the protective coating to the corrosive effects of vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate. By the addition of a specific quantity of magnesium oxide it is possible not only to stimulate the formation of corundum but also to reduce the increase in grain size in the case of the aluminium oxide. The other metallic oxides are especially favorable to the formation of the corundum structure, so that preferably magnesium oxide is to be added to these metallic oxides in order to reduce the increase in grain size. (author)

  19. Cell Membrane Coating Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H; Kroll, Ashley V; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2018-03-27

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutic, prevention, and detection modalities have the potential to greatly impact how diseases are diagnosed and managed in the clinic. With the wide range of nanomaterials available, the rational design of nanocarriers on an application-specific basis has become increasingly commonplace. Here, a comprehensive overview is provided on an emerging platform: cell-membrane-coating nanotechnology. As a fundamental unit of biology, cells carry out a wide range of functions, including the remarkable ability to interface and interact with their surrounding environment. Instead of attempting to replicate such functions via synthetic techniques, researchers are now directly leveraging naturally derived cell membranes as a means of bestowing nanoparticles with enhanced biointerfacing capabilities. This top-down technique is facile, highly generalizable, and has the potential to greatly augment existing nanocarriers. Further, the introduction of a natural membrane substrate onto nanoparticles surfaces has enabled additional applications beyond those traditionally associated with nanomedicine. Despite its relative youth, there exists an impressive body of literature on cell membrane coating, which is covered here in detail. Overall, there is still significant room for development, as researchers continue to refine existing workflows while finding new and exciting applications that can take advantage of this developing technology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Superheating in coated niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, T.; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration {H}{entry} in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb3Sn or MgB2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field {H}{{c}1} up to the superheating field {H}{sh} of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb3Sn and MgB2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000 nm have been tested. {H}{entry} does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the energy barrier at the boundary between the two materials prevents flux entry up to {H}{sh} of the substrate. A mechanism consistent with these findings is that the proximity effect recovers the stability of the energy barrier for flux penetration, which is suppressed by defects for uncoated samples. Additionally, a low temperature baked Nb sample has been tested. Here a 6% increase of {H}{entry} was found, also pushing {H}{entry} beyond {H}{{c}1}.

  1. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  2. Enhanced oral bioavailability of novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan prepared by a dry powder-coating technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Liu, Yan; Xu, Wei-Juan

    2012-01-01

    ) and carbomer (CB) at different ratios. The effects of the pellet core composition, HPMC:CB ratio and coating level on the drug release from the coated pellets were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the core and coated pellets were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X...... preparations. The results of the release study demonstrated that the two types of core pellets, especially the pellets formulated with a solubilizer and a pH modulator gave considerably faster drug release than the VAL powder. However, the core and coated pellets exhibited similar release profiles indicating...... that the dry powder-coating did not retard the drug release. Strong molecular interactions were observed between the drug and the carriers in FT-IR analysis. The coated pellets displayed distinct mucoadhesive property in vitro and delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. Furthermore, the coated pellets...

  3. Preparation of Phytic Acid/Silane Hybrid Coating on Magnesium Alloy and Its Corrosion Resistance in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengwu; Cai, Shu; Shen, Sibo; Yu, Nian; Zhang, Feiyang; Ling, Rui; Li, Yue; Xu, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    In order to decrease the corrosion rate and improve the bioactivity of magnesium alloy, phytic acid/saline hybrid coatings were synthesized on AZ31 magnesium alloys by sol-gel dip-coating method. It was found that the mole ratio of phytic acid to γ-APS had a great influence on coating morphology and the corresponding corrosion resistance of the coated magnesium alloys. When the mole ratio of phytic acid to γ-APS was 1:1, the obtained hybrid coating was integral and without cracks, which was ascribed to the strong chelate capability of phytic acid and Si-O-Si network derived from silane. Electrochemical test result indicated that the corrosion resistance of the coated magnesium alloy was about 27 times larger than that of the naked counterpart. In parallel, immersion test showed that the phytic acid/silane hybrid coating could induce CaP-mineralized product deposition, which offered another protection for magnesium alloy.

  4. Morphology, Composition, and Bioactivity of Strontium-Doped Brushite Coatings Deposited on Titanium Implants via Electrochemical Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for use in dental applications. In this study, strontium-doped brushite coatings were deposited on titanium by electrochemical deposition. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy, and the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped brushite coatings were evaluated using cultured osteoblasts. Osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by the addition of strontium, suggesting a possible mechanism by which strontium incorporation in brushite coatings increased bone formation surrounding the implants. Cell growth was also strongly influenced by the composition of the deposited coatings, with a 10% Sr-doped brushite coating inducing the greatest amount of bone formation among the tested materials.

