Sample records for strong exciton photon

  1. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)


    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  2. Two-photon excited fluorescence from higher electronic states of chlorophylls in photosynthetic antenna complexes a new approach to detect strong excitonic chlorophyll a/b coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, D; Ehlert, J; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G; Lokstein, H


    Stepwise two-photon excitation of chlorophyll a and b in the higher plant main light-harvesting complex (LHC II) and the minor complex CP29 (as well as in organic solution) with 100-fs pulses in the Q/sub y/ region results in a weak blue fluorescence. The dependence of the spectral shape of the blue fluorescence on excitation wavelength offers a new approach to elucidate the long-standing problem of the origin of spectral "chlorophyll forms" in pigment-protein complexes, in particular the characterization of chlorophyll a/b-heterodimers. As a first result we present evidence for the existence of strong chlorophyll a/b-interactions (excitonically coupled transitions at 650 and 680 nm) in LHC II at ambient temperature. In comparison with LHC II, the experiments with CP29 provide further evidence that the lowest energy chlorophyll a transition (at ~680 nm) is not excitonically coupled to chlorophyll b. (22 refs).

  3. Excitonic and photonic processes in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Richard


    This book is expected to present state-of-the-art understanding of a selection of excitonic and photonic processes in useful materials from semiconductors to insulators to metal/insulator nanocomposites, both inorganic and organic.  Among the featured applications are components of solar cells, detectors, light-emitting devices, scintillators, and materials with novel optical properties.  Excitonic properties are particularly important in organic photovoltaics and light emitting devices, as also in questions of the ultimate resolution and efficiency of new-generation scintillators for medical diagnostics,  border security, and nuclear nonproliferation.  Novel photonic and optoelectronic applications benefit from new material combinations and structures to be discussed.

  4. Polarised two-photon excitation of quantum well excitons for manipulation of optically pumped terahertz lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavcheva, G., E-mail: [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kavokin, A.V., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya 198504 (Russian Federation)


    Optical pumping of excited exciton states in a semiconductor quantum well embedded in a microcavity is a tool for realisation of ultra-compact terahertz (THz) lasers based on stimulated optical transition between excited (2p) and ground (1s) exciton state. We show that the probability of two-photon absorption by a 2p-exciton is strongly dependent on the polarisation of both pumping photons. Five-fold variation of the threshold power for terahertz lasing by switching from circular to co-linear pumping is predicted. We identify photon polarisation configurations for achieving maximum THz photon generation quantum efficiency.

  5. Exciton Formation in Semiconductors and the Influence of a Photonic Environment (United States)

    Kira, M.; Hoyer, W.; Stroucken, T.; Koch, S. W.


    A fully microscopic theory is presented for interacting electrons, holes, photons, and phonons in semiconductor heterostructures. The formation dynamics and statistics of incoherent excitons are analyzed for different densities, lattice temperatures, and photonic environments. Luminescence experiments are shown to depend strongly on the photonic environment in contrast to suggested terahertz absorption measurements. Whereas luminescence in free space is dominated by plasma contributions, terahertz absorption should be able to directly measure excitonic populations.

  6. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team


    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  7. Photonic Crystal Architecture for Room-Temperature Equilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensation of Exciton Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Jiang


    Full Text Available We describe photonic crystal microcavities with very strong light-matter interaction to realize room-temperature, equilibrium, exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC. This goal is achieved through a careful balance between strong light trapping in a photonic band gap (PBG and large exciton density enabled by a multiple quantum-well (QW structure with a moderate dielectric constant. This approach enables the formation of a long-lived, dense 10-μm-1-cm- scale cloud of exciton polaritons with vacuum Rabi splitting that is roughly 7% of the bare exciton-recombination energy. We introduce a woodpile photonic crystal made of Cd_{0.6}  Mg_{0.4}Te with a 3D PBG of 9.2% (gap-to-central-frequency ratio that strongly focuses a planar guided optical field on CdTe QWs in the cavity. For 3-nm QWs with 5-nm barrier width, the exciton-photon coupling can be as large as ℏΩ=55  meV (i.e., a vacuum Rabi splitting of 2ℏΩ=110  meV. The exciton-recombination energy of 1.65 eV corresponds to an optical wavelength of 750 nm. For N=106 QWs embedded in the cavity, the collective exciton-photon coupling per QW (ℏΩ/sqrt[N]=5.4  meV is much larger than the state-of-the-art value of 3.3 meV, for the CdTe Fabry-Pérot microcavity. The maximum BEC temperature is limited by the depth of the dispersion minimum for the lower polariton branch, over which the polariton has a small effective mass of approximately 10^{−5}m_{0}, where m_{0} is the electron mass in vacuum. By detuning the bare exciton-recombination energy above the planar guided optical mode, a larger dispersion depth is achieved, enabling room-temperature BEC. The BEC transition temperature ranges as high as 500 K when the polariton density per QW is increased to (11a_{B}^{−2}, where a_{B}≃3.5  nm is the exciton Bohr radius and the exciton-cavity detuning is increased to 30 meV. A high-quality PBG can suppress exciton radiative decay and enhance the polariton

  8. What is the best planar cavity for maximizing coherent exciton-photon coupling


    Wang, Zhaorong; Gogna, Rahul; Deng, Hui


    We compare alternative planar cavity structures for strong exciton$-$photon coupling, where the conventional distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and three unconventional types of cavity mirrors$-$ air/GaAs DBR, Tamm $-$ plasmon mirror and sub$-$wavelength grating mirror. We design and optimize the planar cavities built with each type of mirror at one side or both sides for maximum vacuum field strength. We discuss the trade$-$off between performance and fabrication difficulty for each cavity st...

  9. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman


    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  10. Red-shifted carrier multiplication energy threshold and exciton recycling mechanisms in strongly interacting silicon nanocrystals. (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Govoni, Marco; Ossicini, Stefano


    We present density functional theory calculations of carrier multiplication properties in a system of strongly coupled silicon nanocrystals. Our results suggest that nanocrystal-nanocrystal interaction can lead to a reduction of the carrier multiplication energy threshold without altering the carrier multiplication efficiency at high energies, in agreement with experiments. The time evolution of the number of electron-hole pairs generated in a system of strongly interacting nanocrystals upon absorption of high-energy photons is analyzed by solving a system of coupled rate equations, where exciton recycling mechanisms are implemented. We reconsider the role played by Auger recombination which is here accounted also as an active, nondetrimental process.

  11. Permanent Rabi oscillations in coupled exciton-photon systems with PT-symmetry. (United States)

    Chestnov, Igor Yu; Demirchyan, Sevak S; Alodjants, Alexander P; Rubo, Yuri G; Kavokin, Alexey V


    We propose a physical mechanism which enables permanent Rabi oscillations in driven-dissipative condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities subjected to external magnetic fields. The method is based on stimulated scattering of excitons from the incoherent reservoir. We demonstrate that permanent non-decaying oscillations may appear due to the parity-time symmetry of the coupled exciton-photon system realized in a specific regime of pumping to the exciton state and depletion of the reservoir. At non-zero exciton-photon detuning, robust permanent Rabi oscillations occur with unequal amplitudes of exciton and photon components. Our predictions pave way to realization of integrated circuits based on exciton-polariton Rabi oscillators.

  12. Excitonic condensation in systems of strongly correlated electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan


    Roč. 27, č. 33 (2015), s. 333201 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electronic correlations * exciton * Bose-Einstein condensation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2015

  13. Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Olovsson, Weine [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and BaTiO{sub 3}, together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO{sub 2}, were investigated using a first-principles Bethe–Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti–O–Ti bonds. - Highlights: • Excitonic interaction in oxygen-K edge is investigated. • Strong excitonic interaction is found in the oxygen-K edge of perovskite oxides. • The strong excitonic interaction is ascribed to the low-dimensional and confined electronic structure.

  14. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.


    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  15. Strong blue excitonic emission from CdS nanocrystallites prepared by LB technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.; Talwar, S.S.; Major, S.S.; Srinivasa, R.S.


    CdS nanocrystallites formed in ordered fatty acid LB multilayers exhibited strong surface states emission ∝550 nm and weak excitonic emission ∝400 nm. Treatment with aqueous CdCl 2 resulted in the suppression of surface states emission and enhancement of the blue excitonic emission. Subsequent annealing in air at 200 C caused an order of magnitude enhancement of excitonic emission. The growth of nanocrystallites during annealing as seen from the red-shift of excitonic absorption and emission is suppressed by the CdCl 2 treatment. The hindered growth of nanocrystallites, the significant enhancement of excitonic emission from CdS, and the suppression of surface states emission are attributed to surface passivation of CdS nanocrystallites by surface oxide formation. (orig.)

  16. Pronounced enhancement of exciton Rabi oscillation for a two-photon transition based on quantum dot coupling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Lu Di; Du Chaoling; Liu Youwen; Shi Daning; Lai Wei; Guo Chunlei; Gong Shangqing


    We theoretically investigate how to control the Rabi oscillation of excitons of the coupling quantum dots by manipulating static electric fields. Our results show that, for a single-photon process, when direct excitons change into indirect excitons with a bias applied on the sample, the Rabi oscillation rarely alters. However, for the two-photon process, a pronounced enhancement of Rabi oscillation is observed, which can be utilized as the logic gate in quantum information. (paper)

  17. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya


    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  18. Theory of two-photon absorption by exciton states in cubic semiconductors with degenerate valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Toan Thang.


    The coefficient of the absorption of two polarized photons is calculated for direct band gap semiconductors with degenerate valence bands. Wannier-Mott exciton states are included in both the intermediate and final states. Numerical calculations are performed for ZnSe and are compared with Sondergeld's experimental and theoretical results. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Direct creation of excitonic molecules by two-photon absorption in quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.


    A theory of the direct creation of excitonic molecule (biexciton) by direct two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum well structures is developed. Analytical expression of the biexciton two-photon absorption coefficient is given for both photon polarizations. Excitonic-interband-two-photon and exciton one-photon processes in Quantum Wells (QW) have also been investigated. The analytical forms and numerical values of the momentum matrix elements involved in each process are provided. The biexciton matrix element has been calculated adopting a six-parameter variational wave function. A numerical estimation for GaAs QW shows that the biexciton two photon absorption (BTPA) process dominates the other processes by different orders of magnitude. This enhancement essentially comes from the resonance effect and the structure of the matrix elements included in each process. Furthermore, the (BTPA) process in QW for both polarizations is enhanced over its bulk value by about 4 and 5 orders of magnitude respectively. This increase is interpreted as due to the spatial confinement of the QW. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

  20. Inelastic scattering of neutrons by laser photons and excitons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, V.M.; Lalov, I.J.


    The cross section for the neutron scattering by photons sharply increases in crystals. In view of the fact that a propagating photon in a crystal (polariton), being the superposition of transverse photons and Coulomb excitations (optical phonons, excitons, etc.), involves in the motion also a nucleus subsystem, the cross section for the neutron scattering on the photon turns out to be proportional to the cross section for neutron scattering on nuclei and to the strength function of phonons at the polariton frequency. Numerical estimates for the cross section of the noncoherent photon absorption by a neutron in the case of a LiH crystal in the presence of an intense, electromagnetic radiation point to the possibility of an action of neutron fluxes by laser radiation. A similar effect of involvement (superposition) also takes place for excitons. This fact can be used for calculations of the cross section for neutron inelastic scattering by excitons, which is proportional to the scattering of neutron on nuclei cross section. The paper also discussed the effect of laser radiation of neutron-induced nuclear reaction (radiative capture and threshold reactions)

  1. Strong coupling in porphyrin J-aggregate excitons and plasmons in nano-void arrays (United States)

    Ferdele, Stefano; Jose, Bincy; Foster, Robert; Keyes, Tia E.; Rice, James H.


    Active plasmonic nano-void arrays made through colloidal lithography (a cost effective and rapid process) potentially offers opportunities for scalable device design. In this work we demonstrate strong coupling between Bragg-like quadrupole surface plasmon modes in nano-void substrate designs with Frankel excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer though angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of new hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 120 meV.

  2. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon. (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K


    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Coupled exciton-photon Bose condensate: Non-Markovian character of the open system (United States)

    Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.


    For an nonequilibrium system, in the framework of the Keldysh formalism we explore the kinetics of the polariton condensate in a quantum well embedded in an optical microcavity taking into account pumping and leakage of excitons and photons. We make ab initio derivation of the quantum kinetic equations for the condensates and for reservoirs. We show that the real open polariton system has the non-Markovian character at times comparable to the Rabi oscillation period.

