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Sample records for strong familial aggregation

  1. Familial Aggregation of Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; Morin, Charles M; Rochefort, Amélie; Ivers, Hans; Dauvilliers, Yves A; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Merette, Chantal

    2017-02-01

    There is little information about familial aggregation of insomnia; however, this type of information is important to (1) improve our understanding of insomnia risk factors and (2) to design more effective treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to investigate evidence of familial aggregation of insomnia among first-degree relatives of probands with and without insomnia. Cases (n = 134) and controls (n = 145) enrolled in a larger epidemiological study were solicited to invite their first-degree relatives and spouses to complete a standardized sleep/insomnia survey. In total, 371 first-degree relatives (Mage = 51.9 years, SD = 18.0; 34.3% male) and 138 spouses (Mage = 55.5 years, SD = 12.2; 68.1% male) completed the survey assessing the nature, severity, and frequency of sleep disturbances. The dependent variable was insomnia in first-degree relatives and spouses. Familial aggregation was claimed if the risk of insomnia was significantly higher in the exposed (relatives of cases) compared to the unexposed cohort (relatives of controls). The risk of insomnia was also compared between spouses in the exposed (spouses of cases) and unexposed cohort (spouses of controls). The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed biological relatives was 18.6% and 10.4%, respectively, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.80 (p = .04) after controlling for age and sex. The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed spouses was 9.1% and 4.2%, respectively; however, corresponding RR of 2.13 (p = .28) did not differ significantly. Results demonstrate evidence of strong familial aggregation of insomnia. Additional research is warranted to further clarify and disentangle the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in insomnia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Unto the third generation: evidence for strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists among first-year medical and psychology students in a nationwide Austrian cohort census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Berger, Nina; Arendasy, Martin E; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Monika; Hutzler, Florian; Kraft, Hans-Georg; Oettl, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Vitouch, Oliver; Voracek, Martin

    2017-05-03

    Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a familial aggregation of the medical, as well as of the psychological and psychotherapeutic, professions among medical and psychology undergraduates alike. Here, we extend prior related studies by examining (1) the extent to which familial aggregation effects apply to the whole nation-wide student census of all relevant (eight) public universities in Austria; (2) whether effects are comparable for medical and psychology students; (3) and whether these effects generalize to relatives of three interrelated health professions (medicine, psychology, and psychotherapy). We investigated the familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists, based on an entire cohort census of first-year medical and psychology students (n = 881 and 920) in Austria with generalized linear mixed models. For both disciplines, we found strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists. As compared with previous results, directionally opposite time trends within disciplines emerged: familial aggregation of physicians among medical students has decreased, whilst familial aggregation of psychologists among psychology students has increased. Further, there were sex-of-relative effects (i.e., more male than female physician relatives), but no substantial sex-of-student effects (i.e., male and female students overall reported similar numbers of relatives for all three professions of interest). In addition, there were age-benefit effects, i.e., students with a relative in the medical or the psychotherapeutic profession were younger than students without, thus suggesting earlier career decisions. The familial

  3. Familial aggregation of cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simao Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest a strong familial aggregation for cluster headache (CH, but so far none of them have included subjects with probable cluster headache (PCH in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Objective To identify cases of probable cluster headache and to assess the familial aggregation of cluster headache by including these subjects. Method Thirty-six patients attending a headache consultation and diagnosed with trigeminal autonomic headaches were subjected to a questionnaire-based interview. A telephone interview was also applied to all the relatives who were pointed out as possibly affected as well as to some of the remaining relatives. Results Twenty-four probands fulfilled the criteria for CH or PCH; they had 142 first-degree relatives, of whom five were found to have CH or PCH, including one case of CH sine headache. The risk for first-degree relatives was observed to be increased by 35- to 46-fold. Conclusion Our results suggest a familial aggregation of cluster headache in the Portuguese population.

  4. Unto the third generation: evidence for strong familial aggregation of physicians, psychologists, and psychotherapists among first-year medical and psychology students in a nationwide Austrian cohort census

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Berger, Nina; Arendasy, Martin E.; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Monika; Hutzler, Florian; Kraft, Hans-Georg; Oettl, Karl; Papousek, Ilona; Vitouch, Oliver; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical students present higher numbers of physician relatives than expectable from the total population prevalence of physicians. Evidence for such a familial aggregation effect of physicians has emerged in investigations from the Anglo-American, Scandinavian, and German-speaking areas. In particular, past data from Austria suggest a familial aggregation of the medical, as well as of the psychological and psychotherapeutic, professions among medical and psychology undergraduates a...

  5. Familial Aggregation of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafeng; Cantor, Rita M.; Macgibbon, Kimber; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, Thomas M.; Mullin, Patrick; Fejzo, Marlena S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to determine whether there is familial aggregation of Hyperemesis Gravidarum making it a disease amenable to genetic study. Study Design Cases with severe nausea and vomiting in a singleton pregnancy treated with intravenous hydration and unaffected friend controls completed a survey regarding family history. Results Sisters of women with Hyperemesis Gravidarum have a significantly increased risk of having Hyperemesis Gravidarum themselves (OR=17.3, p=0.005). Cases have a significantly increased risk of having a mother with severe nausea and vomiting; 33% of cases reported an affected mother compared to 7.7% of controls (pHyperemesis Gravidarum. This study provides strong evidence for a genetic component to hyperemesis gravidarum. Identification of the predisposing gene(s) may determine the cause of this poorly understood disease of pregnancy. PMID:20974461

  6. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest

  7. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  8. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  9. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic...... and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280...

  10. The familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen R; Li, Julan Julia; Stipelman, Brooke; Yu, Kelly; Fucito, Lisa; Swendsen, Joel; Zhang, Heping

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the familial aggregation of cannabis use disorders and other psychiatric conditions among first-degree relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder. Controlled family study methods. Out-patient psychiatric clinics and the local community (same geographic area). Two hundred and sixty-two probands with a life-time history of cannabis use disorder, alcohol dependence, anxiety disorders or no history of any disorder, and their first-degree relatives and spouses. Cannabis use disorders and other DSM-III-R disorders in the relatives and spouses using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results reveal an elevated risk of life-time history of cannabis use disorders among siblings [odds ratio (OR: 3.6), adult offspring (OR): 6.9], and spouses (OR: 4.4) of probands with cannabis use disorders. There is a latent familial factor underlying cannabis use disorders that was shared partially with alcohol abuse/dependence. Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders aggregated independently from cannabis use disorders in families. Equal elevation in the magnitude of the association among the first-degree adult relatives and spouses of probands with a cannabis use disorder suggests the probable contribution of both environmental and genetic factors. These findings support a family-based approach to drug abuse intervention and the importance of future research concerning environmental mediators of familial transmission of drug abuse.

  11. [Family reunification and family formation migration strongly decreased].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, A H

    1995-06-01

    "Statistics on international migration in the Netherlands do not make a distinction by reason of migration, e.g. family reunification and family formation. Because of the need for information on these types of migration, estimates were made based on demographic characteristics. The estimates show that the number of family reunionists was stable between 1987 and 1991....Recently, the Dutch policy on immigration has become more restrictive. Although information with respect to more recent years is largely lacking, tentative estimates suggest that the 1994 number of family reunionists and family forming immigrants combined has shown a strong decrease compared to 1991." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. Like Father, like Son? Familial Aggregation of Physicians among Medical and Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Formann, Anton K.; Springer-Kremser, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Various research findings, mostly from Anglo-American countries, evidence the medical profession to be strongly familial and further suggest that a medical family background may be associated with study success in medical undergraduates. This study explored the familial aggregation of the medical profession among 1-year cohort samples of medical…

  13. Modelling of strongly coupled particle growth and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruy, F; Touboul, E

    2013-01-01

    The mathematical modelling of the dynamics of particle suspension is based on the population balance equation (PBE). PBE is an integro-differential equation for the population density that is a function of time t, space coordinates and internal parameters. Usually, the particle is characterized by a unique parameter, e.g. the matter volume v. PBE consists of several terms: for instance, the growth rate and the aggregation rate. So, the growth rate is a function of v and t. In classical modelling, the growth and the aggregation are independently considered, i.e. they are not coupled. However, current applications occur where the growth and the aggregation are coupled, i.e. the change of the particle volume with time is depending on its initial value v 0 , that in turn is related to an aggregation event. As a consequence, the dynamics of the suspension does not obey the classical Von Smoluchowski equation. This paper revisits this problem by proposing a new modelling by using a bivariate PBE (with two internal variables: v and v 0 ) and by solving the PBE by means of a numerical method and Monte Carlo simulations. This is applied to a physicochemical system with a simple growth law and a constant aggregation kernel.

  14. Familial aggregation patterns in mathematical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Ellen M; Robinson, Nancy M; Ainsworth, Kathryn H; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Holzman, Ted; Raskind, Wendy H

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical talent is an asset in modern society both at an individual and a societal level. Environmental factors such as quality of mathematics education undoubtedly affect an individual's performance, and there is some evidence that genetic factors also may play a role. The current study was performed to investigate the feasibility of undertaking genetics studies on mathematical ability. Because the etiology of low ability in mathematics is likely to be multifactorial and heterogeneous, we evaluated families ascertained through a proband with high mathematical performance in grade 7 on the SAT to eliminate, to some degree, adverse environmental factors. Families of sex-matched probands, selected for high verbal performance on the SAT, served as the comparison group. We evaluated a number of proxy measures for their usefulness in the study of clustering of mathematical talent. Given the difficulty of testing mathematics performance across developmental ages, especially with the added complexity of decreasing exposure to formal mathematics concepts post schooling, we also devised a semiquantitative scale that incorporated educational, occupational, and avocational information as a surrogate for an academic mathematics measure. Whereas several proxy measures showed no evidence of a genetic basis, we found that the semiquantitative scale of mathematical talent showed strong evidence of a genetic basis, with a differential response as a function of the performance measure used to select the proband. This observation suggests that there may be a genetic basis to specific mathematical talent, and that specific, as opposed to proxy, investigative measures that are designed to measure such talent in family members could be of benefit for this purpose.

  15. Familial Aggregation of the Cerebellar Signs in Familial Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D.; Hernandez, Nora; Chen, Karen P.; Naranjo, Kelly V.; Park, Jemin; Clark, Lorraine N.; Ottman, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the hallmark feature of essential tremor (ET) is kinetic tremor, patients may exhibit additional motor features (e.g., intention tremor and mild gait ataxia) that are markers of an underlying abnormality of cerebellar function. ET is also a highly familial disorder, but we do not know whether the presence and expression of cerebellar signs are similar across family members. There are simply no published data. The alternative possibility is that these features are not heritable. We tested the specific hypothesis that the presence of cerebellar signs (i.e., intention tremor, tandem gait difficulty) ran in ET families. Methods ET probands and relatives enrolled in a genetic study at Yale and Columbia universities underwent a detailed videotaped neurological examination. Results There were 187 enrollees (59 probands, 128 affected relatives). In a bivariate logistic regression model, the presence of intention tremor in the proband was not a predictor of the presence of intention tremor in the relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28–1.27, p = 0.18). In a similar model, the presence of greater tandem gait difficulty (i.e., a tandem gait score in the upper quartile) in the proband was not a predictor of the presence of such difficulty in the relatives (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.41–3.66, p = 0.73). Discussion The presence of cerebellar signs did not aggregate in families with ET. In the current dataset, these did not seem to be disease features that were heritable. PMID:28176975

  16. Superfast Set, Strong and Less Degradable Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alqedairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite the good sealing ability and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, its slow setting, high degradation, and weakness limit its use in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas. This study aimed to develop two new liquids to control these drawbacks. They were prepared from calcium chloride, fumed silica, and hydroxyapatite or calcium phosphate and coded “H” and “P,” respectively. Methods. Portland cement, Grey ProRoot® MTA, and white ProRoot MTA were mixed with distilled water (control or liquid “H” or “P.” The pH, setting time, degradation rate, leachant/precipitate’ composition, compressive strength, and morphology were assessed. Results. Both liquids maintained MTA’s high alkalinity and reduced the setting time by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Both liquids, H in particular, significantly reduced the degradation rate of Grey ProRoot and White ProRoot MTA®. Calcite has been identified as the main phase of the leachant or precipitate formed during the cement’s degradation. Calcium hydroxide or hydroxyapatite was also identified with Grey ProRoot MTA mixed with H liquid. These liquids also significantly increased the compressive strength with no statistical differences between them; this was associated with the production of dense, consolidated structures. Conclusions. The modified MTA could be used in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas.

  17. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  18. The familial aggregation of atopic diseases and depression or anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Lundholm, Cecilia; Gong, Tong; Larsson, Henrik; Almqvist, Catarina

    2018-03-07

    Children with asthma and atopic diseases have an increased risk of depression or anxiety. Each of these diseases have strong genetic and environmental components, therefore it seems likely that there is a shared liability rather than causative risk. To investigate the existence and nature of familial aggregation for the comorbidity of atopic diseases and depression or anxiety. Participants came from the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS), n= 14197. Current and ever asthma, eczema, hayfever and food-allergy were reported by parents. Internalizing disorders were identified using validated questionnaires. Familial co-aggregation analysis compared monozygotic MZ twins and same-sex dizygotic DZ twins for atopic disease in one twin with internalizing disorder in the other to test for genetic liability. Several familial liability candidates were also tested including parental education, recent maternal psychological stress, childhood family trauma and parental country of birth. Familial co-aggregation analysis found that if one twin had at least one current atopic disease the partner twin was at risk of having an internalizing disorder regardless of their own atopic status (Adjusted OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.08, 1.37). Similar results were found for each atopic disease ever and current. MZ associations were not higher than DZ associations suggesting that the liability is not genetic in nature. Including other familial candidates to the models made little difference to effect estimates. Atopic diseases and depression or anxiety tend to occur together in families, therefore when treating for one disease the physician should consider comorbidity in both the individual and the individual's siblings. We did not find evidence to support a genetic explanation for comorbidity and further exploration is needed to disentangle the environmental and epigenetic reasons for familial aggregation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  19. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  20. Familial aggregation of congenital hydrocephalus in a nationwide cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Nørgaard; Rostgaard, Klaus; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate familial aggregation of primary congenital hydrocephalus in an unselected, nationwide population. Based on the Danish Central Person Register, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008 and their family members (up to third......-degree relatives). Information on primary congenital hydrocephalus was obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register. Using binomial log-linear regression, we estimated recurrence risk ratios of congenital hydrocephalus. An alternative log-linear regression model was applied to quantify the genetic effect...... and the maternal effect. Of 1 928 683 live-born children, 2194 had a diagnosis of idiopathic congenital hydrocephalus (1.1/1000). Of those, 75 (3.4%) had at least one other family member with primary congenital hydrocephalus. Significantly increased recurrence risk ratios of primary congenital hydrocephalus were...

  1. Familial Aggregation of Panic Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pontone, Gregory M.; Palanci, Justin; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald; Rabins, Peter V.; Williams, James R.; Marsh, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Panic disorder has an elevated prevalence in Parkinson’s disease (PD). To explore the basis for this co-occurrence, the familial aggregation of panic disorder was examined in patients with PD. Probands and relatives of patients with PD and panic disorder (PD-PANIC; N=20, N=115) and control probands with PD and no active psychiatric illness (PD-NA; N=17, N=108) were interviewed by phone, using a structured interview to determine panic status. Lifetime prevalence of panic and “panic-like” disor...

  2. Familial Aggregation of Tobacco Use Behaviors Among Amish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million-Mrkva, Amber; Backman, Joshua; Stephens, Sarah H.; Reed, Robert M.; Kochunov, Peter; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a complex behavior. The Old Order Amish community offers unique advantages for the study of tobacco use because of homogenous ancestral background, sociocultural similarity, sex-specific social norms regarding tobacco use, and large family size. Tobacco use in the Old Order Amish community is almost exclusively confined to males. Methods: We examined characteristics of tobacco use and familial aggregation among 1,216 Amish males from cross-sectional prospectively collected data. Outcomes examined included ever using tobacco regularly, current use, quantity of use, duration of use, and frequency of use. Results: Sixteen percent of Amish men were current tobacco users, with the majority reporting cigar use only. Higher rates of tobacco use were found among sons of fathers who smoked compared with sons of fathers who did not smoke (46% vs. 22%, p < .001) as well as among brothers of index cases who smoked compared with brothers of index cases who did not smoke (61% vs. 29%, p < .001). After controlling for shared household effects and age, heritability accounted for 66% of the variance in ever smoking regularly (p = .045). Conclusions: The familial patterns of tobacco use observed among Amish men highlight the important role of family in propagating tobacco use and support the usefulness of this population for future genetic studies of nicotine addiction. PMID:24583363

  3. Strong coupling in porphyrin J-aggregate excitons and plasmons in nano-void arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdele, Stefano; Jose, Bincy; Foster, Robert; Keyes, Tia E.; Rice, James H.

    2017-10-01

    Active plasmonic nano-void arrays made through colloidal lithography (a cost effective and rapid process) potentially offers opportunities for scalable device design. In this work we demonstrate strong coupling between Bragg-like quadrupole surface plasmon modes in nano-void substrate designs with Frankel excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer though angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of new hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 120 meV.

  4. Chronic periodontitis with familial aggregation and discordant identical twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Christina Grech

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is an advancement of gingivitis that involves progressive attachment loss, pocketing, and bone loss around the teeth.  It has been linked to both genetic and environmental factors, making it a multifactorial disease.  This case examines a family of eight siblings with a 50% prevalence of chronic periodontitis. A strong genetic influence is not likely, since one identical twin in this family has chronic periodontitis, while the other twin is unaffected.  Environmental risk factors, including smoking, emotional stress, and poor oral hygiene, are present in all affected individuals, thus appearing to play a significant role in the development of periodontitis in this family.  It is important for a dentist to understand the etiology of the family’s chronic periodontitis in order to provide proper treatment and management of risk factors so that good oral health can be maintained.

  5. Family aggregation study for breast cancer in Cienfuegos province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa Aguila, Leydi Maria; Marcheco Teruel, Beatriz; Ocanna Gil, Maria Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death in developed countries and it is the second cause of female mortality for malignant tumor in Cuba. We conducted an observational, analytic, transversal study of cases and controls for the purpose of evaluating the clinical, epidemiologic and genealogical behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province, in a period of 6 years. The universe of the study was made up of 304 women distributed in 152 cases and 152 controls; they were surveyed after they gave their informed consent. Collected data were processed by means of methods of inferential statistics. It was observed that most of the cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 to 59 years, with 24.34%, the most frequent type was infiltrating duct carcinoma, with 43.42%. We found statistical association with the personal history of benign breast pathology and the family history of cancer of any type. Presence of familial aggregation was observed for breast cancer in the first-degree relatives and the non-genetic risk factors; they did not show significant association with the occurrence of the disease in the studied population

  6. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. RESULTS: SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders...... replicated in the two major subgroups of pure alcohol or multiple substance use disorders. DISCUSSION: These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide additional evidence for the strong family aggregation and further risk factors in SUD. The pattern of risk factors is largely the same...

  7. Familial aggregation in blood pressure and body composition in portuguese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério César Fermino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to verify the indirect presence of vertical transmission of genetic factors between parents and children in blood pressure (BP and body composition (BC, and (2 identify the infl uence of genetic factors in the variability of BP and BC. Sample size comprises 367 subjects (164 parents: 41±4.6 years old and 203 children of 13.2±3 years old from 107 nuclear families participating in the project “FAMÍLIAS ACTIVAS”; they proceed from different regions of North of Portugal (36 from Vouzela, 36 from Esposende, 25 from Vila Nova de Paiva and 10 from Vila Nova de Famalicão. BP was measured with an automatic digital device, Omron® model M6 (HEM-7001-E. BC phenotypes were assessed with a bioelectric impedance device from Tanita® model BC-418 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan. PEDSTATS was used to verify the structure of each family and to analyze the generic behavior of the variables in family members. FCOR and ASSOC modules, from Genetic Epidemiology S.A.G.E. 5.3 software, were use to calculate correlations (r and the heritability (h2 of different phenotypes. Signifi cant level was set at 0.05. Main results evidenced an important familial aggregation between family members for systolic BP (SBP (0.01≤ r ≤0.35, and diastolic BP (DBP (0.24≤ r ≤0.50 the same occurred for BC phenotypes (-0.15≤ r ≤0.65. Genetic factors contributed to 43% of the SBP and 49% of DBP variation; the same occurred for BC phenotypes ranging from 35 to 46% of the total variation. The conclusions were that (1 a strong familial aggregation exists in the BP and the BC in this sample of portuguese nuclear families and that (2 genetic factors play important role in these phenotypes.ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi (1 verifi car a presença indireta de transmissão vertical de fatores genéticos entre progenitores e descendentes na pressão arterial (PA e na composição corporal (CC, e (2 estimar a contribuição dos fatores genéticos que s

  8. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  9. Familial risk of systemic sclerosis and co-aggregation of autoimmune diseases in affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Luo, Shue-Fen; Yu, Kuang-Hui; See, Lai-Chu; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2016-10-12

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and devastating disease affecting skin and internal organs. Familial aggregation of SSc and co-aggregation with other autoimmune diseases is rarely reported. We identified 23,658,577 beneficiaries registered with the National Health Insurance database in 2010, 1891 of whom had SSc. We identified 21,009,551 parent-child relationships and 17,168,340 full sibling pairs. The familial risks of SSc and other autoimmune diseases and familial transmission were estimated. The prevalence of SSc in the general population was 0.008 %. There are 3801 individuals had at least one first-degree relative with SSc, among them 3 people had SSc which was equivalent to a prevalence of 0.08 %. The adjusted relative risk (RR) (95 % CI) for SSc was 81.21 (11.40-579.72) for siblings of SSc patients. The familial transmission (genetic plus shared environmental contribution to total phenotypic variance of SSc) was 0.72. However, 84.1 % of patients were expected to be sporadic cases. The RR (95 % CI) in first-degree relatives of SSc patients was 2.64 (1.46-4.75) for rheumatoid arthritis, 6.51 (4.05-10.46) for systemic lupus erythematosus, 2.77 (1.04-7.35) for Sjögren's syndrome, 8.05 (2.03-31.92) for idiopathic inflammatory myositis, and 1.52 (1.15-2.01) for psoriasis. The risks of SSc and other autoimmune diseases are increased in relatives of people with SSc, and family factors explain over two-thirds of the phenotypic variance of the disease. These findings may be useful in counselling families of patients with SSc and for further genetic studies.

  10. Family Aggregation and Heritability of ESRD in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin Hsu; Kuo, Chang Fu; Li, I Jung; Weng, Cheng Hao; Lee, Cheng Chia; Tu, Kun Hua; Liu, Shou Hsuan; Chen, Yung Chang; Yang, Chih Wei; Luo, Shue Fen; See, Lai Chu; Yu, Kuang Hui; Huang, Lu Hsiang; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael; Tian, Ya Chung

    2017-11-01

    Aggregation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been observed in families of European origin, as well as those of African origin. However, it is not well documented if this disease aggregates in Asian families. Furthermore, the contribution of genetic factors and shared environmental factors to family aggregation remains unclear. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. All 23,422,955 individuals registered in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2013. Among these, 47.45%, 57.45%, 47.29%, and 1.51% had a known parent, child, sibling, or twin, respectively. We identified 87,849 patients who had a diagnosis of ESRD. Family history of ESRD. ESRD and heritability defined as the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to genetic factors. Having an affected first-degree relative with ESRD was associated with an adjusted relative risk of 2.46 (95% CI, 2.32-2.62). Relative risks were 96.38 (95% CI, 48.3-192.34) for twins of patients with ESRD, 2.15 (95% CI, 2.02-2.29) for parents, 2.78 (95% CI, 2.53-3.05) for offspring, 4.96 (95% CI, 4.19-5.88) for siblings, and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.54-1.78) for spouses without genetic similarities. Heritability in this study was 31.1% to 11.4% for shared environmental factors and 57.5% for nonshared environmental factors. This was a registry database study and we did not have detailed information about clinical findings or the definite causes of ESRD. This whole population-based family study in Asia confirmed, in a Taiwanese population, that a family history of ESRD is a strong risk factor for this disease. Moderate heritability was noted and environmental factors were related to disease. Family history of ESRD is an important piece of clinical information. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Familial aggregation of tonsillectomy in early childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bager P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bager, Giulia Corn, Jan Wohlfahrt, Heather A Boyd, Bjarke Feenstra, Mads Melbye Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: The tonsils are immunological gatekeepers against pathogens. Immunological response to tonsillitis may vary clinically from no enlargement of the tonsils to nearly obstructive conditions. In this investigation, we studied the familial aggregation of tonsillectomy, as an indicator of the extent to which tonsillar immune responses to infections might be genetically controlled. Methods: Data on kinship relations and vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System were used to establish a cohort of Danes with relatives born since 1977. Tonsillectomies in all hospitals and clinics from 1977 to 2013 were identified in national registers together with the indication for tonsillectomy. Rate ratios (RRs for tonsillectomy >1 year after tonsillectomy in specific types of relatives (first to fourth degree were estimated in Poisson regression models with adjustment for calendar period, sex, age, and total number of specified relatives. Results: A cohort of 2.4 million persons was followed for 44,100,697 million person-years (mean 18.4 years/person, and included 148,190 tonsillectomies. RRs of tonsillectomy were consistently higher when the relatedness and the number of tonsillectomized relatives were higher. RRs were similar in boys and girls, but were larger in early childhood. Additional analyses suggested that this relatively higher RR at younger ages was due to a larger influence of shared environment at younger ages, whereas the genetic influence was similar at all ages. Results were similar for tonsillectomies performed strictly due to tonsillitis. Conclusions: Genetic factors appear to predispose to severe tonsillitis underlying tonsillectomies, regardless of age and sex. Further studies are needed to understand how genes regulate the tonsils’ immune response

  12. Yielding in a strongly aggregated colloidal gel: 2D simulations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saikat; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the micro-structural details and the mechanical response under uniaxial compression of the strongly aggregating gel starting from low to high packing fraction.The numerical simulations account for short-range inter-particle attractions, normal and tangential deformation at particle contacts,sliding and rolling friction, and preparation history. It is observed that in the absence of rolling resistance(RR),the average coordination number varies only slightly with compaction whereas it is significant in the presence of RR. The particle contact distribution is isotropic throughout the consolidation process. In both cases, the yield strain is constant with the volume fraction. The modulus values are very similar at different attraction, and with and without RR implying that the elastic modulus does not scale with attraction.The modulus was found to be a weak function of the preparation history. The increase in yield stress with volume fraction is a consequence of the increased elastic modulus of the network. However, the yield stress scales similarly both with and without RR. The power law exponent of 5.4 is in good agreement with previous simulation results. A micromechanical theory is also proposed to describe the stress versus strain relation for the gelled network.

  13. Familial aggregation of intracranial aneurysms in an Inuit patient population in Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Lars; Eskesen, Vagn; Gjerris, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm (IA) has been reported to be higher in Greenlandic Inuits than in Caucasian Danes, but the rate of familial aggregation in Inuits is unknown....

  14. Heritability and familial aggregation of refractive error in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Jon A; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-09-01

    To determine the heritability of refractive error and familial aggregation of myopia and hyperopia in an elderly Old Order Amish (OOA) population. Nine hundred sixty-seven siblings (mean age, 64.2 years) in 269 families were recruited for the Amish Eye Study in the Lancaster County area of Pennsylvania. Refractive error was determined by noncycloplegic manifest refraction. Heritability of refractive error was estimated with multivariate linear regression as twice the residual sibling-sibling correlation after adjustment for age and gender. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the sibling recurrence odds ratio (OR(s)). Myopia and hyperopia were defined with five different thresholds. The age- and gender-adjusted heritability of refractive error was 70% (95% CI: 48%-92%) in the OOA. Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and sibling recurrence risk (lambda(s)), with different thresholds defining myopia ranged from 3.03 (95% CI: 1.58-5.80) to 7.02 (95% CI: 3.41-14.46) and from 2.36 (95% CI: 1.65-3.19) to 5.61 (95% CI: 3.06-9.34). Age and gender-adjusted OR(s) and lambda(s) for different thresholds of hyperopia ranged from 2.31 (95% CI: 1.56-3.42) to 2.94 (95% CI: 2.04-4.22) and from 1.33 (95% CI: 1.22-1.43) to 1.85 (95% CI: 1.18-2.78), respectively. Women were significantly more likely than men to have hyperopia. There was no significant gender difference in the risk of myopia. In the OOA, refractive error is highly heritable. Hyperopia and myopia aggregate strongly in OOA families.

  15. Familial aggregation of focal seizure semiology in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobochnik, Steven; Fahlstrom, Robyn; Shain, Catherine; Winawer, Melodie R

    2017-07-04

    To improve phenotype definition in genetic studies of epilepsy, we assessed the familial aggregation of focal seizure types and of specific seizure symptoms within the focal epilepsies in families from the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. We studied 302 individuals with nonacquired focal epilepsy from 149 families. Familial aggregation was assessed by logistic regression analysis of relatives' traits (dependent variable) by probands' traits (independent variable), estimating the odds ratio for each symptom in a relative given presence vs absence of the symptom in the proband. In families containing multiple individuals with nonacquired focal epilepsy, we found significant evidence for familial aggregation of ictal motor, autonomic, psychic, and aphasic symptoms. Within these categories, ictal whole body posturing, diaphoresis, dyspnea, fear/anxiety, and déjà vu/jamais vu showed significant familial aggregation. Focal seizure type aggregated as well, including complex partial, simple partial, and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Our results provide insight into genotype-phenotype correlation in the nonacquired focal epilepsies and a framework for identifying subgroups of patients likely to share susceptibility genes. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Probing strong optical fields in compact aggregates of silver nanoparticles by SERRS of protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sládkova, Magdalena; Vlcková, Blanka; Mojzes, Peter; Slouf, Miroslav; Naudin, Coralie; Le Bourdon, Gwenelle

    2006-01-01

    TEM images and measurements of SERRS (surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering) spectra as a function of the porphyrin concentrations in systems with unmodified and chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are reported. TEM images have shown formation of compact aggregates in systems with chloride modified Ag nanoparticles, as opposed to systems with the unmodified particles constituted by isolated particles. SERRS spectra of PPIX as a function of PPIX concentration were measured and subjected to factor analysis. Two spectral components were identified and tentatively attributed to unperturbed PPIX and to Ag+ -PPIX surface species. Concentration value of the SERRS spectral detection limit of the latter species was determined to be nearly three orders of magnitude lower in the system with the compact aggregates than in the system with separated nanoparticles and achieves the value of 1 x 10(-10) M in a macrosampling Raman experiment. TEM images and SERRS-micro-Raman spectra of single compact aggregates of chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles incorporating PPIX molecules were acquired from a sample prepared by attachment of the aggregates to amine groups of derivatized, SiOx/formvar coated copper grids for TEM. The SERRS signal has shown large temporal fluctuations as well as variations from one aggregate to another. Within the signal fluctuations, a SERRS spectrum showing the characteristic bands of both SERRS spectral forms of PPIX and originating most probably from a few PPIX molecules located in hot spots in the interstices between the Ag nanoparticles, was obtained.

  17. Childhood Sleepwalking and Sleep Terrors: A Longitudinal Study of Prevalence and Familial Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Dominique; Pennestri, Marie-Hélène; Paquet, Jean; Desautels, Alex; Zadra, Antonio; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sleepwalking and sleep terrors are 2 parasomnias with a risk of serious injury for which familial aggregation has been shown. To assess the prevalence of sleepwalking and sleep terrors during childhood; to investigate the link between early sleep terrors and sleepwalking later in childhood; and to evaluate the degree of association between parental history of sleepwalking and presence of somnambulism and sleep terrors in children. Sleep data from a large prospective longitudinal cohort (the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development) of 1940 children born in 1997 and 1998 in the province were studied from March 1999 to March 2011. Prevalence of sleep terrors and sleepwalking was assessed yearly from ages 1 1/2 and 2 1/2 years, respectively, to age 13 years through a questionnaire completed by the mother. Parental history of sleepwalking was also queried. The peak of prevalence was observed at 1 1/2 years for sleep terrors (34.4% of children; 95% CI, 32.3%-36.5%) and at age 10 years for sleepwalking (13.4%; 95% CI, 11.3%-15.5%). As many as one-third of the children who had early childhood sleep terrors developed sleepwalking later in childhood. The prevalence of childhood sleepwalking increases with the degree of parental history of sleepwalking: 22.5% (95% CI, 19.2%-25.8%) for children without a parental history of sleepwalking, 47.4% (95% CI, 38.9%-55.9%) for children who had 1 parent with a history of sleepwalking, and 61.5% (95% CI, 42.8%-80.2%) for children whose mother and father had a history of sleepwalking. Moreover, parental history of sleepwalking predicted the incidence of sleep terrors in children as well as the persistent nature of sleep terrors. These findings substantiate the strong familial aggregation for the 2 parasomnias and lend support to the notion that sleepwalking and sleep terrors represent 2 manifestations of the same underlying pathophysiological entity.