  5. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  6. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  7. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  8. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  9. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  10. Tests Conducted with Strippable Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1999-08-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of several strippable coatings and their use in decontamination. Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146 were products examined for their overall effectiveness and ease of use. Conclusions were reached about the effective use of these coatings, and field test examples, with radioactive contamination are incorporated.

  11. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...

  12. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  13. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  14. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action...... is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  15. Strong adhesion of Saos-2 cells to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Makoto; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Totsuka, Yasunori; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered potential biomedical materials because of their unique character. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of a human osteoblast-like cell line - Saos-2 - on single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). The surface of a culture dish was coated with CNTs, and Saos-2 cells were cultured for three days. Cell morphology, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, adhesion, and vinculin expression were evaluated. The result showed high cell viability and strong adhesion to MWCNTs. Saos-2 cultured on MWCNTs exhibited vinculin expression throughout the cell body, while the cells attached to SWCNTs and glass were mostly limited to their periphery. Our results suggest that CNT coatings promote cell activity and adhesiveness. These findings indicate that MWCNTs could be used as surface coating materials to promote cell adhesion.

  16. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Barrio, Alvaro Martinez

    2012-01-01

    . We found an excess of derived nonsynonymous substitutions in domestic pigs, most likely reflecting both positive selection and relaxed purifying selection after domestication. Our analysis of structural variation revealed four duplications at the KIT locus that were exclusively present in white......Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci...... that underlie phenotypic evolution in European domestic pigs. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection at three loci harboring quantitative trait loci that explain a considerable part of one of the most characteristic morphological changes in the domestic pig—the elongation of the back...

  17. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  18. Preparation and characterization of underwater superoleophobic chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings for self-cleaning and oil/water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian; Fu, Youjia; Yan, Xiaoxia; Chang, Yanjiao; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Underwater superoleophobic CS/PVA coatings were prepared using a facile method. • Immersion in NaOH solution was crucial to enhance roughness of the coating surface. • Effects of coating composition on wettability of coating surface were investigated. • The CS/PVA coatings possess self-cleaning property. • The CS/PVA coatings can be used for oil/water separation with high efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coatings cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared. Effects of the coating composition and NaOH solution treatment on surface morphology and topography were investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It was found that the process of immersing the CS/PVA coatings into NaOH solution was crucial to enhance rough structure on the coating surface. The rough surface structure and the hydrophilic groups of CS and PVA made the CS/PVA coatings possess underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oil. Oil contact angle of the prepared CS/PVA coatings was up to 161° and slide angle was only 3°. Moreover, the CS/PVA coatings showed stable superoleophobicity in high salt, strong acidic, and alkaline environments as well as underwater self-cleaning property and excellent transparency. The CS/PVA coatings could be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with high efficiency.

  19. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  20. Coating compositions and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a coating composition comprising: (1) a liquid, acrylate ester resin which is curable by exposure to ionizing radiation and which, when so curing, is susceptible to inhibition of surface curing by atmospheric oxygen; and (2) from 0.1% to 10% by weight of the composition of an acidic halide soluble in or dispersible in the resin and selected from the group consisting of: (a) compounds of the formula RCOX where R is an aliphatic or aromatic group and X is Cl or Br; (b) compounds of the formula R'SO 2 X where R' is an aromatic group and X is Cl or Br; and, (c) cyanuric chloride, calcium hypochlorite and phosphorus oxychloride. (author)

  1. On the Interplay Between Adhesion Strength and Tensile Properties of Thermal Spray Coated Laminates—Part I: High Velocity Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaotao; Smith, Gregory M.; Sampath, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Adhesion of thermal spray (TS) coatings is an important system level property in coating design and application. Adhesive-based pull testing (ASTM C633) has long been used to evaluate coating/substrate bonding. However, this approach is not always suitable for high velocity spray coatings, for example, where adhesion strengths are routinely greater than the strength of the adhesive bonding agent used in the testing. In this work, a new approach has been proposed to evaluate the adhesion of TS coatings. A systematic investigation of the effects of substrate roughness on both the uniaxial tensile yield strength and traditional bond pull adhesive strength of HVOF Ni and Ni-5wt.%Al, as well as cold-sprayed Ni-coated laminates revealed a strong correlation between these two test methodologies for the respective materials and processes. This approach allows measurement of the adhesion response even where the adhesive method is not applicable, overcoming many of the issues in the traditional ASTM C633. Analysis of cracking patterns of the coatings after 10.5% strain was used to assess the adhesion and cohesion properties. The mechanisms which determine the load transfer between the substrate and the coating are also briefly discussed.