  4. Strong Exciton-photon Coupling in Semiconductor Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high directiona......The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high......-optical switches based on semiconductor microcavities....

  5. Single photon emission from charged excitons in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (United States)

    Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.


    We report on micro-photoluminescence studies of individual self-organized CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots intended for single-photon-source applications in a visible spectral range. The quantum dots surface density below 1010 per cm2 was achieved by using a thermally activated regime of molecular beam epitaxy that allowed fabrication of etched mesa-structures containing only a few emitting quantum dots. The single photon emission with the autocorrelation function g(2)(0)<0.2 was detected and identified as recombination of charged excitons in the individual quantum dot.

  6. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen


    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  7. Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, C; Bonnand, C; Plenet, J C; Brehier, A; Parashkov, R; Lauret, J S; Deleporte, E; Bellessa, J


    This paper presents some of the particularities of the strong coupling regime occurring between surface plasmon (SP) modes and excitons. Two different active materials were deposited on a silver film: a cyanine dye J-aggregate, and a two-dimensional layered perovskite-type semiconductor. The dispersion relations, which are deduced from angular resolved reflectometry spectra, present an anticrossing characteristic of the strong coupling regime. The wavevector is a good parameter to determine the Rabi splitting. Due to the large interaction energies (several hundreds of milli-electron-volts), the calculations at constant angle can induce an overestimation of the Rabi splitting of more than a factor of two. Another property of polaritons based on SP is their nonradiative character. In order to observe the polaritonic emission, it is thus necessary to use particular extraction setups, such as gratings or prisms. Otherwise only the incoherent emission can be detected, very similar to the bare exciton emission

  8. Strongly Asymmetric Spectroscopy in Plasmon-Exciton Hybrid Systems due to Interference-Induced Energy Repartitioning (United States)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Li, Xiaoguang; Nan, Fan; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xudong; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zhang, Zhenyu


    Recent intense effort has been devoted to exploring different manifestations of resonant excitations of strongly coupled plasmons and excitons, but so far such studies have been limited to situations where the Fano- or Rabi-type spectra are largely symmetric at zero detuning. Using a newly developed full quantum mechanical model, here we reveal the existence of a highly asymmetric spectroscopic regime for both the Rabi splitting and transparency dip. The asymmetric nature is inherently tied to the non-negligible exciton absorbance and is caused by substantial interference-induced energy repartitioning of the resonance peaks. This theoretical framework can be exploited to reveal the quantum behaviors of the two excitation entities with varying mutual coupling strengths in both linear and nonlinear regimes. We also use prototypical systems of rhodamine molecules strongly coupled with AuAg alloyed nanoparticles and well-devised control experiments to demonstrate the validity and tunability of the energy repartitioning and correlated electronic state occupations, as captured by the variations in the asymmetric spectroscopy and corresponding nonlinear absorption coefficient as a function of the Au:Ag ratio. The present study helps to substantially enrich our microscopic understanding of strongly coupled plasmon-exciton systems.

  9. Manipulation of exciton and photon lasing in a membrane-type ZnO microcavity (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Yu; Chen, Jee-Wei; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Tien-Chang


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-type ZnO microcavity (MC). The ZnO membrane was cut from a single crystalline ZnO substrate by using focused ion beam milling, and was then placed onto a SiO2 substrate by using glass microtweezers. Through changing the pumping regime, manipulation of P-band exciton lasing and whispering-gallery mode (WGM) photon lasing could be easily achieved. P-band exciton lasing was observed only when the pumping laser was focused at the center of the ZnO MC with a small pumping size because of the innate ring-shaped WGM distribution. Furthermore, the lasing threshold of the ZnO MC could be reduced to an order lower by using a larger pumping spot because of the more favorable spatial overlap between the optical gain and WGM.

  10. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling; Selbstorganisiertes Wachstum von (Ga)InAs/GaAs-Quantenpunkten und Entwicklung von Mikroresonatoren hoechster Guete fuer Experimente zur starken Exziton-Photon-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Andreas


    cavity mode and the exciton could be observed. A Rabi-splitting of about 60 {mu}eV was measured for circular GaInAs dots with an indium content of 43 % and diameters between 20 and 25 nm. we could conclude an oscillator strength of approximately 40-50 for the enlarged quantum dot structures. In contrast to that, the slightly smaller dots with an indium content of 43 % only show an oscillator strength of about 15-20. Furthermore, doped microcavities were realized with regard to electrically driven devices. The investigated electrically driven mircocavities with embedded GaInAs quantum dots were operating in the weak coupling regime and showed a clear Purcell effect with a Purcell factor in resonance of about 10. Due to the use of enlarged GaInAs quantum dots, we were able to reach the strong coupling regime with a vacuum Rabi-splitting of 85 {mu}eV also for electrically driven micropillars. (orig.)

  11. When polarons meet polaritons: Exciton-vibration interactions in organic molecules strongly coupled to confined light fields (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Feist, Johannes; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.


    We present a microscopic semianalytical theory for the description of organic molecules interacting strongly with a cavity mode. Exciton-vibration coupling within the molecule and exciton-cavity interaction are treated on an equal footing by employing a temperature-dependent variational approach. The interplay between strong exciton-vibration coupling and strong exciton-cavity coupling gives rise to a hybrid ground state, which we refer to as the lower polaron polariton. Explicit expressions for the ground-state wave function, the zero-temperature quasiparticle weight of the lower polaron polariton, the photoluminescence line strength, and the mean number of vibrational quanta are obtained in terms of the optimal variational parameters. The dependence of these quantities upon the exciton-cavity coupling strength reveals that strong cavity coupling leads to an enhanced vibrational dressing of the cavity mode, and at the same time a vibrational decoupling of the dark excitons, which in turn results in a lower polaron polariton resembling a single-mode dressed bare lower polariton in the strong-coupling regime. Thermal effects on several observables are briefly discussed.

  12. Exciton multiplication from first principles. (United States)

    Jaeger, Heather M; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Third-generation photovolatics require demanding cost and power conversion efficiency standards, which may be achieved through efficient exciton multiplication. Therefore, generating more than one electron-hole pair from the absorption of a single photon has vast ramifications on solar power conversion technology. Unlike their bulk counterparts, irradiated semiconductor quantum dots exhibit efficient exciton multiplication, due to confinement-enhanced Coulomb interactions and slower nonradiative losses. The exact characterization of the complicated photoexcited processes within quantum-dot photovoltaics is a work in progress. In this Account, we focus on the photophysics of nanocrystals and investigate three constituent processes of exciton multiplication, including photoexcitation, phonon-induced dephasing, and impact ionization. We quantify the role of each process in exciton multiplication through ab initio computation and analysis of many-electron wave functions. The probability of observing a multiple exciton in a photoexcited state is proportional to the magnitude of electron correlation, where correlated electrons can be simultaneously promoted across the band gap. Energies of multiple excitons are determined directly from the excited state wave functions, defining the threshold for multiple exciton generation. This threshold is strongly perturbed in the presence of surface defects, dopants, and ionization. Within a few femtoseconds following photoexcitation, the quantum state loses coherence through interactions with the vibrating atomic lattice. The phase relationship between single excitons and multiple excitons dissipates first, followed by multiple exciton fission. Single excitons are coupled to multiple excitons through Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions, and as a consequence, single excitons convert to multiple excitons and vice versa. Here, exciton multiplication depends on the initial energy and coupling magnitude and competes with electron

  13. Generation of multiple excitons in Ag2S quantum dots: Single high-energy versus multiple-photon excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya


    We explored biexciton generation via carrier multiplication (or multiple-exciton generation) by high-energy photons and by multiple-photon absorption in Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) using femtosecond broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy. Irrespective of the size of the QDs and how the multiple excitons are generated in the Ag2S QDs, two distinct characteristic time constants of 9.6-10.2 and 135-175 ps are obtained for the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple excitons, indicating the existence of two binding excitons, namely, tightly bound and weakly bound excitons. More importantly, the lifetimes of multiple excitons in Ag 2S QDs were about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude longer than those of comparable size PbS QDs and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. This result is significant because it suggests that by utilizing an appropriate electron acceptor, there is a higher possibility to extract multiple electron-hole pairs in Ag2S QDs, which should improve the performance of QD-based solar cell devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Near-Band-Edge Optical Responses of CH3NH3PbCl3 Single Crystals: Photon Recycling of Excitonic Luminescence (United States)

    Yamada, Takumi; Aharen, Tomoko; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko


    The determination of the band gap and exciton energies of lead halide perovskites is very important from the viewpoint of fundamental physics and photonic device applications. By using photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, we reveal the optical properties of CH3NH3PbCl3 single crystals in the near-band-edge energy regime. The one-photon PLE spectrum exhibits the 1 s exciton peak at 3.11 eV. On the contrary, the two-photon PLE spectrum exhibits no peak structure. This indicates photon recycling of excitonic luminescence. By analyzing the spatial distribution of the excitons and photon recycling, we obtain 3.15 eV for the band gap energy and 41 meV for the exciton binding energy.

  15. Strongly Enhanced Free-Exciton Luminescence in Microcrystalline CsPbBr3 Films (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Kakuchi, Mitsugu; Masaki, Atsushi; Saito, Tadaaki


    The luminescence properties of CsPbBr3 films prepared via the amorphous phase by crystallization are dominated by free-exciton emission, and only a weak trace of emission due to trapped excitons was observed, in contrast to the case of bulk CsPbBr3 crystals. In particular, the films in the microcrystalline state show by more than an order of magnitude stronger free-exciton emission than in the polycrystalline state. The enhanced free-exciton emission is suggestive of excitonic superradiance.

  16. Strongly bound excitons in monolayer PtS2 and PtSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Sajjad, M.


    Based on first-principles calculations, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of monolayers PtS2 and PtSe2 are investigated. The bond stiffnesses and elastic moduli are determined by means of the spring constants and strain-energy relations, respectively. Dynamic stability is confirmed by calculating the phonon spectra, which shows excellent agreement with experimental reports for the frequencies of the Raman-active modes. The Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof functional results in electronic bandgaps of 2.66 eV for monolayer PtS2 and 1.74 eV for monolayer PtSe2. G0W0 calculations combined with the Bethe-Salpeter equation are used to predict the optical spectra and exciton binding energies (0.78 eV for monolayer PtS2 and 0.60 eV for monolayer PtSe2). It turns out that the excitons are strongly bound and therefore very stable against external perturbations.

  17. Harnessing no-photon exciton generation chemistry to engineer semiconductor nanostructures. (United States)

    Beke, David; Károlyházy, Gyula; Czigány, Zsolt; Bortel, Gábor; Kamarás, Katalin; Gali, Adam


    Production of semiconductor nanostructures with high yield and tight control of shape and size distribution is an immediate quest in diverse areas of science and technology. Electroless wet chemical etching or stain etching can produce semiconductor nanoparticles with high yield but is limited to a few materials because of the lack of understanding the physical-chemical processes behind. Here we report a no-photon exciton generation chemistry (NPEGEC) process, playing a key role in stain etching of semiconductors. We demonstrate NPEGEC on silicon carbide polymorphs as model materials. Specifically, size control of cubic silicon carbide nanoparticles of diameter below ten nanometers was achieved by engineering hexagonal inclusions in microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide. Our finding provides a recipe to engineer patterned semiconductor nanostructures for a broad class of materials.

  18. The strong will of the photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Gerhard


    Among today's elementary particles, the photon, the massless carrier of the electromagnetic force, plays a special role. At high energy, it has a dual character - sometimes pointlike and structureless, elsewhere with a hadronic structure. This is reminiscent of the duality of radiation and matter established at the beginning of the century. But while this wave-particle duality is understood in quantum mechanics, we have no complete description of high energy hadronic interactions. Quantum chromodynamics, the field theory of quarks and gluons, comes nearest, but calculations are not always possible. Physicists have to resort to intuitive pictures and models to supplement formal theory. The hadronic Side of the photon is a rich field, both theoretically and experimentally, studied using a range of reactions at all the major front-line accelerators and storage rings, culminating most recently with first data from the new HERA electron proton collider at DESY, Hamburg. The photon was first regarded as structureless. The first hint of photon structure was probably electronpositron pair creation by photons in an electromagnetic field. In relativistic quantum field theory, a particle contains not only its 'bare' state, but also contributions from all states coupled to it by the interaction. Thus in quantum terms the photon also contains electron-positron pairs, which can materialize in high-energy reactions

  19. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.