  18. Strong impact of ionic strength on the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.; Vries, de R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of ionic strength on the kinetics of heat-induced fibrilar aggregation of bovine -lactoglobulin at pH 2.0. Using in situ light scattering we find an apparent critical protein concentration below which there is no significant fibril formation for all ionic strengths studied.

  19. Tetanus toxoid-loaded cationic non-aggregated nanostructured lipid particles triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Jyoti, Kiran; Rai, Shweta; Sidhu, Rupinder; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Madan, Jitender

    2016-05-01

    In the present investigation, non-aggregated cationic and unmodified nanoparticles (TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1) were prepared of about 49.2 ± 6.8-nm and 40.8 ± 8.3-nm, respectively. In addition, spherical shape, crystalline architecture and cationic charge were also noticed. Furthermore, integrity and conformational stability of TT were maintained in both TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1, as evidenced by symmetrical position of bands and superimposed spectra, respectively in SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism. Cellular uptake in RAW264.7 cells indicating the concentration-dependent internalisation of nanoparticles. Qualitatively, CLSM exhibited enhanced cellular uptake of non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 owing to interaction with negatively charged plasma membrane and clevaloe mediated/independent endocytosis. In last, in vivo immunisation with non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 elicited strong humoral (anti-TT IgG) and cellular (IFN-γ) immune responses at day 42, as compared to non-aggregated TT-NLPs1 and TT-Alum following booster immunisation at day 14 and 28. Thus, non-aggregated cationic lipid nanoparticles may be a potent immune-adjuvant for parenteral delivery of weak antigens.

  20. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are ...

  1. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus colonization is not a strongly heritable trait in Amish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Claire Roghmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of adults are persistently colonized with S. aureus in the anterior nares. Host genetic factors could contribute susceptibility to this phenotype. The objective of this study was to determine whether the phenotype of persistent S. aureus colonization aggregates in family members who live in different households. Healthy adults and their eligible same sex siblings who lived in different households were recruited from the Old Order Amish of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. All participants had two cultures of the anterior nares to determine if they were persistently colonized with S. aureus. Three hundred and ninety eight participants finished the study, of whom 166 were index cases and 232 were siblings of index cases. Eighteen per cent (71/398 of all participants and 17% (29/166 of index cases were persistently colonized with S. aureus. Twenty two per cent (8/36 of siblings of persistently colonized index cases were persistently colonized with S. aureus compared to 17% (34/196 of siblings of non-persistently colonized index cases, yielding a prevalence rate ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.65-2.54, p = 0.64 and sibling relative risk of 1.25 (95% CI: 0.65-2.38, p = 0.51. The heritability of persistent colonization was 0.19±0.21 (p = 0.31. Persistent S. aureus colonization does not strongly aggregate in Amish family members in different households and heritability is low, suggesting that environmental factors or acquired host factors are more important than host genetic factors in determining persistent S. aureus colonization in this community.

  2. Familial aggregation of myasthenia gravis in affected families: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu FC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Chao Liu,1,2 Chang-Fu Kuo,2–5 Lai-Chu See,4,6 Hsin-I Tsai,1,2,7 Huang-Ping Yu1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 4Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 5Office for Big Data Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6Biostatistics Core Laboratory, Molecular Medicine Research Center, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG is clinically heterogeneous and can be life-threatening if bulbar or respiratory muscles are involved. However, relative contributions of genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors to MG susceptibility remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of MG and the relative risks (RRs of other autoimmune diseases in the relatives of patients with MG.Methods: A population-based family study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI Database was conducted. Participants included all individuals (N=23,422,955 who were actively registered in the NHI Database in 2013, 15,066 of whom had at least one first-degree relative with MG. We identified 8,638 parent–child relationships, 3,279 with an affected offspring, 3,134 with affected siblings, and 26 with affected twins. Prevalence and RRs of MG and other autoimmune diseases in the relatives of patients as well as the relative contributions of heritability, shared, and nonshared environmental factors to MG susceptibility were measured.Results: RRs (95% confidence intervals [CIs] for MG were 17.85 (8.71–36.56 for patients’ siblings, 5.33 (2.79–10.18 for parents, 5.82 (3.03–11.16 for offspring, and 1.42 (0.20–10.10 for spouses without genetic similarities. RRs (95% CIs in individuals with a first-degree relative with MG were 2

  3. Community versus clinic sampling: effect on the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nancy C P; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2008-05-01

    Most research on the familial aggregation of mental disorders has been based on probands selected from clinics. Sparse research examines the clustering of psychiatric illnesses among families ascertained from the community. Such ascertainment bias limits the generalizability and may compromise the validity of study findings. The objective of this study was to illustrate differences between familial aggregation on the basis of the source of proband ascertainment in a family study of anxiety disorders. Forty anxiety probands were recruited from clinics; 36 anxiety probands and 60 control subjects were recruited from the community. All probands and their relatives were assessed using standardized psychiatric assessments. Selection of probands with panic and generalized anxiety disorders from clinical settings compared with the same local community settings was associated with greater risk to relatives. In contrast, the familial aggregation of social anxiety was greater in the community sample, and there were no differences in the risk of specific phobia to relatives between probands from clinics versus community. Clinic versus community sampling affects familial clustering of anxiety disorders. In general, the effect of clinic sampling is likely attributable to the greater severity of clinic cases, which may also be associated with increased familial morbidity. Differences observed between the anxiety disorders may be artifactual because of the diagnostic criteria of the anxiety disorders or low power. This study illustrates the importance of establishing standards for case-control selection, especially as complex disorder genetics moves increasingly toward population-based sampling.

  4. Communication: Strong laser alignment of solvent-solute aggregates in the gas-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippel, Sebastian; Wiese, Joss; Mullins, Terry; Küpper, Jochen

    2018-03-01

    Strong quasi-adiabatic laser alignment of the indole-water-dimer clusters, an amino-acid chromophore bound to a single water molecule through a hydrogen bond, was experimentally realized. The alignment was visualized through ion and electron imaging following strong-field ionization. Molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions showed a clear suppression of the electron yield in the plane of the ionizing laser's polarization, which was analyzed as strong alignment of the molecular cluster with ⟨cos2 θ2D⟩ ≥ 0.9.

  5. HomeFront Strong: Building Resiliency in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NOTES Email: mkees@umich.edu W81XWH-14-1-0362 14. ABSTRACT The current project aims to improve the psychological health and well-being of military and...emerging. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Military spouses; Veteran spouses; Resilience; Psychology health intervention; Mental health 16. SECURITY...14-1-0362 Pg. 5 1. INTRODUCTION: This project aims to improve the psychological health and well-being of military and veteran families residing in

  6. Score test for familial aggregation in probands studies: application to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Commenges; H. Jacqmin; L. Letenneur; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen studying familial aggregation of a disease, the following two-stage design is often used: first select index subjects (cases and controls); then record data on their relatives. The likelihood corresponding to this design is derived and a score test of homogeneity is proposed for

  7. Nationwide Registry-Based Analysis of Cancer Clustering Detects Strong Familial Occurrence of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahteristo, Pia; Patama, Toni; Li, Yilong; Saarinen, Silva; Kilpivaara, Outi; Pitkänen, Esa; Knekt, Paul; Laaksonen, Maarit; Artama, Miia; Lehtonen, Rainer; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Pukkala, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer predisposition syndromes are rare or have incomplete penetrance, and traditional epidemiological tools are not well suited for their detection. Here we have used an approach that employs the entire population based data in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) for analyzing familial aggregation of all types of cancer, in order to find evidence for previously unrecognized cancer susceptibility conditions. We performed a systematic clustering of 878,593 patients in FCR based on family name at birth, municipality of birth, and tumor type, diagnosed between years 1952 and 2011. We also estimated the familial occurrence of the tumor types using cluster score that reflects the proportion of patients belonging to the most significant clusters compared to all patients in Finland. The clustering effort identified 25,910 birth name-municipality based clusters representing 183 different tumor types characterized by topography and morphology. We produced information about familial occurrence of hundreds of tumor types, and many of the tumor types with high cluster score represented known cancer syndromes. Unexpectedly, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) also produced a very high score (cluster score 1.91, p-value <0.0001). We verified from population records that many of the KS patients forming the clusters were indeed close relatives, and identified one family with five affected individuals in two generations and several families with two first degree relatives. Our approach is unique in enabling systematic examination of a national epidemiological database to derive evidence of aberrant familial aggregation of all tumor types, both common and rare. It allowed effortless identification of families displaying features of both known as well as potentially novel cancer predisposition conditions, including striking familial aggregation of KS. Further work with high-throughput methods should elucidate the molecular basis of the potentially novel predisposition conditions found in this

  8. Familial Aggregation of Age-Related Hearing Loss in an Epidemiological Study of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Laura A.; Pankow, James S.; Miller, Michael B.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Dalton, Dayna; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the genetic contributions to presbycusis Method Presbycusis was assessed by audiometric measurements at three waves of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS). Measurements from the most recent hearing examination were used, at which time subjects were between 48 and 100 years of age. Heritability of presbycusis was estimated using maximum likelihood methods in 973 biological relative pairs from 376 families. Familial aggregation was also evaluated by tetrachoric correlations, odds ratios, and lambda statistics in 594 sibling pairs from 373 sibships. Subjects 3,510 participants from the EHLS study Results The prevalence of presbycusis conformed to previous research, increasing with age and male sex. Heritability estimates for presbycusis adjusted for age, sex, education level, and exposure to work noise exceeded 50%, and siblings of an affected relative were at 30% higher risk. When stratified by sex, estimates of familial aggregation were higher in women than men. Conclusions There is evidence that genetic factors contribute to age-related hearing loss in this population-based sample. The familial aggregation is stronger in women than in men. PMID:19474454

  9. The role of perceived parenting in familial aggregation of anxiety disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, W; Legerstee, J S; Ferdinand, R F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the role of perceived parenting style in the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders. We examined the association between parental and child anxiety diagnoses, and tested whether this association was partly due to a perceived parenting style. The study was conducted in a clinical sample as well as in a control sample. Parental lifetime and current anxiety diagnoses were significantly associated with child anxiety diagnoses. When maternal and paternal lifetime and current anxiety diagnoses were entered as separate predictors, only maternal current anxiety diagnoses appeared to be significant. Perceived parenting style was assessed with the dimensions "overprotection," "emotional warmth," "rejection," and "anxious rearing." Results indicated that only maternal and paternal 'overprotection' was significantly but negatively associated with child anxiety. However, further analyses showed that 'overprotection' did not have a significant mediating role in the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders.

  10. Population-based familial aggregation of eosinophilic esophagitis suggests a genetic contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Brady, Kristina; Firszt, Rafael; Fang, John C; Wong, Jathine; Smith, Ken R; Peterson, Kathryn A

    2017-10-01

    Prior familial clustering studies have observed an increased risk of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) mostly among first-degree relatives, suggesting a genetic contribution to EoE, and twin studies have suggested a powerful contribution from environmental factors. This study sought to clarify the contribution of genetic factors to EoE through estimation of familial aggregation and risk of EoE in extended relatives. The Utah Population Database, a population-based genealogy resource linked to electronic medical records for health care systems across the state of Utah, was used to identify EoE cases and age, sex, and birthplace-matched controls at a 5:1 ratio. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of EoE among relatives of EoE probands compared with the odds of EoE among relatives of controls. There were 4,423 EoE cases and 24,322 controls. The population-attributable risk of EoE was 31% (95% CI, 28% to 34%), suggesting a relatively strong genetic contribution. Risks of EoE were significantly increased among first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR], 7.19; 95% CI, 5.65-9.14), particularly first-degree relatives of EoE cases diagnosed <18 years of age (OR, 16.3; 95% CI, 9.4-28.3); second-degree relatives (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.49-2.65); and first cousins (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.77), providing evidence of a genetic contribution. However, spouses of EoE probands were observed to be at increased risk of EoE (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.31-6.25), suggesting either positive assortative mating or a shared environmental contribution to EoE. This study supports a significant genetic contribution to EoE as evidenced by increased risk of EoE in distant relatives. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Browder's type strong convergence theorems for infinite families of nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Tomonari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove Browder's type strong convergence theorems for infinite families of nonexpansive mappings. One of our main results is the following: let be a bounded closed convex subset of a uniformly smooth Banach space . Let be an infinite family of commuting nonexpansive mappings on . Let and be sequences in satisfying for . Fix and define a sequence in by for . Then converges strongly to , where is the unique sunny nonexpansive retraction from onto .

  12. Strong convergence to common fixed points of a finite family of Z ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In this paper, we consider an implicit iteration process for approximating common fixed points of a finite family of Z- operators and ... We recall some definitions in a metric space (. ),. X d . .... Later on, Chidume and Shahzad studied the strong convergence of the this implicit process to a common fixed point for a finite family of ...

  13. RNA profiling reveals familial aggregation of molecular subtypes in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua

    2014-01-01

    and provide evidence for epigenetic inactivation of BRCA1 in three of the tumors. In addition, 7 BRCA2-like tumors were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding indicates involvement of hereditary factors in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in which family members may carry genetic susceptibility not just to breast...... cancer but to a particular subtype of breast cancer. This is the first study to provide a biological link between breast cancers from family members of high-risk non-BRCA1/2 families in a systematic manner, suggesting that future genetic analysis may benefit from subgrouping families into molecularly......BACKGROUND: In more than 70% of families with a strong history of breast and ovarian cancers, pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 cannot be identified, even though hereditary factors are expected to be involved. It has been proposed that tumors with similar molecular phenotypes also share similar...

  14. Sociodemographic correlates and family aggregation of leukocyte telomere length in adults and children from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannagan, Kerry S; Jansen, Erica C; Rozek, Laura S; Rentschler, Katie M; Roman, Ana Victoria; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Villamor, Eduardo

    2017-05-06

    Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative stress and inflammation related to chronic disease risk. We examined the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and estimated LTL family aggregation in Central America, a region with a high burden of chronic disease where LTL has not been studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 174 school age children and their parents in the capital cities of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and the city of Tuxtla-Gutierrez in Mexico. We measured LTL by quantitative PCR in DNA extracted from whole blood. We compared the distribution of LTL by categories of sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. Family aggregation was estimated with correlation coefficients and intraclass correlations. In mothers, LTL was inversely associated with age (P, trend < .0001) and positively associated with height (P = .0002). Among fathers, LTL was inversely associated with food insecurity (P, trend = .0004). In children, boys had 0.10 log units shorter LTL than girls (95% CI: -0.17, -0.03; P = .004). LTL was inversely associated with parental education (P, trend = .01) and positively associated with paternal age at birth (P, trend < .0001), maternal LTL (P, trend = .007), and paternal LTL (P, trend = .02). LTL varied significantly by country of origin among all family members. Aggregation was greatest between children and their mothers, and mostly occurred at the country, rather than family, level. LTL is associated with age and height in women; food insecurity in men; and sex, parental education, parental LTL, and paternal age at birth among children. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Familial aggregation of childhood and adult cancer in the Utah genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Stiller, Charles A; Bunch, Kathryn J; Milne, Elizabeth; Mineau, Geraldine P; Murphy, Michael F G

    2013-12-15

    A small proportion of childhood cancer is attributable to known hereditary syndromes, but whether there is any familial component to the remainder remains uncertain. We explored familial aggregation of cancer in a population-based case-control study using genealogical record linkage and designed to overcome limitations of previous studies. Subjects were selected from the Utah Population Database. We compared risk of cancer in adult first-degree relatives of children who were diagnosed with cancer with the risk in relatives of children who had not had a cancer diagnosed. We identified 1,894 childhood cancer cases and 3,788 controls; 7,467 relatives of cases and 14,498 relatives of controls were included in the analysis. Relatives of children with cancer had a higher risk of cancer in adulthood than relatives of children without cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.56]; this was restricted to mothers and siblings and was not evident in fathers. Familial aggregation appeared stronger among relatives of cases diagnosed before 5 years of age (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.95) than among relatives of cases who were older when diagnosed (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). These findings provide evidence of a generalized excess of cancer in the mothers and siblings of children with cancer. The tendency for risk to be higher in the relatives of children who were younger at cancer diagnosis should be investigated in other large data sets. The excesses of thyroid cancer in parents of children with cancer and of any cancer in relatives of children with leukemia merit further investigation. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  16. Strong convergence to common fixed points of a finite family of Z ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Zhou and Chang introduced the convergence of modified implicit iteration process for a finite family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces (Zhou and Chang, 2002). In 2006, Rafiq studied the following implicit iteration process for strong convergence to a common fixed point for a finite ...

  17. Strongly regular family of boundary-fitted tetrahedral meshes of bounded C^2 domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-251 ISSN 0862-7940 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary fitted mesh * strongly regular family * Sommerville tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145699

  18. Familial aggregation of red blood cell membrane fatty acid composition: the Kibbutzim Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Siscovick, David S; Berry, Elliot M; Kark, Jeremy D; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2008-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of membranes plays an important role in health and diseases. Whether genetic factors play a role in interindividual variability in membrane fatty acid levels has received limited attention. Using variance decomposition methods, we estimated the heritability of red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acids in an unselected population sample of 80 families (205 male and 212 female subjects) living in kibbutz settlements in Israel. Fatty acid levels were measured by gas chromatography. We estimated that polygenes explained 40% to 70% of the sex- and age-adjusted interindividual variability in all RBC fatty acids: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. The heritability estimates remained very similar after further adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, lipoproteins, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, education, and religiosity. In bivariate genetic analyses, we observed positive genetic correlations for the fatty acid pairs 20:4n6-22:6n3 and 20:5n3-22:6n3, and negative genetic correlations for the pairs 16:0-20:4n6, 16:0-22:6n3, 18:1n9-20:3n6, 18:2n6-20:4n6, 18:2n6-24:0, and 20:3n6-20:4n6, suggesting that shared effects of the same sets of loci account for 12% to 30% of the additive genetic variance in these pairs of fatty acids. This study suggests a considerable polygenic component for all RBC membrane fatty acids and provides evidence that shared genetic effects account for the additive genetic variance in various fatty acid pairs. Future studies are needed to map the genes underlying the interindividual variation in these inherited phenotypes.

  19. Frequent nightmares in children: familial aggregation and associations with parent-reported behavioral and mood problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shirley Xin; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Lam, Siu Ping; Zhang, Jihui; Li, Albert Martin; Lai, Kelly Yee Ching; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2011-04-01

    To conduct a systematic investigation on the prevalence, correlates, and familial aggregation of frequent nightmares in children, and to scrutinize the associations between frequent nightmares and parent-reported behavioral and mood problems in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting the data on sociodemographic, sleep, behavioral, and family-related information from a total of 6359 children (age: mean [SD]=9.2 [1.8] years; girls: 49.9%) and their reported biological parents. Community. N/A. Prevalence of frequent nightmares with a criterion of at least once per week was 5.2%. Multinomial regression analysis indicated that monthly family income, paternal and maternal nightmares, insomnia symptoms, parasomniac symptoms, and daytime consequences were significantly associated with nightmares in children. Frequent nightmares in children were significantly associated with hyper-activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44), frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=1.76, 95%CI 1.27-2.44), and poor academic performance (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.36), after controlling for potential confounding factors. Approximately 20% of children with frequent nightmares experienced comorbid frequent insomnia. Comorbid nightmares and insomnia were associated with increased odds of hyperactivity (OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.13-8.00) and frequent temper outbursts/mood disturbance (OR=2.41, 95%CI 1.27-4.60). Frequent nightmares in children are associated with a constellation of child-, sleep-, and family-related factors, including comorbid sleep problems, such as insomnia and parasomnia, family economic status, and parental predisposition. Frequent nightmares are independently associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children.

  20. Heritability of audiometric shape parameters and familial aggregation of presbycusis in an elderly Flemish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Kelly; van Wieringen, Astrid; Hendrickx, Jan-jaap; Topsakal, Vedat; Huyghe, Jeroen; Fransen, Erik; Van Laer, Lut; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2010-06-14

    This study describes the heritability of audiometric shape parameters and the familial aggregation of different types of presbycusis in a healthy, otologically screened population between 50 and 75 years old. About 342 siblings of 64 families (average family-size: 5.3) were recruited through population registries. Audiometric shape was mathematically quantified by objective parameters developed to measure size, slope, concavity, percentage of frequency-dependent and frequency-independent hearing loss and Bulge Depth. The heritability of each parameter was calculated using a variance components model. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs). Estimates of sibling recurrence risk ratios (lambda(s)) are also provided. Heritability estimates were generally higher compared to previous studies. ORs and lambda(s) for the parameters Total Hearing Loss (size), Uniform Hearing Loss (percentage of frequency-dependent hearing loss) and Bulge Depth suggest a higher heredity for severe types of presbycusis compared to moderate or mild types. Our results suggest that the separation of the parameter 'Total Hearing Loss' into the two parameters 'Uniform Hearing Loss' and 'Non-uniform Hearing Loss' could lead to the discovery of different genetic subtypes of presbycusis. The parameter 'Bulge Depth', instead of 'Concavity', seemed to be an important parameter for classifying subjects into 'susceptible' or 'resistant' to societal or intensive environmental exposure. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Action Tremor Asymmetry Profile Does Not Aggregate in Families with Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Hernandez, Nora; Chen, Karen P; Naranjo, Kelly V; Park, Jemin; Clark, Lorraine N; Ottman, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Action tremor is the hallmark feature of essential tremor (ET). While the tremor typically is mildly asymmetric, in some patients, it is markedly asymmetric. There are few data on factors that influence this asymmetry. ET is also a highly familial disease. Whether the tremor asymmetry profile (i.e., differential expression of tremor in each arm in a given patient) is similar across family members is not known. The alternative possibility is that this feature is not heritable. There are no published data addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of action tremor asymmetry ran in ET families. ET probands and relatives were enrolled in a genetic study at Yale and Columbia Universities. An in-person evaluation included a videotaped neurological examination, including a detailed assessment of tremors. A senior movement disorders neurologist reviewed all videotaped examinations, and the severity of postural and kinetic arm tremors was rated on 12 examination items using a reliable rating scale. The tremor asymmetry index = right arm tremor score - left arm tremor score. We used a bivariate linear regression model to assess the predictors of the tremor asymmetry index in relatives; this model used the tremor asymmetry index in the proband as a primary predictor of interest. In an analysis of variance (ANOVA), we tested for heterogeneity across families in the tremor asymmetry index (i.e., to see whether there was a significant family effect). There were 187 enrollees (59 probands, 128 affected relatives). In a bivariate linear regression model, the tremor asymmetry index in the proband was not a predictor of the tremor asymmetry index in their relatives ( p  = 0.66). In an ANOVA, family grouping did not explain a significant proportion of the total variance in the tremor asymmetry index ( p  = 0.56). Tremor asymmetry did not aggregate in families with ET. Therefore, this does not seem to be a disease feature that is

  2. The strongly coupled fourth family and a first-order electroweak phase transition. 1. Quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Yoshio; Kohda, Masaya; Yasuda, Junichiro

    2009-01-01

    In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strongly coupled fourth-family quarks and leptons, their low-energy effective descriptions may involve multiple composite Higgs fields, leading to a possibility that the electroweak phase transition at finite temperature is first-order due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. We examine the behavior of the electroweak phase transition on the basis of the effective renormalizable Yukawa theory, which consists of the fourth-family quarks and two SU(2)-doublet Higgs fields corresponding to the bilinear operators of the fourth-family quarks with/without imposing the compositeness condition. The strength of the first-order phase transition is estimated using the finite-temperature effective potential at one loop with ring improvement. In the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is found that there is a parameter region where the first-order phase transition is sufficiently strong for the electroweak baryogenesis with the experimentally acceptable Higgs boson and fourth-family quark masses. On the other hand, when the compositeness condition is imposed, the phase transition turns out to be weakly first-order, or possibly second-order, although the result is rather sensitive to the details of the compositeness condition. By combining with the result of the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is argued that with the fourth-family quark masses in the range of 330-480 GeV, corresponding to the compositeness scale in the range of 1.0-2.3 TeV, the four-fermion interaction among the fourth-family quarks does not lead to the strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. (author)

  3. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; De Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting.

  4. The familial co-aggregation of ASD and ADHD: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardi, L; Brikell, I; Kuja-Halkola, R; Freitag, C M; Franke, B; Asherson, P; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H

    2018-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. The presence of a genetic link between ASD and ADHD symptoms is supported by twin studies, but the genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD remains largely unclear. We therefore investigated how ASD and ADHD co-aggregate in individuals and in families to test for the presence of a shared genetic liability and examined potential differences between low- and high-functioning ASD in the link with ADHD. We studied 1 899 654 individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD in individuals and in families. Stratified estimates were obtained for ASD with (low-functioning) and without (high-functioning) intellectual disability. Individuals with ASD were at higher risk of having ADHD compared with individuals who did not have ASD (odds ratio (OR)=22.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.77-22.92). The association was stronger for high-functioning than for low-functioning ASD. Relatives of individuals with ASD were at higher risk of ADHD compared with relatives of individuals without ASD. The association was stronger in monozygotic twins (OR=17.77, 95% CI: 9.80-32.22) than in dizygotic twins (OR=4.33, 95% CI: 3.21-5.85) and full siblings (OR=4.59, 95% CI: 4.39-4.80). Individuals with ASD and their relatives are at increased risk of ADHD. The pattern of association across different types of relatives supports the existence of genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD, suggesting that genomic studies might have underestimated this overlap.

  5. Molecules of the quinoline family block tau self-aggregation: implications toward a therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Leonardo P; Guzmán, Leonardo; San Martín, Aurelio; Astudillo-Saavedra, Luis; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2012-01-01

    The neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) generated by self-aggregation of anomalous forms of tau represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These lesions begin to form long before the clinical manifestation of AD, and its severity is correlated with cognitive impairment in patients. We focused on the search for molecules that interact with aggregated tau of the Alzheimer's type and that may block its aggregation before the formation of NFTs. We show that molecules from a family of quinolines interact specifically with oligomeric forms of tau, inhibiting their assembly into AD filaments. The quinolines 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methyl quinoline (THQ-4S) and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylquinoline (THQ-55) inhibited in vitro aggregation of heparin-induced polymers of purified brain tau and aggregates of human recombinant tau. They also interact with paired helical filaments (PHFs) purified from AD postmortem brains. In vitro studies indicated a significantly lower inhibitory effect of amyloid-β42 on the aggregation, suggesting that tau aggregates are specific targets for quinoline interactions. These compounds showed highly lipophilic properties as corroborated with the analysis of total polar surface areas, and evaluation of their molecular properties. Moreover, these quinolines exhibit physical chemical properties similar to drugs able to penetrate the human brain blood barrier. Docking studies based on tau modeling, as a structural approach to the analysis of the interaction of tau-binding ligands, indicated that a C-terminal tau moiety, involved in the formation of PHFs, seems to be a site for binding of quinolines. Studies suggest the potential clinical use of these quinolines and of their derivatives to inhibit tau aggregation and possible therapeutic routes for AD.

  6. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  7. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality: a register-based prospective study of pooled Nordic twin cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören; Ripatti, Samuli; Skythe, Axel; Tikkanen, Emmi; Pedersen, Nancy L; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic and other familial factors. Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280 deaths from myocardial infarct and 4855 deaths occurred from stroke, with 1092 deaths from ischaemic stroke and 1159 deaths from haemorrhagic stroke. Relative recurrence risk ratios (RRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for monozygotic and dizygotic twins were calculated. In the analyses pooling men and women, the RRR for monozygotic twins was 1.49 (95% CI 1.40-1.57) for CHD and 1.81 for any stroke (95% CI 1.54-2.09). The highest RRR was found for haemorrhagic stroke (3.53 95% CI 2.01-5.04). For dizygotic twins, the RRRs were generally lower. Family aggregation was found for CHD and haemorrhagic stroke. Clustering of risk factors in families increases the risk of CVD. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility...... to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than...... patients with low family load. Methods We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 μg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial...

  9. Evaluation of familial aggregation, vegetable consumption, legumes consumption, and physical activity on functional constipation in families of children with functional constipation versus children without constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Moravej, Hossein; Rajaei, Elahe; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Constipation is a frequent complication in paediatrics. Most of the constipation is functional. Functional constipation constitutes 25% of visits in paediatric gastroenterology clinics. Two studies were published regarding aggregation or clustering of functional constipation. Only one of these research projects was about a paediatric population. Aim To elucidate the cluster pattern of constipation among the families of children with constipation. Material and methods This case-co...

  10. Genetic and environmental factors in body composition. A review based upon studies of familial aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal dessa revisão foi abordar aspectos relacionados com a influência dos fatores genéticos e ambientais nos indicadores da composição corporal. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed, selecionandose os estudos que apresentassem informações acerca de agregação familiar, com base em estimativas de heritabilidade, em delineamentos de famílias nucleares e/ou pedigrees extensos, em que as técnicas para a avaliação da composição corporal fossem a densitometria computadorizada por absorciometria radiológica de dupla energia, a pesagem hidrostática, a tomografi a computadorizada, a impedância bioelétrica ou a mensuração de dobras cutâneas. Os resultados mostraram que uma parte moderada a elevada dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal são condicionados por fatores genéticos, evidenciando uma forte agregação familiar. Verifi cou-se uma ampla variabilidade nas estimativas de heritabilidade inter e intra fenótipos. Além das diferenças nas técnicas utilizadas, a discrepância pode ser devida a aspectos relacionados com a magnitude da amostra, aspectos étnicos e culturais inerentes a cada população e o design do estudo. Conclui-se que os fenótipos da composição corporal são de natureza multifatorial onde, em alguns casos, o ambiente possui uma forte contribuição na característica observada. Os fatores genéticos são responsáveis por 30 a 76% da variabilidade dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal. ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study was to review relevant information related to genetic and environmental factors influencing different indicators of body composition. Based upon Pubmed data, a search was made concerning studies related to information of familial aggregation with heritability estimates using nuclear families and/or extended pedigree and which had assessed body composition by means of DEXA, hydrostatic weighting, computerized tomography, bioelectric

  11. Skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals with a strong family history of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, N A; McLoone, J K; Meiser, B; Butow, P N; Simpson, J M; Mann, G J

    2010-11-09

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer screening behaviours among individuals at high risk of developing melanoma due to strong family history. A total of 120 individuals with a known family-specific CDKN2A mutation (72% response rate) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing annual frequency of skin self-examination (SSE), clinical skin examination (CSE) and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychosocial correlates. In the past 12 months, 50% of participants reported engaging in SSE at least four times, and 43% of participants had undergone at least one CSE. Engagement in SSE was associated with doctor recommendation (β=1.77, P=0.001), confidence in one's ability to perform SSE (β=1.44, Pmelanoma treatment (β=0.77, P=0.002) and intention to perform SSE in the future (β=1.69, Pmelanoma engage in suboptimal levels of skin surveillance. Improved doctor-patient communication, as well as psycho-education and behavioural support, may be viable means of improving early skin cancer detection behaviours in this high-risk population.