  2. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  3. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. Electropolymerization of camphorsulfonic acid doped conductive polypyrrole anti-corrosive coating for 304SS bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Syed, Junaid Ali; Gao, Yangzhi; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lu, Hongbin; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymer coating doped with large molecular organic acid is an alternative method used to protect stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, it is difficult to select the proper doping acid, which improves the corrosion resistance of the coating without affecting its conductivity. In this study, large spatial molecular group camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped polypyrrole (PPY) conductive coating was prepared by galvanostatic electropolymerization on 304SS. The electrochemical properties of the coating were evaluated in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution in order to simulate the PEMFC service environment. The results indicate that the coating increased the corrosion potential and shifted Ecorr towards more positive value, particularly the jcorr value of PPY-CSA coated 304SS was dropped from 97.3 to 0.00187 μA cm-2. The long-term immersion tests (660 h) show that the PPY-CSA coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in comparison with the small acid (SO42-) doped PPY-SO42- or PPY/PPY-SO42- coatings. Moreover, the PPY-CSA coating presents low contact resistance and maintains strong corrosion resistance during the prolonged exposure time due to barrier effect and anodic protection.

  5. Coating of reverse osmosis membranes with amphiphilic copolymers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2017-05-30

    Surface coating of membranes may be a promising option to control biofilm development and biofouling impact on membrane performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an amphiphilic copolymer coating on biofilm formation and biofouling control. The coating was composed of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFA), respectively. Commercial RO membranes were coated with HEMA-PFA copolymer film. Long and short term biofouling studies with coated and uncoated membranes and feed spacer were performed using membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) operated in parallel, fed with water containing nutrients. For the long-term studies pressure drop development in time was monitored and after eight days the MFSs were opened and the accumulated biofilm on the membrane and spacer sheets was quantified and characterized. The presence of the membrane coating was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed that the amphiphilic coating (i) delayed biofouling (a lower pressure drop increase by a factor of 3 and a lower accumulated active biomass amount by a factor of 6), (ii) influenced the biofilm composition (23% lower polysaccharides and 132% higher protein content) and (iii) was still completely present on the membrane at the end of the biofouling study, showing that the coating was strongly attached to the membrane surface. Using coated membranes and feed spacers in combination with advanced cleaning strategies may be a suitable way to control biofouling.

  6. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved performance thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.R.; Miller, R.A.; Stecura, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings offer an attractive approach to improving the durability and efficiency of the hot section of heat engines. The coatings typically consist of an inner alloy bond coating about 0.01 cm thick resistant to oxidation and hot corrosion and an outer ceramic layer, usually a stabilized zirconia, 0.01-0.05 cm thick. Here, the materials, thermomechanical stress, and hot corrosion problems associated with thermal barrier coatings are reviewed along with the capabilities and limitations of current technology. The coatings discussed include ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY, ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCoCrAlY, ZrO2-MgO/NiCoCrAlY, CaO-SiO2/Co-Cr-Al-Y, and CaO-SiO2/NiCrAlY systems. It is emphasized that the performance of thermal barrier coatings is governed by many complex and interrelated factors, so that optimization of these coatings always involves certain tradeoffs. 27 references

  8. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  9. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  10. Antibacterial property of fabrics coated by magnesium-based brucites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Sha, Lin; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn; Wang, Ninghui

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium-based antibacterial agents composited by brucites with different particle sizes were proposed for the first time. • The coating process for making antibacterial fabrics was easy to operate and apply in industrial application. • The materials used in the antibacterial fabrics were environmental-friendly and cost-effective. • Reduction percentage of as-prepared antibacterial fabrics against E. coli and S. aureus reached to 96.6%, 100% respectively. • The antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability. - Abstract: A kind of environmental-friendly magnesium-based antibacterial agent was reported for the first time, which was composited by brucites with different particle sizes. The antibacterial fabrics were produced by coating the magnesium-based antibacterial agents on the 260T polyester pongee fabrics with waterborne polyurethane. The coating process was simple, low-cost, and harmless to human health and environment. Characteristics of the antibacterial agents and fabrics were studied by particulate size distribution analyzer (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the coating layer was covered tightly on the fabrics and compositing of different particles by a certain proportion made full filling of the coating layer. Meanwhile, compositing did not change the structure of brucites. The antibacterial fabrics presented strong antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with the reduction percentage of 96.6% and 100%, respectively, and the antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability.