    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  20. Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons. (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff D; Nicholson, Travis L; Liang, Qi-Yu; Cantu, Sergio H; Venkatramani, Aditya V; Choi, Soonwon; Fedorov, Ilya A; Viscor, Daniel; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Vuletić, Vladan


    Realizing robust quantum phenomena in strongly interacting systems is one of the central challenges in modern physical science. Approaches ranging from topological protection to quantum error correction are currently being explored across many different experimental platforms, including electrons in condensed-matter systems, trapped atoms and photons. Although photon-photon interactions are typically negligible in conventional optical media, strong interactions between individual photons have recently been engineered in several systems. Here, using coherent coupling between light and Rydberg excitations in an ultracold atomic gas, we demonstrate a controlled and coherent exchange collision between two photons that is accompanied by a π/2 phase shift. The effect is robust in that the value of the phase shift is determined by the interaction symmetry rather than the precise experimental parameters, and in that it occurs under conditions where photon absorption is minimal. The measured phase shift of 0.48(3)π is in excellent agreement with a theoretical model. These observations open a route to realizing robust single-photon switches and all-optical quantum logic gates, and to exploring novel quantum many-body phenomena with strongly interacting photons.

  1. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Lun Yang


    Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  2. Excitons in atomically thin 2D semiconductors and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jun


    Full Text Available The research on emerging layered two-dimensional (2D semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, reveals unique optical properties generating significant interest. Experimentally, these materials were observed to host extremely strong light-matter interactions as a result of the enhanced excitonic effect in two dimensions. Thus, understanding and manipulating the excitons are crucial to unlocking the potential of 2D materials for future photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this review, we unravel the physical origin of the strong excitonic effect and unique optical selection rules in 2D semiconductors. In addition, control of these excitons by optical, electrical, as well as mechanical means is examined. Finally, the resultant devices such as excitonic light emitting diodes, lasers, optical modulators, and coupling in an optical cavity are overviewed, demonstrating how excitons can shape future 2D optoelectronics.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the hyper-Raman scattering in hexagonal semiconductors under two-photon excitation near resonance with the An=2 exciton level (United States)

    Semenova, L. E.


    The hyper-Raman scattering of light by LO-phonons under two-photon excitation near resonance with the An=2 exciton level in the wurtzite semiconductors A2B6 was theoretically investigated, taking into account the influence of the complex structure of the top valence band.

  4. Confined exciton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Clivia M.S.


    Full text: In this work, the exciton is considered as a sensor of the electronic and optical properties of materials such as semiconductors, which have size compared to the exciton De Broglie wavelength, approximately 20 nm, depending on the semiconductor. Examples of electron-phonon, electron-electron, photon-electron, exciton-polariton, phonon-plasmon, are presented, under different confinement conditions such as quantum wells, superlattices

  5. Plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites (United States)

    Bityurin, N.; Ermolaev, N.; Smirnov, A. A.; Afanasiev, A.; Agareva, N.; Koryukina, T.; Bredikhin, V.; Kamensky, V.; Pikulin, A.; Sapogova, N.


    UV irradiation of materials consisting of a polymer matrix that possesses precursors of different kinds can result in creation of nanoparticles within the irradiated domains. Such photoinduced nanocomposites are promising for photonic applications due to the strong alteration of their optical properties compared to initial non-irradiated materials. We report our results on the synthesis and investigation of plasmonic, excitonic and exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposites. Plasmonic nanocomposites contain metal nanoparticles of noble metals with a pronounced plasmon resonance. Excitonic nanocomposites possess semiconductor nanoclusters (quantum dots). We consider the CdS-Au pair because the luminescent band of CdS nanoparticles enters the plasmon resonance band of gold nanoparticles. The obtaining of such particles within the same composite materials is promising for the creation of media with exciton-plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that it is possible to choose appropriate precursor species to obtain the initially transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films containing both types of these molecules either separately or together. Proper irradiation of these materials by a light-emitting diode operating at the wavelength of 365 nm provides material alteration demonstrating light-induced optical absorption and photoluminescent properties typical for the corresponding nanoparticles. Thus, an exciton-plasmonic photoinduced nanocomposite is obtained. It is important that here we use the precursors that are different from those usually employed.

  6. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.


    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  7. Exciton center-of-mass localization and dielectric environment effect in monolayer WS2 (United States)

    Hichri, Aïda; Ben Amara, Imen; Ayari, Sabrine; Jaziri, Sihem


    The ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as promising materials for various applications using two dimensional semiconductors. They have attracted increasing attention due to their unique optical properties originate from neutral and charged excitons. In this paper, we study the strong localization of exciton center-of-mass motion within random potential fluctuations caused by the monolayer defects. Here, we report negatively charged exciton formation in monolayer TMDs, notably tungsten disulfide WS2. Our theory is based on an effective mass model of neutral and charged excitons, parameterized by ab-initio calculations. Taking into the account the strong correlation between the monolayer WS2 and the surrounding dielectric environment, our theoretical results are in good agreement with one-photon photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity measurements. We also show that the exciton state with p-symmetry, experimentally observed by two-photon PL emission, is energetically below the 2s-state. We use the equilibrium mass action law, to quantify the relative weight of exciton and trion PL. We show that exciton and trion emission can be tuned and controlled by external parameters like temperature, pumping, and injection electrons. Finally, in comparison with experimental measurements, we show that exciton emission in monolayer tungsten dichalcogenides is substantially reduced. This feature suggests that free exciton can be trapped in disordered potential wells to form a localized exciton and therefore offers a route toward novel optical properties.

  8. Self-assembly as a design tool for the integration of photonic structures into excitonic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, S.


    One way to successfully enhance light harvesting of excitonic solar cells is the integration of optical elements that increase the photon path length in the light absorbing layer. Device architectures which incorporate structural order in form of one- or three-dimensional refractive index lattices can lead to the localization of light in specific parts of the spectrum, while retaining the cell\\'s transparency in others. Herein, we present two routes for the integration of photonic crystals (PCs) into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In both cases, the self-assembly of soft matter plays a key role in the fabrication process of the TiO2 electrode. One approach relies on a combination of colloidal self-assembly and the self-assembly of block copolymers, resulting in a double layer dye-sensitized solar cell with increased light absorption from the 3D PC element. An alternative route is based on the fact that the refractive index of the mesoporous layer can be finely tuned by the interplay between block copolymer self-assembly and hydrolytic TiO2 sol-gel chemistry. Alternating deposition of high and low refractive index layers enables the integration of a 1D PC into a DSC.

  9. Measurement of Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2 (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Bairen; Cui, Xiaodong

    Excitonic effects are prominent in monolayer crystal of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) because of spatial confinement and reduced Coulomb screening. Here we use linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE) to measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2. Peaks for excitonic absorptions of the direct gap located at K valley of the Brillouin zone and transitions from multiple points near Γ point of the Brillouin zone, as well as trion side band are shown in the linear absorption spectra of WS2. But there is no gap between distinct excitons and the continuum of the interband transitions. Strong electron-phonon scattering, overlap of excitons around Γ point and the transfer of the oscillator strength from interband continuum to exciton states make it difficult to resolve the electronic interband transition edge even down to 10K. The gap between excited states of the band-edge exciton and the single-particle band is probed by TP-PLE measurements. And the energy difference between 1s exciton and the single-particle gap gives the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 to be about 0.71eV. The work is supported by Area of excellency (AoE/P-04/08), CRF of Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU9/CRF/13G) and SRT on New Materials of The University of Hong Kong.

  10. Strongly correlated photons generated by coupling a three- or four-level system to a waveguide (United States)

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Baranger, Harold U.


    We study the generation of strongly correlated photons by coupling an atom to photonic quantum fields in a one-dimensional waveguide. Specifically, we consider a three-level or four-level system for the atom. Photon-photon bound states emerge as a manifestation of the strong photon-photon correlation mediated by the atom. Effective repulsive or attractive interaction between photons can be produced, causing either suppressed multiphoton transmission (photon blockade) or enhanced multiphoton transmission (photon-induced tunneling). As a result, nonclassical light sources can be generated on demand by sending coherent states into the proposed system. We calculate the second-order correlation function of the transmitted field and observe bunching and antibunching caused by the bound states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can produce photon pairs with a high degree of spectral entanglement, which have a large capacity for carrying information and are important for large-alphabet quantum communication.

  11. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)


    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  12. Coherent infrared multidimensional spectra of the OH stretching band in liquid water simulated by direct nonlinear exciton propagation (United States)

    Falvo, Cyril; Palmieri, Benoit; Mukamel, Shaul


    The two-dimensional vibrational response of the disordered strongly fluctuating OH exciton band in liquid water is investigated using a new simulation protocol. The direct nonlinear exciton propagation generalizes the nonlinear exciton equations to include nonadiabatic time dependent Hamiltonian and transition dipole fluctuations. The excitonic picture is retained and the large cancellation between Liouville pathways is built-in from the outset. The sensitivity of the photon echo and double-quantum-coherence techniques to frequency fluctuations, molecular reorientation, intermolecular coupling, and the two-exciton coherence is investigated. The photon echo is particularly sensitive to the frequency fluctuations and molecular reorientation, whereas the double-quantum coherence provides a unique probe for intermolecular couplings and two-exciton coherence.

  13. Electron-positron-photon cascades in the strong laser field (United States)

    Legkov, Maxim; Fedotov, Alexander


    At nearest future several ambitious projects (such as ELI and HiPER) may provide laser filed intensity up to 10^23--10^24 W/cm^2. In such strong fields quantum effects are essential. The most important among them is production of QED cascades. In this paper external field intensity is considered as ultra-relativistic but subcritical. Using a model of two colliding counter-propagating laser beams it was shown that the number of particles during the process is growing exponentially in time. This leads to vast formation of electron-positron-photon plasma. According to numerical simulations, this plasma quickly absorbs an essential part of the energy of the laser field thus leading to its depletion. Numerical simulation has been also performed for a case of high-energetic particle and laser beam collision. Probability rates of direct and recombination processes have been theoretically studied. Under some conditions, recombination may come into play and suppress cascade development. Using approximation of radiation in forward direction, system of kinetic equations, which describes plasma evaluation, was constructed. According to qualitative estimations based on kinetic equations, it was shown that recombination processes can be neglected for optical frequencies range of external field.

  14. Forbidden singlet exciton transitions induced by localization in polymer light-emitting diodes in a strong electric field. (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Xu, Yuan-Ping; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F


    Through combining the electron transition process and dipole moment evolution as well as electron-phonon coupling, molecular dynamics calculations show that the radiative decay of singlet excitons in a conjugated polymer, such as a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), is largely determined by the evolution of the dipole moment. Without an electric field, the decay life of a singlet exciton is about 1 ns. Once an electric field is applied and exceeds a critical value, with electron-phonon coupling, the original lattice structure evolves into two new localized lattice distortions, consistent with the experimental results. Owing to the new lattice structure and self-trapping, the dipole moment rapidly decreases to zero within 5 fs, eliminating the radiative decay of the singlet exciton.

  15. Excitonic complexes in GaN/(Al,Ga)N quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmaghraoui, D; Triki, M; Jaziri, S; Muñoz-Matutano, G; Leroux, M; Martinez-Pastor, J


    Here we report a theoretical investigation of excitonic complexes in polar GaN/(Al,Ga)N quantum dots (QDs). A sum rule between the binding energies of charged excitons is used to calculate the biexciton binding energy. The binding energies of excitonic complexes in GaN/AlN are shown to be strongly correlated to the QD size. Due to the large hole localization, the positively charged exciton energy is found to be always blueshifted compared to the exciton one. The negatively charged exciton and the biexciton energy can be blueshifted or redshifted according to the QD size. Increasing the size of GaN/AlN QDs makes the identification of charged excitons difficult, and the use of an Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N barrier can be advantageous for clear identification. Our theoretical results for the binding energy of exciton complexes are also confronted with values deduced experimentally for InAs/GaAs QDs, confirming our theoretical prediction for charged excitonic complexes in GaN/(Al,Ga)N QDs. Finally, we realize that the trends of excitonic complexes in QDs are significantly related to competition between the local charge separation (whatever its origin) and the correlation effect. Following our findings, entangled photons pairs can be produced in QDs with careful control of their size in order to obtain zero exciton–biexciton energy separation. (paper)

  16. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites (United States)

    Becker, Michael A.; Vaxenburg, Roman; Nedelcu, Georgian; Sercel, Peter C.; Shabaev, Andrew; Mehl, Michael J.; Michopoulos, John G.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Bernstein, Noam; Lyons, John L.; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Norris, David J.; Rainò, Gabriele; Efros, Alexander L.


    Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund’s rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the ‘dark exciton’. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright. Here we show that the lowest exciton in caesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, with X = Cl, Br or I) involves a highly emissive triplet state. We first use an effective-mass model and group theory to demonstrate the possibility of such a state existing, which can occur when the strong spin–orbit coupling in the conduction band of a perovskite is combined with the Rashba effect. We then apply our model to CsPbX3 nanocrystals, and measure size- and composition-dependent fluorescence at the single-nanocrystal level. The bright triplet character of the lowest exciton explains the anomalous photon-emission rates of these materials, which emit about 20 and 1,000 times faster than any other semiconductor nanocrystal at room and cryogenic temperatures, respectively. The existence of this bright triplet exciton is further confirmed by analysis of the fine structure in low-temperature fluorescence spectra. For semiconductor nanocrystals, which are already used in lighting, lasers and displays, these excitons could lead to materials with brighter emission. More generally, our results provide criteria for identifying other semiconductors that exhibit bright excitons, with potential implications for optoelectronic devices.

  17. Observation of rapid exciton-exciton annihilation in monolayer molybdenum disulfide. (United States)

    Sun, Dezheng; Rao, Yi; Reider, Georg A; Chen, Gugang; You, Yumeng; Brézin, Louis; Harutyunyan, Avetik R; Heinz, Tony F


    Monolayer MoS2 is a direct-gap two-dimensional semiconductor that exhibits strong electron-hole interactions, leading to the formation of stable excitons and trions. Here we report the existence of efficient exciton-exciton annihilation, a four-body interaction, in this material. Exciton-exciton annihilation was identified experimentally in ultrafast transient absorption measurements through the emergence of a decay channel varying quadratically with exciton density. The rate of exciton-exciton annihilation was determined to be (4.3 ± 1.1) × 10(-2) cm(2)/s at room temperature.

  18. Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb


    Elucidating the underlying principles behind band gap engineering is paramount for the successful implementation of semiconductors in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been shown that the band gap of a wide and direct band gap semiconductor, such as ZnO, can be modified upon cocrystallization with amino acids, with the role of the biomolecules remaining unclear. Here, by probing and modeling the light-emitting properties of ZnO-amino acid cocrystals, we identify the amino acids\\' role on this band gap modulation and demonstrate their effective chirality transfer to the interband excitations in ZnO. Our 3D quantum model suggests that the strong band edge emission blue-shift in the cocrystals can be explained by a quasi-periodic distribution of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.

  19. Exciton-plasmon coupling interactions: from principle to applications (United States)

    Cao, En; Lin, Weihua; Sun, Mengtao; Liang, Wenjie; Song, Yuzhi


    The interaction of exciton-plasmon coupling and the conversion of exciton-plasmon-photon have been widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we introduce the exciton-plasmon interaction from basic principle to applications. There are two kinds of exciton-plasmon coupling, which demonstrate different optical properties. The strong exciton-plasmon coupling results in two new mixed states of light and matter separated energetically by a Rabi splitting that exhibits a characteristic anticrossing behavior of the exciton-LSP energy tuning. Compared to strong coupling, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced absorption, enhanced fluorescence, or fluorescence quenching, there is no perturbation between wave functions; the interaction here is called the weak coupling. SP resonance (SPR) arises from the collective oscillation induced by the electromagnetic field of light and can be used for investigating the interaction between light and matter beyond the diffraction limit. The study on the interaction between SPR and exaction has drawn wide attention since its discovery not only due to its contribution in deepening and broadening the understanding of SPR but also its contribution to its application in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, low threshold laser, biomedical detection, quantum information processing, and so on.

  20. Effects of exciton-plasmon strong coupling on third harmonic generation by two-dimensional WS2 at periodic plasmonic interfaces (United States)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Pachter, Ruth


    We study theoretically the optical response of a WS2 monolayer located near periodic metal nanostructured arrays in two and three dimensions. The emphasis of the simulations is on the strong coupling between excitons supported by WS2 and surface plasmon-polaritons supported by various periodic plasmonic interfaces. It is demonstrated that a monolayer of WS2 placed in close proximity of periodic arrays of either slits or holes results in a Rabi splitting of the corresponding surface plasmon-polariton resonance as revealed in calculated transmission and reflection spectra. The nonlinear regime, at which the few-layer WS2 exhibits experimentally third harmonic generation (THG), is studied in detail. Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) do not exhibit THG because they are non-centrosymmetric, but here we use the monolayer as an approximation to a thin TMD nanostructure. We show that in the strong coupling regime the third harmonic signal is significantly affected by plasmon-polaritons and the symmetry of hybrid exciton-plasmon modes. It is also shown that the local electromagnetic field induced by plasmons is the major contributor to the enhancement of the third harmonic signal in three dimensions. The local electromagnetic fields resulting from the third harmonic generation are greatly localized and highly sensitive to the environment, thus making it a great tool for nano-probes.

  1. Energy and Information Transfer Via Coherent Exciton Wave Packets (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning

    Electronic excitons are bound electron-hole states that are generated when light interacts with matter. Such excitations typically entangle with phonons and rapidly decohere; the resulting electronic state dynamics become diffusive as a result. However, if the exciton-phonon coupling can be reduced, it may be possible to construct excitonic wave packets that offer a means of efficiently transmitting information and energy. This thesis is a combined theory/computation investigation to design condensed matter systems which support the requisite coherent transport. Under the idealizing assumption that exciton-phonon entanglement could be completely suppressed, the majority of this thesis focuses on the creation and manipulation of exciton wave packets in quasi-one-dimensional systems. While each site could be a silicon quantum dot, the actual implementation focused on organic molecular assemblies for the sake of computational simplicity, ease of experimental implementation, potential for coherent transport, and promise because of reduced structural uncertainty. A laser design was derived to create exciton wave packets with tunable shape and speed. Quantum interference was then exploited to manipulate these packets to block, pass, and even dissociate excitons based on their energies. These developments allow exciton packets to be considered within the arena of quantum information science. The concept of controllable excitonic wave packets was subsequently extended to consider molecular designs that allow photons with orbital angular momentum to be absorbed to create excitons with a quasi-angular momentum of their own. It was shown that a well-defined measure of topological charge is conserved in such light-matter interactions. Significantly, it was also discovered that such molecules allow photon angular momenta to be combined and later emitted. This amounts to a new way of up/down converting photonic angular momentum without relying on nonlinear optical materials. The

  2. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y H; Tsao, C W; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J


    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry–Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  3. Cooling in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.


    In this Rapid Communication we discuss how red-sideband cooling is modified in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. Using Fermi's golden rule we calculate the transition rates induced by the optical drive without linearizing the optomechanical interaction. In the resolved-sideband limit we find multiple-phonon cooling resonances for strong single-photon coupling that lead to nonthermal steady states including the possibility of phonon antibunching. Our study generalizes the standard linear cooling theory.

  4. Excitons and continuum transitions of rubidium halides in the 10 - 26 eV photon energy range at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierau, W.; Skibowski, M.


    The reflection spectra of RbCl, RbBr and RbI single crystals were investigated for temperatures between 300 K and 8 K in order to study excitations from the Rb + 4p level (> approximately 16 eV) as well as the higher continuum transitions from the valence band (> approximately 10 eV). The measurements were performed by use of the synchrotron radiation of DESY. The sensitivity for detecting details of the fine structure was increased by simultaneously measuring the wavelength modulated spectra. The experimental procedure is briefly described. New spectral features have been resolved for the exciton multiplets from the Rb + 4p level. They are discussed in light of the predictions of a recent model for the Rb + 4p excitons based on ligand field theory. The continuum transitions associated with the valence band and the Rb + 4p level show characteristic structure which is compared with calculations of the joint density of states. (orig.) [de

  5. Strong Photonic-Band-Gap Effect on the Spontaneous Emission in 3D Lead Halide Perovskite Photonic Crystals. (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin


    Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Coupling of Zero-Dimensional Exciton and Photon States: A Quantum Dot in a Spherical Microcavity (United States)


    the electric 179 180 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal (a) (b) _..•rQ Fig. 1. (a) A schematic diagram of a spherical microcavity with a quantum dot at...core is 2.7 while the refractive indices 182 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal of the layers forming the Bragg reflector are 1.45 and 2.7 and correspond

  7. Excitonic condensation of strongly correlated electrons: the case of Pr.sub.0.5./sub. Ca.sub.0.5./sub. CoO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Augustinský, Pavel


    Roč. 90, č. 23 (2014), "235112-1"-"235112-5" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25251S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : excitonic condensation * strongly correlated electrons * cobaltites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  8. Exciton Binding Energy of Monolayer WS2 (United States)

    Zhu, Bairen; Chen, Xi; Cui, Xiaodong


    The optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) feature prominent excitonic natures. Here we report an experimental approach to measuring the exciton binding energy of monolayer WS2 with linear differential transmission spectroscopy and two-photon photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (TP-PLE). TP-PLE measurements show the exciton binding energy of 0.71 +/- 0.01 eV around K valley in the Brillouin zone.

  9. Robust tunable excitonic features in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots (United States)

    Fouladi-Oskouei, J.; Shojaei, S.; Liu, Z.


    The effects of quantum confinement on excitons in parabolic quantum dots of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC QDs) are investigated within a massive Dirac fermion model. A giant spin-valley coupling of the TMDC QDs is obtained, larger than that of monolayer TMDC sheets and consistent with recent experimental measurements. The exciton transition energy and the binding energy are calculated, and it is found that the strong quantum confinement results in extremely high exciton binding energies. The enormously large exciton binding energy in TMDC QDs (({{E}{{B2D}}}∼ 500 meV)quantum confinements, leading to tunable quantum dots in monolayer TMDCs. This finding offers new functionality in engineering the interaction of a 2D material with light and creates promise for the quantum manipulation of spin and valley degrees of freedom in TMDC nanostructures, enabling versatile novel 2D quantum photonic and optoelectronic nanodevices.

  10. Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.


    Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)

  11. Microscopic theory of photon-correlation spectroscopy in strong-coupling semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneebeli, Lukas


    While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atomic systems inspire physicists to demonstrate similar quantum-optical effects also in the semiconductor systems. In contrast to quantum optics with dilute atomic gases, the semiconductors exhibit a complicated many-body problem which is dominated by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and holes and by coupling with the semiconductor environment. This makes the experimental observation of similar quantum-optical effects in semiconductors demanding. However, there are already experiments which have verified nonclassical effects in semiconductors. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can exhibit the single-photon emission and generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. In fact, both atom and QD systems, embedded within a microcavity, have become versatile platforms where one can perform systematic quantum-optics investigations as well as development work toward quantum-information applications. Another interesting field is the strong-coupling regime in which the light-matter coupling exceeds both the decoherence rate of the atom or QD and the cavity resulting in a reversible dynamics between light and matter excitations. In the strong-coupling regime, the Jaynes-Cummings ladder is predicted and shows a photon-number dependent splitting of the new dressed strong-coupling states which are the polariton states of the coupled light-matter system. Although the semiclassical effect of the vacuum Rabi splitting has already been observed in QDs, the verification of the quantum-mechanical Jaynes-Cummings splitting is still missing mainly due to the dephasing. Clearly, the observation of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder in QDs

  12. Resonance enhancement of two photon absorption by magnetically trapped atoms in strong rf-fields (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Mishra, S. R.


    Applying a many mode Floquet formalism for magnetically trapped atoms interacting with a polychromatic rf-field, we predict a large two photon transition probability in the atomic system of cold 87Rb atoms. The physical origin of this enormous increase in the two photon transition probability is due to the formation of avoided crossings between eigen-energy levels originating from different Floquet sub-manifolds and redistribution of population in the resonant intermediate levels to give rise to the resonance enhancement effect. Other exquisite features of the studied atom-field composite system include the splitting of the generated avoided crossings at the strong field strength limit and a periodic variation of the single and two photon transition probabilities with the mode separation frequency of the polychromatic rf-field. This work can find applications to characterize properties of cold atom clouds in the magnetic traps using rf-spectroscopy techniques.