  12. Weak and strong convergence theorems for finite families of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Bashir, Ali

    2007-07-01

    Let E be a real uniformly convex Banach space whose dual space E* satisfies the Kadec- Klee property, K be a closed convex nonempty subset of E . Let T 1 , T 2 , . . . , T m : K → K be asymptotically nonexpansive mappings of K into E with sequences (respectively) {k in } n=1 ∞ satisfying k in → 1 as n → ∞, i = 1, 2 , ...,m and Σ n=1 ∞ (k in - 1) in } n=1 ∞ be a sequence in [ε, 1 - ε ], for each i element of { 1, 2 , . . . ,m} (respectively). Let {x n } be a sequence generated for m ≥ 2 by, x 1 element of K, x n+1 = (1 - α 1 n )x n + α 1 n T 1 n y n+m-2 , y n+m-2 = (1 - α 2 n )x n + α 2 n T 2 n y n+m-3 , ..., y n = (1 - α mn )x n + α mn T m n x n , n ≥ 1. Let Intersection i=1 m F (T i ) ≠ 0 . Then, {x n } converges weakly to a common fixed point of the family {T i } i=1 m . Under some appropriate condition on the family {T i } i=1 m , a strong convergence theorem is also roved. (author)

  13. A family of Mn16 single-molecule magnets from a reductive aggregation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philippa; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2004-11-15

    The synthesis and magnetic properties of three isostructural hexadecametallic manganese clusters [Mn(16)O(16)(OMe)(6)(O(2)CCH(2)Ph)(16)(MeOH)(6)] (1), [Mn(16)O(16)(OMe)(6)(O(2)CCH(2)Cl)(16)(MeOH)(6)] (2), and [Mn(16)O(16)(OMe)(6)(O(2)CCH(2)Br)(16)(MeOH)(6)] (3) are reported. The complexes were prepared by a reductive aggregation reaction involving phenylacetic acid, chloroacetic acid or bromoacetic acid, and NBu(n)()(4)MnO(4) in MeOH. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c and consists of 6 Mn(IV) and 10 Mn(III) ions held together by 14 mu(3)-O(2)(-), 2 mu-O(2)(-), 4 mu-MeO(-), and 2 mu-O(2)CCH(2)Ph(-) groups. The remaining 14 mu-O(2)CCH(2)Ph(-) ligands, 2 mu-MeO(-) groups, and 6 terminal MeOH molecules constitute the peripheral ligation in the complex. Variable-temperature, solid-state dc magnetic susceptibility measurements on 1-3 in the temperature range 5.0-300 K reveal that all three complexes are dominated by intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. Low-lying excited states preclude an exact determination of the spin ground state for 1-3 by magnetization measurements. Alternating current susceptibility measurements at zero dc field in the temperature range 1.8-10 K and a 3.5 G ac field oscillating at frequencies in the 5-1488 Hz range display, at temperatures below 3 K, a nonzero, frequency-dependent chi(M)"signal for complexes 1-3, with the peak maxima lying at temperatures less than 1.8 K. Single-crystal magnetization versus dc field scans down to 0.04 K for complex 1 show hysteresis behavior at SMM family. No clear steps characteristic of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) were observed in the hysteresis loops.

  14. Familial aggregation of suicide explained by cluster B traits: a three-group family study of suicide controlling for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; Alda, Martin; Séguin, Monique; Cabot, Sophie; Lesage, Alain; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial evidence suggesting that suicide aggregates in families. However, the extent of overlap between the liability to suicide and psychiatric disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, remains an important issue. Similarly, factors that account for the familial transmission of suicidal behavior remain unclear. Thus, through direct and blind assessment of first-degree relatives, the authors conducted a family study of suicide by examining three proband groups: probands who committed suicide in the context of major depressive disorder, living depressed probands with no history of suicidal behavior, and psychiatrically normal community comparison probands. Participants were 718 first-degree relatives from 120 families: 296 relatives of 51 depressed probands who committed suicide, 185 relatives of 34 nonsuicidal depressed probands, and 237 relatives of 35 community comparison subjects. Psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and behavioral measures were assessed via interviews. The relatives of probands who committed suicide had higher levels of suicidal behavior (10.8%) than the relatives of nonsuicidal depressed probands (6.5%) and community comparison probands (3.4%). Testing cluster B traits as intermediate phenotypes of suicide showed that the relatives of depressed probands who committed suicide had elevated levels of cluster B traits; familial predisposition to suicide was associated with increased levels of cluster B traits; cluster B traits demonstrated familial aggregation and were associated with suicide attempts among relatives; and cluster B traits mediated, at least in part, the relationship between familial predisposition and suicide attempts among relatives. Analyses were repeated for severity of attempts, where cluster B traits also met criteria for endophenotypes of suicide. Familial transmission of suicide and major depression, while partially overlapping, are distinct. Cluster B traits and impulsive-aggressive behavior represent

  15. Spinal cord homogenates from SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induce SOD1 aggregation in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pokrishevsky

    Full Text Available Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 can confer its misfolding on wild-type SOD1 in living cells; the propagation of misfolding can also be transmitted between cells in vitro. Recent studies identified fluorescently-tagged SOD1G85R as a promiscuous substrate that is highly prone to aggregate by a variety of templates, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we utilized several SOD1-GFP reporter proteins with G37R, G85R, or G93A mutations in SOD1. We observed that human spinal cord homogenates prepared from SOD1 familial ALS (FALS can induce significantly more intracellular reporter protein aggregation than spinal cord homogenates from sporadic ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy or healthy control individuals. We also determined that the induction of reporter protein aggregation by SOD1-FALS tissue homogenates can be attenuated by incubating the cells with the SOD1 misfolding-specific antibody 3H1, or the small molecule 5-fluorouridine. Our study further implicates SOD1 as the seeding particle responsible for the spread of SOD1-FALS neurodegeneration from its initial onset site(s, and demonstrates two potential therapeutic strategies for SOD1-mediated disease. This work also comprises a medium-throughput cell-based platform of screening potential therapeutics to attenuate propagated aggregation of SOD1.

  16. Super-tough, ultra-stretchable and strongly compressive hydrogels with core-shell latex particles inducing efficient aggregation of hydrophobic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuyan; Huang, Chang; Duan, Lijie; Liu, Baijun; Bu, Lvjun; Guan, Shuang; Hou, Jiliang; Zhang, Huixuan; Gao, Guanghui

    2017-05-14

    Toughness, strechability and compressibility for hydrogels were ordinarily balanced for their use as mechanically responsive materials. For example, macromolecular microsphere composite hydrogels with chemical crosslinking exhibited excellent compression strength and strechability, but poor tensile stress. Here, a novel strategy for the preparation of a super-tough, ultra-stretchable and strongly compressive hydrogel was proposed by introducing core-shell latex particles (LPs) as crosslinking centers for inducing efficient aggregation of hydrophobic chains. The core-shell LPs always maintained a spherical shape due to the presence of a hard core even by an external force and the soft shell could interact with hydrophobic chains due to hydrophobic interactions. As a result, the hydrogels reinforced by core-shell LPs exhibited not only a high tensile strength of 1.8 MPa and dramatic elongation of over 20 times, but also an excellent compressive performance of 13.5 MPa at a strain of 90%. The Mullins effect was verified for the validity of core-shell LP-reinforced hydrogels by inducing aggregation of hydrophobic chains. The novel strategy strives to provide a better avenue for designing and developing a new generation of hydrophobic association tough hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties.

  17. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  18. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  19. Long-term effects of the strong African American families program on youths' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2010-04-01

    This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several can...

  1. Silencing the Odorant Binding Protein RferOBP1768 Reduces the Strong Preference of Palm Weevil for the Major Aggregation Pheromone Compound Ferrugineol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Antony

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of the environment—food, mates, and prey—is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs, which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on olfactory perception and the molecular mechanism by which OBPs participate in the transport of aggregation pheromones. We focus on the red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, the most devastating quarantine pest of palm trees worldwide. In this work, we constructed libraries of all OBPs and selected antenna-specific and highly expressed OBPs for silencing through RNA interference. Aggregation pheromone compounds, 4-methyl-5-nonanol (ferrugineol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone (ferruginone, and a kairomone, ethyl acetate, were then sequentially presented to individual RPWs. The results showed that antenna-specific RferOBP1768 aids in the capture and transport of ferrugineol to ORs. Silencing of RferOBP1768, which is responsible for pheromone binding, significantly disrupted pheromone communication. Study of odorant perception in palm weevil is important because the availability of literature regarding the nature and role of olfactory signaling in this insect may reveal likely candidates representative of animal olfaction and, more generally, of molecular recognition. Knowledge of OBPs recognizing the specific pheromone ferrugineol will allow for designing biosensors for the detection of this key compound in weevil monitoring in date palm fields.

  2. Silencing the Odorant Binding ProteinRferOBP1768Reduces the Strong Preference of Palm Weevil for the Major Aggregation Pheromone Compound Ferrugineol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Binu; Johny, Jibin; Aldosari, Saleh A

    2018-01-01

    In insects, perception of the environment-food, mates, and prey-is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs) by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs), which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on olfactory perception and the molecular mechanism by which OBPs participate in the transport of aggregation pheromones. We focus on the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus , the most devastating quarantine pest of palm trees worldwide. In this work, we constructed libraries of all OBPs and selected antenna-specific and highly expressed OBPs for silencing through RNA interference. Aggregation pheromone compounds, 4-methyl-5-nonanol (ferrugineol) and 4-methyl-5-nonanone (ferruginone), and a kairomone, ethyl acetate, were then sequentially presented to individual RPWs. The results showed that antenna-specific RferOBP1768 aids in the capture and transport of ferrugineol to ORs. Silencing of RferOBP1768 , which is responsible for pheromone binding, significantly disrupted pheromone communication. Study of odorant perception in palm weevil is important because the availability of literature regarding the nature and role of olfactory signaling in this insect may reveal likely candidates representative of animal olfaction and, more generally, of molecular recognition. Knowledge of OBPs recognizing the specific pheromone ferrugineol will allow for designing biosensors for the detection of this key compound in weevil monitoring in date palm fields.

  3. Familial aggregation of pure tone hearing thresholds in an aging European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Topsakal, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated.......To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated....

  4. The "polyenviromic risk score": Aggregating environmental risk factors predicts conversion to psychosis in familial high-risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Shah, Jai L; Tandon, Neeraj; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2017-03-01

    Young relatives of individuals with schizophrenia (i.e. youth at familial high-risk, FHR) are at increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, and show higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and neurobiological abnormalities than non-relatives. It is not known whether overall exposure to environmental risk factors increases risk of conversion to psychosis in FHR subjects. Subjects consisted of a pilot longitudinal sample of 83 young FHR subjects. As a proof of principle, we examined whether an aggregate score of exposure to environmental risk factors, which we term a 'polyenviromic risk score' (PERS), could predict conversion to psychosis. The PERS combines known environmental risk factors including cannabis use, urbanicity, season of birth, paternal age, obstetric and perinatal complications, and various types of childhood adversity, each weighted by its odds ratio for association with psychosis in the literature. A higher PERS was significantly associated with conversion to psychosis in young, familial high-risk subjects (OR=1.97, p=0.009). A model combining the PERS and clinical predictors had a sensitivity of 27% and specificity of 96%. An aggregate index of environmental risk may help predict conversion to psychosis in FHR subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...

  6. Good Health, Strong Families, and Positive Early Learning Experiences: Promoting Better Public Policies for America's Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica; Cohen, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has three areas of focus: good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Effective policies must promote healthy functioning in all domains, including cognitive, physical, and social and emotional development. Comprehensive services are essential to meeting the needs of very young children…

  7. Breast magnetic resonance imaging significance for breast cancer diagnostic in women with genetic predisposition and a strong family history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Karpova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of breast cancer with mammography recommended to women over 40 has been shown to decrease breast cancer mortality. But mam- mography has much lower accuracy in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations and women with a strong family history. Therefore new screening methods in young high-risk women are necessary to detect early-stage cancer.

  8. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  9. Single chain variable fragment antibodies block aggregation and toxicity induced by familial ALS-linked mutant forms of SOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Pavlovic, John D; Koduvayur, Sujatha P; Kay, Brian K; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (known as FALS) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and ~25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). There is convincing evidence that mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) kills motor neurons (MNs) because of a gain-of-function toxicity, most likely related to aggregation of mtSOD1. A number of recent reports have suggested that antibodies can be used to treat mtSOD1-induced FALS. To follow up on the use of antibodies as potential therapeutics, we generated single chain fragments of variable region antibodies (scFvs) against SOD1, and then expressed them as 'intrabodies' within a motor neuron cell line. In the present study, we describe isolation of human scFvs that interfere with mtSOD1 in vitro aggregation and toxicity. These scFvs may have therapeutic potential in sporadic ALS, as well as FALS, given that sporadic ALS may also involve abnormalities in the SOD1 protein or activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Insight into the strong aggregation-induced emission of low-conjugated racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines through crystal-structure-property relationship of polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Yilin; Nie, Han; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Shuwen; Wong, Kam Sing; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Racemic C6-unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines (THPs) are a series of fluorophores with a strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. However, they do not possess the structural features of conventional AIE compounds. In order to understand their AIE mechanism, here, the influences of the molecular packing mode and the conformation on the optical properties of THPs were investigated using seven crystalline polymorphs of three THPs ( 1-3 ). The racemic THPs 1-3 have low-conjugated and highly flexible molecular structures, and hence show practically no emission in different organic solvents. However, the fluorescence quantum yields of their polymorphs are up to 93%, and the maximum excitation ( λ ex ) and emission ( λ em ) wavelengths of the polymorphs are long at 409 and 484 nm, respectively. Single-crystal structures and theoretical calculation of the HOMOs and LUMOs based on the molecular conformations of these polymorphs indicate that the polymorphs with the shortest λ ex and λ em values possess a RS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as paired anti-parallel lines) and a more twisted conformation without through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates, but the polymorphs with longer λ ex and λ em values adopt a RR / SS -packing mode ( R - and S -enantiomers self-assemble as unpaired zigzag lines) and a less twisted conformation with through-space conjugation between the dicarboxylates. The molecular conformations of 1-3 in all these polymorphs are stereo and more twisted than those in solution. Although 1-3 are poorly conjugated, the radiative rate constants ( k r ) of their polymorphs are as large as conventional fluorophores (0.41-1.03 × 10 8 s -1 ) because of improved electronic conjugation by both through-bond and through-space interactions. Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that the strong AIE arises not only from the restriction of intramolecular motion but also from enhanced electronic coupling and

  11. Copy-number variants in patients with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucito, Robert; Suresh, Shubha; Walter, Kimberly; Pandey, Akhilesh; Lakshmi, B; Krasnitz, Alex; Sebat, Jonathan; Wigler, Michael; Klein, Alison P; Brune, Kieran; Palmisano, Emily; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H

    2007-10-01

    Copy-number variants such as germ-line deletions and amplifications are associated with inherited genetic disorders including familial cancer. The gene or genes responsible for the majority of familial clustering of pancreatic cancer have not been identified. We used representational oligonucleotide microarray analysis (ROMA) to characterize germ-line copy number variants in 60 cancer patients from 57 familial pancreatic cancer kindreds. Fifty-seven of the 60 patients had pancreatic cancer and three had nonpancreatic cancers (breast, ovary, ovary). A familial pancreatic cancer kindred was defined as a kindred in which at least two first-degree relatives have been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Copy-number variants identified in 607 individuals without pancreatic cancer were excluded from further analysis. A total of 56 unique genomic regions with copy-number variants not present in controls were identified, including 31 amplifications and 25 deletions. Two deleted regions were observed in two different patients, and one in three patients. The germ-line amplifications had a mean size of 662 Kb, a median size of 379 Kb (range 8.2 Kb to 2.5 Mb) and included 425 known genes. Examples of genes included in the germ-line amplifications include the MAFK, JunD and BIRC6 genes. The germ-line deletions had a mean size of 375Kb, a median size 151 Kb (range 0.4 Kb to 2.3 Mb) and included 81 known genes. In multivariate analysis controlling for region size, deletions were 90% less likely to involve a gene than were duplications (p time PCR, including a germ-line amplification on chromosome 19. These genetic copy-number variants define potential candidate loci for the familial pancreatic cancer gene.

  12. Loss of metal ions, disulfide reduction and mutations related to familial ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates from superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep A Oztug Durer

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS. Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

  13. Loss of metal ions, disulfide reduction and mutations related to familial ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates from superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztug Durer, Zeynep A; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A; Dinh, Phong; Padua, Shelby; Ehrenclou, Krista; Downes, Sean; Tan, James K; Nakano, Yoko; Bowman, Christopher J; Hoskins, Jessica L; Kwon, Chuhee; Mason, Andrew Z; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Doucette, Peter A; Shaw, Bryan F; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1) formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

  14. Familial aggregation of lung cancer in a high incidence area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.T.; Xu, Y.C.; Yang, R.D.; Huang, C.F.; Xu, C.W.; He, X.Z. [Anhui Medical University, Anhui (China). School of Public Health

    2005-04-11

    To investigate whether lung cancer clusters in families in a high incidence county of China, an analysis was conducted using data on domestic fuel history and tobacco use for family members of 740 deceased lung cancer probands and 740 controls (probands' spouses). Lung cancer prevalence was compared among first-degree relatives of probands and of controls, taking into account various factors using logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. First-degree relatives of probands, compared with those of controls, showed an excess risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68 - 2.53). Overall, female relatives of probands had a greater risk than did their male counterparts, and the risk was 2.90- fold for parents of probands as compared with parents of spouses. Female relatives of probands had 2.67-fold greater risk than female controls. Lung cancer risk was particularly marked among mothers (OR = 3.78, 95% CI: 2.03 - 7.12). Having two or more affected relatives was associated with a 2.69 - 5.40-fold risk increase. The risk elevation was also found for other cancers overall. Results confirm previous findings of a genetic predisposition to lung cancer, and also imply that lung cancer may share a genetic background with other cancers.

  15. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Countable Family of Total Quasi-ϕ-Asymptotically Nonexpansive Nonself Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-cai Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of total quasi-ϕ-asymptotically nonexpansive-nonself mappings and to study the strong convergence under a limit condition only in the framework of Banach spaces. As an application, we utilize our results to study the approximation problem of solution to a system of equilibrium problems. The results presented in the paper extend and improve the corresponding results announced by some authors recently.

  16. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  17. Strongly enhanced colorectal cancer risk stratification by combining family history and genetic risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigl K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Korbinian Weigl,1,2 Jenny Chang-Claude,3,4 Phillip Knebel,5 Li Hsu,6 Michael Hoffmeister,1 Hermann Brenner1,2,7 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 3Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 4University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Department for General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 7Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, Heidelberg, Germany Background and aim: Family history (FH and genetic risk scores (GRSs are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.Patients and methods: A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.Results: A total of 316 cases (13.4% and 214 controls (9.7% had a first-degree relative (FDR with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52–2.29. A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24–4.02 compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their

  18. Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease: a population-based study of twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A; Mortensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Riis, Anders H; Christensen, Kaare; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit. Using nationwide patient registries, we identified 142,123 incident cases of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization (1977-2011) or an outpatient hospital visit (1995-2011) in Denmark, including cases in 10,420 index siblings and 923 twins. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for siblings versus the general population and concordance rates for monozygotic versus dizygotic twin pairs as measures of relative risk (RR). The RR for diverticular disease in siblings of index cases was 2.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50-3.39) compared with the general population. The RRs were similar irrespective of the sex of the sibling or index case and were particularly strong in siblings of hospitalized cases and cases that underwent surgery. The proband-wise concordance rate for monozygotic twins was double that of dizygotic twins (0.16 [95% CI, 0.11-0.22] vs 0.07 [95% CI, 0.05-0.11], respectively). The RR of diverticular disease in one twin when the other had diverticular disease was 14.5 (95% CI, 8.9-23) for monozygotic twins compared with 5.5 (95% CI, 3.3-8.6) for dizygotic twins. Associations were stronger in female monozygotic twins compared with male twins (tetrachoric correlation, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.70] vs 0.33 [95% CI, 0.13-0.51]; P = .03 in an analysis stratified by sex and zygosity). We estimate that 53% (95% CI, 45%-61%) of susceptibility to diverticular disease results from genetic factors. Based on a population-based study in Denmark, genetic factors appear to contribute to development of diverticular disease. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Familial aggregation of arthritis-related diseases in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis: a register-based case-control study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Hellgren, Karin; Alfredsson, Lars; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klareskog, Lars; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with a family history of non-RA arthritis-related diseases. This familial co-aggregation is of clinical interest since it is often encountered when assessing family history of RA specifically, but also informative on the genetic overlap between these diseases. Since anticitrullinated peptide antibodies/rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive and RF-negative RA have both specific and shared genetic factors, the familial co-aggregation was assessed separately for seropositive and seronegative disease. Nested case-control study in prospectively recorded Swedish total population data. The Multi-Generation Register identified first-degree relatives. RA and arthritis-related diseases were ascertained through the nationwide patient register. RA serology was based on International Classification of Diseases tenth revision coded diagnoses, mainly reflecting RF. Familial risks were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results were replicated using the Swedish rheumatology register. Familial co-aggregation was found between RA and every studied arthritis-related disease, but the magnitude varied widely, from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (seropositive RA OR=3.98 (3.01 to 5.26); seronegative RA OR=5.70 (3.47 to 9.36)) to osteoarthritis (seropositive RA OR=1.03 (1.00 to 1.06); seronegative RA OR=1.05 (1.00 to 1.09)). The familial co-aggregation pattern of non-RA arthritis-related diseases was overall similar for seropositive and seronegative RA. Among those with family history of RA, relatives' other arthritis-related diseases conferred little or no additional risk. Although family history of several arthritis-related diseases may be useful to predict RA (eg, lupus and JIA), others (eg, osteoarthritis and arthralgia) are less useful. Seropositive and seronegative RA had rather similar familial co-aggregation patterns with arthritis-related diseases, suggesting that the two RA

  20. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  1. How Should Clinicians Counsel a Woman with a Strong Family History of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease about Her Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Marianna V; O'Brien, Barbara M; King, Louise P

    2017-07-01

    Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Dye concentration dependence of spectral triplet in one-dimensional photonic crystal with cyanine dye J-aggregate in strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sakata, Tomohiro; Takenobu, Ryouya; Uemura, Shinobu; Miyagawa, Hayato; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2017-10-01

    We report on the dye concentration dependence of nonlinear transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities containing cyanine dye J-aggregates. Using femtosecond nonlinear transmission spectroscopy, we observed a transition from a polariton doublet state to a spectral triplet state over the whole tested concentration range, even at room temperature. In these samples, changes in the dye concentration affected the Rabi splitting energy in the linear transmission measurements; however, we found that changes in the concentration did not greatly affect the triplet formation.

  3. CF-integrals: A new family of pre-aggregation functions with application to fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucca, G.; Sanz, A.; Dimuro, G. P.; Bedregal, B.; Bustince, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2018), s. 94-110 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : CF-integral * classification problems * pre-aggregation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/mesiar-0485363.pdf

  4. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. METHOD: A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986...... were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. RESULTS: SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders......, or conduct disorders in the family. Furthermore, male sex, more recent year of birth, and living in the capital city of Copenhagen were also significantly associated with having SUD. The family load explained 30% of the SUD manifestation in the case-probands. The findings in the total SUD group were mostly...

  5. Family aggregation and risk factors of obsessive-compulsive disorders in a nationwide three-generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    This nationwide register-based study investigates how often obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) with different age at diagnosis occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addresses the impact of certain risk factors, that is, sex, degree of urbanization, year...

  6. The strong commitment. The government of Vietnam has invested nearly 30% of its budget for all the social programs such as education, health, population and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Phuong Lan

    1995-01-01

    Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs.

  7. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...... without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained on the first-degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS). A family load component was obtained by using various mixed....... METHOD: A total of N = 2,370 child and adolescent psychiatric subjects born between 1951 and 1996 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had any mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed AN at some point during their life-time. In addition, N = 7,035 controls...

  8. Chronic health conditions and depressive symptoms strongly predict persistent food insecurity among rural low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.

  9. Family caregivers' involvement in caring for a hospitalized patient with cancer and their quality of life in a country with strong family bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendy, Christantie; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Setiyarini, Sri; Kristanti, Martina Sinta; Tejawinata, Sunaryadi; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    Being involved in caring for family members during illness is part of the Indonesian culture, even during hospitalization. It is unknown which factors influence the quality of life (QoL) of family members taking care of their loved ones. The present study aims to identify factors influencing the QoL of family caregivers of hospitalized patients with cancer in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Data were collected in a general hospital in Yogyakarta from September to December 2011. Family caregivers of patients with cancer were invited to participate. Regression analysis was used to determine which aspects of caring and which demographic characteristics influenced their QoL. The Caregiver QoL Index-Cancer questionnaire was used to measure the QoL. One hundred of 120 invited caregivers (83%) completed the questionnaire. Being involved in psychological issues in caring (β = 0.374; p = 0.000), younger age (β = -0.282; p = 0.003), no previous caring experience (β = -0.301; p = 0.001), and not being the spouse (β = -0.228; p = 0.015) negatively influenced the QoL and explained 31% of the variation (adjusted R(2)  = 0.312; F = 12.24; p = 0.000). Gender, education level, and time spent on caring did not influence the QoL of family caregivers. Our findings identified modifiable factors such as dealing with psychological issues and lack of experience in caring that negatively influenced the QoL of family caregivers. These factors are potential targets for intervention strategies. Education and intervention programs focusing on dealing with psychological problems in cancer care might improve the QoL of both patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

  11. Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Rebecca; Katani, Robab; Moreau, Matthew R; Kudva, Indira T; Arthur, Terrance M; DebRoy, Chitrita; Mwangi, Michael M; Albert, Istvan; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Li, Lingling; Brandl, Maria T; Carter, Michelle Q; Kapur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as "super-shedders" (SS), are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces). Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17) revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359), including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE) cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells.

  12. Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents' self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranøyen, Ingunn; Stenseng, Frode; Klöckner, Christian A; Wallander, Jan; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13-18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for

  13. The Familial Co-Aggregation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Intellectual Disability: A Register-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Ghirardi, Laura; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies document an association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability (ID), little is known about the etiology of this comorbidity and how it should be addressed in clinical settings. We sought to clarify this issue. All individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 2006 (n = 2,049,587) were identified using the Medical Birth Register (MBR). From this we selected 7 cohorts of relatives: 1,899,654 parent-offspring pairs, 4,180 monozygotic twin pairs, 12,655 dizygotic twin pairs, 914,848 full sibling pairs, 136,962 maternal half-sibling pairs, 134,502 paternal half-sibling pairs, and 2,790,164 full cousin pairs. We used within-individual and within-family analyses to assess the association between ADHD and ID. Individuals with ID were at increased risk for ADHD compared to those without ID, and relatives of participants with ID were at increased risk of ADHD compared with relatives of those without ID. The magnitude of this association was positively associated with the fraction of the genome shared by the relative pair and was lower for severe compared with mild and moderate ID. Model-fitting analyses demonstrated that 91% of the correlation between the liabilities of ADHD and ID was attributable to genetic factors. These data provide evidence that nearly all of the comorbidity between ADHD and ID can be attributed to genetic factors, which has implications for diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg–Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born–Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole–dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose–Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  15. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  16. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  17. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  18. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    OpenAIRE

    González-Fonteboa, B.; Martínez-Abella, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete produc...

  19. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  20. The disulfide isomerase ERp57 mediates platelet aggregation, hemostasis, and thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Ahmad, Syed S.; Zhou, Junsong; Wang, Lu; Cully, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    A close homologue to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) called ERp57 forms disulfide bonds in glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is expressed on the platelet surface. We generated 2 rabbit Abs to ERp57. One Ab strongly inhibited ERp57 in a functional assay and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation. There was minimal cross-reactivity of this Ab with PDI by Western blot or in the functional assay. This Ab substantially inhibited activation of the αIIbβ3 fibrinogen receptor and P-selectin expression. Furthermore, adding ERp57 to platelets potentiated aggregation. In contrast, adding a catalytically inactive ERp57 inhibited platelet aggregation. When infused into mice the inactive ERp57 prolonged the tail bleeding times. We generated 2 IgG2a mAbs that reacted with ERp57 by immunoblot. One of these Abs inhibited both ERp57 activity and platelet aggregation. The other Ab did not inhibit ERp57 activity or platelet aggregation. The inhibitory Ab inhibited activation of αIIbβ3 and P-selectin expression, prolonged tail bleeding times, and inhibited FeCl3-induced thrombosis in mice. Finally, we found that a commonly used mAb to PDI also inhibited ERp57 activity. We conclude that a glycoprotein-specific member of the PDI family, ERp57, is required for platelet aggregation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. PMID:22207737

  1. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work presents models of the vertical distribution and flux of phytoplankton aggregates, including changes with time in the ... in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface ... western parts, deep flux is strongly coupled to the increase in wind ...

  2. Strong convergence theorems for a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relativity nonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Habtu; Shahzad, Naseer

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators.

  3. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  4. Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, Armin; Bader, Benedikt; Bieschke, Jan; Schaffar, Gregor; Odoy, Sabine; Kahle, Philipp J.; Haass, Christian; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the key event in a number of human diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We present a general method to quantify and characterize protein aggregates by dual-colour scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT). In addition to high sensitivity, this approach offers a unique opportunity to study co-aggregation processes. As the ratio of two fluorescently labelled components can be analysed for each aggregate separately in a homogeneous assay, the molecular composition of aggregates can be studied even in samples containing a mixture of different types of aggregates. Using this method, we could show that wild-type α-synuclein forms co-aggregates with a mutant variant found in familial Parkinson's disease. Moreover, we found a striking increase in aggregate formation at non-equimolar mixing ratios, which may have important therapeutic implications, as lowering the relative amount of aberrant protein may cause an increase of protein aggregation leading to adverse effects

  5. Creep and shrinkage behaviour of concrete with mixed recycled aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Uijl, J. den

    1999-01-01

    For environmental reasons the interest in possibilities to use recycled aggregates in concrete is strongly increasing. World-wide, most attention with respect to recycled aggregates is paid to the quality of the aggregates. Still only limited information is available for the mechanica! properties of

  6. Slow Off-rates and Strong Product Binding Are Required for Processivity and Efficient Degradation of Recalcitrant Chitin by Family 18 Chitinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurašin, Mihhail; Kuusk, Silja; Kuusk, Piret; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit

    2015-01-01

    Processive glycoside hydrolases are the key components of enzymatic machineries that decompose recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose. The intrinsic processivity (PIntr) of cellulases has been shown to be governed by the rate constant of dissociation from polymer chain (koff). However, the reported koff values of cellulases are strongly dependent on the method used for their measurement. Here, we developed a new method for determining koff, based on measuring the exchange rate of the enzyme between a non-labeled and a 14C-labeled polymeric substrate. The method was applied to the study of the processive chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. In parallel, ChiA variants with weaker binding of the N-acetylglucosamine unit either in substrate-binding site −3 (ChiA-W167A) or the product-binding site +1 (ChiA-W275A) were studied. Both ChiA variants showed increased off-rates and lower apparent processivity on α-chitin. The rate of the production of insoluble reducing groups on the reduced α-chitin was an order of magnitude higher than koff, suggesting that the enzyme can initiate several processive runs without leaving the substrate. On crystalline chitin, the general activity of the wild type enzyme was higher, and the difference was magnifying with hydrolysis time. On amorphous chitin, the variants clearly outperformed the wild type. A model is proposed whereby strong interactions with polymer in the substrate-binding sites (low off-rates) and strong binding of the product in the product-binding sites (high pushing potential) are required for the removal of obstacles, like disintegration of chitin microfibrils. PMID:26468285

  7. Slow Off-rates and Strong Product Binding Are Required for Processivity and Efficient Degradation of Recalcitrant Chitin by Family 18 Chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurašin, Mihhail; Kuusk, Silja; Kuusk, Piret; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit

    2015-11-27

    Processive glycoside hydrolases are the key components of enzymatic machineries that decompose recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose. The intrinsic processivity (P(Intr)) of cellulases has been shown to be governed by the rate constant of dissociation from polymer chain (koff). However, the reported koff values of cellulases are strongly dependent on the method used for their measurement. Here, we developed a new method for determining koff, based on measuring the exchange rate of the enzyme between a non-labeled and a (14)C-labeled polymeric substrate. The method was applied to the study of the processive chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. In parallel, ChiA variants with weaker binding of the N-acetylglucosamine unit either in substrate-binding site -3 (ChiA-W167A) or the product-binding site +1 (ChiA-W275A) were studied. Both ChiA variants showed increased off-rates and lower apparent processivity on α-chitin. The rate of the production of insoluble reducing groups on the reduced α-chitin was an order of magnitude higher than koff, suggesting that the enzyme can initiate several processive runs without leaving the substrate. On crystalline chitin, the general activity of the wild type enzyme was higher, and the difference was magnifying with hydrolysis time. On amorphous chitin, the variants clearly outperformed the wild type. A model is proposed whereby strong interactions with polymer in the substrate-binding sites (low off-rates) and strong binding of the product in the product-binding sites (high pushing potential) are required for the removal of obstacles, like disintegration of chitin microfibrils. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The effect of communication change on long-term reductions in child exposure to conflict: impact of the promoting strong African American families (ProSAAF) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kogan, Steven M; Hurt, Tera R; Fincham, Frank D; Stanley, Scott M

    2014-12-01

    African American couples (n = 331) with children, 89% of whom were married, were assigned to either (a) a culturally sensitive couple- and parenting-enhancement program (ProSAAF) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials. Husbands averaged 41 years of age and wives averaged 39 years. We found significant effects of program participation in the short term on couple communication, which was targeted by the intervention, as well as over the long term, on self-reported arguing in front of children. Long-term parenting outcomes were fully mediated by changes in communication for wives, but not for husbands. For husbands, positive change depended on amount of wife reported change. We conclude that wives' changes in communication from baseline to posttest may be more pivotal for the couples' long-term experience of decreased arguing in front of children than are husbands' changes, with wives' changes leading to changes in both partners' reports of arguments in front of children. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  9. Plan Aggregation for Strong Cyclic Planning in Nondeterministic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    backtracks to the previous state s′ in S and adds the state-action (s′, a) pair leading to s to B , and adds s to the set of known-unsolvable states K (Line...enough to show that Find-Acceptable-Plan never backtracks from a state along a U -acceptable path to a goal. We show this by contradiction. Suppose...Find-Acceptable-Plan is backtracking for the first time from a partial plan p with associated sates s0, . . . , s from which there is a U -acceptable

  10. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  11. Catanionic aggregates stability and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The catanionic system cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide - myristic acid - water studied here has the advantage to produce aggregates with controlled charge. So, the ternary phase diagram presents some interesting aggregates (micelle, vesicle, disc, lamellar phase). The study of the CMC put in evidence some strong interactions between monomers: the interaction parameter is equal to -10 kT. On a microscopic point of view, the alkyl chains packing is hexagonal and we proved by WAXS and WANS that the head groups are liquid ordered. Moreover, the hydrogen bonds participate to the bilayer cohesion. The mechanical properties of the catanionic membrane are similar to the properties of phospholipids. We estimated the Young modulus to 100 MPa by compressibility measurements (acoustic propagation and Langmuir trough). The thermodynamic properties studied by DSC showed that the chain melting transition depends on the sample composition. (author) [fr

  12. Global Comparison Aggregation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongwei; Madnick, Stuart; Siegel, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Web aggregation has been available regionally for several years, but this service has not been offered globally. As an example, using multiple regional comparison aggregators, we analyze the global prices for a Sony camcorder, which differ by more than three times. We further explain that lack of global comparison aggregation services partially contribute to such huge price dispersion. We also discuss difficulties encountered in the manual integration of global web sources. Motivated by this ...