  11. A modelling approach to designing microstructures in thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Nylen, P.; Wigren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermomechanical properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are strongly influenced by coating defects, such as delaminations and pores, thus making it essential to have a fundamental understanding of microstructure-property relationships in TBCs to produce a desired coating. Object-Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has been shown previously as an effective tool for evaluating thermal and mechanical material behaviour, as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent material microstructure as input to the model. In this work, OOF was used to predict the thermal conductivity and effective Young's modulus of TBC topcoats. A Design of Experiments (DoE) was conducted by varying selected parameters for spraying Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) topcoat. The microstructure was assessed with SEM, and image analysis was used to characterize the porosity content. The relationships between microstructural features and properties predicted by modelling are discussed. The microstructural features having the most beneficial effect on properties were sprayed with a different spray gun so as to verify the results obtained from modelling. Characterisation of the coatings included microstructure evaluation, thermal conductivity and lifetime measurements. The modelling approach in combination with experiments undertaken in this study was shown to be an effective way to achieve coatings with optimised thermo-mechanical properties.

  12. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Superhydrophobic Coating for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Chen, Zhonghua; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-03-28

    Superhydrophobic materials integrating stretchability with conductivity have huge potential in the emerging application horizons such as wearable electronic sensors, flexible power storage apparatus, and corrosion-resistant circuits. Herein, a facile spraying method is reported to fabricate a durable superhydrophobic coating with excellent stretchable and electrical performance by combing 1-octadecanethiol-modified silver nanoparticles (M-AgNPs) with polystyrene- b-poly(ethylene- co-butylene)- b-polystyrene (SEBS) on a prestretched natural rubber (NR) substrate. The embedding of M-AgNPs in elastic SEBS matrix and relaxation of prestretched NR substrate construct hierarchical rough architecture and endow the coating with dense charge-transport pathways. The fabricated coating exhibits superhydrophobicity with water contact angle larger than 160° and a high conductivity with resistance of about 10 Ω. The coating not only maintains superhydrophobicity at low/high stretch ratio for the newly generated small/large protuberances but also responds to stretching and bending with good sensitivity, broad sensing range, and stable response cycles. Moreover, the coating exhibits excellent durability to heat and strong acid/alkali and mechanical forces including droplet impact, kneading, torsion, and repetitive stretching-relaxation. The findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate multifunctional superhydrophobic materials with excellent stretchability and conductivity for flexible electronics under wet or corrosive environments.

  13. Antibacterial property of fabrics coated by magnesium-based brucites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Sha, Lin; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Yimin; Wang, Ninghui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium-based antibacterial agents composited by brucites with different particle sizes were proposed for the first time. • The coating process for making antibacterial fabrics was easy to operate and apply in industrial application. • The materials used in the antibacterial fabrics were environmental-friendly and cost-effective. • Reduction percentage of as-prepared antibacterial fabrics against E. coli and S. aureus reached to 96.6%, 100% respectively. • The antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability. - Abstract: A kind of environmental-friendly magnesium-based antibacterial agent was reported for the first time, which was composited by brucites with different particle sizes. The antibacterial fabrics were produced by coating the magnesium-based antibacterial agents on the 260T polyester pongee fabrics with waterborne polyurethane. The coating process was simple, low-cost, and harmless to human health and environment. Characteristics of the antibacterial agents and fabrics were studied by particulate size distribution analyzer (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the coating layer was covered tightly on the fabrics and compositing of different particles by a certain proportion made full filling of the coating layer. Meanwhile, compositing did not change the structure of brucites. The antibacterial fabrics presented strong antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with the reduction percentage of 96.6% and 100%, respectively, and the antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability.

  14. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  15. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts in the ceramic industry: the case of ceramic coatings segment; A eficiencia energetica e os impactos na industria ceramica: o caso do segmento de revestimentos ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@yahoo.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian ceramic industry has great importance for the country, with a stake of more than 1.0% of GDP, or approximately $ 6 billion. The segment of ceramic coatings due to the higher revenues, production, employment, value of manufacturing and penetration in foreign markets, has been the highlight of the ceramic sector. Besides most representative in economic terms, the ceramic coatings segment presents with the largest final energy consumption and volume of emissions. This work shows the evolution of the final energy consumption of the ceramic sector, showing that the segment of ceramic coatings can be successful harnessing of potential energy conservation with reflections on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the study evaluates: the process and energy sources; reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of products and the management actions providing a new corporate culture and social and environmental responsibility.

  16. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme, E-mail: MTlotleng@csir.co.za [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Akinlabi, Esther [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Shukla, Mukul [Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad, UP 211004 (India); Pityana, Sisa [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti–6Al–4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic–ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications. - Highlights: • Characteristics of HAP coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V achieved with direct laser melting are reported. • Optimal process parameters necessary to achieve biocompatible coating are reported. • The SEM micrograph of the soaked HAP coating revealed partially melted crystals of HAP. • The HAP coating was retained at the surface of

  17. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  18. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  19. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  20. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.