  13. Exploring the physics of superconducting qubits strongly coupled to microwave frequency photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallraff, Andreas [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)


    Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the properties of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. In such circuits the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems allows us to probe fundamental quantum properties of light and to develop components for applications in quantum information technology. Here, I present experiments in which we have created and probed entanglement between stationary qubits and microwave photons freely propagating down a transmission line. In these experiments we use superconducting parametric amplifiers realized in our lab to detect both qubit and photon states efficiently. Using similar techniques we aim at demonstrating a deterministic scheme for teleportation of quantum states in a macroscopic system based on superconducting circuits.

  14. Exploring coherence of individual excitons in InAs quantum dots embedded in natural photonic defects: Influence of the excitation intensity (United States)

    Wigger, D.; Mermillod, Q.; Jakubczyk, T.; Fras, F.; Le-Denmat, S.; Reiter, D. E.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Nogues, G.; Schneider, C.; Kuhn, T.; Kasprzak, J.


    The exact optical response of quantum few-level systems depends crucially on the exact choice of the incoming pulse areas. We use four-wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopy to infer the coherent response and dynamics of single InAs quantum dots (QDs) and study their pulse area dependence. By combining atomic force microscopy with FWM hyperspectral imaging, we show that the retrieved FWM signals originate from individual QDs enclosed in natural photonic defects. The optimized light-matter coupling in these defects allows us to perform our studies in a wide range of driving field amplitudes. When varying the pulse areas of the exciting laser pulses, Rabi rotations of microscopic interband coherences can be resolved by the two-pulse FWM technique. We investigate these Rabi coherence rotations within two- and three-level systems, both theoretically and experimentally, and explain their damping by the coupling to acoustic phonons. To highlight the importance of the pulse area influence, we show that the phonon-induced dephasing of QD excitons depends on the pulse intensity.

  15. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel


    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  16. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipt, Daniel


    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10 24 W/cm 2 and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton scattering. An

  17. Relaxation of nonthermal hh and lh excitons in ZnSe quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalt, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.


    The strong exciton-LO phonon coupling in ZnSe QWs gives a direct access to the relaxation dynamics of nonthermal, free heavy-hole and light-hole excitons. Narrow hot-exciton distributions can be generated by LO-phonon assisted exciton formation. The thermalization of these excitons is monitored...

  18. Strongly Iridescent Hybrid Photonic Sensors Based on Self-Assembled Nanoparticles for Hazardous Solvent Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Sato


    Full Text Available Facile detection and the identification of hazardous organic solvents are essential for ensuring global safety and avoiding harm to the environment caused by industrial wastes. Here, we present a simple method for the fabrication of silver-coated monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticle photonic structures that are embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS matrix. These hybrid materials exhibit a strong green iridescence with a reflectance peak at 550 nm that originates from the close-packed arrangement of the nanoparticles. This reflectance peak measured under Wulff-Bragg conditions displays a 20 to 50 nm red shift when the photonic sensors are exposed to five commonly employed and highly hazardous organic solvents. These red-shifts correlate well with PDMS swelling ratios using the various solvents, which suggests that the observable color variations result from an increase in the photonic crystal lattice parameter with a similar mechanism to the color modulation of the chameleon skin. Dynamic reflectance measurements enable the possibility of clearly identifying each of the tested solvents. Furthermore, as small amounts of hazardous solvents such as tetrahydrofuran can be detected even when mixed with water, the nanostructured solvent sensors we introduce here could have a major impact on global safety measures as innovative photonic technology for easily visualizing and identifying the presence of contaminants in water.

  19. Exciton dynamics and annihilation in WS2 2D semiconductors. (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Huang, Libai


    We systematically investigate the exciton dynamics in monolayered, bilayered, and trilayered WS2 two-dimensional (2D) crystals by time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. The exciton lifetime when free of exciton annihilation was determined to be 806 ± 37 ps, 401 ± 25 ps, and 332 ± 19 ps for WS2 monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer, respectively. By measuring the fluorescence quantum yields, we also establish the radiative and nonradiative lifetimes of the direct and indirect excitons. The exciton decay in monolayered WS2 exhibits a strong excitation density-dependence, which can be described using an exciton-exciton annihilation (two-particle Auger recombination) model. The exciton-exciton annihilation rate for monolayered, bilayered, and trilayered WS2 was determined to be 0.41 ± 0.02, (6.00 ± 1.09) × 10(-3) and (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10(-3) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. Notably, the exciton-exciton annihilation rate is two orders of magnitude faster in the monolayer than in the bilayer and trilayer. We attribute the much slower exciton-exciton annihilation rate in the bilayer and trilayer to reduced many-body interaction and phonon-assisted exciton-exciton annihilation of indirect excitons.

  20. Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics. (United States)

    Wallraff, A; Schuster, D I; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Huang, R- S; Majer, J; Kumar, S; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J


    The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.

  1. Exciton size and quantum transport in nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Kenley M., E-mail:; Gray, Stephen K. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Darling, Seth B. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, 5747 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schaller, Richard D. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)


    Two-dimensional nanoplatelets (NPLs) are an exciting class of materials with promising optical and energy transport properties. The possibility of efficient energy transport between nanoplatelets raises questions regarding the nature of energy transfer in these thin, laterally extended systems. A challenge in understanding exciton transport is the uncertainty regarding the size of the exciton. Depending on the material and defects in the nanoplatelet, an exciton could plausibly extend over an entire plate or localize to a small region. The variation in possible exciton sizes raises the question how exciton size impacts the efficiency of transport between nanoplatelet structures. Here, we explore this issue using a quantum master equation approach. This method goes beyond the assumptions of Förster theory to allow for quantum mechanical effects that could increase energy transfer efficiency. The model is extremely flexible in describing different systems, allowing us to test the effect of varying the spatial extent of the exciton. We first discuss qualitative aspects of the relationship between exciton size and transport and then conduct simulations of exciton transport between NPLs for a range of exciton sizes and environmental conditions. Our results reveal that exciton size has a strong effect on energy transfer efficiency and suggest that manipulation of exciton size may be useful in designing NPLs for energy transport.

  2. Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. (United States)

    Gan, Xuetao; Mak, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuanda; You, Yumeng; Hatami, Fariba; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F; Englund, Dirk


    We demonstrate a large enhancement in the interaction of light with graphene through coupling with localized modes in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Spectroscopic studies show that a single atomic layer of graphene reduces the cavity reflection by more than a factor of one hundred, while also sharply reducing the cavity quality factor. The strong interaction allows for cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on subwavelength regions of a graphene sample. A coupled-mode theory model matches experimental observations and indicates significantly increased light absorption in the graphene layer. The coupled graphene-cavity system also enables precise measurements of graphene's complex refractive index.

  3. Photon shot noise dephasing in the strong-dispersive limit of circuit QED (United States)

    Sears, A. P.; Petrenko, A.; Catelani, G.; Sun, L.; Paik, Hanhee; Kirchmair, G.; Frunzio, L.; Glazman, L. I.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.


    We study the photon shot noise dephasing of a superconducting transmon qubit in the strong-dispersive limit, due to the coupling of the qubit to its readout cavity. As each random arrival or departure of a photon is expected to completely dephase the qubit, we can control the rate at which the qubit experiences dephasing events by varying in situ the cavity mode population and decay rate. This allows us to verify a pure dephasing mechanism that matches theoretical predictions, and in fact explains the increased dephasing seen in recent transmon experiments as a function of cryostat temperature. We observe large increases in coherence times as the cavity is decoupled from the environment, and after implementing filtering find that the intrinsic coherence of small Josephson junctions when corrected with a single Hahn echo is greater than several hundred microseconds. Similar filtering and thermalization may be important for other qubit designs in order to prevent photon shot noise from becoming the dominant source of dephasing.

  4. Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff

    In this thesis, the application of semiconductor quantum-dots in photonic crystals is explored as aresource for single-photon technology.Two platforms based on photonic crystals, a cavity and a waveguide, are examined as platformssingle-photon sources. Both platforms demonstrate strong single-photon...... purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single-photons...... from a quantum-dot are routed on timescalesof the exciton lifetime. Using active demultiplexing a three-fold single-photon state is generated at anextracted rate of 2:03 ±0:49 Hz.An on-chip power divider integrated with a quantum-dot is investigated. Correlation measurementof the photon statistic...

  5. Symposium GC: Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommisetty, Venkat [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)


    This paper provides a summary only and table of contents of the sessions. Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  6. Features of exciton dynamics in molecular nanoclusters (J-aggregates): Exciton self-trapping (Review Article) (United States)

    Malyukin, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. V.; Semynozhenko, V. P.


    We present thoroughly analyzed experimental results that demonstrate the anomalous manifestation of the exciton self-trapping effect, which is already well-known in bulk crystals, in ordered molecular nanoclusters called J-aggregates. Weakly-coupled one-dimensional (1D) molecular chains are the main structural feature of J-aggregates, wherein the electron excitations are manifested as 1D Frenkel excitons. According to the continuum theory of Rashba-Toyozawa, J-aggregates can have only self-trapped excitons, because 1D excitons must adhere to barrier-free self-trapping at any exciton-phonon coupling constant g = ɛLR/2β, wherein ɛLR is the lattice relaxation energy, and 2β is the half-width of the exciton band. In contrast, very often only the luminescence of free, mobile excitons would manifest in experiments involving J-aggregates. Using the Urbach rule in order to analyze the low-frequency region of the low-temperature exciton absorption spectra has shown that J-aggregates can have both a weak (g 1) exciton-phonon coupling. Moreover, it is experimentally demonstrated that under certain conditions, the J-aggregate excited state can have both free and self-trapped excitons, i.e., we establish the existence of a self-trapping barrier for 1D Frenkel excitons. We demonstrate and analyze the reasons behind the anomalous existence of both free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates, and demonstrate how exciton-self trapping efficiency can be managed in J-aggregates by varying the values of g, which is fundamentally impossible in bulk crystals. We discuss how the exciton-self trapping phenomenon can be used as an alternate interpretation of the wide band emission of some J-aggregates, which has thus far been explained by the strongly localized exciton model.

  7. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke


    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  8. Exciton absorption spectrum of thin Ag sub 2 ZnI sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yunakova, O N; Kovalenko, E N


    In Ag sub 2 ZnI sub 4 compound thin films one investigated into the electron spectrum of absorption within 3-6 eV photon energy range. The boundary of interband absorption is determined to correspond to the direct permitted transitions with E sub g = 3.7 eV forbidden gap width. A strong exciton band at E = 3.625 eV (80 K) GAMMA half width temperature run of which within 80-390 K range is governed by exciton-phonon interaction typical for quasi-single-dimensional excitons, is adjacent to the absorption boundary. At T <= 390 K one observes a bend in E(T) and GAMMA(T) dependences associated with generation of the Frenkel defects and followed by transfer of Ag ions to the interstices and vacancies of the compound crystalline lattice

  9. Plasmon-exciton polaritons in two-dimensional semiconductor/metal interfaces (United States)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Bertelsen, L. P.; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger


    The realization and control of polaritons is of paramount importance in the prospect of novel photonic devices. Here, we investigate the emergence of plasmon-exciton polaritons in hybrid structures consisting of a two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) deposited onto a metal substrate or coating a metallic thin film. We determine the polaritonic spectrum and show that, in the former case, the addition of a top dielectric layer and, in the latter case, the thickness of the metal film can be used to tune and promote plasmon-exciton interactions well within the strong-coupling regime. Our results demonstrate that Rabi splittings exceeding 100 meV can readily be achieved in planar dielectric/TMDC/metal structures under ambient conditions. We thus believe that this Rapid Communication provides a simple and intuitive picture to tailor strong coupling in plexcitonics with potential applications for engineering compact photonic devices with tunable optical properties.

  10. Multi-exciton emission from solitary dopant states of carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Ma, Xuedan; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Baldwin, Jon K S; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Tretiak, Sergei; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han


    By separating the photons from slow and fast decays of single and multi-exciton states in a time gated 2 nd order photon correlation experiment, we show that solitary oxygen dopant states of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) allow emission of photon pairs with efficiencies as high as 44% of single exciton emission. Our pump dependent time resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies further reveal diffusion-limited exciton-exciton annihilation as the key process that limits the emission of multi-excitons at high pump fluences. We further postulate that creation of additional permanent exciton quenching sites occurring under intense laser irradiation leads to permanent PL quenching. With this work, we bring out multi-excitonic processes of solitary dopant states as a new area to be explored for potential applications in lasing and entangled photon generation.