  13. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gorski

    2015-07-01

    Practical Implications: Anxiety disorders are highly related to suicidal behaviors, particularly in children and adolescents. Additionally, awaken bruxism can often serve as an indicator of anxiety or stress. By recognizing bruxism as a possible manifestation of psychological distress, the dental practitioner may be able to direct patients to life-saving services like psychologists and crisis hotlines when appropriate.

  14. Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit.......Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit....

  15. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  16. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  17. Laminopathy-inducing lamin A mutants can induce redistribution of lamin binding proteins into nuclear aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, S; Eam, J E; Hübner, A; Jans, D A

    2006-01-15

    Lamins, members of the family of intermediate filaments, form a supportive nucleoskeletal structure underlying the nuclear envelope and can also form intranuclear structures. Mutations within the A-type lamin gene cause a variety of degenerative diseases which are collectively referred to as laminopathies. At the molecular level, laminopathies have been shown to be linked to a discontinuous localization pattern of A-type lamins, with some laminopathies containing nuclear lamin A aggregates. Since nuclear aggregate formation could lead to the mislocalization of proteins interacting with A-type lamins, we set out to examine the effects of FLAG-lamin A N195K and R386K protein aggregate formation on the subnuclear distribution of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the sterol responsive element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) after coexpression as GFP-fusion proteins in HeLa cells. We observed strong recruitment of both proteins into nuclear aggregates. Nuclear aggregate recruitment of the NPC component nucleoporin NUP153 was also observed and found to be dependent on the N-terminus. That these effects were specific was implied by the fact that a number of other coexpressed karyophilic GFP-fusion proteins, such as the nucleoporin NUP98 and kanadaptin, did not coaggregate with FLAG-lamin A N195K or R386K. Immunofluorescence analysis further indicated that the precursor form of lamin A, pre-lamin A, could be found in intranuclear aggregates. Our results imply that redistribution into lamin A-/pre-lamin A-containing aggregates of proteins such as pRb and SREBP1a could represent a key aspect underlying the molecular pathogenesis of certain laminopathies.

  18. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassby, David

    2011-12-01

    decline in hydroxyl radical generation could be attributed to two key parameters. First, increased aggregate size was associated with increased particle shadowing, as determined from the observed decrease in the rate of optically induced transitions. Secondly, aggregate structure was associated both with increased shadowing (denser aggregates exhibited more shadowing than similarly sized loose aggregates), and with an increase in radical quenching on neighboring particle surfaces in an aggregate. Aggregation had a positive impact on hydroxylated fullerene membrane separation, increasing removal efficiency to around 80%, regardless of transmembrane pressure. However, the type of electrolyte used determined whether aggregation was successful at increasing removal. Divalent ions, capable of forming strong covalent bonds with surface oxygen groups, increased removal efficiency and made it pressure insensitive. In contrast, monovalent ions increased removal efficiency slightly, but maintained the pressure dependence of the removal efficiency. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that divalently aggregated hydroxylated fullerenes deform under increased pressure and partially penetrate the membrane. Finally, nanoparticle reactive properties depend on the primary particle aggregation state. Both size and structure are key factors when evaluating nanomaterial reactivity under aggregation-inducing conditions. However, the impact of aggregation is not easily predicted. Some materials exhibit a decreased reactivity while others experience an increase. Therefore, the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties must be evaluated on a material-by-material basis, while considering all of the particle and aggregate characteristics as well as environmental ones.

  19. Microbial Ecology of Soil Aggregation in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K. S.; Bell, S.; Tfailly, M.; Thompson, A.; Callister, S.

    2017-12-01

    in the abundance of chemical classes in clay loams compared to sandy loams. Together our data demonstrate that the potential for aggregation and C storage is strongly influenced by soil mineralogy with important implications for plant-microbe interactions that mediate C biogeochemistry.

  20. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  1. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  2. Multiple wave scattering from fractal aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korvin, Gabor E-mail: gabor@kfupm.edu.sa; Oleschko, Klavdia

    2004-01-01

    Multiple scattered waves from fractal aggregates create spurious resonances in the high-frequency part of the wave-field's Fourier spectrum. It is shown by a probabilistic convolutional model that for extended fractal media with strong scattering cross-section, multiple scattering can affect the value of the fractal dimension estimated from the wave-field's Fourier power spectrum.

  3. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  4. Sketching protein aggregation with a physics-based toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Marta; Rey, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We explore the applicability of a single-bead coarse-grained molecular model to describe the competition between protein folding and aggregation. We have designed very simple and regular sequences, based on our previous studies on peptide aggregation, that successfully fold into the three main protein structural families (all-α, all-β, and α + β). Thanks to equilibrium computer simulations, we evaluate how temperature and concentration promote aggregation. Aggregates have been obtained for all the amino acid sequences considered, showing that this process is common to all proteins, as previously stated. However, each structural family presents particular characteristics that can be related to its specific balance between hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. The model is very simple and has limitations, yet it is able to reproduce both the cooperative folding of isolated polypeptide chains with regular sequences and the formation of different types of aggregates at high concentrations.

  5. Aggregation of flexible polyelectrolytes: Phase diagram and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Anvy Moly; Rajesh, R; Vemparala, Satyavani

    2017-10-14

    Similarly charged polymers in solution, known as polyelectrolytes, are known to form aggregated structures in the presence of oppositely charged counterions. Understanding the dependence of the equilibrium phases and the dynamics of the process of aggregation on parameters such as backbone flexibility and charge density of such polymers is crucial for insights into various biological processes which involve biological polyelectrolytes such as protein, DNA, etc. Here, we use large-scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the phase diagram of the aggregated structures of flexible charged polymers and characterize the morphology of the aggregates as well as the aggregation dynamics, in the presence of trivalent counterions. Three different phases are observed depending on the charge density: no aggregation, a finite bundle phase where multiple small aggregates coexist with a large aggregate and a fully phase separated phase. We show that the flexibility of the polymer backbone causes strong entanglement between charged polymers leading to additional time scales in the aggregation process. Such slowing down of the aggregation dynamics results in the exponent, characterizing the power law decay of the number of aggregates with time, to be dependent on the charge density of the polymers. These results are contrary to those obtained for rigid polyelectrolytes, emphasizing the role of backbone flexibility.

  6. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  7. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: pvgomes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  8. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  9. Characterization of ZnS nanoparticle aggregation using photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassby, David; Wiesner, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Aggregation of uncoated ZnS nanoparticles was determined to have an unexpected impact on the particle's photoluminescent properties. Aggregation had significant consequences to both band-edge and trap-site photoluminescence, increasing the former and decreasing the latter. The onset of changes to photoluminescence was influenced by aggregation rate. Results suggest that aggregate structure plays an important role in determining the extent to which changes to photoluminescence occur. Strong evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that aggregation-induced changes to surface tension are responsible for the observed photoluminescence behavior. We show that changes in photoluminescence can be used to predict the attachment coefficient, in lieu of dynamic light scattering. Additionally, our data indicate that the particle size distribution of aggregating ZnS nanoparticles is invariant across electrolyte concentrations, at a given standard deviation away from the maximum rate of photoluminescence change.

  10. Structural study of aggregated β-carotene by absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li Ping; Wei, Liang Shu

    2017-10-01

    By UV-visible absorption spectroscope, the aggregated β-carotene in hydrated ethanol was studied in the temperature range of 5 55°C, with different ethanol/water ratio. And the structural evolutions of these aggregates with time were detected. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the aggregate of β-carotene formed in 1:1 ethanol/water solution transfered from H-type to J-type with temperature increase. In 2:1 ethanol/water solution a new type of aggregate with strong coupling was predicated by the appearing absorption peak located at about 550 nm. In the time scales of 48 houses all the aggregated structures were stable, but the absorption intensity decreased with time. It was concluded that the types of aggregated β-carotene which wouldn't change with time depended on the solvent composition and temperature.

  11. Estimating Bulk Entrainment With Unaggregated and Aggregated Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tobias; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how entrainment is influenced by convective organization, we use the ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) model in a radiative-convective equilibrium framework, with a 1 km spatial grid mesh covering a 600 by 520 km2 domain. We analyze two simulations, with unaggregated and aggregated convection, and find that, in the lower free troposphere, the bulk entrainment rate increases when convection aggregates. The increase of entrainment rate with aggregation is caused by a strong increase of turbulence in the close environment of updrafts, masking other effects like the increase of updraft size and of static stability with aggregation. Even though entrainment rate increases with aggregation, updraft buoyancy reduction through entrainment decreases because aggregated updrafts are protected by a moist shell. Parameterizations that wish to represent mesoscale convective organization would need to model this moist shell.

  12. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The cont......A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated....... The control system is able to adjust the consumptions of the heat pump without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the total consumption to hours with high wind energy production....

  13. Colloid release from soil aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  14. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...

  15. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  16. Geoinformation Generalization by Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geoinformation generalization can be divided into model generalization and cartographic generalization. Model generalization is the supervised reduction of data in a model, while cartographic generalization is the reduction of the complexity of map content adapted to the map scale, and/or use by various generalization operators (procedures. The topic of this paper is the aggregation of geoinformation. Generally, aggregation is the joining of nearby, congenial objects, when the distance between them is smaller than the minimum sizes. Most researchers in geoinformation generalization have focused on line features. However, the appearance of web-maps with point features and choropleth maps has led to the development of concepts and algorithms for the generalization of point and polygonal features. This paper considers some previous theoretical premises and actual examples of aggregation for point, line and polygonal features. The algorithms for aggregation implemented in commercial and free GIS software were tested. In the conclusion, unresolved challenges that occur in dynamic cartographic visualizations and cases of unusual geometrical features are highlighted.

  17. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  20. Green frame aggregation scheme for Wi-Fi networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslani, Maha S.

    2015-07-01

    Frame aggregation is a major enhancement in the IEEE 802.11 family to boost the network performance. The increasing awareness about energy efficiency motivates the re-think of frame aggregation design. In this paper, we propose a novel Green Frame Aggregation (GFA) scheduling scheme that optimizes the aggregate size based on channel quality in order to minimize the consumed energy. GFA selects an optimal sub-frame size that satisfies the loss constraint for real-time applications as well as the energy budget of the ideal channel. This scheme is implemented and evaluated using a testbed deployment. The experimental analysis shows that GFA outperforms the conventional frame aggregation methodology in terms of energy efficiency by about 6x in the presence of severe interference conditions. Moreover, GFA outperforms the static frame sizing method in terms of network goodput while maintaining the same end-to-end latency.

  1. Qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  2. Migrativity of aggregation functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustince, H.; Montero, J.; Mesiar, Radko

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 766-777 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Aggregation functions * Associativity * Bisymmetry * Migrativity * Nullnorms * t-Norms * Uninorms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/masiar-migrativityofaggregationfunctions.pdf

  3. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Tenório, J. J. L.; Gomes, P. C. C.; Rodrigues, C. C.; Alencar, T. F. F. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW), which were d...

  4. Determining the familial risk distribution of colorectal cancer: A data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rowena; Jenkins, Mark A.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ouakrim, Driss Ait; Giles, Graham G.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hopper, John L.; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to characterize the distribution of colorectal cancer risk using family history of cancers by data mining. Family histories for 10,066 colorectal cancer cases recruited to population cancer registries of the Colon Cancer Family Registry were analyzed using a data mining framework. A novel index was developed to quantify familial cancer aggregation. Artificial neural network was used to identify distinct categories of familial risk. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer were calculated for each category. We identified five major, and sixty-six minor categories of familial risk for developing colorectal cancer. The distribution the major risk categories were: (i) 7% of families (SIR=7.11; 95%CI=6.65–7.59) had a strong family history of colorectal cancer; (ii) 13% of families (SIR=2.94; 95%CI=2.78–3.10) had a moderate family history of colorectal cancer; (iii) 11% of families (SIR=1.23; 95%CI=1.12–1.36) had a strong family history of breast cancer and weak family history of colorectal cancer; (iv) 9% of families (SIR=1.06; 95% CI=0.96–1.18) had a strong family history of prostate cancer and a weak family history of colorectal cancer; and (v) 60% of families (SIR=0.61; 95%CI=0.57–0.65) had weak family history of all cancers. There is a wide variation of colorectal cancer risk that can be categorized by family history of cancer, with a strong gradient of colorectal cancer risk between the highest and lowest risk categories. The risk of colorectal cancer for people with the highest risk category of family history (7% of the population) was 12-times that for people in the lowest risk category (60%) of the population. Data mining was proven an effective approach for gaining insight into the underlying cancer aggregation patterns and for categorizing familial risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:26681340

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of interfacial interactions between small nanoparticles during diffusion-limited aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jing; Liu, Dongmei; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Haixing; Tang, Huan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion-limited aggregation is analyzed using molecular dynamic simulations. • The aggregation processand aggregate structure vary with particle size. • Particle-particle interaction and surface diffusion result in direct bonding. • Water-mediated interaction is responsible for the separation betweennanoparticles. - Abstract: Due to the limitations of experimental methods at the atomic level, research on the aggregation of small nanoparticles (D < 5 nm) in aqueous solutions is quite rare. The aggregation of small nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is very different than that of normal sized nanoparticles. The interfacial interactions play a dominant role in the aggregation of small nanoparticles. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations, which can explore the microscopic behavior of nanoparticles during the diffusion-limited aggregation at an atomic level, were employed to reveal the aggregation mechanism of small nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. First, the aggregation processes and aggregate structure were depicted. Second, the particle–particle interaction and surface diffusion of nanoparticles during aggregation were investigated. Third, the water-mediated interactions during aggregation were ascertained. The results indicate that the aggregation of nanoparticle in aqueous solutions is affected by particle size. The strong particle–particle interaction and high surface diffusion result in the formation of particle–particle bonds of 2 nm TiO 2 nanoparticles, and the water-mediated interaction plays an important role in the aggregation process of 3 and 4 nm TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  8. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  9. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557

  10. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  11. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, J.K.; Okkes, I.; Oskam, S.; Boven, K. van; Zivotic, P.; Jevtic, M.; Dobbs, F.; Lamberts, H.; Transition, P.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in

  12. An international comparative family medicine study of the Transition Project data from the Netherlands, Malta, Japan and Serbia. An analysis of diagnostic odds ratios aggregated across age bands, years of observation and individual practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, Jean K.; Okkes, Inge; Oskam, Sibo; van Boven, Kees; Zivotic, Predrag; Jevtic, Milan; Dobbs, Frank; Lamberts, Henk; van Boven, C.; Dijksterhuis, P. H.; Groen, A.; de Haan, J.; Honselaar-de Groot, A. M.; Janssen, D.; Polman, T. A. L.; Polderman, G. O.; Stolp, K. E. I.; Valken, N.; Veltman, M. T. M.; Woerdeman, M.; Calleja, Francis Paul; Sammut, Carmen; Sammut, Mario R.; Sammut, Daniel; Sammut, David; Bonnici, Jason; Buhagiar, John; Baldacchino, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of the process of diagnosis in family medicine (FM) in four practice populations from the Netherlands, Malta, Serbia and Japan. Diagnostic odds ratios (ORs) for common reasons for encounter (RfEs) and episode titles are used to study the process of diagnosis in international FM and

  13. Microfluidic magnetic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles: Effects of aggregate length and nanoparticle sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiemsakul, Thanakorn [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Manakasettharn, Supone, E-mail: supone@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Kanharattanachai, Sivakorn; Wanna, Yongyuth [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Wangsuya, Sujint [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 272 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2017-01-15

    We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves using magnetic nanoparticles blended within the working fluid as an alternative microfluidic flow control in microchannels. Y-shaped microchannels have been fabricated by using a CO{sub 2} laser cutter to pattern microchannels on transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets covered with thermally bonded transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. To examine the performance of the microfluidic magnetic switching valves, an aqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspension was injected into the microchannels by a syringe pump. Neodymium magnets were then employed to attract magnetic nanoparticles and form an aggregate that blocked the microchannels at a required position. We have found that the maximum volumetric flow rate of the syringe pump that the magnetic nanoparticle aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. The viscosity of the fluid exhibits dependent on the aggregate length and the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. This microfluidic switching valve based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles has strong potentials as an on-demand flow control, which may help simplifying microfluidic channel designs. - Highlights: • We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic particles. • Maximum flow rate that the aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. • Aggregates with smaller magnetic nanoparticle size can withstand higher flow rate. • Aggregate length exhibits a linear dependence with flow resistance of a viscous fluid.

  14. Mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercker, Moritz; Köthe, Alexandra; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-05-05

    Tissue morphogenesis comprises the self-organized creation of various patterns and shapes. Although detailed underlying mechanisms are still elusive in many cases, an increasing amount of experimental data suggests that chemical morphogen and mechanical processes are strongly coupled. Here, we develop and test a minimal model of the axis-defining step (i.e., symmetry breaking) in aggregates of the Hydra polyp. Based on previous findings, we combine osmotically driven shape oscillations with tissue mechanics and morphogen dynamics. We show that the model incorporating a simple feedback loop between morphogen patterning and tissue stretch reproduces a wide range of experimental data. Finally, we compare different hypothetical morphogen patterning mechanisms (Turing, tissue-curvature, and self-organized criticality). Our results suggest the experimental investigation of bigger (i.e., multiple head) aggregates as a key step for a deeper understanding of mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle aggregation in microgravity: Informal experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Pettit, Donald R.; Messenger, Scott R.

    2014-05-01

    We conducted experiments in space to investigate the aggregation of millimeter- and submillimeter-sized particles in microgravity, an important early step in planet formation. Particulate materials included salt (NaCl), sugar (sucrose), coffee, mica, ice, Bjurböle chondrules, ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite meteorite fragments, and acrylic and glass beads, all triply confined in clear plastic containers. Angular submillimeter particles rapidly and spontaneously formed clusters strong enough to survive turbulence in a protoplanetary nebula. Smaller particles generally aggregated more strongly and quickly than larger ones. We observed only a weak dependence of aggregation time on particle number density. We observed no strong dependence on composition. Round, smooth particles aggregated weakly or not at all. In a mixture of particle types, some phases aggregated more readily than others, creating selection effects that controlled the composition of the growing clumps. The physical process of aggregation appears to be electrostatic in nature.

  16. Strong interactions - quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    The variational method is used for the PSI and upsilon family spectra reproduction from the quark model, through several phenomenological potentials, viz.: linear, linear plus coulomb term and logarithmic. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  18. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  19. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  20. The effect of limestone aggregate porosity and saturation degree on the interfacial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Le Saout, G.; Devillers, P.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of concrete wastes concerns the nuclear industry as many nuclear facilities will have to be dismantled and the reduction and reuse of the decommissioning concrete wastes in order to minimize the total waste volume is a key issue. The recycled aggregates have the potential to replace natural resources however it is necessary to assess the effect of recycled aggregates on the final concrete. One important issue to be addressed to achieve the required mechanical properties is the water absorption of the recycled aggregates. As a first step, we have used in this study limestone aggregates with different porosities (total porosity from 2 to 20 %) and have investigated the influence of the porosity and the initial saturation degree of these aggregates on the porosity of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) using scanning electron microscope. The equation of Feret for the strength-porosity relationship of our mortars was applied σ = K(100-p) 2 where σ is the compressive strength in MPa, p is the capillary pore volume in % and K a constant. Aggregates with lower porosity follow the same law characterized by a K value higher than the value for the more porous aggregate law. The K parameter is not dependent of the humidity degree of the aggregate: for a given aggregate, family mortars made with dry and wet aggregate follow the same law. But for porous aggregates as the meso-porosity of the ITZ for a given time of hydration is higher for mortars made with wet aggregates, the compressive strength of these mortars is less than those of mortars made with dry aggregates. Contrary to the low porous aggregate, it was not possible for porous limestone aggregates, and with a calculation based on the saturated surface dry state as reference state to obtain the same net water to cement ratio with wet and dry aggregates. This study reflects the difficulty to control the amount of efficient water in concrete when using porous aggregates and its influence on compressive

  1. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  2. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  3. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  4. The Poisson aggregation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the Poisson Aggregation Process (PAP): a stochastic model in which a random collection of random balls is stacked over a general metric space. The scattering of the balls’ centers follows a general Poisson process over the metric space, and the balls’ radii are independent and identically distributed random variables governed by a general distribution. For each point of the metric space, the PAP counts the number of balls that are stacked over it. The PAP model is a highly versatile spatial counterpart of the temporal M/G/∞ model in queueing theory. The surface of the moon, scarred by circular meteor-impact craters, exemplifies the PAP model in two dimensions: the PAP counts the number of meteor-impacts that any given moon-surface point sustained. A comprehensive analysis of the PAP is presented, and the closed-form results established include: general statistics, stationary statistics, short-range and long-range dependencies, a Central Limit Theorem, an Extreme Limit Theorem, and fractality.

  5. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper

    2017-12-21

    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole-dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a destructive interference in the annihilation probability. For J-aggregates, where this sign is negative, the interference is constructive instead; as a result, no such coherent suppression of the annihilation rate occurs. As a consequence, room temperature annihilation rates of typical H- and J-aggregates differ by a factor of ∼3, while an order of magnitude difference is found for low-temperature aggregates with a low degree of disorder. These findings, which explain experimental observations, reveal a fundamental principle underlying exciton-exciton annihilation, with major implications for technological devices and experimental studies involving high excitation densities.

  6. Exciton–Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole–dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a destructive interference in the annihilation probability. For J-aggregates, where this sign is negative, the interference is constructive instead; as a result, no such coherent suppression of the annihilation rate occurs. As a consequence, room temperature annihilation rates of typical H- and J-aggregates differ by a factor of ∼3, while an order of magnitude difference is found for low-temperature aggregates with a low degree of disorder. These findings, which explain experimental observations, reveal a fundamental principle underlying exciton–exciton annihilation, with major implications for technological devices and experimental studies involving high excitation densities. PMID:29190421

  7. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  9. Kinetics of aggregation with choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. We also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  10. Kinetics of aggregation with choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. We also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  11. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage. In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members.

  12. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. Guidelines for Collecting Aggregations of Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William H.; Demas, Samuel G.; Stewart, Linda; Weintraub, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Presents three criteria (content, coherence, and functionality) for selecting aggregated World Wide Web resources and planning presentations of aggregated resources in library catalogs and Web pages. Ensuring access to aggregated resources is also discussed. (PEN)

  15. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  16. Laser characterization of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to establish the feasibility of using a laser monitoring system to provide real-time data to characterize aggregate properties in a laboratory or field environment. This was accomplished by using...

  17. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  20. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

    2008-04-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice.

  1. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole-dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a

  2. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  3. Aggregation, organic matter, and iron oxide morphology in oxisols from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muggler, C.C.; Griethuysen, van C.; Buurman, P.; Pape, T.

    1999-01-01

    The characteristic strong aggregation observed in Oxisols is usually attributed to the presence of free aluminium or iron compounds. Previous investigation of Oxisols from Minas Gerais, Brazil, suggested that iron oxide minerals do not necessarily play a role in aggregation. Oxisol profiles

  4. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  5. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  6. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  7. Congenital myopathy with tubular aggregates: report on two siblings from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanappa, Gayathri; Nalini, Atchayaram; Thaha, Fazil

    2009-07-01

    The clinical features and morphological findings in 2 Indian siblings with tubular aggregates are described. The siblings aged 14 and 9 years, respectively, born of consanguineous marriage presented with early onset gradually progressive lower limb proximal muscle weakness associated with seizures and mental subnormality. Muscle biopsy in both revealed characteristic tubular aggregates in type II fibers, which were confirmed electron microscopically. To the best of our knowledge, association of seizures and mental subnormality in familial tubular aggregates has not been described. Muscle biopsy helped in establishing the diagnosis of this rare familial disorder.

  8. A Family Study of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Pathology Model Using the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Andrea C; Hee, Danelle; Hooker, Christine I; Shankman, Stewart A

    2017-10-03

    In Section III of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposes a pathological personality trait model of personality disorders. The recommended assessment instrument is the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5), an empirically derived scale that assesses personality pathology along five domains and 25 facets. Although the PID-5 demonstrates strong convergent validity with other personality measures, no study has examined whether it identifies traits that run in families, another important step toward validating the DSM-5's dimensional model. Using a family study method, we investigated familial associations of PID-5 domain and facet scores in 195 families, examining associations between parents and offspring and across siblings. The Psychoticism, Antagonism, and Detachment domains showed significant familial aggregation, as did facets of Negative Affect and Disinhibition. Results are discussed in the context of personality pathology and family study methodology. The results also help validate the PID-5, given the familial nature of personality traits.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  13. MBAR-enhanced lattice Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of helices on membrane protein aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanwei; Rodger, P. Mark

    2017-03-01

    We study the effect of helical structure on the aggregation of proteins using a simplified lattice protein model with an implicit membrane environment. A recently proposed Monte Carlo approach, which exploits the proven statistical optimality of the MBAR estimator in order to improve simulation efficiency, was used. The results show that with both two and four proteins present, the tendency to aggregate is strongly expedited by the presence of amphipathic helix (APH), whereas a transmembrane helix (TMH) slightly disfavours aggregation. When four protein molecules are present, partially aggregated states (dimers and trimers) were more common when the APH was present, compared with the cases where no helices or only the TMH is present.

  14. The effect of carbohydrates and lipids on the radiation-induced aggregation of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1977-01-01

    Myoglobin, ovalbumin and serum albumin have been irradiated in aqueous solution in the presence of varying amounts of carbohydrates and lipids, simulating a model food. Gel chromatography revealed the induction of protein aggregates, the formation of which depended strongly on protein concentration. The addition of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch) greatly reduced the amount of radiation-induced aggregates, whereas the addition of lipids (sunflower oil) had practically no effect on aggregate formation. However, if both carbohydrates and lipids were added, the decrease in aggregation caused by the carbohydrate addition was counteracted by the addition of the lipid; as increasing amounts of lipid were added, the effect of carbohydrate addition became smaller. (author)

  15. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level. They are...

  16. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  17. Socio-economic determinants of mortality in Taiwan: combining individual and aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Gonzalez, Roberto; Tseng, Fu Min

    2011-01-01

    There is a very large literature that examines the relationship between health and income. Two main hypotheses have been investigated: the income inequality hypothesis and the absolute income hypothesis. Most of previous studies that used mortality data have been criticized for estimating an aggregate model that does not account for non-linear links between health and income at the individual level. In this paper we follow a novel approach to avoid this bias, combining aggregate mortality data with individual-level data on socio-economic characteristics. We test the income inequality and absolute income hypotheses using county-level mortality data from Life Statistic of Department of Health and individual-level data from Taiwan census Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) for 1976-2004. We find the evidence to support the absolute income hypothesis but not income inequality hypothesis in the case of the general population. We also find strong evidence that education does have significant effects on individuals' health and the estimates are not sensitive to income equivalent scales. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  19. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  20. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  1. Platelet aggregates and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a condition characterized by haemodynamic vascular stress and abnormal blood flow under high pressure and it is associated with complications that are, paradoxically, thrombotic rather than haemorrhagic. Spontaneous platelet aggregation has been known to be present in hypertension which predicts ...

  2. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. Interrelationships of glycosylation and aggregation kinetics for Peniophora lycii phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg-Nielsen, R.; Fuglsang, C.C.; Arleth, L.

    2006-01-01

    to 10-100 molecules) of the enzyme. The thermodynamic stability of the two forms was also investigated using scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the glycans strongly promoted kinetic stability (i.e., reduced the rate of irreversible denaturation) while leaving the equilibrium denaturation...... temperature, T-d, defined by DSC, largely unaltered. At pH 4.5-5.0, for example, dgPhy aggregated similar to 200 times faster than Phy, even though the difference in T-d was only 1-3 degrees C. To elucidate the mechanism by which the glycans promote kinetic stability, we measured the effect of ionic strength...... and temperature on the aggregation rate. Also, the second virial coefficients (B-22) for the two forms were measured by SLS. These results showed that the aggregation rate of Phy scaled with the concentration of thermally denatured protein. This suggested first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration...

  7. Mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic in the period 1999-2002: typology and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precali, Robert; Giani, Michele; Marini, Mauro; Grilli, Federica; Ferrari, Carla R; Pecar, Osvin; Paschini, Elio

    2005-12-15

    The spatial and temporal distributions of different types of visible mucilaginous aggregates were investigated monthly by underwater video cameras in the northern Adriatic (NA) from June 1999 to July 2002. Small aggregates (flocs, macroflocs and stringers) were observed in all seasons with higher values in autumn and winter. Larger aggregates (ribbons, cobwebs, clouds, and false bottoms) formed only during late-spring and summer, particularly in 2000 and 2002, when the seasonal thermohaline stratification was marked. In fact, the process of mucilage formation took place mainly in the upper water column, above the main pycnocline. The spatial distribution shows that higher concentrations of small aggregates occur in the more productive coastal waters. The larger aggregates form or accumulate mainly in coastal waters in the southern part of the NA and in the central part of the Po River delta-Rovinj transect, where a gyre greatly influences the aggregates distribution. The fronts between low salinity coastal waters and high salinity waters of southern origin play an important role for accumulation and aggregation of the mucilage during spring and summer. Most of the aggregates accumulate in correspondence with strong pycnoclines with differences in density anomaly of 2 kg m(-3) or higher. False bottoms formed in correspondence with strong haloclines (DeltaS congruent with 2), while cobwebs and ribbons also occurred when the halocline was less marked (DeltaS<0.5). Meteorological conditions greatly influenced the aggregate formation. Calm weather and weak winds favour aggregation processes, while strong north-easterly winds, causing intense mixing, result in the dispersion of the mucilaginous aggregates, as occurred during the Bora event in July 2000.