  11. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne


    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings ({delta}E<{proportional_to}5 meV) and a multi-exciton-based, Auger-like process for larger detunings ({delta}E >{proportional_to}5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of

  12. Modeling loss and backscattering in a photonic-bandgap fiber using strong perturbation (United States)

    Zamani Aghaie, Kiarash; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Fan, Shanhui


    We use coupled-mode theory with strong perturbation to model the loss and backscattering coefficients of a commercial hollow-core fiber (NKT Photonics' HC-1550-02 fiber) induced by the frozen-in longitudinal perturbations of the fiber cross section. Strong perturbation is used, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, because the large difference between the refractive indices of the two fiber materials (silica and air) makes conventional weak-perturbation less accurate. We first study the loss and backscattering using the mathematical description of conventional surface-capillary waves (SCWs). This model implicitly assumes that the mechanical waves on the core wall of a PBF have the same power spectral density (PSD) as the waves that develop on an infinitely thick cylindrical tube with the same diameter as the PBF core. The loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thick-wall SCW roughness are 0.5 dB/km and 1.1×10-10 mm-1, respectively. These values are more than one order of magnitude smaller than the measured values (20-30 dB/km and ~1.5×10-9 mm-1, respectively). This result suggests that the thick-wall SCW PSD is not representative of the roughness of our fiber. We found that this discrepancy occurs at least in part because the effect of the finite thickness of the silica membranes (only ~120 nm) is neglected. We present a new expression for the PSD that takes into account this finite thickness and demonstrates that the finite thickness substantially increases the roughness. The predicted loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thin-film SCW PSD are 30 dB/km and 1.3×10-9 mm-1, which are both close to the measured values. We also show that the thin-film SCW PSD accurately predicts the roughness PSD measured by others in a solid-core photonic-crystal fiber.

  13. Single-photon superradiance from a quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël Sura; Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff


    We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and t...

  14. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  15. Photon trajectory in strongly scattering media transilluminated by the sine-modulated laser radiation (United States)

    Lyubimov, Vladimir V.; Kravtsenyuk, Olga V.; Skotnikov, V. A.; Volkonski, Vladimir B.


    Results of experimental study of the scattering object shape influence on the photon average trajectories (AT) are presented. The systematic experimental study of the AT inside the scattering bodies of different forms (semi- infinite medium, flat layer, rectangular sector, and cylinder) was carried out. The staking of the AT from a source to detect was carried out with the use of the standard inhomogeneity (SI): a point absolute absorber was embedded inside the object, and the point was searched where the maximal decrease of the detector signal was observed. Also this decreasing was explored as a function of the SI displacement from the AT. As it was predicted in our previous theoretical study, the simple approximation for the AT shape could be done as a three-segment polygonal line that is normal to the body surface at the initial and thermal trajectory points. The approximation error is much less then the width of the area where the presence of the SI is detectable. The obtained results comprise the base for further development of the fast computer algorithms for the real-time multi-aspect 3D optical imaging of strongly scattering objects.

  16. Quantum confinement effect and exciton binding energy of layered perovskite nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang


    Full Text Available We report the preparation of monolayer (n = 1, few-layer (n = 2–5 and 3D (n = ∞ organic lead bromide perovskite nanoplatelets (NPLs by tuning the molar ratio of methylammonium bromide (MABr and hexadecammonium bromide (HABr. The absorption spectrum of the monolayer (HA2PbBr4 perovskite NPLs shows about 138 nm blue shift from that of 3D MAPbBr3 perovskites, which is attributed to strong quantum confinement effect. We further investigate the two-photon photoluminescence (PL of the NPLs and measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer perovskite NPLs using linear absorption and two-photon PL excitation spectroscopy. The exciton binding energy of monolayer perovskite NPLs is about 218 meV, which is far larger than tens of meV in 3D lead halide perovskites.

  17. Exciton Mapping at Subwavelength Scales in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.


    Spatially resolved electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is performed at diffuse interfaces between MoS2 and MoSe2 single layers. With a monochromated electron source (20 meV) we successfully probe excitons near the interface by obtaining the low loss spectra at the nanometer scale. The exciton maps clearly show variations even with a 10 nm separation between measurements; consequently, the optical band gap can be measured with nanometer-scale resolution, which is 50 times smaller than the wavelength of the emitted photons. By performing core-loss EELS at the same regions, we observe that variations in the excitonic signature follow the chemical composition. The exciton peaks are observed to be broader at interfaces and heterogeneous regions, possibly due to interface roughness and alloying effects. Moreover, we do not observe shifts of the exciton peak across the interface, possibly because the interface width is not much larger than the exciton Bohr radius.

  18. Strongly nonexponential time-resolved fluorescence of quantum-dot ensembles in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; van Driel, A. Floris


    We observe experimentally that ensembles of quantum dots in three-dimensional 3D photonic crystals reveal strongly nonexponential time-resolved emission. These complex emission decay curves are analyzed with a continuous distribution of decay rates. The log-normal distribution describes the decays...... parameter. This interpretation qualitatively agrees with the calculations of the 3D projected local density of states. We therefore conclude that fluorescence decay of ensembles of quantum dots is highly nonexponential to an extent that is controlled by photonic crystals....

  19. Energy Approach to Nuclei and Atoms in a Strong Laser Field: Stark Effect and Multi-photon Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu.; Svinarenko, A. A.; Lovett, L.


    A consistent energy approach to nuclei and atoms in a strong electromagnetic (laser) field is presented. The photon emission and absorption lines are described by the moments of different orders, which are calculated with the use of the Gell-Mann and Low S-matrix adiabatic formalism. In relativistic version the Gell-Mann and Low formulae expresses an imaginary part of the energy shift ImE through the scattering matrix, including interaction of quantum system as with laser field as with a field of photon vacuum.

  20. Electrical Control of Excitons in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija

    The scope of this thesis covers investigation of the exciton Mott transition in coupled quantum wells, fabrication of photonic-crystal structures with embedded self-assembled quantum dots, and tuning of their properties by means of an external electric field. In the first part of the thesis the f...

  1. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter


    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  2. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter


    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  3. Imaging exciton-polariton transport in MoSe2 waveguides (United States)

    Hu, F.; Luan, Y.; Scott, M. E.; Yan, J.; Mandrus, D. G.; Xu, X.; Fei, Z.


    The exciton-polariton (EP), a half-light and half-matter quasiparticle, is potentially an important element for future photonic and quantum technologies. It provides both strong light-matter interactions and long-distance propagation that is necessary for applications associated with energy or information transfer. Recently, strongly coupled cavity EPs at room temperature have been demonstrated in van der Waals (vdW) materials due to their strongly bound excitons. Here, we report a nano-optical imaging study of waveguide EPs in MoSe2, a prototypical vdW semiconductor. The measured propagation length of the EPs is sensitive to the excitation photon energy and reaches over 12 µm. The polariton wavelength can be conveniently altered from 600 nm down to 300 nm by controlling the waveguide thickness. Furthermore, we found an intriguing back-bending polariton dispersion close to the exciton resonance. The observed EPs in vdW semiconductors could be useful in future nanophotonic circuits operating in the near-infrared to visible spectral regions.

  4. Strong Electron–Phonon Coupling and Self-Trapped Excitons in the Defect Halide Perovskites A 3 M 2 I 9 (A = Cs, Rb; M = Bi, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, Kyle M.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kostina, Svetlana S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Wessels, Bruce W.


    The optical and electronic properties of Bridgman grown single crystals of the wide-bandgap semiconducting defect halide perovskites A3M2I9 (A = Cs, Rb; M = Bi, Sb) have been investigated. Intense Raman scattering was observed at room temperature for each compound, indicating high polarizability and strong electron–phonon coupling. Both low-temperature and room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) were measured for each compound. Cs3Sb2I9 and Rb3Sb2I9 have broad PL emission bands between 1.75 and 2.05 eV with peaks at 1.96 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The Cs3Bi2I9 PL spectra showed broad emission consisting of several overlapping bands in the 1.65–2.2 eV range. Evidence of strong electron–phonon coupling comparable to that of the alkali halides was observed in phonon broadening of the PL emission. Effective phonon energies obtained from temperature-dependent PL measurements were in agreement with the Raman peak energies. A model is proposed whereby electron–phonon interactions in Cs3Sb2I9, Rb3Sb2I9, and Cs3Bi2I9 induce small polarons, resulting in trapping of excitons by the lattice. The recombination of these self-trapped excitons is responsible for the broad PL emission. Rb3Bi2I9, Rb3Sb2I9, and Cs3Bi2I9 exhibit high resistivity and photoconductivity response under laser photoexcitation, indicating that these compounds possess potential as semiconductor hard radiation detector materials.

  5. The mean energy loss by neutrino with magnetic moment in strong magnetic field with consideration of positronium contribution to photon dispersion (United States)

    Mosichkin, A. F.


    The process of radiative decay of the neutrino with a magnetic moment in a strong magnetic field with consideration of positronium influence on photon dispersion has been studied. Positronium contribution to the photon polarization operator induces significant modifications of the photon dispersion law and neutrino radiative decay amplitude. It has been shown that the mean energy loss of a neutrino with magnetic a moment significantly increases, when the positronium contribution to photon dispersion is taken into account.

  6. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne


    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings (ΔE ∝5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to

  7. Engineering excitonic dynamics and environmental stability of post-transition metal chalcogenides by pyridine functionalization technique. (United States)

    Meng, Xiuqing; Pant, Anupum; Cai, Hui; Kang, Jun; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Wu, Kedi; Yang, Sijie; Suslu, Aslihan; Peeters, F M; Tongay, Sefaattin


    Owing to their strong photon emission, low excitonic binding energies, and nearly-ideal band offset values for water splitting reactions, direct gap quasi-2D gallium chalcogenides are potential candidates for applications in energy harvesting, optoelectronics, and photonics. Unlike other 2D materials systems, chemical functionalization of gallium chalcogenides is still at its seminal stages. Here, we propose vapor phase pyridine intercalation technique to manipulate optical properties of gallium chalcogenides. After functionalization, the excitonic dynamics of quasi-2D GaSe change significantly as evidenced by an increase in integrated PL intensity and emergence of a new emission feature that is below the band edge. Based on our DFT calculations, we attribute these to formation of bound exciton complexes at the trap sites introduced by chemical reaction between pyridine and GaSe. On the contrary, pyridine functionalization does not impact the optical properties of GaTe, instead treats GaTe surface to prevent oxidization of tellurium atoms. Overall, results suggest novel ways to control properties of gallium chalcogenides on demand and unleash their full potential for a range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics.

  8. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L


    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  9. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L


    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  10. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L


    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  11. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L


    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  12. Coherent quantum dynamics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan


    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered considerable interest in recent years owing to their layer thickness-dependent optoelectronic properties. In monolayer TMDs, the large carrier effective masses, strong quantum confinement, and reduced dielectric screening lead to pronounced exciton resonances with remarkably large binding energies and coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom (valley excitons). Coherent control of valley excitons for atomically thin optoelectronics and valleytronics requires understanding and quantifying sources of exciton decoherence. In this work, we reveal how exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering influence the coherent quantum dynamics of valley excitons in monolayer TMDs, specifically tungsten diselenide (WSe2), using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Excitation-density and temperature dependent measurements of the homogeneous linewidth (inversely proportional to the optical coherence time) reveal that exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions are significantly stronger compared to quasi-2D quantum wells and 3D bulk materials. The residual homogeneous linewidth extrapolated to zero excitation density and temperature is ~1:6 meV (equivalent to a coherence time of 0.4 ps), which is limited only by the population recombination lifetime in this sample. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Slab thickness tuning approach for solid-state strong coupling between photonic crystal slab nanocavity and a quantum dot. (United States)

    Chen, Gengyan; Liu, Jing-Feng; Jiang, Haoxiang; Zhuo, Xiao-Lu; Yu, Yi-Cong; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Xue-Hua


    The quality factor and mode volume of a nanocavity play pivotal roles in realizing the strong coupling interaction between the nanocavity mode and a quantum dot. We present an extremely simple method to obtain the mode volume and investigate the effect of the slab thickness on the quality factor and mode volume of photonic crystal slab nanocavities. We reveal that the mode volume is approximatively proportional to the slab thickness. As compared with the previous structure finely optimized by introducing displacement of the air holes, via tuning the slab thickness, the quality factor can be enhanced by about 22%, and the ratio between the coupling coefficient and the nanocavity decay rate can be enhanced by about 13%. This can remarkably enhance the capability of the photonic crystal slab nanocavity for realizing the strong coupling interaction. The slab thickness tuning approach is feasible and significant for the experimental fabrication of the solid-state nanocavities.

  14. Dark excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides (United States)

    Malic, Ermin; Selig, Malte; Feierabend, Maja; Brem, Samuel; Christiansen, Dominik; Wendler, Florian; Knorr, Andreas; Berghäuser, Gunnar


    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit a remarkably strong Coulomb interaction that manifests in tightly bound excitons. Due to the complex electronic band structure exhibiting several spin-split valleys in the conduction and valence band, dark excitonic states can be formed. They are inaccessibly by light due to the required spin-flip and/or momentum transfer. The relative position of these dark states with respect to the optically accessible bright excitons has a crucial impact on the emission efficiency of these materials and thus on their technological potential. Based on the solution of the Wannier equation, we present the excitonic landscape of the most studied TMD materials including the spectral position of momentum- and spin-forbidden excitonic states. We show that the knowledge of the electronic dispersion does not allow to conclude about the nature of the material's band gap since excitonic effects can give rise to significant changes. Furthermore, we reveal that an exponentially reduced photoluminescence yield does not necessarily reflect a transition from a direct to a nondirect gap material, but can be ascribed in most cases to a change of the relative spectral distance between bright and dark excitonic states.

  15. Numerical modeling of exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate in a microcavity (United States)

    Voronych, Oksana; Buraczewski, Adam; Matuszewski, Michał; Stobińska, Magdalena


    A novel, optimized numerical method of modeling of an exciton-polariton superfluid in a semiconductor microcavity was proposed. Exciton-polaritons are spin-carrying quasiparticles formed from photons strongly coupled to excitons. They possess unique properties, interesting from the point of view of fundamental research as well as numerous potential applications. However, their numerical modeling is challenging due to the structure of nonlinear differential equations describing their evolution. In this paper, we propose to solve the equations with a modified Runge-Kutta method of 4th order, further optimized for efficient computations. The algorithms were implemented in form of C++ programs fitted for parallel environments and utilizing vector instructions. The programs form the EPCGP suite which has been used for theoretical investigation of exciton-polaritons. Catalogue identifier: AFBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD-3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2157 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 498994 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux and Windows. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP) RAM: 200 MB for single run Classification: 7, 7.7. Nature of problem: An exciton-polariton superfluid is a novel, interesting physical system allowing investigation of high temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons-quasiparticles carrying spin. They have brought a lot of attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in polariton-based optoelectronic integrated circuits. This is an out-of-equilibrium quantum system confined

  16. Exciton-polaritons in cuprous oxide: Theory and comparison with experiment (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Ertl, Jan; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Uihlein, Christoph


    The observation of giant Rydberg excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu2O ) up to a principal quantum number of n =25 by T. Kazimierczuk et al. [Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] inevitably raises the question whether these quasiparticles must be described within a multipolariton framework since excitons and photons are always coupled in the solid. In this paper we present the theory of exciton-polaritons in Cu2O . To this end we extend the Hamiltonian which includes the complete valence-band structure, the exchange interaction, and the central-cell corrections effects, and which has been recently deduced by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 95, 195201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.195201], for finite values of the exciton momentum ℏ K . We derive formulas to calculate not only dipole but also quadrupole oscillator strengths when using the complete basis of F. Schweiner et al., which has recently been proven as a powerful tool to calculate exciton spectra. Very complex polariton spectra for the three orientations of K along the axes [001 ] , [110 ] , and [111 ] of high symmetry are obtained and a strong mixing of exciton states is reported. The main focus is on the 1 S ortho-exciton-polariton, for which pronounced polariton effects have been measured in experiments. We set up a 5 ×5 matrix model, which accounts for both the polariton effect and the K -dependent splitting, and which allows treating the anisotropic polariton dispersion for any direction of K . We especially discuss the dispersions for K being oriented in the planes perpendicular to [1 1 ¯0 ] and [111 ] , for which experimental transmission spectra have been measured. Furthermore, we compare our results with experimental values of the K -dependent splitting, the group velocity, and the oscillator strengths of this exciton-polariton. The results are in good agreement. This proves the validity of the 5 ×5 matrix model as a useful theoretical model for further investigations on the 1 S

  17. Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex


    We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.

  18. Tunable photonic crystal for THz radiation in layered superconductors: Strong magnetic-field dependence of the transmission coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco


    Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation

  19. Physical theory of excitons in conducting polymers. (United States)

    Brazovskii, Serguei; Kirova, Natasha


    In this tutorial review, we cover the solid state physics approach to electronic and optical properties of conducting polymers. We attempt to bring together languages and advantages of the solid state theory for polymers and of the quantum chemistry for monomers. We consider polymers as generic one-dimensional semiconductors with features of strongly correlated electronic systems. Our model combines the long range electron-hole Coulomb attraction with a specific effect of strong intra-monomer electronic correlations, which results in effective intra-monomer electron-hole repulsion. Our approach allows to go beyond the single-chain picture and to compare excitons for polymers in solutions and in films. The approach helps connecting such different questions as shallow singlet and deep triplet excitons, stronger binding of interchain excitons in films, crossings of excitons' branches, 1/N energies shifts in oligomers. We describe a strong suppression of the luminescence from free charge carriers by long-range Coulomb interactions. Main attention is devoted to the most requested in applications phenyl based polymers. The specifics of the benzene ring monomer give rise to existence of three possible types of excitons: Wannier-Mott, Frenkel and intermediate ones. We discuss experimental manifestations of various excitons and of their transformations. We touch effects of the time-resolved self-trapping by libron modes leading to formation of torsion polarons.

  20. Polaronic exciton behavior in gas-phase water (United States)

    Udal'tsov, Alexander V.


    Features of the absorption spectrum of gas-phase water in the energy range 7-10 eV have been considered applying polaronic exciton theory. The interaction of the incident photon generating polaronic exciton in water is described taking into account angular momentum of the electron so that polaronic exciton radii have been estimated in dependence on spin-orbit coupling under proton sharing. The suggested approach admits an estimate of kinetic and rotation energies of the polaronic exciton. As a result sixteen steps of half Compton wavelength, λC/2 = h/(2mec) changing polaronic exciton radius were found consistent with local maxima and shoulders in the spectrum. Thus, the absorption of gas-phase water in the energy range 8.5-10 eV has been interpreted in terms of polaronic exciton rotation mainly coupled with the proton sharing. The incident photon interaction with water is also considered in terms of Compton interaction, when the rotation energy plays a role like the energy loss of the incident photon under Compton scattering. The found symmetry and the other evidence allowed to conclude about polaronic exciton migration under the interaction angle 90°.

  1. Photonic Architectures for Equilibrium High-Temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dichalcogenide Monolayers (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev


    Semiconductor-microcavity polaritons are composite quasiparticles of excitons and photons, emerging in the strong coupling regime. As quantum superpositions of matter and light, polaritons have much stronger interparticle interactions compared with photons, enabling rapid equilibration and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Current realizations based on 1D photonic structures, such as Fabry-Pérot microcavities, have limited light-trapping ability resulting in picosecond polariton lifetime. We demonstrate, theoretically, above-room-temperature (up to 590 K) BEC of long-lived polaritons in MoSe2 monolayers sandwiched by simple TiO2 based 3D photonic band gap (PBG) materials. The 3D PBG induces very strong coupling of 40 meV (Rabi splitting of 62 meV) for as few as three dichalcogenide monolayers. Strong light-trapping in the 3D PBG enables the long-lived polariton superfluid to be robust against fabrication-induced disorder and exciton line-broadening.

  2. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation. (United States)

    Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P


    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources.

  3. Observation of Strong Coupling Through Transmission Modification of a Cavity-Coupled Photonic Crystal Waveguide (United States)


    Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014...are shifted by 0.176a, 0.024a and 0.176a respectively, where a is the lattice constant, in order to improve the overall Q. The lattice parameter a is...spectrum in order to calculate the vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) which is given by 0.09 nm and corresponds to a frequency splitting of Δ = 31.5 GHz

  4. Strong two-photon absorption of Mn-doped CsPbCl3 perovskite nanocrystals (United States)

    He, Tingchao; Li, Junzi; Ren, Can; Xiao, Shuyu; Li, Yiwen; Chen, Rui; Lin, Xiaodong


    Emerging CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have been demonstrated to be efficient emitters with a high fluorescence quantum yield, making these materials interesting for optical applications as well as for fundamental physics. Interestingly, doping with transition metal ions has been extensively explored as a way of introducing new optical, electronic, and magnetic properties, making perovskite NCs much more functional than their undoped counterparts. However, there have been no reports regarding the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal ion doped perovskite NCs. Herein, by using femtosecond-transient absorption spectroscopy, we have determined the one-photon linear absorption cross-section (˜1.42 × 10-14 cm2) of Mn-doped CsPbCl3 NCs (˜11.7 ± 1.8 nm size, ˜0.2% doping concentration, and ˜600 nm emission wavelength). More importantly, their nonlinear optical properties—in particular, the two-photon absorption (TPA) and resultant emission—were investigated. Notably, the NCs exhibit wavelength-dependent TPA with a maximum value up to ˜3.18 × 105 GM at a wavelength of 720 nm. Our results indicate that Mn-doped CsPbCl3 NCs show promise in nonlinear optical devices and multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging.

  5. Strong two-photon absorption and its saturation of a self-organized dimer of an ethynylene-linked porphyrin tandem. (United States)

    Kamada, Kenji; Hara, Chihiro; Ogawa, Kazuya; Ohta, Koji; Kobuke, Yoshiaki


    The two-photon absorption properties of a self-organized dimer of a free-base and zinc(II) porphyrins tandem linked with an ethynylene group and terminated by imidazolyl and phenylethynyl groups were investigated. The self-organized dimer was found to exhibit strong two-photon absorption and furthermore the saturation of the two-photon absorption owing to the intense transition.

  6. Exciton–exciton annihilation and biexciton stimulated emission in graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Dal Conte, Stefano; Manzoni, Cristian; Viola, Daniele; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Feng, Xinliang; Hohenester, Ulrich; Molinari, Elisa; Prezzi, Deborah; Müllen, Klaus; Cerullo, Giulio


    Graphene nanoribbons display extraordinary optical properties due to one-dimensional quantum-confinement, such as width-dependent bandgap and strong electron–hole interactions, responsible for the formation of excitons with extremely high binding energies. Here we use femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to explore the ultrafast optical properties of ultranarrow, structurally well-defined graphene nanoribbons as a function of the excitation fluence, and the impact of enhanced Coulomb interaction on their excited states dynamics. We show that in the high-excitation regime biexcitons are formed by nonlinear exciton–exciton annihilation, and that they radiatively recombine via stimulated emission. We obtain a biexciton binding energy of ≈250 meV, in very good agreement with theoretical results from quantum Monte Carlo simulations. These observations pave the way for the application of graphene nanoribbons in photonics and optoelectronics. PMID:26984281

  7. Strong field line shapes and photon statistics from a single molecule under anomalous noise. (United States)

    Sanda, Frantisek


    We revisit the line-shape theory of a single molecule with anomalous stochastic spectral diffusion. Waiting time profiles for bath induced spectral jumps in the ground and excited states become different when a molecule, probed by continuous-wave laser field, reaches the steady state. This effect is studied for the stationary dichotomic continuous-time-random-walk spectral diffusion of a single two-level chromophore with power-law distributions of waiting times. Correlated waiting time distributions, line shapes, two-point fluorescence correlation function, and Mandel Q parameter are calculated for arbitrary magnitude of laser field. We extended previous weak field results and examined the breakdown of the central limit theorem in photon statistics, indicated by asymptotic power-law growth of Mandel Q parameter. Frequency profile of the Mandel Q parameter identifies the peaks of spectrum, which are related to anomalous spectral diffusion dynamics.

  8. Exciton ionization in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Latini, Simone; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    Photodetectors and solar cells based on materials with strongly bound excitons rely crucially on field-assisted exciton ionization. We study the ionization process in multilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) within the Mott-Wannier model incorporating fully the pronounced anisotropy...