  8. Dissecting the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders on the basis of familial-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Victor; Fañanás, Lourdes; Martín-Reyes, Migdyrai; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2017-09-14

    This study examines the familial aggregation (familiality) of different phenotypic definitions of catatonia in a sample of multiplex families with psychotic and mood disorders. Participants were probands with a lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV functional psychotic disorder, their parents and at least one first-degree relative with a psychotic disorder. The study sample included 441 families comprising 2703 subjects, of whom 1094 were affected and 1609 unaffected. Familiality (h 2 ) was estimated by linear mixed models using family membership as a random effect, with h 2 indicating the portion of phenotypic variance accounted for by family membership. Familiality estimates highly varied for individual catatonia signs (h 2 =0.17-0.65), principal component analysis-derived factors (h 2 =0.29-0.49), number of catatonia signs present (h 2 =0.03-0.43) and severity of the catatonia syndrome (h 2 =0.25-0.59). Phenotypes maximizing familiality estimates included individual signs (mutism and rigidity, both h 2 =0.65), presence of ≥5 catatonia signs (h 2 =0.43), a classical catatonia factor (h 2 =0.49), a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome at a severity level of moderate or higher (h 2 =0.59) and the diagnostic construct of psychosis with prominent catatonia features (h 2 =0.56). Familiality estimates of a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome did not significantly differ across the diagnostic categories of psychotic and mood disorders (h 2 =0.40-0.47). The way in which catatonia is defined has a strong impact on familiality estimates with some catatonia phenotypes exhibiting substantial familial aggregation, which may inform about the most adequate phenotypes for molecular studies. From a familial-genetic perspective, the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders has a transdiagnostic character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The DNAJB6 and DNAJB8 protein chaperones prevent intracellular aggregation of polyglutamine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Judith; Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Gruber, Anna; Coolen, Silvia; van den Nieuwendijk, Rian; van Veen, Henk; Overkleeft, Hermen; Goedhart, Joachim; Kampinga, Harm H; Reits, Eric A

    2013-06-14

    Fragments of proteins containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are thought to initiate aggregation and toxicity in at least nine neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Because proteasomes appear unable to digest the polyQ tract, which can initiate intracellular protein aggregation, preventing polyQ peptide aggregation by chaperones should greatly improve polyQ clearance and prevent aggregate formation. Here we expressed polyQ peptides in cells and show that their intracellular aggregation is prevented by DNAJB6 and DNAJB8, members of the DNAJ (Hsp40) chaperone family. In contrast, HSPA/Hsp70 and DNAJB1, also members of the DNAJ chaperone family, did not prevent peptide-initiated aggregation. Intriguingly, DNAJB6 and DNAJB8 also affected the soluble levels of polyQ peptides, indicating that DNAJB6 and DNAJB8 inhibit polyQ peptide aggregation directly. Together with recent data showing that purified DNAJB6 can suppress fibrillation of polyQ peptides far more efficiently than polyQ expanded protein fragments in vitro, we conclude that the mechanism of DNAJB6 and DNAJB8 is suppression of polyQ protein aggregation by directly binding the polyQ tract.

  10. Graph Theory and Ion and Molecular Aggregation in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Hochan; Choi, Hyung Ran; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-04-20

    In molecular and cellular biology, dissolved ions and molecules have decisive effects on chemical and biological reactions, conformational stabilities, and functions of small to large biomolecules. Despite major efforts, the current state of understanding of the effects of specific ions, osmolytes, and bioprotecting sugars on the structure and dynamics of water H-bonding networks and proteins is not yet satisfactory. Recently, to gain deeper insight into this subject, we studied various aggregation processes of ions and molecules in high-concentration salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation methods. It turns out that ions (or solute molecules) have a strong propensity to self-assemble into large and polydisperse aggregates that affect both local and long-range water H-bonding structures. In particular, we have shown that graph-theoretical approaches can be used to elucidate morphological characteristics of large aggregates in various aqueous salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions. When ion and molecular aggregates in such aqueous solutions are treated as graphs, a variety of graph-theoretical properties, such as graph spectrum, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, minimum path length, and graph entropy, can be directly calculated by considering an ensemble of configurations taken from molecular dynamics trajectories. Here we show percolating behavior exhibited by ion and molecular aggregates upon increase in solute concentration in high solute concentrations and discuss compelling evidence of the isomorphic relation between percolation transitions of ion and molecular aggregates and water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the combination of graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation methods will be of exceptional use in achieving a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical chemistry of dissolution and in describing the interplay between the self-aggregation of solute

  11. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  13. Shape characterization of concrete aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Hu, J.

    2006-01-01

    As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In

  14. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  15. Synthesis and studies of axial chiral bisbenzocoumarins: Aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties and aggregation-annihilation circular dichroism effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojin; Liu, Wei; Ge, Zhaohai; Zhang, Wenxuan; Wang, Kunpeng; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    Axial chiral bisbenzocoumarins were synthesized for the first time by converting naphthanol units in 1,1‧-binaphthol (BINOL) molecule to the benzocoumarin rings. The substitute groups on 3,3‧-positions of bisbenzocoumarins showed significant influence on their aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AEE) properties. It was also found that BBzC1 with ester groups on 3,3‧-positions exhibit an abnormal aggregation-annihilation circular dichroism (AACD) phenomenon, which could be caused by the decrease of the dihedral angle between adjacent benzocoumarin rings in the aggregation state. The single crystal structure of BBzC1 showed that the large dihedral angle in molecule prohibited the strong π-π stacking interactions, which could be main factors for its AEE properties.

  16. Universal timescales in the rheology of spheroid cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Mahtabfar, Aria; Beleen, Paul; Foty, Ramsey; Zahn, Jeffrey; Shreiber, David; Liu, Liping; Lin, Hao

    2017-11-01

    The rheological properties of tissue play important roles in key biological processes including embryogenesis, cancer metastasis, and wound healing. Spheroid cell aggregate is a particularly interesting model system for the study of these phenomena. In the long time, they behave like drops with a surface tension. In the short, viscoelasticity also needs to be considered. In this work, we discover two coupled and universal timescales for spheroid aggregates. A total of 12 aggregate types (total aggregate number n =290) derived from L and GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) cells are studied with microtensiometer to obtain their surface tension. They are also allowed to relax upon release of the compression forces. The two timescales are observed during the relaxation process; their values do not depend on compression time nor the degree of deformation, and are consistent among all 12 types. Following prior work (Yu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 115:128303; Liu et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 98:309-329) we use a rigorous mathematical theory to interpret the results, which reveals intriguing properties of the aggregates on both tissue and cellular levels. The mechanics of multicellular organization reflects both complexity and regularity due to strong active regulation.

  17. Hawaiian spinner dolphins aggregate midwater food resources through cooperative foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that spinner dolphins in Hawaii may actively aggregate their prey through cooperative foraging, a 200-kHz multi-beam sonar (Simrad MS2000) was used to observe 323 groups of spinner dolphins foraging within a midwater, micronekton sound-scattering layer off Oahu. Strong cooperation was observed in groups of 8-14 pairs of spinner dolphins. The dolphin group size was highest at midnight when the density of prey was highest and was significantly higher in Makua Beach, where the prey density was higher, than Electric Beach, where the prey density was lower. Cooperative groups of dolphins aggregated their food resources, apparently using their preys' avoidance behavior to create distinct, high-density patches in the prey. Prey aggregation was strongly stereo-typed, regardless of the distribution of the scattering layer. Dolphins swam around the edge of a 28-40 m diameter circle at least 5 times, concentrating prey within this area before pairs of dolphins on opposite sides of the circle swapped positions in the circle, swimming through the high density prey 'donut' they had formed. The hypothesis that nocturnal animals aggregate prey in midwater could not have been tested without the three-dimensional information on prey distribution and dolphin geometry provided by the multi-beam.

  18. HomeFront Strong (HFS): Building Resiliency in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    teaches you how to center yourself in the moment • Optimism • Breathing • Affirmations and Mantras • Progressive Muscle Relaxat ion • Visualization...negative thoughts Exercising Iii Practic ing mantras Going for a walk or a run ~ Socializing with f riends or fami ly Meditation 8 Finding comedic...Breathing • Affirmations, Mantras , and Monos • Progressive Musc le Relaxat ion • Visualization • Guided Imagery • Mindfulness *’***%’* FIB

  19. HomeFront Strong (HFS): Building Resiliency in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Total Community Organizations Visited: 14 Facebook Advertising Date Purpose Reach January 2016 HFS marketing and participant recruitment 10,032...program promotion 1 8/4/16 Wives of PTSD Vets and Military Facebook Page HFS program promotion 1 8/11/16 DTW USO/Freedom Center HFS program

  20. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  1. Molecular dynamics study of the potential of mean force of SDS aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shinji; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Yoshii, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    In our previous study, all-atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been carried out for the aggregation of ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate in water [S. Kawada et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 646, 36 (2016)]. Aggregates of 20-30 dodecyl sulfate ions were formed within a short MD run for 10 ns. However, further aggregation did not occur despite a long MD calculation for more than 100 ns. This suggests that strong electrostatic repulsive interactions between the aggregates prevent the fusion of the aggregates. In the present study, mean force and potential of mean force acting between two aggregates with aggregation number N = 30 were evaluated as a function of their separation by MD calculations. The repulsive force becomes strong with decreasing distance between the two aggregates before they merge into one. An origin of the repulsive force is an electric double layer formed by the sulfate group and counter sodium ions. Strength of the repulsive force is in good agreement with the theoretical value given by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Once the aggregates establish contact, the force between them turns to be a large attractive force that can be explained by the interfacial tension. In order to form a single micelle from the two aggregates, it is necessary for them to climb over a free energy barrier of 23 kJ/mol. Once, the barrier is overcome, the micelle is stabilized by ˜200 kJ/mol. The time constant of aggregation evaluated from the calculated free energy barrier was about 28 μs at the concentration in our previous study.

  2. Role of multicellular aggregates in biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Hutchison, Jaime B.; Melaugh, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    initiation and development is not known. Here we use a combination of experimental and computational approaches to determine the relative fitness of single cells and preformed aggregates during early development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. We find that the relative fitness of aggregates depends...... markedly on the density of surrounding single cells, i.e., the level of competition for growth resources. When competition between aggregates and single cells is low, an aggregate has a growth disadvantage because the aggregate interior has poor access to growth resources. However, if competition is high......, aggregates exhibit higher fitness, because extending vertically above the surface gives cells at the top of aggregates better access to growth resources. Other advantages of seeding by aggregates, such as earlier switching to a biofilm-like phenotype and enhanced resilience toward antibiotics and immune...

  3. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  4. Estimation of Line Efficiency by Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractPresents a multi-stage flow lines with intermediate buffers approximated by two-stage lines using repeated aggregation. Characteristics of the aggregation method; Problems associated with the analysis and design of production lines.

  5. Parametric characterization of aggregation functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Kolesárová, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 816-831 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Aggregation function * Conjunction measure * Disjunction measure * Global/local parametric characterization * Idempotency measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/mesiar-parametriccharacterizationofaggregationfunctions.pdf

  6. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  7. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (<strong>1strong>. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (<strong>13strong> and [6]-shogaol (<strong>17strong> exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (<strong>15strong> inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  8. Scaling of transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation due to magnetic nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Issadore, David; Berezovsky, Jesse; Cima, Michael J.; Westervelt, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles decreases the transverse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time T 2 CP of adjacent water molecules measured by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse-echo sequence. This effect is commonly used to measure the concentrations of a variety of small molecules. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of water diffusing around SPIO nanoparticle aggregates to determine the relationship between T 2 CP and details of the aggregate. We find that in the motional averaging regime T 2 CP scales as a power law with the number N of nanoparticles in an aggregate. The specific scaling is dependent on the fractal dimension d of the aggregates. We find T 2 CP ∝Ν -0.44 for aggregates with d=2.2, a value typical of diffusion limited aggregation. We also find that in two-nanoparticle systems, T 2 CP is strongly dependent on the orientation of the two nanoparticles relative to the external magnetic field, which implies that it may be possible to sense the orientation of a two-nanoparticle aggregate. To optimize the sensitivity of SPIO nanoparticle sensors, we propose that it is best to have aggregates with few nanoparticles, close together, measured with long pulse-echo times.

  9. Properties of cold-bonded lightweight artificial aggregate containing bottom ash with different curing regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Ibrahim, Norlia; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Che Amat, Roshazita; Mohamad Ghazali, Mohamad Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Cold-bonded pelletizing technique is frequently used in aggregate manufacturing process as it can minimise the energy consumption. It has contributed to both economical and environmental advantages because it helps to reduce the gas emissions problems. Bottom ash collected from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant was selected as raw material in this study and was utilised as a partial replacement for cement for artificial aggregate production. Several percentage of ash replacement was selected ranged from 10 to 50%. Aggregate pellets were subjected to different types of curing condition which is room-water (RW), room-room (RR), oven-room (OR) and oven-water (OW) condition. Properties of aggregate pellets were examined to obtain its density, water absorption, aggregate impact value (AIV) and specific gravity (SG). The results indicated that the most efficient curing regime is by exposing the aggregate in RW condition. The optimum aggregate was selected at 20% where it has satisfied the required density of 739.5kg/m3, and classified as strong aggregate with AIV 14. However, the water absorption of aggregate increased proportionately with the increment of ash content.

  10. Aggregation work at polydisperse micellization: ideal solution and "dressed micelle" models comparing to molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, S V; Shchekin, A K

    2010-12-28

    General thermodynamic relations for the work of polydisperse micelle formation in the model of ideal solution of molecular aggregates in nonionic surfactant solution and the model of "dressed micelles" in ionic solution have been considered. In particular, the dependence of the aggregation work on the total concentration of nonionic surfactant has been analyzed. The analogous dependence for the work of formation of ionic aggregates has been examined with regard to existence of two variables of a state of an ionic aggregate, the aggregation numbers of surface active ions and counterions. To verify the thermodynamic models, the molecular dynamics simulations of micellization in nonionic and ionic surfactant solutions at two total surfactant concentrations have been performed. It was shown that for nonionic surfactants, even at relatively high total surfactant concentrations, the shape and behavior of the work of polydisperse micelle formation found within the model of the ideal solution at different total surfactant concentrations agrees fairly well with the numerical experiment. For ionic surfactant solutions, the numerical results indicate a strong screening of ionic aggregates by the bound counterions. This fact as well as independence of the coefficient in the law of mass action for ionic aggregates on total surfactant concentration and predictable behavior of the "waterfall" lines of surfaces of the aggregation work upholds the model of "dressed" ionic aggregates.

  11. Kinetics of aggregation in charged nanoparticle solutions driven by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Yadav, I.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2017-05-01

    The structure and kinetics during aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different mechanisms have been studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Three different additives, namely an electrolyte (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) were used to initiate nanoparticle aggregation. Electrolyte induced aggregation can be explained by DLVO interaction, whereas depletion interaction (non-DLVO interaction) is found responsible for nanoparticle aggregation in case of non-ionic surfactant. Unlike these two cases, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein results into protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. The electrolyte induced aggregation show quite slow aggregation rate whereas protein mediated as well as surfactant induced aggregation takes place almost instantaneously. The significant differences observed in the kinetics are explained based on range of interactions responsible for the aggregation. In spite of differences in mechanism and kinetics, the nanoparticle clusters are found to have similar fractal morphology (fractal dimension ˜ 2.5) in all the three cases.

  12. Synthetic food additive dye "Tartrazine" triggers amorphous aggregation in cationic myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif; Khan, Javed Masood; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A

    2017-05-01

    Protein aggregation, a characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases, displays vast conformational diversity from amorphous to amyloid-like aggregates. In this study, we have explored the interaction of tartrazine with myoglobin protein at two different pHs (7.4 and 2.0). We have utilized various spectroscopic techniques (turbidity, Rayleigh light scattering (RLS), intrinsic fluorescence, Congo Red and far-UV CD) along with microscopy techniques i.e. atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the tartrazine-induced aggregation in myoglobin. The results showed that higher concentrations of tartrazine (2.0-10.0mM) induced amorphous aggregation in myoglobin at pH 2.0 via electrostatic interactions. However, tartrazine was not able to induce aggregation in myoglobin at pH 7.4; because of strong electrostatic repulsion between myoglobin and tartrazine at this pH. The tartrazine-induced amorphous aggregation process is kinetically very fast, and aggregation occurred without the formation of a nucleus. These results proposed that the electrostatic interaction is responsible for tartrazine-induced amorphous aggregation. This study may help in the understanding of mechanistic insight of aggregation by tartrazine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Durability of Concrete Made with Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates Using Superplasticizers

    OpenAIRE

    Cartuxo, Francisco; de Brito, Jorge; Evangelista, Luis; Jim?nez, Jos? Ram?n; Ledesma, Enrique F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of two superplasticizers (SP) on the durability properties of concrete made with fine recycled concrete aggregate (FRCA). For this purpose, three families of concrete were tested: concrete without SP, concrete made with a regular superplasticizer and concrete made with a high-performance superplasticizer. Five volumetric replacement ratios of natural sand by FRCA were tested: 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 100%. Two natural gravels were used as coarse aggregates. All...

  14. Correspondences in the theory of aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Bonanno, G.; Löwe, B.; van der Hoek, W.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the interrelationships between the social-theoretic problems of preference and judgment aggregation from the perspective of formal logic. The result of the paper is twofold. On the one hand, preference aggregation on total preorders is proven equivalent to the aggregation of

  15. Studies of the aggregation of RNase Sa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khasa, Harshit; Kramer, Ryan; Maddux, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    of the mutants, little correlation was seen between the time at which aggregation is initiated or the rate of aggregation and the thermal sensitivity of the mutants. It is hypothesized that the nature of contacts between protein molecules in the associated (aggregated) phase rather than structural changes...

  16. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation for Temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Business Intelligence solutions, encompassing technologies such as multi-dimensional data modeling and aggregate query processing, are being applied increasingly to non-traditional data. This paper extends multi-dimensional aggregation to apply to data with associated interval values that capture...... sets and is competitive with respect to other temporal aggregation algorithms....

  17. Aggregation and Control of Flexible Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an architecture for aggregation and co ntrol of a portfolio of flexible consumers. The architecture makes it possible to control the aggregated consumption of the portfolio to follow a power reference while honoring local consumer constraints. Hereby, an aggregator is ab...

  18. Violent crime runs in families: a total population study of 12.5 million individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, T; Lichtenstein, P; Långström, N

    2011-01-01

    Etiological theory and prior research with small or selected samples suggest that interpersonal violence clusters in families. However, the strength and pattern of this aggregation remains mostly unknown. We investigated all convictions for violent crime in Sweden 1973-2004 among more than 12.5 million individuals in the nationwide Multi-Generation Register, and compared rates of violent convictions among relatives of violent individuals with relatives of matched, non-violent controls, using a nested case-control design. We found strong familial aggregation of interpersonal violence among first-degree relatives [e.g. odds ratio (OR)sibling 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-4.3], lower for more distant relatives (e.g. OR cousin 1.9, 95% CI 1.9-1.9). Risk patterns across biological and adoptive relations provided evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on the development of violent behavior. Familial risks were stronger among women, in higher socio-economic strata, and for early onset interpersonal violence. There were crime-specific effects (e.g. OR sibling for arson 22.4, 95% CI 12.2-41.2), suggesting both general and subtype-specific familial risk factors for violent behavior. The observed familiality should be accounted for in criminological research, applied violence risk assessment, and prevention efforts.

  19. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide.

  20. Aggregative stability of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Anna; Korolev, Evgeniy

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there is a strong need of high performance multi functional materials in high-rise construction. Obviously, such materials should be characterized by high strength; but for interior rooms biosafety is important as well. The promising direction to obtain both high strength and maintain biosafety in buildings and structures is to manage the structure of mineral binders by means of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates. In the present work the aggregative stability of colloidal solutions of zinc hydrosilicates after one year of storage was studied. It has been established that the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to prepare the precursor of zinc hydrosilicates has a significant effect on the long-term aggregative stability: as the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide increases, the resistance of the fungicidal nanomodifier increases. It was found that, despite the minimal concentration of nano-sized zinc hydrosilicates (0.028%), the colloidal solution possesses a low long-term aggregative stability; while in the initial period (not less than 14 days) the colloidal solution of the nanomodifier is aggregatively stable. It is shown that when the ratio in the colloidal solution of the amount of the substance CH3COOH / SiO2 = 0.43 is reached, an increase in the polymerization rate is observed, which is the main cause of low aggregative stability. Colloidal solutions containing zinc hydrosilicates synthesized at a concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to produce a precursor equal to 0.7% have a long-term aggregative stability and do not significantly change the reduced particle. Such compositions are to be expediently used for the nanomodifying of building composites in order to control their structure formation and to create conditions that impede the development of various mycelial fungi.

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  2. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinan Hu

    Full Text Available Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+ at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  3. Aggregation Potentials for Buildings - Business Models of Demand Response and Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Buildings as prosumers have an important role in the energy aggregation market due to their potential flexible energy consumption and distributed energy resources. However, energy flexibility provided by buildings can be very complex and depend on many factors. The immaturity of the current...... aggregation market with unclear incentives is still a challenge for buildings to participate in the aggregation market. However, few studies have investigated business models for building participation in the aggregation market. Therefore, this paper develops four business models for buildings to participate...... programs, national regulations and energy market structures strongly influence buildings’ participation in the aggregation market. Under the current Nordic market regulation, business model one is the most feasible one, and business model two faces more challenges due to regulation barriers and limited...

  4. The influence of geometry on the vibronic spectra of quantum aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisfeld, Alexander; Schulz, Georg; Briggs, John

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented of the localisation of excitonic states on extended molecular aggregates composed of identical monomers arising, not from disorder due to statistical energy shifts of the monomers, induced by environmental interactions (Anderson localisation), but rather simply due to changes in the orientation and geometrical arrangement of the transition dipoles. It is shown further that such small changes nevertheless can have a drastic effect on the shape of the vibronic spectrum of the aggregate. The vibronic spectra are calculated using the 'coherent exciton scattering' (CES) approximation whose derivation we generalise to be applicable to aggregates of arbitrary size and geometry. - Highlights: → Geometric localisation of aggregate wavefunctions is demonstrated. → We show that localised states affect the exciton spectrum strongly. → We calculate electronic and full vibronic spectral shapes. → The theory is applicable to aggregates of arbitrary size.

  5. Two-species aggregation processes with migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhong; Zhuang Youyi; Lin Zhenquan

    2004-01-01

    We study the kinetic behaviour of an aggregation-migration model, in which irreversible aggregations occur between any two aggregates of the same species and reversible migrations occur simultaneously between two different species. For a simple model with constant aggregation rate kernels as well as size-dependent migration rate kernels, we find that the evolution behaviour of the system depends crucially on the ratios of the aggregation rate coefficients to the migration rate coefficient. In general, the aggregate size distributions of the aggregation-migration processes always obey a conventional or generalized scaling law. Moreover, both species survive together for some cases, while only one species can be conserved finally for other cases

  6. Heating of Porous Icy Dust Aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirono, Sin-iti [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Nagoya University, Tikusa-ku, Furo-cho, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    At the beginning of planetary formation, highly porous dust aggregates are formed through coagulation of dust grains. Outside the snowline, the main component of an aggregate is H{sub 2}O ice. Because H{sub 2}O ice is formed in amorphous form, its thermal conductivity is extremely small. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of an icy dust aggregate is low. There is a possibility of heating inside an aggregate owing to the decay of radionuclides. It is shown that the temperature increases substantially inside an aggregate, leading to crystallization of amorphous ice. During the crystallization, the temperature further increases sufficiently to continue sintering. The mechanical properties of icy dust aggregates change, and the collisional evolution of dust aggregates is affected by the sintering.

  7. The Fibromyalgia Family Study: A Genome-Scan Linkage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lesley M.; Fan, Jinbo; Russell, I. Jon; Yunus, Muhammad B.; Khan, Muhammad Asim; Kushner, Irving; Olson, Jane M.; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Familial aggregation of fibromyalgia has been increasingly recognized. The goal of the current study was to conduct a genome wide linkage scan to identify susceptibility loci for fibromyalgia. Methods We genotyped members of 116 families from the Fibromyalgia Family Study and performed a model-free genome-wide linkage analysis of fibromyalgia with 341 microsatellite markers, using the Haseman-Elston regression approach. Results The estimated sibling recurrence risk ratio (λs) for fibromyalgia was 13.6 (95% CI: 10.0–18.5), based on a reported population prevalence of 2%. Genome-wide suggestive evidence of linkage was found at marker D17S2196 (Empirical P =0.00030) and D17S1294 (Empirical P =0.00035) on chromosome 17p11.2-q11.2. Conclusion The estimated sibling recurrence risk ratio suggests a strong genetic component of fibromyalgia. This is the first study to report genome-wide suggestive linkage of fibromyalgia to the chromosome 17p11.2-q11.2 region. Further investigation of these multi-case families from the Fibromyalgia Family Study is warranted to identify potential causal risk variants for fibromyalgia. PMID:23280346

  8. Sequence-dependent internalization of aggregating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, José R; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2015-01-02

    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Impact of morphology on the radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doner, Nimeti; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of morphology on the radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates was investigated using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The optical properties of four different types of aggregates of freshly emitted soot with a fractal dimension D f =1.65 and a fractal pre-factor k f =1.76 were calculated. The four types of aggregates investigated are formed by uniform primary particles in point-touch, by uniform but overlapping primary particles, by uniform but enlarged primary particles in point-touch, and formed by point-touch and polydisperse primary particles. The radiative properties of aggregates consisting of N=20, 56 and 103 primary particles were numerically evaluated for a given refractive index at 0.532 and 1.064 μm. The radiative properties of soot aggregates vary strongly with the volume equivalent radius a eff and wavelength. The accuracy of DDA was evaluated in the first and fourth cases against the generalized multi-sphere Mie (GMM) solution in terms of the vertical–vertical differential scattering cross section (C vv ). The model predicted the average relative deviations from the base case to be within 15–25% for C vv , depending on the number of particles for the aggregate. The scattering cross sections are only slightly affected by the overlapping but more significantly influenced by primary particle polydispersity. It was also found that the enlargement of primary particles by 20% has a strong effect on soot aggregate radiative properties. - Highlights: • The radiative properties of aggregates of N=20, 56 and 103 primary particles were investigated. • Four different cases, formed by point-touch, overlapping, aggregate expansion and polydispersion, were studied. • The effects of overlapping and aggregate expansion on morphology are found to be the same.

  10. Credit, Money, and Aggregate Demand.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernanke, Ben S; Blinder, Alan S

    1988-01-01

    Standard models of aggregate demand treat money and credit asymmetrically; money is given a special status, while loans, bonds, and other debt instruments are lumped together in a "bond market" and suppressed by Walras' Law. This makes bank liabilities central to the monetary transmission mechanism, while giving no role to bank assets. We show how to modify a textbook IS-UI model so as to permit a more balanced treatment. As in Tobin (1969) and Brunner-Meltzer (1972), the key assumption is th...

  11. Protein/Peptide Aggregation and Amyloidosis on Biointerfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies of protein/peptide aggregation, particularly the amyloidosis, have attracted considerable attention in discussions of the pathological mechanisms of most neurodegenerative diseases. The protein/peptide aggregation processes often occur at the membrane–cytochylema interface in vivo and behave differently from those occurring in bulk solution, which raises great interest to investigate how the interfacial properties of artificial biomaterials impact on protein aggregation. From the perspective of bionics, current progress in this field has been obtained mainly from four aspects: (1 hydrophobic–hydrophilic interfaces; (2 charged surface; (3 chiral surface; and (4 biomolecule-related interfaces. The specific physical and chemical environment provided by these interfaces is reported to strongly affect the adsorption of proteins, transition of protein conformation, and diffusion of proteins on the biointerface, all of which are ultimately related to protein assembly. Meanwhile, these compelling results of in vitro experiments can greatly promote the development of early diagnostics and therapeutics for the relevant neurodegenerative diseases. This paper presents a brief review of these appealing studies, and particular interests are placed on weak interactions (i.e., hydrogen bonding and stereoselective interactions that are also non-negligible in driving amyloid aggregation at the interfaces. Moreover, this paper also proposes the future perspectives, including the great opportunities and challenges in this field as well.

  12. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We......This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  13. Family Functioning and the Well-Being of Children With Chronic Conditions: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L; Lee, Anna; Bai, Jinbing; Sandelowski, Margarete; Knafl, Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    For children with chronic conditions, well-being is closely related to how well their families function. Most prior research syntheses on family functioning and child well-being have focused on children with a single condition, thereby limiting the potential to aggregate and build on what is known across conditions. To address this challenge, research reports were reviewed and meta-analyses conducted of findings on the relationship between family functioning and child well-being across a range of chronic physical conditions. The sample was derived from a larger systematic review study that included 1,028 reports published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2014. The current review includes 53 studies in which a relationship between family functioning and child well-being was analyzed using one of four family measures: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Relationship Index, or Family Assessment Device. Most studies were cross-sectional and observational (n = 43, 81%). The most frequently studied conditions were diabetes, cancer, sickle cell disease, and asthma. In 37 studies, findings were sufficiently comparable to conduct meta-analyses. Significant correlations were identified between children's psychological health and seven of nine dimensions of family functioning. Significant correlations also were found between dimensions of family functioning and children's problem behaviors, social competence, quality of life, and, to a lesser extent, adherence and physical health. Of the family dimensions, cohesion and conflict were associated most strongly with child outcomes. Understanding the specific family variables, such as conflict, linked to varied child outcomes is key for intervention development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Regulation of aggregate size and pattern by adenosine and caffeine in cellular slime molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Pundrik

    2012-01-01

    . Our data strongly suggests that cytosolic glucose and extracellular cAMP levels are the other major determinants regulating aggregate size and pattern. Importantly, the aggregation process is conserved among different lineages of cellular slime molds despite using unrelated signalling molecules for aggregation.

  15. Regulation of aggregate size and pattern by adenosine and caffeine in cellular slime molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Multicellularity in cellular slime molds is achieved by aggregation of several hundreds to thousands of cells. In the model slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, adenosine is known to increase the aggregate size and its antagonist caffeine reduces the aggregate size. However, it is not clear if the actions of adenosine and caffeine are evolutionarily conserved among other slime molds known to use structurally unrelated chemoattractants. We have examined how the known factors affecting aggregate size are modulated by adenosine and caffeine. Result Adenosine and caffeine induced the formation of large and small aggregates respectively, in evolutionarily distinct slime molds known to use diverse chemoattractants for their aggregation. Due to its genetic tractability, we chose D. discoideum to further investigate the factors affecting aggregate size. The changes in aggregate size are caused by the effect of the compounds on several parameters such as cell number and size, cell-cell adhesion, cAMP signal relay and cell counting mechanisms. While some of the effects of these two compounds are opposite to each other, interestingly, both compounds increase the intracellular glucose level and strengthen cell-cell adhesion. These compounds also inhibit the synthesis of cAMP phosphodiesterase (PdsA), weakening the relay of extracellular cAMP signal. Adenosine as well as caffeine rescue mutants impaired in stream formation (pde4- and pdiA-) and colony size (smlA- and ctnA-) and restore their parental aggregate size. Conclusion Adenosine increased the cell division timings thereby making large number of cells available for aggregation and also it marginally increased the cell size contributing to large aggregate size. Reduced cell division rates and decreased cell size in the presence of caffeine makes the aggregates smaller than controls. Both the compounds altered the speed of the chemotactic amoebae causing a variation in aggregate size. Our data strongly suggests

  16. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  17. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of several zoanthamine-type alkaloids on the aggregation of human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Rosa M; Gil-Longo, José; Daranas, Antonio H; Souto, María L; Fernández, José J; Peixinho, Solange; Barral, Miguel A; Santafé, Gilmar; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos

    2003-05-15

    Ten zoanthamine-type alkaloids from two marine zoanthids belonging to the Zoanthus genus (Zoanthus nymphaeus and Zoanthus sp.) along with one semisynthetic derivative were evaluated for their antiplatelet activities on human platelet aggregation induced by several stimulating agents. 11-Hydroxyzoanthamine (11) and a synthetic derivative of norzoanthamine (16) showed strong inhibition against thrombin-, collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, zoanthenol (15) displayed a selective inhibitory activity induced by collagen, while zoanthaminone (10) behaved as a potent aggregant agent. These evaluations allowed us to deduce several structure-activity relationships and suggest some mechanisms of action for this type of compounds.

  19. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  20. Rat platelet aggregation by ATP. Aggregometrical and ultrastructural comparison with aggregations induced by ADP and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ts'ao, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the aggregation of rat platelets by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The aggregometry of ATP-induced aggregation and the ultrastructure of ATP-aggregated platelets were compared and contrasted with those of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-treated and collagen-treated samples. Human platelets were also studied alongside with rat specimens. Several lines of evidence indicate that the ATP-induced aggregation of rat platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is not a result of contaminating ADP in the ATP preparation. ATP did not cause aggregation of human platelets; it inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. ATP pretreated with a creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase system caused similar rat platelet aggregation as did ATP not treated with this system. The aggregometry of ATP-induced aggregation of rat PRP was similar to that of collagen-induced aggregation but markedly different from that of ADP-induced aggregation. However, the nature of ATP-induced aggregation was similar to that induced by ADP. Both ATP- and ADP-induced rat platelet aggregations were not affected by adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, or acetylsalicylic acid. The ultrastructure of ATP-aggregated platelets was similar to that of ADP-aggregated ones. It appears that either platelets of rats possess specific ATP receptors or the rat plasma contains a material, lacking or insufficiently present in human plasma, that converts ATP to ADP in a fashion similar to the release of ADP from platelet storage granules. Images Figure 1 PMID:998732

  1. Fatores genéticos na agregação familiar da pressão arterial de famílias nucleares portuguesas Factores genéticos en la agregación familiar de la presión arterial de familias nucleares portuguesas Genetic factors in familial aggregation of blood pressure of portuguese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério César Fermino

    2009-03-01

    pertenecientes a 107 familias nucleares provenientes de diferentes regiones del norte de Portugal, participantes del proyecto "Familias Activas". La PA se midió con un aparato digital de la marca Omron®, modelo M6 (HEM-7001-E. Se utilizaron los softwares estadísticos SPSS 15.0 para el análisis exploratorio de datos y el cálculo de las estadísticas descriptivas, y el PEDSTATS para analizar el comportamiento genérico de las variables entre los diferentes miembros de la familia. El cálculo de las correlaciones entre familiares y las estimativas de heritabilidad se realizaron en los módulos FCOR y ASSOC del software de epidemiología genética S.A.G.E., versión 5.3. RESULTADOS: Para la PA sistólica (PAS, los valores de las correlaciones entre los grados de parentesco se mostraron bajos a moderados (0,21BACKGROUND: Despite of the increase in the prevalence of hypertension in Portugal, the importance of genetic factors in blood pressure (BP has not been studied extensively in our country. OBJECTIVES: To verify the indirect presence of vertical transmission of genetic factors between parents and children in BP values, and to estimate the magnitude of genetic factors contributing for variation in BP values in the population. METHODS: Sample size comprises 367 individuals (164 parents and 203 children pertaining the 107 nuclear families participating in "Familias Activas" project, proceeding from different regions of North Portugal. The BP was measured with Omron® model M6 (HEM-7001-E digital device. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis; PEDSTATS was used to verify the structure of each family data. Familial correlations and heritability estimates were computed in FCOR and ASSOC modules of S.A.G.E. version 5.3. RESULTS: For systolic BP (SBP, correlation values were low to moderate (0,21< r <0,35; for diastolic BP (DBP values were found to be moderate (0,24< r <0,50. Genetic factors explain 43 and 49% of the total variation in SBP and DBP, respectively. CONCLUSION: A moderate

  2. Inhibitory Activities of Antioxidant Flavonoids from Tamarix gallica on Amyloid Aggregation Related to Alzheimer's and Type 2 Diabetes Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hmidene, Asma; Hanaki, Mizuho; Murakami, Kazuma; Irie, Kazuhiro; Isoda, Hiroko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of amyloid aggregation is promising for the treatment of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ten antioxidant flavonoids isolated from the medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica were tested for their amyloid aggregation inhibition potential. Glucuronosylated flavonoids show relatively strong inhibitory activity of Amyloid β (Aβ) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation compared to their aglycone analogs. Structure-activity relationship of the flavonoids suggests that the catechol moiety is important for amyloid aggregation inhibition, while the methylation of the carboxyl group in the glucuronide moiety and of the hydroxyl group in the aglycone flavonoids decreased it.

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  4. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  5. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  6. Internal water curing with Liapor aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Internal water curing is a very efficient way to counteract self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage in high performance concrete, thereby reducing the likelihood of early-age cracking. This paper deals with early-age volume changes and moisture transport in lightweight aggregate concrete realized...... with wet lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregate concrete mixtures with different degree of saturation and different particle size of the lightweight aggregates were studied and compared to normal weight concrete. Autogenous deformations, selfinduced stresses in fully restrained conditions, elastic...... modulus and compressive strength were measured. Early-age expansion of the mixtures was greater the higher the degree of the saturation of the lightweight aggregates and the finer their particle size. The elastic properties and the earlyage expansion of the lightweight aggregate concrete were calculated...

  7. Quantitative analysis of liquid penetration kinetics and slaking of aggregates as related to solid-liquid interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Marc-O.; Woche, Susanne K.; Bachmann, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    SummaryAggregate stability is frequently shown to be enhanced by strong soil water repellency, however, there is limited systematic evidence on this effect for moderately (subcritically) water repellent soils. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of interfacial properties on the liquid penetration kinetics in relation to the stability of subcritically water repellent aggregates (4-6.3 mm) from various arable and forest soils against breakdown by slaking. In contrast to many other studies, where aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving, we here assessed the stability by immersion of air-dry aggregates in water-ethanol solutions with surface tensions ranging from 30 to 70 mN m-1. This approach allowed a highly sensitive discrimination of different stability levels and the determination of breakdown kinetics also for less stable aggregates. Interfacial properties were characterized in terms of contact angle measured on crushed aggregates, θc, and calculated for intact aggregates, θi, based on infiltration measurements with water and ethanol. Aggregate stability turned out to be higher in forest soils compared to arable soils with topsoil aggregates generally found to be more stable than subsoil aggregates. For water repellent aggregates, characterized by contact angles >40° and low water infiltration rates (0.25 mm3 s-0.5) more than 80% of the aggregates were disrupted. In accordance, we found a close relationship between aggregate stability and wettability with differences between θc and θi being generally small. In addition, aggregate stability turned out to be related to organic carbon content. However, correlation analysis revealed that both persistence of aggregate stability and kinetics of aggregate breakdown were more strongly affected by the contact angle, θc (r = 0.90 and r = -0.83, respectively) and θi (r = 0.89 and r = -0.76, respectively) than the organic carbon content (r = 0.62 and -0.52, respectively), suggesting that

  8. Fluorescent aggregates in naphthalene containing poly(urethane-urea)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, E.R.; Akcelrud, Leni

    2003-01-01

    A series of segmented poly(urethane-urea)s containing naphthalene in the hard block and hexamethylene spacers in the soft block was prepared. The hard to soft segment ratio was varied systematically, to afford a series of polymers with various chromophore concentrations and a constant length of the chromophoric block, using a three-step synthetic procedure. The absorption, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra of solutions and films of the block copolymers provide strong evidence for aggregation. A red-shifted fluorescence spectrum peaking at 420 nm gains in intensity as the naphthalene concentration is increased. The excitation spectrum of this new emission is well to the red of the normal naphthalene absorption spectrum, consistent with the UV spectrum. Formation of a fluorescent ground state dimer (or higher aggregate) is proposed to account for these observations

  9. Aggregation Behaviour and Interspecific Responses in Three Species of Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Figueiras Alicia N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to intra- and interspecific assembling signals was tested in three species of Chagas' disease vectors. As previously described for Triatoma infestans, larvae of both species, T. sordida and T. guasayana, aggregated on papers impregnated with their own excrement. Moreover, bugs belonging to each of the three species also aggregated on papers contaminated with faeces from the other two, with the only exception of the larvae of T. guasayana, which did not assemble on faeces of T. sordida. In all cases, the response to interspecific excrement was as strong as that to the intraspecific one. The non-specificity of the signal is discussed in the context of the ecological association of the three species and their role as vectors of Chagas' disease

  10. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  11. Aggregate assessments support improved operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.

    2003-01-01

    At Darlington Nuclear aggregate assessment of plant conditions is carried out in support of Operational Decision Making. This paper discusses how aggregate assessments have been applied to Operator Workarounds leading to improved prioritisation and alignment of work programs in different departments. As well, aggregate assessment of plant and human performance factors has been carried out to identify criteria which support conservative decision making in the main control room during unit transients. (author)

  12. A canonical representation for aggregated Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larget, Bret

    1998-01-01

    A deterministic function of a Markov process is called an aggregated Markov process. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of continuous-time aggregated Markov processes. For both discrete- and continuous-time, we show that any aggregated Markov process which satisfies mild regularity conditions can be directly converted to a canonical representation which is unique for each class of equivalent models, and furthermore, is a minimal parameterization ...

  13. AN INTERACTIVE PROCEDURE FOR AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Minimizing production cost over the planning period is usually assumed to be the objective of aggregate planning. However, other issues of strategic type may be even more important. Smoothing employment levels, driving down inventory levels or meeting high level of service usually are also considered. Thus, aggregate planning problem constitutes a multiple criteria decision making problem. In the paper a new approach for production aggregate planning problem is proposed. The procedure combine...

  14. Protein Aggregation Inhibitors for ALS Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    the underlying cause of protein misfolding and aggregation (oxidative stress damage ) and combating the aggregation caused by ROS that survive to...mechanisms of neuronal degeneration remain unknown in ALS, it has been postulated that protein misfolding and aggregation may be an early event that...of misfolded proteins . Of particular interest in this group is the proteasome ATPase, PSMC1. PSMC1 (also called Rpt2) has been reported to regulate

  15. Group living in squamate reptiles: a review of evidence for stable aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael G; Pearson, Sarah K; Johnston, Gregory R; Schwarz, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    How sociality evolves and is maintained remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Most studies to date have focused on insects, birds, and mammals but data from a wider range of taxonomic groups are essential to identify general patterns and processes. The extent of social behaviour among squamate reptiles is under-appreciated, yet they are a promising group for further studies. Living in aggregations is posited as an important step in the evolution of more complex sociality. We review data on aggregations among squamates and find evidence for some form of aggregations in 94 species across 22 families. Of these, 18 species across 7 families exhibited 'stable' aggregations that entail overlapping home ranges and stable membership in long-term (years) or seasonal aggregations. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that stable aggregations have evolved multiple times in squamates. We: (i) identify significant gaps in our understanding; (ii) outline key traits which should be the focus of future research; and (iii) outline the potential for utilising reproductive skew theory to provide insights into squamate sociality. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  18. Quantifying aggregation dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Angus, Stuart; Tran, Michael; Xie, Chunyan; Igoshin, Oleg A; Welch, Roy D

    2011-10-01

    Under starvation conditions, a swarm of Myxococcus xanthus cells will undergo development, a multicellular process culminating in the formation of many aggregates called fruiting bodies, each of which contains up to 100,000 spores. The mechanics of symmetry breaking and the self-organization of cells into fruiting bodies is an active area of research. Here we use microcinematography and automated image processing to quantify several transient features of developmental dynamics. An analysis of experimental data indicates that aggregation reaches its steady state in a highly nonmonotonic fashion. The number of aggregates rapidly peaks at a value 2- to 3-fold higher than the final value and then decreases before reaching a steady state. The time dependence of aggregate size is also nonmonotonic, but to a lesser extent: average aggregate size increases from the onset of aggregation to between 10 and 15 h and then gradually decreases thereafter. During this process, the distribution of aggregates transitions from a nearly random state early in development to a more ordered state later in development. A comparison of experimental results to a mathematical model based on the traffic jam hypothesis indicates that the model fails to reproduce these dynamic features of aggregation, even though it accurately describes its final outcome. The dynamic features of M. xanthus aggregation uncovered in this study impose severe constraints on its underlying mechanisms.

  19. Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: influence of aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanji, Kirsty D; Derrick, Jeremy P; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The elicitation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) against biotherapeutics can have detrimental effects on drug safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics is, therefore, an important issue. There is evidence that protein aggregation can result in enhanced immunogenicity; however, the precise immunological and biochemical mechanisms responsible are poorly defined. In the context of biotherapeutic drug development and safety assessment, understanding the mechanisms underlying aggregate immunogenicity is of considerable interest. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of protein aggregation, the production of unwanted aggregates during bioprocessing, and how the immune response to aggregated protein differs from that provoked by non-aggregated protein. Of particular interest is the nature of the interaction of aggregates with the immune system and how subsequent ADA responses are induced. Pathways considered here include 'classical' activation of the immune system involving antigen presenting cells and, alternatively, the breakdown of B-cell tolerance. Additionally, methods available to screen for aggregation and immunogenicity will be described. With an increased understanding of aggregation-enhanced immune responses, it may be possible to develop improved manufacturing and screening processes to avoid, or at least reduce, the problems associated with ADA.

  20. Study on the aggregation of coal liquefied preasphaltene in organic solvents by UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhicai Wang; Liang Li; Hengfu Shui; Zushan Wang; Xueping Cui; Shibiao Ren; Zhiping Lei; Shigang Kang [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    Aggregation of heavy products of coal liquefaction such as preasphaltene is one of important influencing factors on the coking properties of liquefaction technology. In this paper, the aggregation of coal-derived PA in tetrahydrofuran and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone has been investigated by gel chromatography, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that PA is a complex mixture with lower H/C (atomic ratio 0.61) and contains different chromophores and fluorophores. It shows strong propensity of aggregation and can form nanoaggregates even in the very dilute solution such as 6.25 mg/l. With the increasing of PA concentration, the concentration of aggregates increases but the dimension of aggregates is basically invariable. Although a flexion point of the fluorescence intensity integrated can be observed with increasing of PA concentration, it cannot present the concentration where any aggregation starts. It varies with the excitation wavelength. 36 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E; Privé, Gilbert G; Pomès, Régis

    2013-04-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein's hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Green Frame Aggregation Scheme for IEEE 802.11n Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslani, Maha S.

    2015-04-01

    Frame aggregation is one of the major MAC layer enhancements in the IEEE 802.11 family that boosts the network throughput performance. It aims to achieve higher throughput by transmitting huge amount of data in a single transmit oppor- tunity. With the increasing awareness of energy e ciency, it has become vital to rethink about the design of such frame aggregation protocol. Aggregation techniques help to reduce energy consumption over ideal channel conditions. However, in a noisy channel environment, a new energy-aware frame aggregation scheme is required. In this thesis, a novel Green Frame Aggregation (GFA) scheduling scheme has been proposed and evaluated. GFA optimizes the aggregate size based on channel quality in order to minimize the consumed energy. GFA selects the optimal sub-frame size that satisfies the loss constraint for real-time applications as well as the energy budget of the ideal channel situations. The design, the implementation, and evaluation of GFA using testbed deployment is done. The experimental analysis shows that GFA outperforms the conventional frame aggregation methodology in terms of energy e ciency by about 6⇥ in the presence of severe interference conditions. Moreover, GFA also outperforms the static frame sizing method in terms of network goodput and maintains almost the same end- to-end latency.

  4. HEREDITARY INTRAVENTRICULAR CONDUCTION DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY FROM KRASNOYARSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree of the family from Krasnoyarsk city with hereditary disorders of intracardiac conduction was studied. The diagnosis of each family member was verified by electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography , bicycle ergometry , ECG Holter monitoring. The family 10-year follow-up showed familial aggregation of intracardiac conduction disorders in grandson, niece, son of the proband niece, ie, in the III-degree relatives. Family history of III-degree relatives with intracardiac conduction disorders and discordant pathology is identified.

  5. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  6. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level....

  7. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are the aggregations of the Presence Grids data at the family level....

  8. The sensitivity of convective aggregation to diabatic processes in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. E.; Woolnough, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    Idealized explicit convection simulations of the Met Office Unified Model exhibit spontaneous self-aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, as seen in other models in previous studies. This self-aggregation is linked to feedbacks between radiation, surface fluxes, and convection, and the organization is intimately related to the evolution of the column water vapor field. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy (MSE), following Wing and Emanuel (2014), reveals that the direct radiative feedback (including significant cloud longwave effects) is dominant in both the initial development of self-aggregation and the maintenance of an aggregated state. A low-level circulation at intermediate stages of aggregation does appear to transport MSE from drier to moister regions, but this circulation is mostly balanced by other advective effects of opposite sign and is forced by horizontal anomalies of convective heating (not radiation). Sensitivity studies with either fixed prescribed radiative cooling, fixed prescribed surface fluxes, or both do not show full self-aggregation from homogeneous initial conditions, though fixed surface fluxes do not disaggregate an initialized aggregated state. A sensitivity study in which rain evaporation is turned off shows more rapid self-aggregation, while a run with this change plus fixed radiative cooling still shows strong self-aggregation, supporting a "moisture-memory" effect found in Muller and Bony (2015). Interestingly, self-aggregation occurs even in simulations with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 295 and 290 K, with direct radiative feedbacks dominating the budget of MSE variance, in contrast to results in some previous studies.

  9. Specific domains of Aβ facilitate aggregation on and association with lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Elizabeth A; Owens, Sherry L; Lynch, Michael F; Cucco, Elena M; Umbaugh, C Samuel; Legleiter, Justin

    2013-06-12

    A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, a late-onset neurodegenerative disease, is the deposition of neuritic amyloid plaques composed of aggregated forms of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Aβ forms a variety of nanoscale, toxic aggregate species ranging from small oligomers to fibrils. Aβ and many of its aggregate forms strongly interact with lipid membranes, which may represent an important step in several toxic mechanisms. Understanding the role that specific regions of Aβ play in regulating its aggregation and interaction with lipid membranes may provide insights into the fundamental interaction between Aβ and cellular surfaces. We investigated the interaction and aggregation of several Aβ fragments (Aβ1-11, Aβ1-28, Aβ10-26, Aβ12-24, Aβ16-22, Aβ22-35, and Aβ1-40) in the presence of supported model total brain lipid extract (TBLE) bilayers. These fragments represent a variety of chemically unique domains within Aβ, that is, the extracellular domain, the central hydrophobic core, and the transmembrane domain. Using scanning probe techniques, we elucidated aggregate morphologies for these different Aβ fragments in free solution and in the presence of TBLE bilayers. These fragments formed a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates under free solution conditions. Exposure to TBLE bilayers resulted in distinct aggregate morphologies compared to free solution and changes in bilayer stability dependent on the Aβ sequence. Aβ10-26, Aβ16-22, Aβ22-35, and Aβ1-40 aggregated into a variety of distinct fibrillar aggregates and disrupted the bilayer structure, resulting in altered mechanical properties of the bilayer. Aβ1-11, Aβ1-28, and Aβ12-24 had minimal interaction with lipid membranes, forming only sparse oligomers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological properties of atmospheric aerosol aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C; Friedlander, S K

    2001-10-09

    Ultrafine particles (smaller than about 0.1 microm) are often emitted from combustion and other high-temperature processes in the form of fractal-like aggregates composed of solid nanoparticles. Results of a study of atmospheric aggregates are reported. Particles were collected on transmission electron microscope grids fitted on the last two stages of a single-jet eight-stage low-pressure impactor for periods of a few minutes. Photomicrographs of transmission electron microscope grids from the impactor stages were analyzed to obtain the fractal dimension (D(f)) and prefactor (A) for aggregates. D(f) increased from near 1 to above 2 as the number of primary particles making up the aggregates increased from 10 to 180. Total particle concentrations in size ranges roughly equivalent to the low-pressure impactor stages were measured with a mobility analyzer and condensation particle counter. In one set of measurements, the fraction of the particles present as aggregates was about 60% for particles with aerodynamic diameters between 50 and 75 nm and 34% for the range 75 to 120 nm. The total aggregate concentration in the 50- to 120-nm size range was about 400 ml(-1). The primary particles that make up atmospheric aggregates are more polydisperse than soot aggregates generated from a single laboratory source, an ethane/oxygen flame. Most measurements were made in the Los Angeles area, where the aggregates may represent a signature for diesel emissions. Rural aggregate concentrations in the size range 50 to 120 nm were less than 1% of the concentrations at urban sites. The data will permit better estimates of atmospheric aggregate residence times, transport, and deposition in the lung, optical extinction, and heterogeneous nucleation.

  11. Co-existence of free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyukin, Yu.V.; Lebedenko, A.N.; Sorokin, A.V.; Yefimova, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Nature of excited electronic states of amphi-PIC J-aggregates, which are the source of the self-trapping states, have been investigated using low-temperature site-selective, time-resolved spectroscopy techniques. The self-trapping states are shown to evolve from the delocalized exciton states within the J-band. The strongly localized electronic states located on the low-frequency edge of the J-band, are not able to form polaronic states and, hence, the polaronic relaxation process is particularly collective one. The exciton self-trapping is more effective in J-aggregates with strong disorder, requires overcoming a self-trapping barrier

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  13. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much more than groups of people who share the same genes or the ...

  14. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  15. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  16. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relating to each other Set individual and family goals and work on ways to achieve them Results Family therapy doesn't automatically solve family conflicts or make an unpleasant situation go away. But ...

  17. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  18. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  19. Biomass round bales infield aggregation logistic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass bales often need to be aggregated (collected into groups and transported) to a field-edge stack for temporary storage for feedlots or processing facilities. Aggregating the bales with the least total distance involved is a goal of producers and bale handlers. Several logistics scenarios for ...

  20. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  1. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Cesar Avanzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under minimum tillage with eucalyptus cultivation. The aggregate stability was measured using the high-energy moisture characteristic (HEMC technique, i.e., the moisture release curve at very low suctions. This method compares the resistance of aggregates to slaking on a relative scale from zero to one. Thus, the aggregate stability from different soils and management practices can be directly compared. The aggregate stability ratio was greater than 50% for all soils, which shows that the aggregate stability index is high, both in eucalyptus and native vegetation areas. This suggests that soil management adopted for eucalyptus cultivation does not substantially modify this property. In these soils, the aggregate stability ratio does not show a good relationship with clay or soil organic matter contents. However, soil organic matter shows a positive relationship with clay content and cation exchange capacity.

  2. Intricacies of alpha-synuclein aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucibabic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of abnormal deposits of aggregated proteins in the brain tissue, known as Lewy bodies. The major components of Lewy bodies are aggregated forms of a small presynaptic protein known as α-synuclein (α-syn). In this thesis

  3. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simple experiments demonstrate the effects of aggregation on the timing and depth distribution of primary production and export. A more detailed ecological model is applied to sites in the Arabian Sea; it demonstrates that aggregation can be important for deep sedimentation even when its effect on surface concentrations ...

  4. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... The study compared the aggregate agricultural productivity between the Low External Input. Technology (LEIT) and ... Key words: Aggregate agricultural productivity, low and high external input technology farms. INTRODUCTION ... 2003). The realignment of the naira exchange rate, which resulted in the ...

  5. Protein aggregates stimulate macropinocytosis facilitating their propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerbury, Justin J

    2016-03-03

    Temporal and spatial patterns of pathological changes such as loss of neurons and presence of pathological protein aggregates are characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These patterns are consistent with the propagation of protein misfolding and aggregation reminiscent of the prion diseases. There is a surge of evidence that suggests that large protein aggregates of a range of proteins are able to enter cells via macropinocytosis. Our recent work suggests that this process is activated by the binding of aggregates to the neuron cell surface. The current review considers the potential role of cell surface receptors in the triggering of macropinocytosis by protein aggregates and the possibility of utilizing macropinocytosis pathways as a therapeutic target.

  6. Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

    1981-01-01

    The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

  7. Griseofulvin-induced aggregation of microtubule protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, A; Gull, K; Pogson, C I

    1977-01-01

    Griseofulvin (7-chloro-2',4,6-trimethoxy-6'-methylspiro[benzofuran-2(3H),1'-[2]cyclohexene]-3,4'-dione) induces aggregation of microtubule protein at 0 degrees C. This aggregate contains approx. 90% of the microtubule-associated proteins originally present in the microtubule protein. The supernatant obtained after removal of the griseofulvin-induced aggregate does not form microtubules on warming at 37 degrees C. Addition of the griseofulvin-aggregated protein to this supernatant and warming to 37 degrees C gives rise to a limited amount of microtubule assembly. The possible involvement of griseofulvin-induced aggregation of microtubule protein at 0 degrees C in the inhibition by griseofulvin of microtubule assembly in vitro is discussed. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:588267

  8. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  9. Multicandidate Elections: Aggregate Uncertainty in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Llorente-Saguer, Aniol

    2017-01-01

    The rational-voter model is often criticized on the grounds that two of its central predictions (the paradox of voting and Duverger's Law ) are at odds with reality. Recent theoretical advances suggest that these empirically unsound predictions might be an artifact of an (arguably unrealistic) assumption: the absence of aggregate uncertainty about the distribution of preferences in the electorate. In this paper, we propose direct empirical evidence of the effect of aggregate uncertainty in multicandidate elections. Adopting a theory-based experimental approach, we explore whether aggregate uncertainty indeed favors the emergence of non-Duverger's law equilibria in plurality elections. Our experimental results support the main theoretical predictions: sincere voting is a predominant strategy under aggregate uncertainty, whereas without aggregate uncertainty, voters massively coordinate their votes behind one candidate, who wins almost surely.

  10. Application of orthogonal test method in mix proportion design of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanshan; An, Le; Zhang, Yijing; Yuan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was made with construction waste and ceramsite brick mainly including brick. Using the orthogonal test method, the mix proportion of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete was studied, and the Influence regularity and significance of water binder ratio, fly ash, sand ratio, the amount of recycled aggregate proportion on the compressive strength of concrete, the strong influence of mass ratio, slump expansion degree was studied. Through the mean and range analysis of the test results, the results show that the water binder ratio has the greatest influence on the 28d intensity of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete. Secondly, the fly ash content, the recycled aggregate replacement rate and the sand ratio have little influence. For the factors of expansion: the proportion of fly ash = water binder ratio sand >sand rate> recycled aggregate replacement rate. When the content of fly ash is about 30%, the expanded degree of recycled lightweight aggregate concrete is the highest, and the workability of that is better and the strength of concrete with 28d and 56d are the highest. When the content of brickbat is about 40% brick particles, the strength of concrete reaches the highest.

  11. Optical Measurement of Cell Colonization Patterns on Individual Suspended Sediment Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Ha; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Maggi, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Microbial processes can make substantial differences to the way in which particles settle in aquatic environments. A novel method (OMCEC, optical measurement of cell colonization) is introduced to systematically map the biological spatial distribution over individual suspended sediment aggregates settling through a water column. OMCEC was used to investigate (1) whether a carbon source concentration has an impact on cell colonization, (2) how cells colonize minerals, and (3) if a correlation between colonization patterns and aggregate geometry exists. Incubations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and stained montmorillonite at four sucrose concentrations were tested in a settling column equipped with a full-color microparticle image velocimetry system. The acquired high-resolution images were processed to map the cell distribution on aggregates based on emission spectra separation. The likelihood of cells colonizing minerals increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Colonization patterns were classified into (i) scattered, (ii) well touched, and (iii) poorly touched, with the second being predominant. Cell clusters in well-touched patterns were found to have lower capacity dimension than those in other patterns, while the capacity dimension of the corresponding aggregates was relatively high. A strong correlation of colonization patterns with aggregate biomass fraction and properties suggests dynamic colonization mechanisms from cell attachment to minerals, to joining of isolated cell clusters, and finally cell growth over the entire aggregate. This paper introduces a widely applicable method for analyses of microbial-affected sediment dynamics and highlights the microbial control on aggregate geometry, which can improve the prediction of large-scale morphodynamics processes.

  12. Sans study of asphaltene aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overfield, R.E.; Sheu, E.Y.; Sinha, S.K.; Liang, K.S. (Esso Resources Canada Ltd., 339-50 Avenue S.E., Calgary, Alberta T2G 2B3 (CA))

    1988-06-01

    The colloidal properties of asphaltenes have long been recognized from peculiarities in their solubility and colligative properties. A layered micellar model or asphaltenes was proposed by others in which a highly condensed alkyl aromatic formed the central part, and molecules of decreasingly aromatic character (resins) clustered around them. Numerous studies, based on a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy indicated a particulate nature for asphaltenes with size 20-40 A diameter. Others have proposed a refined model based on x-ray diffraction and small angle scattering. In this model, interactions between flat sheets of condensed aromatic rings form the central ''crystallite'' part of a spherical particle with the outer part being comprised of the aliphatic positions of the same molecules. These particles are bunched together with some degree of entanglement into ''micelles''. Concentration and solvent dependent radii of gyration, ranging from 30-50 A were reported. The aggregation creates a good deal of uncertainty as to the true molecular size or weight of asphaltenes. Neutron scattering offers novel contrast relative to light scattering (refractive index) and x-ray scattering (electron density). This is because the scattering length of proton is negative, whereas that from deuterium and other nuclei such as C, S, O, and N are positive. Thus by replacing hydrogen with deuterium in either the solvent or the scatterer the contrast can be varied, and different parts of the molecule can be highlighted.

  13. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: A study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohamed Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration. We recently found that DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of heat shock proteins, effectively prevented the aggregation of short aggregation-prone peptides containing large poly glutamines (associated with CAG repeat diseases both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, recent in vitro data showed that DNAJB6 can delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides. In this study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of extracellular and intracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP fusion construct and performing western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 indeed suppresses Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Unexpectedly and unlike what we found for peptide-mediated aggregation, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of the Aβ-GFP fusion protein and its J-domain was crucial for its anti-aggregation effect. In addition, other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPA1a overexpression also suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that Aβ aggregation differs from poly Q peptide induced aggregation in terms of chaperone handling and sheds doubt on the usage of Aβ-GFP fusion construct for studying Aβ peptide aggregation in cells.

  14. Scaling condition for multiple scattering in fractal aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Guillermo P.; Mochán, W. Luis

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that under the first Born approximation, the differential cross-section dσ/ dΩ for light scattered by a fractal of dimension df scales with wave vector Q as Q- df. The use of this formula to interpret experiments performed at frequencies close to the resonances of the system for which multiple scattering is not negligible is questionable. We study the scaling properties of the light scattered by colloidal aggregates employing a novel multi-resolution hierarchical algorithm which allows the study of large systems taking fully into account the long range of the interactions in multiple scattering calculations. We obtain the conditions under which scaling may be present and find that even under resonant conditions, the scattering cross-section may scale with the fractal dimension df, but only if the aggregate is larger than a dissipation and frequency-dependent length-scale Lh, confirming within a full vectorial calculation a result previously found for scalar interactions. For smaller aggregates, dσ/ dΩ might scale with a different exponent or it might not scale at all, depending on the frequency of light employed. This could explain the discrepancies between experiments performed on similar systems within the strong scattering regime.

  15. Neutron scattering techniques in the examination of recycled aggregate concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezel, A.; Alabaster, P.; Bakshi, E.; McManus, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Researchers at Swinburne University of Technology (SUT) have undertaken a research project aiming initially at better understanding the effects of any chemical impurities in Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) on the microstructure development of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC). Furthermore, a porosity of RCA and RAC and its effect on the acoustic performance and mechanical properties is being investigated. A number of conventional tests have been employed to examine the porosity of the aggregate and concrete made from RCA ranging from Volume of Permeable Voids test, through nitrogen adsorption to scanning electron microscopy. These tests are performed at SUT to characterise pores structure including pore size and volume as well as their surface area. The preparation of samples differs for the various tests, and this is a main reason contributing to inconsistencies in the results from these tests. None-the-less the results indicate strong positive correlation of inherent and purposely introduced porosity in RAC to its sound absorption capacities. Some inconsistency in the results is also due to the complexity of concrete itself compounded by the use of recycled material. However, the research has been granted a Grant from Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) which allows to conduct RAC examination using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). This neutron scattering technique characterises pore structure in a non-destructive manner. The results from this method should augment these obtained from conventional methods

  16. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  17. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  18. Study of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics under low dispersive ultrasonic energies with sedimentation and X-ray attenuation**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomakers, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Mentler, Axel; Ottner, Franz; Mayer, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that soil organic matter stabilization is strongly controlled by physical binding within soil aggregates. It is therefore essential to measure soil aggregate stability reliably over a wide range of disruptive energies and different aggregate sizes. To this end, we tested high-accuracy ultrasonic dispersion in combination with subsequent sedimentation and X-ray attenuation. Three arable topsoils (notillage) from Central Europe were subjected to ultrasound at four different specific energy levels: 0.5, 6.7, 100 and 500 J cm−3, and the resulting suspensions were analyzed for aggregate size distribution by wet sieving (2 000-63 μm) and sedimentation/X-ray attenuation (63-2 μm). The combination of wet sieving and sedimentation technique allowed for a continuous analysis, at high resolution, of soil aggregate breakdown dynamics after defined energy inputs. Our results show that aggregate size distribution strongly varied with sonication energy input and soil type. The strongest effects were observed in the range of low specific energies (energies are required to capture the full range of aggregate stability and release of soil organic matter upon aggregate breakdown. PMID:27099408

  19. Field evaluation of repellents and insecticidal aerosol compositions for repelling and control of Siphunculina funicola (Diptera: Chloropidae) on aggregation sites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansang, Uruyakorn; Mulla, Mir S

    2008-06-01

    The oriental eye fly Siphunculina funicola, a small member (1.5-1.6 mm) of the family Chloropidae, is extremely annoying to humans and domestic animals, feeding on mucous membranes, secretions, and other moist surfaces of their hosts. In central Thailand heavy populations were detected during 2006-2007 in some rural, agricultural, and periurban areas of the region. They were noted to exhibit strong synanthropy and aggregation behavior, congregating on thin (1-5 mm diam) substrates hanging in or near human habitations and animal shelters and other structures open on one or more sides. We initiated studies on the repelling and control of this eye fly at their aggregation sites, the most vulnerable targets near or in human habitations. Four formulations of repellents consisting of Everside, 3 fatty acids (with 8, 9, and 10 carbons), permethrin, and the acids C8910 plus permethrin in Everside were diluted 1:3 in tap water and sprayed on to the aggregation sites. Prior to treatment all sites including controls were disturbed to dislodge eye flies, and then the blank sites were sprayed with the aqueous suspension of the repellents. Additionally, we evaluated 3 commercially available household insecticidal aerosol formulations by treating eye flies and their resting sites (without dislodging the flies) with puffs of the aerosols. Two treatments with permethrin alone and permethrin plus acids in Nakhorn Ratchasima Province caused a complete absence of flies from the sites up to 23 h. After treatment with the repellents, the repelled flies and others were found to congregate on untreated favorable sites close to the treated ones. The repellents tested against eye flies in Chonburi Province at 2 locations caused almost complete absence of this insect on aggregation sites up to 120 h. Three household insecticide aerosols applied to aggregation sites with resting and hovering eye flies produced high to complete mortality and reduction of eye flies for 48 h or possibly longer

  20. [Familial seroepidemiology of toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noemi, I; Rugiero, E; Viovy, A; Cortés, P P; Cerva, J L; González, M; Back, S; Gottlieb, B; Herrera, M E; Cordovez, J

    1994-01-01

    With the objective of defining the intrafamiliar distribution pattern of the infection and illness caused by Toxocara sp., 78 infected families (356 people) were studied for 30 months. At the same time 28 families free of infection were studied, as a control group (97 people). The socioeconomic level was analyzed according to a modified Graffar index. Contac with canine and feline pets, and antecedents of geophagia and onichophagia were found to be risk factors which would facilitate the infection. The average of persons infected, diagnosed by ELISA Toxocara test, was 2.8 per family. The importance of familiar distribution of the infection and its primary prevention is strongly stressed.

  1. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  2. Aggregation of volcanic ash in explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Dufek, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present the result of a recent experimental and numerical investigation of ash aggregation in volcanic plumes. Eruption dynamics are sensitive to microphysical processes, like ash aggregation, yet are difficult to parameterize based on dynamics simulations of whole eruption columns due to the lack of sufficient resolution. Here we present the results of experiments that develop a probabilistic relationship for ash aggregation based on impact velocity and atmospheric conditions (water vapor and atmospheric pressure). The probabilistic relationship can be integrated, in conjunction with a reconstructed velocity distribution of the ash in the column, and then can be readily incorporated in large-scale simulations of eruption column behavior. We also conduct detailed Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations at the scale of our experiment as a test of the ash aggregation relationship. The physical experiment was carried out in a contained tank designed to allow for the control of ‘atmospheric’ conditions. The tank can be depressurized as needed, using the gas inlet and the attached vacuum pump, and the ambient humidity can be altered by adjusting the gas mixture at the inlet. Image data is recorded with a high speed camera and post-processed to determine the number of collisions, energy of collisions and probability of aggregation. We will present the results of aggregation probability and the effects of incorporating these results into a multiphase model of a three-dimensional eruption column, where the effects of ash aggregation are especially important in regions of high shear and high granular temperature.

  3. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Christa; Paige, John; Warner, Olivia; Mayhew, Benjamin; Sutley, Ryan; Lam, Matthew; Bernoff, Andrew J; Topaz, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  4. Features of exciton dynamics in molecular nanoclusters (J-aggregates): Exciton self-trapping (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyukin, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. V.; Semynozhenko, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present thoroughly analyzed experimental results that demonstrate the anomalous manifestation of the exciton self-trapping effect, which is already well-known in bulk crystals, in ordered molecular nanoclusters called J-aggregates. Weakly-coupled one-dimensional (1D) molecular chains are the main structural feature of J-aggregates, wherein the electron excitations are manifested as 1D Frenkel excitons. According to the continuum theory of Rashba-Toyozawa, J-aggregates can have only self-trapped excitons, because 1D excitons must adhere to barrier-free self-trapping at any exciton-phonon coupling constant g = ɛLR/2β, wherein ɛLR is the lattice relaxation energy, and 2β is the half-width of the exciton band. In contrast, very often only the luminescence of free, mobile excitons would manifest in experiments involving J-aggregates. Using the Urbach rule in order to analyze the low-frequency region of the low-temperature exciton absorption spectra has shown that J-aggregates can have both a weak (g 1) exciton-phonon coupling. Moreover, it is experimentally demonstrated that under certain conditions, the J-aggregate excited state can have both free and self-trapped excitons, i.e., we establish the existence of a self-trapping barrier for 1D Frenkel excitons. We demonstrate and analyze the reasons behind the anomalous existence of both free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates, and demonstrate how exciton-self trapping efficiency can be managed in J-aggregates by varying the values of g, which is fundamentally impossible in bulk crystals. We discuss how the exciton-self trapping phenomenon can be used as an alternate interpretation of the wide band emission of some J-aggregates, which has thus far been explained by the strongly localized exciton model.

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  6. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  7. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  9. Insulin aggregation tracked by its intrinsic TRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Li Hung C.; Birch, David J. S.; Vyshemirsky, Vladislav; Ryadnov, Maxim G.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2017-12-01

    Time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) have been used to detect conformational changes of intrinsic tyrosines within bovine insulin at a physiological pH. The approach offers the ability to detect the initial stages of insulin aggregation at the molecular level. The data analysis has revealed the existence of at least three fluorescent species undergoing dielectric relaxation and significant spectral changes due to insulin aggregation. The results indicate the suitability of the intrinsic TRES approach for insulin studies and for monitoring its stability during storage and aggregation in insulin delivery devices.

  10. Path coupling and aggregate path coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2018-01-01

    This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.

  11. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  12. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...... mechanism. It provides network-wide time synchronization for sensor network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the network and then perform the pair - wise synchronization. SDA aggregate data with a global time scale throughout the network. The aggregated packets...

  13. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  14. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for transforming problems into taking more tractable forms. Aggregated formulations can, though, have drawbacks: some information may get lost in the aggregation and { put in a branch-and-bound context { branching may become very di_cult and even....... The paper includes general considerations on types of problems for which the method is of particular interest. Furthermore, we prove the correctness of the procedure and consider how to include extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies....

  15. Fragile Families in the American Welfare State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Zilanawala, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of children born out of wedlock is now over 40 percent. At birth, about half of these parents are co-habiting. This paper examines data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,271) to describe for the first time the role of welfare state benefits in the economic lives of married, cohabiting, and single parent families with young children. Surprisingly, total welfare state benefits received by the three family types are relatively similar. Nearly half of the full incomes of fragile families come from welfare state transfers. For single parent families the proportion is slightly more than two thirds. Though aggregate welfare state transfers are approximately equal across family type and thus change very little as marital status changes, these transfers and the taxes required to finance them cushion family status changes and substantially narrow the gap in full income between married and fragile families. PMID:27114616

  16. Use of expanded clay aggregate in bituminous construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    In an effort to find a solution to the shortage of aggregate, for use in highway construction, Louisiana Department of Highways initiated a study. : In early 1955, we started experimenting with expanded aggregate or lightweight aggregate as commonly ...

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  18. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  19. Expression of organophosphorus-degradation gene ( opd) in aggregating and non-aggregating filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Tang, Qing; Xu, Xudong; Gao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Genetic engineering in filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria usually involves Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and several other non-aggregating species. Mass culture and harvest of such species are more energy consuming relative to aggregating species. To establish a gene transfer system for aggregating species, we tested many species of Anabaena and Nostoc, and identified Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 as a species that can be genetically manipulated using the conjugative gene transfer system. To promote biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants in aquatic environments, we introduced a plasmid containing the organophosphorus-degradation gene ( opd) into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 by conjugation. The opd gene was driven by a strong promoter, P psbA . From both species, we obtained transgenic strains having organophosphorus-degradation activities. At 25°C, the whole-cell activities of the transgenic Anabaena and Nostoc strains were 0.163±0.001 and 0.289±0.042 unit/μg Chl a, respectively. However, most colonies resulting from the gene transfer showed no activity. PCR and DNA sequencing revealed deletions or rearrangements in the plasmid in some of the colonies. Expression of the green fluorescent protein gene from the same promoter in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 showed similar results. These results suggest that there is the potential to promote the degradation of organophosphorus pollutants with transgenic cyanobacteria and that selection of high-expression transgenic colonies is important for genetic engineering of Anabaena and Nostoc species. For the first time, we established a gene transfer and expression system in an aggregating filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacterium. The genetic manipulation system of Nostoc muscorum FACHB244 could be utilized in the elimination of pollutants and large-scale production of valuable proteins or metabolites.

  20. Geopolymerization of lightweight aggregate waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrincha, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymerization is a viable way to process and re-use alumino-silicate industrial waste while producing highstrength, high chemical inertia materials that can effectively immobilize other industrial by-products, and even hazardous waste. In this study industrial waste from different stages of the manufacture of lightweight expanded clay aggregate was characterized for its possible transformation, via alkali activation, to geopolymers. The ultimate aim was to assess the possibility of using such geopolymers to develop thermal and acoustic insulation panels. The containment of hazardous materials is another important application for these new materials. Geopolymers were prepared for this study with different particles size distributions and activator concentrations. Their mechanical properties, composition and microstructure were characterized and a material with promising insulating properties was produced. A preliminary analysis was conducted of the salt formation observed in these geopolymers, the chief drawback to their use.La geopolimerización es una manera viable para procesar y agregar valor a los residuos industriales de alumino-silicato dando lugar a materiales con elevadas resistencias mecánmicas, alta inercia química y que permiten encapsular otros residuos, incluso peligrosos. Los residuos industriales que proceden de diversos tipos de arcillas para la fabricación de áridos ligeros se han caracterizado para la producción de geopolímeros mediante el proceso de ataque alcalino. Su incorporación en una matriz geopolimérica permite la posibilidad de desarrollo de paneles de aislamiento (térmico y acústico. Además, la inmovilización de materiales peligrosos es un logro adicional importante. Los geopolímeros se han producido con fórmulas diferentes y se han caracterizado sus propiedades mecánicas, composición y microestructura, para dar lugar a una composición interesante con propiedades aislantes. Se ha llevado a cabo

  1. Molecular aggregation in water : the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Rixt Tietje

    2001-01-01

    Hydrophobic interactions belong to the most important noncovalent interactions and play an important role in many (bio)chemical processes. A number of processes in aqueous solution like protein folding, surfactant aggregation or molecular recognition processes strongly rely on the interactions

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase...

  3. Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) facts book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document provides detailed information on alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR). It primarily discusses alkali-silica reaction (ASR), covering the chemistry, symptoms, test methods, prevention, specifications, diagnosis and prognosis, and mitigation...

  4. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  5. Model of fractal aggregates induced by shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zhanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an undoubted fact that particle aggregates from marine, aerosol, and engineering systems have fractal structures. In this study, fractal geometry is used to describe the morphology of irregular aggregates. The mean-field theory is employed to solve coagulation kinetic equation of aggregates. The Taylor-expansion method of moments in conjunction with the self-similar fractal characteristics is used to represent the particulate field. The effect of the target fractal dimensions on zeroth-order moment, second-order moment, and geometric standard deviation of the aggregates is explored. Results show that the developed moment method is an efficient and powerful approach to solving such evolution equations.

  6. Modeling In-Network Aggregation in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Kargl, Frank; Heijenk, Geert; Schaub, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The multitude of applications envisioned for vehicular ad hoc networks requires efficient communication and dissemination mechanisms to prevent network congestion. In-network data aggregation promises to reduce bandwidth requirements and enable scalability in large vehicular networks. However, most

  7. HDR-Aggregate Read Service (ARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ARS is a SOAP web service exposed over HTTPS that provides an aggregated (report) view of HTH Survey, DMP and Census data stored in the HDR DB. ARS is deployed in...

  8. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  9. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  10. Fish Aggregation Sites in the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spawning aggregations are an important event in the life-history of many coral reef fish species. During short time periods (typically during full moons), fish will...

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  13. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  14. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  15. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  16. Aggregation of rat neutrophils by nucleotide triphosphates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford-Hutchinson, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    1 Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) at concentrations of 3 x 10(-7)M and greater cause a rapid partially reversible aggregation of rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 2 Other nucleotide phosphates are much less active at producing aggregation responses; the agonist potencies being UTP greater than ATP greater than guanosine 5'-triphosphate, cytidine 5'-triphosphate, thymidine 5'-triphosphate; ATP greater than adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) greater than adenosine ...

  17. Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coate...

  18. Effect of molecular aggregation on the photo-induced anisotropy in amorphous polymethacrylate bearing an aminonitroazobenzene moiety

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, B J; Choi, D H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated H-type molecular aggregation in a simply spin-coated amorphous homopolymer film of polymethacrylate containing push-pull azobenzene moieties. It was found that the aggregate formation was strongly influenced by thermal treatment and that the aggregate created in the polymer film could be easily disrupted by irradiation of a linearly polarized light. In the first writing cycle of aggregated polymer film, photo-induced birefringence showed a steep increase to the highest value followed by a gradual decrease to the certain asymptotic value under longer irradiation of linearly polarized light. This unique behavior could be attributed to the cooperative motion and the disruption of the aggregated molecules under continuous irradiation of light.

  19. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.

    1995-02-01

    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  20. Ash aggregation in explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Dufek, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present the result of a recent experimental and numerical investigation of ash aggregation in volcanic plumes. Eruption dynamics are sensitive to microphysical processes, like ash aggregation, yet are difficult to parameterize based on dynamics simulations of whole eruption columns due to the lack of sufficient resolution. Here we present the results of experiments that develop a probabilistic relationship for ash aggregation based on particle size, collisional energy and atmospheric water vapor. These relationships can be integrated into large-scale simulations of eruption column behavior in conjunction with a reconstructed velocity distribution of the ash in the column. The physical experiment was carried out in a contained tank designed to allow for the control of atmospheric water vapor. Image data is recorded with a high speed camera and post-processed to determine the number of collisions, energy of collisions and probability of aggregation. We will present the results of aggregation probability and the effects of incorporating these results into a multiphase model of a three-dimensional eruption column, where the effects of ash aggregation are especially important in regions of high shear and high granular temperature.

  1. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  2. Structure-based inhibitors of tau aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, P. M.; Boyer, D. R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Sawaya, M. R.; Cascio, D.; Murray, K.; Gonen, T.; Eisenberg, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    Aggregated tau protein is associated with over 20 neurological disorders, which include Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that tau's sequence segments VQIINK and VQIVYK drive its aggregation, but inhibitors based on the structure of the VQIVYK segment only partially inhibit full-length tau aggregation and are ineffective at inhibiting seeding by full-length fibrils. Here we show that the VQIINK segment is the more powerful driver of tau aggregation. Two structures of this segment determined by the cryo-electron microscopy method micro-electron diffraction explain its dominant influence on tau aggregation. Of practical significance, the structures lead to the design of inhibitors that not only inhibit tau aggregation but also inhibit the ability of exogenous full-length tau fibrils to seed intracellular tau in HEK293 biosensor cells into amyloid. We also raise the possibility that the two VQIINK structures represent amyloid polymorphs of tau that may account for a subset of prion-like strains of tau.

  3. Paper Sludge Reuse in Lightweight Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Hsueh, Ying-Chih; Peng, Ching-Fang; Tang, Chao-Wei

    2016-10-27

    The lightweight aggregates used by the civil engineering market are sintered at a high temperature, about 1200 °C. In times of high energy prices and regulation of carbon dioxide emissions, lightweight aggregate products of the high-temperature process in sales marketing are not readily accepted. This study developed a sintered-type paper sludge lightweight aggregate. In order to reduce energy consumption, substitution of some reservoir sediment clay in paper sludge substitutes is to be expected. The study used two types of paper sludge (green clay paper sludge and paper pulp sludge). The sintering temperature was reduced effectively as the green clay paper sludge was substituted for some of the reservoir sediment clay, and the optimum substitute ranges of green clay paper sludge were 10%-50%. The optimum substitute ranges of the paper pulp sludge were 10%-40%. Test results show that the properties of aggregates have a particle density of 0.66-1.69 g/cm³, a water absorption of 5%-30%, and a loss on ignition of 10%-43%. The loss on ignition of aggregate became greater with the increase in paper sludge content. This means that the calorific value provided by the paper sludge will increase as paper sludge content increases. Paper sludge can therefore be considered a good material to provide heat energy for sintering lightweight aggregate.

  4. Interference between Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings in molecular aggregates: H- to J-aggregate transformation in perylene-based π-stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic differences between J and H-aggregates are traditionally attributed to the spatial dependence of the Coulombic coupling, as originally proposed by Kasha. However, in tightly packed molecular aggregates wave functions on neighboring molecules overlap, leading to an additional charge transfer (CT) mediated exciton coupling with a vastly different spatial dependence. The latter is governed by the nodal patterns of the molecular LUMOs and HOMOs from which the electron (t e ) and hole (t h ) transfer integrals derive. The sign of the CT-mediated coupling depends on the sign of the product t e t h and is therefore highly sensitive to small (sub-Angstrom) transverse displacements or slips. Given that Coulombic and CT-mediated couplings exist simultaneously in tightly packed molecular systems, the interference between the two must be considered when defining J and H-aggregates. Generally, such π-stacked aggregates do not abide by the traditional classification scheme of Kasha: for example, even when the Coulomb coupling is strong the presence of a similarly strong but destructively interfering CT-mediated coupling results in “null-aggregates” which spectroscopically resemble uncoupled molecules. Based on a Frenkel/CT Holstein Hamiltonian that takes into account both sources of electronic coupling as well as intramolecular vibrations, vibronic spectral signatures are developed for integrated Frenkel/CT systems in both the perturbative and resonance regimes. In the perturbative regime, the sign of the lowest exciton band curvature, which rigorously defines J and H-aggregation, is directly tracked by the ratio of the first two vibronic peak intensities. Even in the resonance regime, the vibronic ratio remains a useful tool to evaluate the J or H nature of the system. The theory developed is applied to the reversible H to J-aggregate transformations recently observed in several perylene bisimide systems

  5. Prevention of H-Aggregates Formation in Cy5 Labeled Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H-aggregates of the cyanine dye Cy5 are formed during covalent linkage to the cationic macromolecule Poly(allylamine (PAH. The nonfluorescent H-aggregates strongly restrict the usage of the dye for analytical purposes and prevent a quantitative determination of the labeled macromolecules. The behavior of the H-aggregates has been studied by investigation of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the dye polymer in dependence on solvent, label degree and additional sulfonate groups. H-aggregate formation is caused by an inhomogeneous distribution of the Cy5 molecules on the polymer chain. The H-aggregates can be destroyed by conformational changes of the PAH induced by interactions with polyanions or in organic solvents. It has been found that the polymer labeling process in high content of organic solvents can prevent the formation of H-aggregates. The results offer a better understanding and improvement of the use of the Cy5 dye for labeling purposes in fluorescence detection of macromolecules.

  6. Mineral trioxide aggregate: part 2 - a review of the material aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, and products of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. PubMed and MedLine electronic databases were used to identify scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010. Based on the selected inclusion criteria, citations were referenced from the scientific peer-reviewed dental literature. Mineral trioxide aggregate is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC), and demonstrates a strong biocompatibility due to the high pH level and the material's ability to form hydroxyapatite. Mineral trioxide aggregate materials provide better microleakage protection than traditional endodontic materials as observed in findings from dye-leakage, fluid-filtration, protein-leakage, and bacterial penetration-leakage studies and has been recognized as a bioactive material. Various MTA commercial products are available, including gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA), white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), and mineral trioxide aggregate-Angelus (AMTA). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses and applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are needed. Part 1 of this article highlighted and discussed the composition and characteristics of the material. Part 2 provides an overview of commercially available MTA materials.

  7. Lightweight concrete with Algerian limestone dust: Part I: Study on 30% replacement to normal aggregate at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kitouni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical characteristics of the lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC strongly depend on the proportions of aggregates in the formulation. In particular, because of their strong porosity, the lightweight aggregates are much more deformable than the cementations matrix and their influence on concrete strength is complex. This paper focuses on studying the physical performance of concrete formulated with substitution of 30% of coarse aggregates by limestone dust. In this article an attempt is made to provide information on the elastic properties of lightweight concrete (LWC from tests carried out under uniaxial compression conditions. The results of Young modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive and flexural tensile strength tests on concrete are presented. The concretes obtained present good mechanical performances reaching 34.99 MPa compressive strength, 6.39 MPa flexural tensile strength and in front of 36 MPa Young modulus.

  8. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues ...

  9. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000392.htm Familial hypercholesterolemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disorder that is passed down through ...

  10. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relationship. Different families have different communication and coping styles. Consider how your family reacts in a crisis ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  11. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  12. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  13. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  14. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  15. Choosing the right protein A affinity chromatography media can remove aggregates efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Tomokazu; Nonaka, Koichi; Yabuta, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Protein A chromatography (PAC) is commonly used as an efficient capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) separation processes. Usually dynamic binding capacity is used for choosing the right PAC. However, if aggregates can be efficiently removed during elution, it can make the following polishing steps easier. In this study a method for choosing the right PAC media in terms of mAb aggregate removal is proposed. Linear pH gradient elution experiments of two different mAbs on various PAC columns are carried out, where the elution behavior of aggregates as well as the monomer is measured. Aggregates of one mAb are more strongly retained compared with the mAb monomer. Another mAb showed different elution behavior, where the aggregates are eluted as both the weakly and strongly retained peaks. In order to remove the two types of aggregates by stepwise elution two protocols are tested. The first protocol A consisted of the sample loading, the wash with the equilibration buffer and the low pH elution. The wash stage of the second protocol B included the wash with 1.0 M arginine. No detectable peaks are observed during the wash stage of protocol A whereas significant peaks are monitored during the arginine wash of protocol B. One of the PAC columns showed a smaller peak during the arginine wash. In addition, both aggregate removal and monomer yield are higher with protocol B compared with the other PAC columns. This method is found to be useful for choosing the right PAC column. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  18. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  1. Experimental Survey Of The Effect Of Using Diamotite Lightweight Aggregate And Pvc-Coated Glass Fiber On Structural Lightweight Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tafti, Alireza Shabanian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the increasing growth of concrete construction in the current development world, much progress in different scientific fields of concrete industry is occurred and production of structural lightweight concrete is the result of such progress. These concretes are constructed using lightweight and strong aggregates. Using different lightweight aggregates to reduce the weight of structural elements and finally structural light weight against earthquake has been development rec...

  2. Electrostatic interactions drive native-like aggregation of human alanine:glyoxylate aminostransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Mirco; Conter, Carolina; Cellini, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Protein aggregate formation is the basis of several misfolding diseases, including those displaying loss-of-function pathogenesis. Although aggregation is often attributed to the population of intermediates exposing hydrophobic surfaces, the contribution of electrostatic forces has recently gained attention. Here, we combined computational and in vitro studies to investigate the aggregation process of human peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme involved in glyoxylate detoxification. We demonstrated that AGT is susceptible to electrostatic aggregation due to its peculiar surface charge anisotropy and that PLP binding counteracts the self-association process. The two polymorphic mutations P11L and I340M exert opposite effects. The P11L substitution enhances the aggregation tendency, probably by increasing surface charge anisotropy, while I340M plays a stabilizing role. In light of these results, we examined the effects of the most common missense mutations leading to primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1), a rare genetic disorder associated with abnormal calcium oxalate precipitation in the urinary tract. All of them endow AGT with a strong electrostatic aggregation propensity. Moreover, we predicted that pathogenic mutations of surface residues could alter charge distribution, thus inducing aggregation under physiological conditions. A global model describing the AGT aggregation process is provided. Overall, the results indicate that the contribution of electrostatic interactions in determining the fate of proteins and the effect of amino acid substitutions should not be underestimated and provide the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for PH1 aimed at increasing AGT stability. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  4. A Novel Method to Quantify Soil Aggregate Stability by Measuring Aggregate Bond Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Rachel; Rawlins, Barry G.; Quinton, John N.; Watts, Chris W.; Whitmore, Andy P.

    2016-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key indicator of soil quality because it controls physical, biological and chemical functions important in cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates are responsible for the long term sequestration of carbon in soil, therefore determine soils role in the carbon cycle. It is thus vital that techniques to measure aggregate stability are accurate, consistent and reliable, in order to appropriately manage and monitor soil quality, and to develop our understanding and estimates of soil as a carbon store to appropriately incorporate in carbon cycle models. Practices used to assess the stability of aggregates vary in sample preparation, operational technique and unit of results. They use proxies and lack quantification. Conflicting results are therefore drawn between projects that do not provide methodological or resultant comparability. Typical modern stability tests suspend aggregates in water and monitor fragmentation upon exposure to an un-quantified amount of ultrasonic energy, utilising a laser granulometer to measure the change in mean weight diameter. In this project a novel approach has been developed based on that of Zhu et al., (2009), to accurately quantify the stability of aggregates by specifically measuring their bond energies. The bond energies are measured operating a combination of calorimetry and a high powered ultrasonic probe, with computable output function. Temperature change during sonication is monitored by an array of probes which enables calculation of the energy spent heating the system (Ph). Our novel technique suspends aggregates in heavy liquid lithium heteropolytungstate, as opposed to water, to avoid exposing aggregates to an immeasurable disruptive energy source, due to cavitation, collisions and clay swelling. Mean weight diameter is measured by a laser granulometer to monitor aggregate breakdown after successive periods of calculated ultrasonic energy input (Pi), until complete dispersion is achieved and bond

  5. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material......: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......: The volunteer involvement is meaningful but also challenging. The families value professional support....

  6. Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family members…

  7. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  8. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    This work presents the development and investigation of a new type of concrete for the attenuation of waves induced by dynamic excitation. Recent progress in the field of metamaterials science has led to a range of novel composites which display unusual properties when interacting with electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. A new structural metamaterial with enhanced properties for dynamic loading applications is presented, which is named metaconcrete. In this new composite material the standard stone and gravel aggregates of regular concrete are replaced with spherical engineered inclusions. Each metaconcrete aggregate has a layered structure, consisting of a heavy core and a thin compliant outer coating. This structure allows for resonance at or near the eigenfrequencies of the inclusions, and the aggregates can be tuned so that resonant oscillations will be activated by particular frequencies of an applied dynamic loading. The activation of resonance within the aggregates causes the overall system to exhibit negative effective mass, which leads to attenuation of the applied wave motion. To investigate the behavior of metaconcrete slabs under a variety of different loading conditions a finite element slab model containing a periodic array of aggregates is utilized. The frequency dependent nature of metaconcrete is investigated by considering the transmission of wave energy through a slab, which indicates the presence of large attenuation bands near the resonant frequencies of the aggregates. Applying a blast wave loading to both an elastic slab and a slab model that incorporates the fracture characteristics of the mortar matrix reveals that a significant portion of the supplied energy can be absorbed by aggregates which are activated by the chosen blast wave profile. The transfer of energy from the mortar matrix to the metaconcrete aggregates leads to a significant reduction in the maximum longitudinal stress, greatly improving the ability of the material

  9. 21 CFR 864.5700 - Automated platelet aggregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addition of an aggregating reagent to a platelet-rich plasma. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated platelet aggregation system. 864.5700... § 864.5700 Automated platelet aggregation system. (a) Identification. An automated platelet aggregation...

  10. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  11. Use of hydroxyethyl starch for inducing red blood cell aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation of human red blood cells (RBC) remains of biological and clinical interest. Replacement of plasma proteins by polymers to induce RBC aggregation may help to unravel the fundamentals of the aggregation process. Two theories exist to explain RBC aggregation mechanisms: a depletion and a

  12. Molecular chaperones antagonize proteotoxicity by differentially modulating protein aggregation pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Peter M; Summers, Daniel W; Cyr, Douglas M

    2009-01-01

    The self-association of misfolded or damaged proteins into ordered amyloid-like aggregates characterizes numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Insoluble amyloid plaques are diagnostic of many disease states. Yet soluble, oligomeric intermediates in the aggregation pathway appear to represent the toxic culprit. Molecular chaperones regulate the fate of misfolded proteins and thereby influence their aggregation state. Chaperones conventionally antagonize aggregation of misfolded, disease protei...

  13. A condensation-ordering mechanism in nanoparticle-catalyzed peptide aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Auer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles introduced in living cells are capable of strongly promoting the aggregation of peptides and proteins. We use here molecular dynamics simulations to characterise in detail the process by which nanoparticle surfaces catalyse the self-assembly of peptides into fibrillar structures. The simulation of a system of hundreds of peptides over the millisecond timescale enables us to show that the mechanism of aggregation involves a first phase in which small structurally disordered oligomers assemble onto the nanoparticle and a second phase in which they evolve into highly ordered as their size increases.

  14. Fabrication of fluorescent silica nanoparticles with aggregation-induced emission luminogens for cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Lam, Jacky W Y; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence-based techniques have found wide applications in life science. Among various luminogenic materials, fluorescent nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their fabulous emission properties and potential applications as sensors. Here, we describe the fabrication of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) containing aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens. By employing surfactant-free sol-gel reaction, FSNPs with uniform size and high surface charge and colloidal stability are generated. The FSNPs emit strong light upon photoexcitation, due to the AIE characteristic of the silole -aggregates in the hybrid nanoparticles. The FSNPs are cytocompatible and can be utilized as fluorescent visualizer for intracellular imaging for HeLa cells.

  15. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  16. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  17. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  18. Modifiers of mutant huntingtin aggregation : Functional conservation of C. elegans-modifiers of polyglutamine aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, Eva; Bourgonje, Annika; Veenje, Sven; Thijssen, Karen; de Boer, Jelle; van der Velde, Joeri; Swertz, Morris; Nollen, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common hallmark of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and polyglutamine-expansion disorders such as Huntington's disease, but how aggregation-prone proteins lead to pathology is not known. Using a genome-wide RNAi screen

  19. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5-2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  20. Aggregation and Breakup of Colloidal Particle Aggregates in Shear Flow, Studied with Video Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolpekin, V.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    We used video microscopy to study the behavior of aggregating suspensions in shear flow. Suspensions consisted of 920 nm diameter silica spheres, dispersed in a methanol/bromoform solvent, to which poly(ethylene glycol) (M = 35.000 g) was added to effect weak particle aggregation. With our solvent

  1. Time-dependent studies of metal retention to and desorption from nanoparticle aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. S.; Stegemeier, J. P.; Dale, J.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-01

    little effect relative to the monodisperse particles. These results agree with corresponding EXAFS studies of nanoparticle aggregates which indicate that the desorption step removes the weakly-held (i.e. surface-bound) metal fraction but retains strongly-held metals that appear to be more structurally incorporated within the nanoparticle aggregates. These findings have implications for the removal of hazardous metals from the aqueous phase and the design of remediation strategies targeting contaminated environments such as mine-impacted regions.

  2. Background Variables, Levels of Aggregation, and Standardized Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Paulson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: medium; -webkit-border-horizontal-spacing: 2px; -webkit-border-vertical-spacing: 2px;">This article examines the role of student demographic characteristics in standardized achievement test scores at both the individual level and aggregated at the state, district, school levels. For several data sets, the majority of the variance among states, districts, and schools was related to demographic characteristics. Where these background variables outside of the control of schools significantly affected averaged scores, and test scores result in high stakes consequences, benefits and sanctions may be inappropriately applied. Furthermore, disaggregating the data by race, SES, limited English, or other groupings ignores the significant confounding and cumulative effects of belonging to more than one disadvantaged group. With these approaches to evaluation being fundamental to the No Child Left Behind mandates, the danger of misinterpretation and inappropriate application of sanctions is substantial.

  3. Tetranuclear zinc(II-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate and copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Goswami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A tetranuclear zinc-oxy (benzothiazole-2-thiolate aggregate whose structure has a C3-axis passing through ZnO unit relating three other zinc ions and a tetranuclear copper(I phenylthiolate aggregate having each thiphenolate ligand bridging three copper ions are reported. These aggregates were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole with zinc nitrate or copper(I iodide, respectively. The reaction of zinc nitrate passed through in situ abstraction of a oxy ligand from moisture to form a Zn4O core holding six 2-benzothiazolethiolate ligands, and during the formation of the aggregate, cleavage of S–S bond of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole took place. Whereas, an aggregate formed by self-assembling of copper(I phenylthiolate was formed after extensive degradation of 2,2′-dithiobis-(benzothiazole during solvothermal reaction.

  4. Lineage identity and generational continuity: family history and family reunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, M W; Back, K W

    1987-03-01

    A long tradition of sociological thought asserts that contemporary American culture is providing fewer opportunities to develop a sense of family identity and intergenerational continuity. It is possible, however, to view the modern family as stressed, but successfully adapting to the demands of modernization. One such adaptation is the widespread and growing involvement in lineage identity, manifested by an interest in preserving genealogy and family history and the holding of periodic family reunions. A 73-item questionnaire given to 130 respondents revealed strong lineage conscious attitudes and behavior, particularly on the part of women, blacks, and older people. There may be distinct benefits to be derived by individuals and families strong in lineage identity.

  5. Family support in cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Kazilan, Fitrisehara

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises issues about the role of family members in providing support for breast cancer survivors. Data were collected from 400 breast cancer survivors in Peninsular Malaysia through a custom-designed questionnaire fielded at hospitals and support group meetings. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The analyses show that all family members could be supportive, especially in decision making and help with emotional issues. The spouse was the main support provider among the family members (others were children, parents, siblings and more distant relatives). The results also indicated that a significant percentage practiced collaborative decision-making. Breast cancer survivors needed their family members' support for information on survivorship strategies such as managing emotions, health, life style and dietary practice. The family members' supportive role may be linked to the Malaysian strong family relationship culture. For family members to contribute more adequately to cancer survivorship, it is suggested that appropriate educational intervention also be provided to them.

  6. SUMO modulation of protein aggregation and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Feligioni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO conjugation and binding to target proteins regulate a wide variety of cellular pathways. The functional aspects of SUMOylation include changes in protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking as well as protein aggregation and degradation. SUMO has also been linked to specialized cellular pathways such as neuronal development and synaptic transmission. In addition, SUMOylation is associated with neurological diseases associated with abnormal protein accumulations. SUMOylation of the amyloid and tau proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies may contribute to changes in protein solubility and proteolytic processing. Similar events have been reported for α-synuclein aggregates found in Parkinson's disease, polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease as well as protein aggregates found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. This review provides a detailed overview of the impact SUMOylation has on the etiology and pathology of these related neurological diseases.

  7. Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Erik; Juth, Niklas

    2017-09-02

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

  8. Multi-Dimensional Aggregation for Temporal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhlen, M. H.; Gamper, J.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Business Intelligence solutions, encompassing technologies such as multi-dimensional data modeling and aggregate query processing, are being applied increasingly to non-traditional data. This paper extends multi-dimensional aggregation to apply to data with associated interval values that capture...... when the data hold. In temporal databases, intervals typically capture the states of reality that the data apply to, or capture when the data are, or were, part of the current database state. This paper proposes a new aggregation operator that addresses several challenges posed by interval data. First......, the intervals to be associated with the result tuples may not be known in advance, but depend on the actual data. Such unknown intervals are accommodated by allowing result groups that are specified only partially. Second, the operator contends with the case where an interval associated with data expresses...

  9. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tons per year (European Aggregates Association 2016), while the corresponding number in Norway is 11 tons (Neeb 2015). Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, e.g. in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of crushed rock aggregates. Neeb (2015) reports that half of the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction, and 33 % of the overall sold tonnage of crushed rock is exported. This resource has been more and more preferred over sand and gravel due to the significant technological development of its process and utilization phase. In Norway, the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the main approach to solve natural resource scarcity (Danielsen and Kuznetsova 2015). In order to reduce aggregates transportation, it is aimed to use local aggregates and aggregates processed from rock excavations, tunneling, road cuts, etc. One issue focused in this research is the influence from blasting and processing on the final quality of the crushed aggregates, specifically relating to the properties for road construction purposes. It is therefor crucial to plan utilization of available materials for use in different road layers following the same production line. New developments and improved availability of mobile crushing and screening equipment could produce more sustainable and profitable sources of good quality aggregate materials from small volume deposits in proximity to construction sites. One of the biggest challenges today to use these materials is that the pavement design manual sets rigid requirements for pavement layers. Four research projects are being conducted in Norway to improve the use of local materials for road construction. Four aspects are to be covered by the research: a) geological characteristics of the materials, their b

  10. On Aggregating Human Capital Across Heterogeneous Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Growiec, Jakub; Groth, Christian

    Based on a general framework for computing the aggregate human capital stock under heterogeneity across population cohorts, the paper derives aggregate human capital stocks in the whole population and in the labor force, and relates these variables to average years of schooling and average work...... experience. Under the scenarios considered here, the "macro-Mincer" (log-linear) relationship between aggregate human capital and average years of schooling is obtained only in cases which are inconsistent with heterogeneity in years of schooling and based on empirically implausible demographic survival laws....... Our numerical results indicate that the macro-Mincer equation can be a reasonable approximation of the true relationship only if returns to schooling and work experience are roughly constant across countries...

  11. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  12. Particle networks through aggregation in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, Meisha; Kaur, Jasmeet; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2011-03-01

    Structure-property research in polymer nanocomposites has often focused on producing systems that are homogeneously dispersed in order to capitalize on the large amount of specific surface area available from nanoparticles. However, inhomogeneous dispersion is often obtained and in some cases has been deliberately sought to enhance functional properties through the formation of particle networks. In this research, we are seeking to understand how particle aggregation impacts network formation in polymer nanocomposites as a function of native particle shape. Specifically, we are characterizing nanocomposites comprised of calcium phosphate particles with different shapes and a polyhydroxybutyrate matrix. Experimental results concerning the effect of particle aggregation and shape on polymer crystalline structure, thermal transitions and mechanical properties are presented to correlate particle aggregation to network formation and understand structure-property relationships in these materials.

  13. Relationship between macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is relations between some macroeconomic aggregates and performance of banks. This paper show analysis of trends in gross domestic product, exchange rates, interest rates, inflation load, developments in the balance of payments. On the business side, performance is achieved insight into the liquidity, capital adequacy, and the amount of non-performable loans. The aim of the research is to refute or confirm the interconnectedness of movement values of macroeconomic aggregates and bank performance. The analysis confirmed the association of two set variables. The negative value movements of macroeconomic aggregates directly or indirectly have an impact on the quality of performance of the banking sector. Therefore, it is necessary to define an adequate strategy of the economy, would not it safer to carry out the process of adapting to new developments in the market, such as the global financial crisis, the rise in unproductive enterprises, distrust customers etc.

  14. Wind energy aggregation: A coalitional game approach

    KAUST Repository

    Baeyens, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we explore the extent to which a group of N wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation and quantity risk sharing by forming a willing coalition to pool their variable power to jointly offer their aggregate power output as single entity into a forward energy market. We prove that wind power generators will always improve their expected profit when they aggregate their generated power and use tools from coalitional game theory to design fair sharing mechanisms to allocate the payoff among the coalition participants. We show that the corresponding coalitional game is super-additive and has a nonempty core. Hence, there always exists a mechanism for profit-sharing that makes the coalition stable. However, the game is not convex and the celebrated Shapley value may not belong to the core of the game. An allocation mechanism that minimizes the worst-case dissatisfaction is proposed. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Participation of an Energy Storage Aggregator in Electricity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Ocana, Jesus E.; Ortega-Vazquez, Miguel A.; Zhang, Baosen

    2017-01-01

    An important function of aggregators is to enable the participation of small energy storage units in electricity markets. This paper studies two generally overlooked aspects related to aggregators of energy storage: i) the relationship between the aggregator and its constituent storage units and ii) the aggregator's effect on system welfare. Regarding i), we show that short-term outcomes can be Pareto-inefficient: all players could be better-off. In practice, however, aggregators and storage ...

  16. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which ...

  17. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-01-01

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates

  18. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  20. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  1. A comparison of thermal zone aggregation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brandon M. [Cornell University

    2012-12-10

    The impact of increasing energy prices on building operation budgets has fueled demand for more energy-efficient structures. Existing building energy simulation tools generate an immense amount of data yet comparatively little knowledge. This paper introduces a framework that allows aggregation-based model reduction to operate on geometric building information models. The resulting aggregation sequence provides designers with faster simulations and affords insight into complex multi-scale thermal interactions. A comparison of the trade-off between simulation speed and accuracy for three hierarchical cluster partitioning methods concludes the discussion.

  2. Location Aggregation of Spatial Population CTMC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bortolussi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on spatial Markov population models, describing the stochastic evolution of populations of agents, explicitly modelling their spatial distribution, representing space as a discrete, finite graph. More specifically, we present a heuristic approach to aggregating spatial locations, which is designed to preserve the dynamical behaviour of the model whilst reducing the computational cost of analysis. Our approach combines stochastic approximation ideas (moment closure, linear noise, with computational statistics (spectral clustering to obtain an efficient aggregation, which is experimentally shown to be reasonably accurate on two case studies: an instance of epidemic spreading and a London bike sharing scenario.

  3. Fluorescence turn on by cholate aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Anthony; Amador, Adrian; Tolbert, Laren M

    2011-04-05

    Bile salts, including sodium cholate (NaCh), are amphiphilic molecules with a concave hydrophilic side and a convex hydrophobic side. By forming aggregates in aqueous solution, these natural surfactants fulfill vital biological roles in the solubilization of cholesterol, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins and thus are involved in the transport and absorption of important biological molecules. Following our success with the encapsulation of fluorescent protein chromophore (FP) analogs by synthetic hydrophobic and hydrophilic hosts, based upon substitution patterns, we now report the binding and turn on of other analogs by bile salt aggregates, observations which may lead to new tools for studying trafficking in these important systems.

  4. Pre-aggregation for Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timko, Igor; Dyreson, Curtis E.; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    computations of aggregate values. The paper also reports on the experiments with the methods. The work is motivated with a real-world case study, based on our collaboration with a leading Danish vendor of location-based services. No previous work considers the combination of the aspects of uncertain......Motivated by the increasing need to analyze complex uncertain multidimensional data (e.g., in order to optimize and personalize location-based services), this paper proposes novel types of {\\em probabilistic} OLAP queries that operate on aggregate values that are probability distributions...

  5. Fault tolerant aggregation for power system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver; Kullmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the flexibility in distributed energy resources (DER) is seen as an important contribution to allow high penetrations of renewable generation in electrical power systems. However, the present control infrastructure in power systems is not well suited for the integration of a very large...... number of small units. A common approach is to aggregate a portfolio of such units together and expose them to the power system as a single large virtual unit. In order to realize the vision of a Smart Grid, concepts for flexible, resilient and reliable aggregation infrastructures are required...

  6. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  7. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  8. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  9. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  10. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  11. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  12. Aggregates of Chemically Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Viscosity Reducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriccione, Angelo; Zarrelli, Mauro; Antonucci, Vincenza; Giordano, Michele

    2014-04-22

    Confinement and surface effects provided by nanoparticles have been shown to produce changes in polymer molecules affecting their macroscopic viscosity. Nanoparticles may induce rearrangements in polymer conformation with an increase in free volume significantly lowering the viscosity. This phenomenon is generally attributed to the selective adsorption of the polymer high molar mass fraction onto nanoparticles surface when the polymer radius of gyration is comparable to the nanoparticles characteristic dimensions. Carbon nanotubes seem to be the ideal candidate to induce viscosity reduction of polymer due to both their high surface-to-volume ratio and their nanometric sizes, comparable to the gyration radius of polymer chains. However, the amount of nanotube in a polymer system is limited by the percolation threshold as, above this limit, the formation of a nanotubes network hinders the viscosity reduction effect. Based on these findings, we have used multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNT "aggregates" as viscosity reducers. Our results reveal both that the use of nanotube clusters reduce significantly the viscosity of the final system and strongly increase the nanotube limiting concentration for viscosity hindering. By using hydroxyl and carboxyl functionalized nanotubes, this effect has been rather maximized likely due to the hydrogen bridged stabilization of nanotube aggregates.

  13. Quadrature method of moments for aggregation-breakage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Daniele L; Vigil, R Dennis; Fox, Rodney O

    2003-02-15

    Investigation of particulate systems often requires the solution of a population balance, which is a continuity statement written in terms of the number density function. In turn, the number density function is defined in terms of an internal coordinate (e.g., particle length, particle volume) and it generates integral and derivative terms. Different methods exist for numerically solving the population balance equation. For many processes of industrial significance, due to the strong coupling between particle interactions and fluid dynamics, the population balance must be solved as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Such an approach requires the addition of a large number of scalars and the associated transport equations. This increases the CPU time required for the simulation, and thus it is clear that it is very important to use as few scalars as possible. In this work the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) is used. The QMOM has already been validated for crystal growth and aggregation; here the method is extended to include breakage. QMOM performance is tested for 10 different cases in which the competition between aggregation and breakage leads to asymptotic solutions.

  14. Molecular modelling studies of clay-exopolysaccharide complexes: Soil aggregation and water retention phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henao, Lina J. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Mazeau, Karim, E-mail: karim.mazeau@cermav.cnrs.fr [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2009-10-15

    In soils, the bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) aggregate mineral particles, enhancing their cohesion and their ability to retain water. These phenomena have been studied at the atomic scale by molecular modelling; we have considered seven rhizospheric polysaccharides interacting with the basal surfaces of montmorillonite. Models accounted for the aggregation phenomena induced by EPS: some segments of the polysaccharide were adsorbed on the mineral surfaces while others formed loops and bridges linking two surfaces. Adsorption energies were favourable and depended mostly on the interacting area. Cohesion of aggregates was estimated by the adhesion work, predicted values differed from one EPS to the other, suggesting that the chemical structure influences interaction strength with the mineral surface. Mechanisms of water uptake and release have also been investigated: hydration energies revealed that EPS strongly retain water at low water concentrations.

  15. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  16. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Petrenko, Viktor I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ivankov, Olexandr I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, Kyiv 01033 (Ukraine); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy per. 9, Dolgoprudniy 141700 (Russian Federation); Feoktystov, Artem [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-17

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  17. Direct observation of electric field induced pattern formation and particle aggregation in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, Michal; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.

  18. Amplification of Chirality through Self-Replication of Micellar Aggregates in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin

    2015-03-17

    We describe a system in which the self-replication of micellar aggregates results in a spontaneous amplification of chirality in the reaction products. In this system, amphiphiles are synthesized from two "clickable" fragments: a water-soluble "head" and a hydrophobic "tail". Under biphasic conditions, the reaction is autocatalytic, as aggregates facilitate the transfer of hydrophobic molecules to the aqueous phase. When chiral, partially enantioenriched surfactant heads are used, a strong nonlinear induction of chirality in the reaction products is observed. Preseeding the reaction mixture with an amphiphile of one chirality results in the amplification of this product and therefore information transfer between generations of self-replicating aggregates. Because our amphiphiles are capable of catalysis, information transfer, and self-assembly into bounded structures, they present a plausible model for prenucleic acid "lipid world" entities. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  19. The effects of alkylammonium counterions on the aggregation of fluorinated surfactants and surfactant ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Matthew J; Greaves, Tamar L; Garvey, Christopher J; Tabor, Rico F

    2016-08-01

    The effects of organic counterions with varying carbon number on surfactant aggregation have been analysed by coupling perfluorooctanoate surfactant anions with various alkylammonium counterions. Both the degree of substitution (primary to tertiary) and alkyl chain length (0-3 carbons) of the counterions were varied to provide a comprehensive matrix of geometries and lipophilicities. Surface activity was measured using pendant drop tensiometry, while temperature-controlled small-angle neutron scattering was used to probe changes in aggregation morphology. It was found that the use of such alkylammonium counterions resulted in a strong preference for bilayer formation even at low surfactant concentration (surfactant-rich lamellar phase coexists with a dilute micellar phase. The results indicate that aggregation is controlled by a delicate balance of counterion size, hydrophilicity and diffuseness of charge, providing new methods for the subtle control of surfactant solutions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikk...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  1. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  2. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  3. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  4. Influence of Aggregate Wettability with Different Lithology Aggregates on Concrete Drying Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of the wettability of different lithology aggregates and the drying shrinkage of concrete materials is studied, and some influential factors such as wettability and wetting angle are analyzed. A mercury porosimeter is used to measure the porosities of different lithology aggregates accurately, and the pore size ranges that significantly affect the drying shrinkage of different lithology aggregate concretes are confirmed. The pore distribution curve of the different coarse aggregates is also measured through a statistical method, and the contact angle of different coarse aggregates and concrete is calculated according to the linear fitting relationship. Research shows that concrete strength is determined by aggregate strength. Aggregate wettability is not directly correlated with concrete strength, but wettability significantly affects concrete drying shrinkage. In all types’ pores, the greatest impacts on wettability are capillary pores and gel pores, especially for the pores of the size locating 2.5–50 nm and 50–100 nm two ranges.

  5. A family study of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Monahan, Patrick O; Temkit, M'Hamed; Shaw, Martha

    2006-03-30

    The cause of pathological gambling (PG) is unknown. The current study was conducted to determine whether PG is familial, and to examine patterns of familial aggregation of psychiatric disorder. To that end, 31 case probands with DSM-IV PG and 31 control probands were recruited and interviewed regarding their first degree relatives (FDRs). Available and willing FDRs were directly interviewed with structured instruments of known reliability, and best estimate final diagnoses were blindly assigned for 193 case and 142 control relatives over age 18 years. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The lifetime rates of PG and "any gambling disorder" were significantly greater among the relatives of case probands (8.3% and 12.4%, respectively) than among the control relatives (2.1% and 3.5%, respectively) (OR=3.36 for "any gambling disorder"). PG relatives also had significantly higher lifetime rates of alcohol disorders, "any substance use disorder," antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and "any mental disorder". "Any gambling disorder," alcohol disorder, and "any substance use disorder" remained significant after a conservative Bonferroni correction. Interestingly, PG families were significantly larger than control families. We conclude that gambling disorders are familial and co-aggregate with substance misuse. The data are also suggestive that PG co-aggregates with ASPD. Further research on the heritability of PG is warranted.

  6. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  7. Family Assets and Liabilities in the Innovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in family firms is often driven by family assets, valuable resources that are particularly prevalent in family firms. For example, they have particularly strong networks that can be deployed in an innovation context. These family assets can over time atrophy and stifle rather than...... stimulate innovation performance. However, family firms can fight this process by institutionalizing innovation within the family and the firm by means of family and corporate governance and through incentivizing key individuals in the innovation process....

  8. IN-VIVO EXPOSURE CHARACTERIZATION AND VISUALIZATION OF SWNH AGGREGATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Rachel M [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Zhao, Bin [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Venmar, Katherine T [ORNL; Tetard, Laurene [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    As the manufacturing and use of nanomaterials and nanoparticle clusters/aggregates become prevalent in the future, it will be necessary to understand the biological interactions with this new class of materials introduced through various routes, intentionally or unintentionally. However, there currently exist a host of technical/methodological issues related to nanotoxicological study. For example, the ability to generate reproducible precision nanomaterial and nanoparticles is critically needed for both toxicological evaluation and pharmaceutical applications. Technology for tracing and visualization of nanomaterials in biological systems are also lacking. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) is a unique carbon nanostructure belonging to the same family as the famous carbon nanotubes. SWNH aggregates can be produced through laser vaporization of carbon at room temperature; the aggregates are of particular interest to energy application such as hydrogen storage and new-generation of fuel cells. Unlike carbon nanotubes that are made using metal catalysts, SWNHs can be made without the use of a metal catalyst providing an opportunity for nanotoxicological study of purest carbon nanoparticles with no complication of trace metal toxicity that the nanotubes might have. We summarize results from our ongoing biological research on SWNHs. Our results were from in vivo animal aspiration experiments, in contrast to the results of a recent publication that were based on phenotypic observation of cell-line exposure experiments. The characterization results of ORNL-produced SWNHs are presented in Figure 1, which include low- (Figure 1a) and high-resolution (Figure 1b) structural images of SWNHs, the thermal gravimetric analysis (Figure 1c) and characteristic Raman (Figure 1d) results. We coated the SWNH powder with Pluronic F-127, which is a biocompatible polymer, to facilitate the dispersion of SWNHs in suspension during pressure-driven nebulization in mice aspiration and nose

  9. [Family, Suicide and Mourning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciandía Imaz, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Death is an event that always breaks into family life in a surprising way. Of all the deaths, suicide is the one which more strongly questions the functionality of a family and increases the risk of difficulties in the mourning process. Families in which a suicide has occurred are exposed to a greater possibility of disintegration, disorganization and pathological expressions in their members. To present a reduced and circumscribed narrative revision, restricted to examine the relationship between suicide and the mourning process in the family. The suicide of a loved one is an event that may contribute to pathological grief and mental dysfunctions in surviving relatives. Death in the family is a natural phenomenon. However, death by suicide is one of the phenomena that can generate more alterations in the structure and organization of the family, due to the difficulty related to the mourning process. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggregation-induced reversal of transport distances of soil organic matter: are our balances correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink of green-house gases (GHGs), is the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) as it moves from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. This requires improved understanding the transport distances of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocities of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than the mineral grain size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by soil organic matter. This study aims at identifying the effect of aggregation on the transport distances of eroded SOC and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and deposition. A rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam soil. The eroded sediments were fractionated by a settling tube apparatus into six different size classes according to their settling velocities and likely transport distances. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates of the fractions of the six classes were measured. Our results show that: 1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-distributed across landscapes; 2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded organic carbon immediately after erosion, compared to undisturbed aggregates; 3) erosion might make a higher contribution to atmospheric CO2 than the estimation made without considering the effects of aggregation and extra SOC mineralization during transport.

  11. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  12. Aggregation process, application to nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jean-Baptiste

    1995-01-01

    It is depicted an aggregation model (applied to nuclear multifragmentation) which I have elaborated and validated. This model contains an aggregation procedure, allowing one to determine the aggregation state of a given system. It takes into account spatial and kinetic nucleonic information, as well as in-medium effects. It is made of several energetic linkage criterions, all based on a single quantity: the energy of a system computed in its center of mass frame. This procedure has been applied to nuclear physics, assuming nucleus as a mix of two Fermi gas, interacting via the Yukawa potential (plus Coulomb in between protons) and obeying to a classical exclusion principle. The general trends of the model match with those of nuclear physics. Moreover, two comparisons between the model and nuclear multifragmentation experiments (ALADIN, then FOPI) exhibit nice agreements. The FOPI one, shows that fragments are bound to be formed at the beginning of the expansion phase (Au + Au at 150 MeV/nuc, for central collisions). This work ends with a study of the main ingredients included in the model. It reveals that in-medium effects, exclusion principle as well as the shape of the potential have a non negligible influence on the studied nuclear aggregation process. (author) [fr

  13. Aggregate Measures of Watershed Health from Reconstructed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk-based indices such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V), have the potential to serve as watershed health assessment tools. Recent research has demonstrated the applicability of such indices for water quality (WQ) constituents such as total suspended solids and nutrients on an individual basis. However, the calculations can become tedious when time-series data for several WQ constituents have to be evaluated individually. Also, comparisons between locations with different sets of constituent data can prove difficult. In this study, data reconstruction using relevance vector machine algorithm was combined with dimensionality reduction via variational Bayesian noisy principal component analysis to reconstruct and condense sparse multidimensional WQ data sets into a single time series. The methodology allows incorporation of uncertainty in both the reconstruction and dimensionality-reduction steps. The R-R-V values were calculated using the aggregate time series at multiple locations within two Indiana watersheds. Results showed that uncertainty present in the reconstructed WQ data set propagates to the aggregate time series and subsequently to the aggregate R-R-V values as well. serving as motivating examples. Locations with different WQ constituents and different standards for impairment were successfully combined to provide aggregate measures of R-R-V values. Comparisons with individual constituent R-R-V values showed that v

  14. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that farm sizes, capital input, number of crops planted in a mixture in the farm, labour input, expenditure on planting materials, non farm income, distance to the nearest market, level of education and farming experience are the statistically significant determinants of aggregate agricultural productivity among ...

  15. Quasi-Species and Aggregate Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Anders; Görnerup, Olof; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    At an early stage in pre-biotic evolution, groups of replicating molecules must coordinate their reproduction to form aggregated units of selection. Mechanisms that enable this to occur are currently not well understood. In this paper we introduce a deterministic model of primitive replicating ag...

  16. Characterization of Cross-Linked Lipase Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available microbial lipases from different sources were immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) using different precipitants and glutaraldehyde as cross-linkers. These CLEAs were assayed based on esterification between lauric acid and n-propanol in solvent-free systems...

  17. Globalization and Aggregate Employment Nexus: A Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Nigeria is monotonically dependent on external trade for survival, globalization measured by the ratio of export plus import to GDP soared for the period. Coincidentally, aggregate employment in the industrial sector also rose, at least from liturgical observation. This paper therefore examined this relationship using ...

  18. Mechanical and thermal properties of prepacked aggregate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found that POFA significantly reduces the temperature rise in prepacked aggregate concrete and delay the transfer of heat to the concrete body. The compressive and tensile strengths, however, increased with replacement up to20% POFA. The results obtained and the observation made in this study suggest that ...

  19. Aggregating Google Trends: Multivariate Testing and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    France, Stephen L.; Shi, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    Google Trends is a valuable source of econnomic information. Previous studies have utilized Google Trends data for economic forcasting. We expand this work by providing algorithms to combine and aggregate Trends data and show how time series clustering can be used to analyze competition.

  20. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  1. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study compared the aggregate agricultural productivity between the Low External Input Technology (LEIT) and High External Input Technology (HEIT) Farms in Imo State of Nigeria. The state is divided into three agricultural zones, out of which two were randomly selected for the study. Using a multistage sampling ...

  2. Colloidal Aggregate Structure under Shear by USANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony K.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.; Nakatani, Alan I.

    2015-03-01

    Paints are complex formulations of polymeric binders, inorganic pigments, dispersants, surfactants, colorants, rheology modifiers, and other additives. A commercially successful paint exhibits a desired viscosity profile over a wide shear rate range from 10-5 s-1 for settling to >104 s-1 for rolling, and spray applications. Understanding paint formulation structure is critical as it governs the paint viscosity profile. However, probing paint formulation structure under shear is a challenging task due to the formulation complexity containing structures with different hierarchical length scales and their alterations under the influence of an external flow field. In this work mesoscale structures of paint formulations under shear are investigated using Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (rheo-USANS). Contrast match conditions were utilized to independently probe the structure of latex binder particle aggregates and the TiO2 pigment particle aggregates. Rheo-USANS data revealed that the aggregates are fractal in nature and their self-similarity dimensions and correlations lengths depend on the chemistry of the binder particles, the type of rheology modifier present and the shear stress imposed upon the formulation. These results can be explained in the framework of diffusion and reaction limited transient aggregates structure evolution under simple shear.

  3. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  4. Quasi-Species and Aggregate Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Anders; Görnerup, Olof; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    aggregates, proto-organisms, that host populations of replicating information carrying molecules. Some of the molecules promote the reproduction of the proto-organism at the cost of their individual replication rate. A situation resembling that of group selection arises. We derive and analytically solve...

  5. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log......-normal risks with {stochastic volatility....

  6. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  7. Stay connected: Electrical conductivity of microbial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. However, examination of conductivity in microbial samples is still in its relative infancy and conceptual models in terms of conductive mechanisms are still being developed and debated. The present review summarizes the fundamental understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates (e.g. biofilms, granules, consortia, and multicellular filaments) highlighting recent findings and key discoveries. A greater understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates could facilitate the survey for additional microbial communities that rely on direct extracellular electron transfer for survival, inform rational design towards the aggregates-based production of bioenergy/bioproducts, and inspire the construction of new synthetic conductive polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. School Quality, Educational Attainment and Aggregation Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael; Wright, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 31 countries participating in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is used to estimate education production functions for reading literacy. The analysis suggests that the probability of finding statistically significant and correctly signed class size effects increases the higher the level of aggregation used to measure class size.

  9. An Aß concatemer with altered aggregation propensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, L; Dal Degan, F; Fraser, P

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the conformational and aggregative properties of an A beta concatemer (Con-Alz) of interest for vaccine development against Alzheimer's disease. Con-Alz consists of 3 copies of the 43 residues of the A beta peptide separated by the P2 and P30 T-cell epitopes from...

  10. Does it Matter How to Measure Aggregates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Juselius, Katarina

    Beyer, Doornik and Hendry (2000, 2001) show analytically that three out of four aggregation methods yield problematic results when exchange rate shifts induce relative-price changes between individual countries and found the least problematic method to be the variable weight method of growth rates...

  11. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTA) as an apical barrier material are limited, and no studies have so far examined the clinical performance of BioAggregate as apical barrier material in nonvital immature teeth. Aim: This study was aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of ...

  12. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  13. A kinetic equation for irreversible aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, D.H.

    1990-09-01

    We introduce a kinetic equation for describing irreversible aggregation in the ballistic regime, including velocity distributions. The associated evolution for the macroscopic quantities is studied, and the general solution for Maxwell interaction models is obtained in the Fourier representation. (author). 23 refs

  14. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for example presented in this work, due to aggregation of phytoplankton. This variation can be of importance for the orga- nisms living on the ocean floor, because it determines the amount and quality of food that supplies benthic organisms. It also determines how much, and how fast carbon, that has been fixed in the upper ...

  15. Decomposition and aggregation in queueing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Tijs; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Dijk, Nico; van Dijk, Nico M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter considers the decomposition and aggregation of multiclass queueing networks with state-dependent routing. Combining state-dependent generalisations of quasi-reversibility and biased local balance, sufficient conditions are obtained under which the stationary distribution of the network

  16. Assays for alpha-synuclein aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, protein aggregation gone from being an irritating side product in the test tube to becoming a subject of great interest. This has been stimulated by the realization that a large and growing number of diseases is associated with the formation and accumulation of proteins...

  17. Transportation and utilization of aggregates for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladvad, Marit; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Aurstad, Joralf

    2017-04-01

    Road construction relies on non-renewable aggregate resources as the main construction material. Sources for high-quality aggregate resources are scattered, and requirements for aggregate quality can cause long transport distances between quarry and road construction site. In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tonnes per year (European Aggregates Association, 2016), while the corresponding figure for Norway is 11 tonnes (Neeb, 2015). Half the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction. In Norway, aggregate resources have been considered abundant. However, stricter requirement for aggregate quality, and increased concern for sustainability and environmental issues have spurred focus on reduction of transport lengths through better utilization of local aggregate materials. In this research project, information about pavement design and aggregate quality requirements were gathered from a questionnaire sent to selected experts from the World Road Organization (PIARC), European Committee for Standardization (CEN), and Nordic Road Association (NVF). The gathered data was compared to identify differences and similarities for aggregate use in the participating countries. Further, the data was compared to known data from Norway regarding: - amount of aggregates required for a road structure - aggregate transport lengths and related costs A total of 18 countries participated in the survey, represented by either road authorities, research institutions, or contractors. There are large variations in practice for aggregate use among the represented countries, and the selection of countries is sufficient to illustrate a variety in pavement designs, aggregate sizes, and quality requirements for road construction. There are considerable differences in both pavement thickness and aggregate sizes used in the studied countries. Total thicknesses for pavement structures varies from 220 mm to 2400 mm

  18. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  19. <strong>ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICAstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels

    Organic farming offers a way to increase productivity, and improve food security and livelihood for African smallholder farmers, given that agro-ecological methods are properly and appropriately implemented, and that trade, consumption patterns and policies enable a fair development of food systems...... of this report were discussed and the experience among the approx. 150 participants from throughout Africa strongly supported the conclusions. The following points were highlighted: - Organic farming should be used as a strategy for community development and a sustainable food system for improved family food...... security. - Organic farming and management is very knowledge intensive, and education as well as access to knowledge is crucial. Many small-scale farmers are illiterate. Capacity building as a social process which support the local communities and create valuable networks. - Gender issues must be addressed...

  20. Inhibition of IAPP Aggregation and Toxicity by Natural Products and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pithadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillar aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide, hIAPP, a pathological feature seen in some diabetes patients, are a likely causative agent for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity, leading to a transition from a state of insulin resistance to type II diabetes through the loss of insulin producing beta-cells by hIAPP induced toxicity. Because of the probable link between hIAPP and the development of type II diabetes, there has been strong interest in developing reagents to study the aggregation of hIAPP and possible therapeutics to block its toxic effects. Natural products are a class of compounds with interesting pharmacological properties against amyloids which have made them interesting targets to study hIAPP. Specifically, the ability of polyphenolic natural products, EGCG, curcumin, and resveratrol, to modulate the aggregation of hIAPP is discussed. Furthermore, we have outlined possible mechanistic discoveries of the interaction of these small molecules with the peptide and how they may mitigate toxicity associated with peptide aggregation. These abundantly found agents have been long used to combat diseases for many years and may serve as useful templates toward developing therapeutics against hIAPP aggregation and toxicity.