  9. Excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions (United States)

    He, ShouJie; Lu, ZhengHong


    Understanding excitonic processes at organic heterojunctions is crucial for development of organic semiconductor devices. This article reviews recent research on excitonic physics that involve intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitons, and progress on understanding relationships between various interface energy levels and key parameters governing various competing interface excitonic processes. These interface excitonic processes include radiative exciplex emission, nonradiative recombination, Auger electron emission, and CT exciton dissociation. This article also reviews various device applications involving interface CT excitons, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaic cells, organic rectifying diodes, and ultralow-voltage Auger OLEDs.

  10. Electrically tunable strong light-matter coupling in a transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer embedded in a plasmonic crystal cavity (United States)

    Scuri, Giovanni; Zhou, You; High, Alexander; Dibos, Alan; de Greve, Kristiaan; Polking, Mark; Juaregui, Luis; Wild, Dominik; Joe, Andrew; Pistunova, Kateryna; Lukin, Mikhail; Kim, Philip; Park, Hongkun

    Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers exhibit direct bandgap excitons with large binding energy. The optical response of TMDCs is electrically tunable over a broad wavelength range, making these 2D materials promising candidates for optoelectronic devices. In this work, we enhance exciton-plasmon coupling by embedding a single layer of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) into a plasmonic crystal cavity, which confines surface plasmon polaritons in an analogous manner to photonic crystal cavities. We observe strong light-matter interactions and the formation of microcavity polaritons when the cavity mode is on resonance with the exciton absorption in WSe2. Using the electrostatically controllable response of such excitons, we also demonstrate tunable vacuum Rabi splitting in such a system.

  11. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper


    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole-dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a

  12. Porous shaped photonic crystal fiber with strong confinement field in sensing applications: Design and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawrab Chowdhury


    Full Text Available In this article, porous core porous cladding photonic crystal fiber (P-PCF has been proposed for aqueous analytes sensing applications. Guiding properties of the proposed P-PCF has been numerically investigated by utilizing the full vectorial finite element method (FEM. The relative sensitivity and confinement loss are obtained by varying distinct geometrical parameters like the diameter of air holes, a pitch of the core and cladding region over a wider range of wavelength. The proposed P-PCF is organized with five rings air hole in the cladding and two rings air hole in a core territory which maximizes the relative sensitivity expressively and minimizes confinement loss depressively compare with the prior-PCF structures. After completing all investigations, it is also visualized that the relative sensitivity is increasing with the increment of the wavelength of communication band (O + E + S + C + L + U. Higher sensitivity is gained by using higher band for all applied liquids. Finally the investigating effects of different structural parameters of the proposed P-PCF are optimized which shows the sensitivity of 60.57%, 61.45% and 61.82%; the confinement loss of 8.71 × 10−08 dB/m, 1.41 × 10−10 dB/m and 6.51 × 10−10 dB/m for Water (n = 1.33, Ethanol (n = 1.354 and Benzene (n = 1.366 respectively at 1.33 μm wavelength. The optimized P-PCF with higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss has high impact in the area of the chemical as well as gas sensing purposes. Keywords: Porous shaped PCF, Sensitivity, Optical sensing, Liquid sensor, Confinement loss

  13. Subgap Two-Photon States in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Evidence for Strong Electron Correlations


    Aryanpour, K.; Roberts, A.; Sandhu, A.; Rathore, R.; Shukla, A.; Mazumdar, S.


    Strong electron correlation effects in the photophysics of quasi-one-dimensional $\\pi$-conjugated organic systems such as polyenes, polyacetylenes, polydiacetylenes, etc., have been extensively studied. Far less is known on correlation effects in two-dimensional $\\pi$-conjugated systems. Here we present theoretical and experimental evidence for moderate repulsive electron-electron interactions in a number of finite polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules with $D_{6h}$ symmetry. We show that...

  14. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades. (United States)

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R


    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  15. Strong Coupling of Microwave Photons to Antiferromagnetic Fluctuations in an Organic Magnet (United States)

    Mergenthaler, Matthias; Liu, Junjie; Le Roy, Jennifer J.; Ares, Natalia; Thompson, Amber L.; Bogani, Lapo; Luis, Fernando; Blundell, Stephen J.; Lancaster, Tom; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Leek, Peter J.; Laird, Edward A.


    Coupling between a crystal of di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium radicals and a superconducting microwave resonator is investigated in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED) architecture. The crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior above 4 K, with antiferromagnetic correlations appearing below this temperature, and we demonstrate strong coupling at base temperature. The magnetic resonance acquires a field angle dependence as the crystal is cooled down, indicating anisotropy of the exchange interactions. These results show that multispin modes in organic crystals are suitable for circuit QED, offering a platform for their coherent manipulation. They also utilize the circuit QED architecture as a way to probe spin correlations at low temperature.

  16. Bistable Topological Insulator with Exciton-Polaritons (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.


    The functionality of many nonlinear and quantum optical devices relies on the effect of optical bistability. Using microcavity exciton-polaritons in a honeycomb arrangement of microcavity pillars, we report the resonance response and bistability of topological edge states. A balance between the pump, loss, and nonlinearity ensures a broad range of dynamical stability and controls the distribution of power between counterpropagating states on the opposite edges of the honeycomb lattice stripe. Tuning energy and polarization of the pump photons, while keeping their momentum constant, we demonstrate control of the propagation direction of the dominant edge state. Our results facilitate the development of practical applications of topological photonics.

  17. Photonic-band-gap architectures for long-lifetime room-temperature polariton condensation in GaAs quantum wells (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; Vasudev, Pranai; John, Sajeev


    We describe AlGaAs photonic-crystal architectures that simultaneously realize strong exciton-photon coupling, long polariton lifetime, and room-temperature polariton Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Strong light trapping, induced by a 3D photonic band gap (PBG), leads to peak field intensity 20 times as large as that in an AlGaAs Fabry-Pérot microcavity and exciton-photon coupling as large as 20 meV (i.e., vacuum Rabi splitting 40 meV). The strong exciton-photon coupling, small polariton effective mass, and long polariton lifetime lead to possible realizations of equilibrium room-temperature BEC. We also consider the influence of polarization degeneracy and symmetry breaking in the ground state on the BEC-onset temperature and condensate fraction. Woodpile and slanted-pore PBG structures that break X-Y symmetry facilitate larger condensate fractions at moderate temperatures. The effects of electronic and photonic disorder are marginal, thanks to the 3D photonic band gap.

  18. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca


    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  19. Two-photon annihilation of thermal pairs in strong magnetic fields (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.


    The annihilation spectrum of pairs with 1-D thermal distributions in the presence of a strong magnetic field is calculated. Numerical analysis of the spectrum are performed for mildly relativistic temperatures and for different angles of emission with respect to field lines. Teragauss magnetic fields are assumed so that conditions are typical of gamma ray burst and pulsar environments. The spectra at each viewing angle reveal asymmetric line profiles that are signatures of the magnetic broadening and red shifting of the line: these asymmetries are more prominent for small viewing angles. Thermal Doppler broadening tends to dominate in the right wing of the line and obscures the magnetic broadening more at high temperatures and smaller viewing angles. This angular dependence of the line asymmetry may prove a valuable diagnostic tool. For low temperatures and magnetic field strengths, useful analytic expressions are presented for the line width, and also for the annihilation spectrum at zero viewing angle. The results presented find application in gamma ray burst and pulsar models, and may prove very helpful in deducing field strengths and temperatures of the emission regions of these objects from line observations made by Compton GRO and future missions.

  20. Cascaded exciton energy transfer in a monolayer semiconductor lateral heterostructure assisted by surface plasmon polariton. (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, I-Tung; Mohammadi Estakhri, Nasim; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alù, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr


    Atomically thin lateral heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides have recently been demonstrated. In monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, exciton energy transfer is typically limited to a short range (~1 μm), and additional losses may be incurred at the interfacial regions of a lateral heterostructure. To overcome these challenges, here we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor structure by placing a WS 2 /MoS 2 monolayer heterostructure on top of an Al 2 O 3 -capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We find that the exciton energy transfer range can be extended to tens of microns in the hybrid structure mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, allowing cascaded exciton energy transfer from one transition metal dichalcogenides region supporting high-energy exciton resonance to a different transition metal dichalcogenides region in the lateral heterostructure with low-energy exciton resonance. The realized planar hybrid structure combines two-dimensional light-emitting materials with planar plasmonic waveguides and offers great potential for developing integrated photonic and plasmonic devices.Exciton energy transfer in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides is limited to short distances. Here, Shi et al. fabricate a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor structure and show that exciton energy transfer can be extended to tens of microns, mediated by an exciton-surface-plasmon-polariton-exciton conversion mechanism.

  1. Excitonic dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrøm, K.B.; Johnsen, Kristinn; Allen, S.J.


    The dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is exposed by exploring near-band-gap absorption in the presence of intense THz electric fields. It bridges the gap between the de Franz-Keldysh effect and multiphoton absorption and competes with the THz ac Stark effect in shifting the energy of the excitonic...... resonance. A theoretical model which includes the strong THz field nonperturbatively via a nonequilibrium Green functions technique is able to describe the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in the presence of excitonic absorption....

  2. Enhancement of spontaneous emission rate and reduction in amplified spontaneous emission threshold in electrodeposited three-dimensional ZnO photonic crystal (United States)

    Zhong, Yongchun; Yue, Zhounan; Wong, George K. L.; Xi, Yan Yan; Hsu, Yuk Fan; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jie; Wong, Kam Sing


    ZnO photonic crystal (PC) with face-center-cube type structure is fabricated by electrodeposition using holographic lithographically made organic (SU-8) template. Photonic band gap effect (reflection peak and transmission dip in infrared spectral region) is clearly seen. Observation of strong enhancement and blueshift of the emission peak (from 383.8 to 378.8 nm), shortening of the exciton photoluminescence lifetime (from 88 to 34 ps), and reduction in amplified spontaneous emission threshold of ZnO PC compared to that of the reference nonstructured electrodeposited ZnO showed clear evidence of PC structure affecting the ZnO exciton emission.

  3. Excitonic Photoluminescence in Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Plasma versus Excitons (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Ell, C.; Mosor, S.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Prineas, J. P.; Stolz, H.


    Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra after nonresonant excitation show a distinct 1s resonance, independent of the existence of bound excitons. A microscopic analysis identifies exciton and electron-hole plasma contributions. For low temperatures and low densities, the excitonic emission is extremely sensitive to details of the electron-hole-pair population making it possible to identify even minute fractions of optically active excitons.

  4. Bound Exciton Complexes (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  5. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M. [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico); Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, 07000, DF (Mexico); Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico)


    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 {mu}m, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. {yields} The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  6. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Alejo-Armenta, C.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J.; Falcony, C.; Murrieta S, H.


    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 μm, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: → Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions. → Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. → The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  7. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus


    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  8. Two-exciton excited states of J-aggregates in the presence of exciton–exciton annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsky, B.; Fainberg, B.D.; Nesterov, L.A.; Rosanov, N.N.


    We study decay of two-exciton states of a J-aggregate that is collective in nature. We use mathematical formalism based on effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian suggested in nuclear theory. We show that decay of two-exciton states is strongly affected by the interference processes in the exciton–exciton annihilation. Our evaluations of the imaginary part of the effective Hamiltonian show that it exceeds the spacing between real energies of the two-exciton states that gives rise to the transition to the regime of overlapping resonances supplying the system by the new collectivity – the possibility of coherent decay in the annihilation channel. The decay of two-exciton states varies from twice bimolecular decay rate to the much smaller values that is associated with population trapping. We have also considered the corresponding experiment in the framework of our approach, the picture of which appears to be more complex and richer than it was reasoned before.

  9. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.


    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Quantum many-body simulation using monolayer exciton-polaritons in coupled-cavities (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Xiao; Zhan, Alan; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; You, Wen-Long; Majumdar, Arka; Jiang, Jian-Hua


    Quantum simulation is a promising approach to understanding complex strongly correlated many-body systems using relatively simple and tractable systems. Photon-based quantum simulators have great advantages due to the possibility of direct measurements of multi-particle correlations and ease of simulating non-equilibrium physics. However, interparticle interaction in existing photonic systems is often too weak, limiting the potential for quantum simulation. Here we propose an approach to enhance the interparticle interaction using exciton-polaritons in MoS2 monolayer quantum dots embedded in 2D photonic crystal microcavities. Realistic calculation yields optimal repulsive interaction in the range of 1-10 meV—more than an order of magnitude greater than the state-of-the-art value. Such strong repulsive interaction is found to emerge neither in the photon-blockade regime for small quantum dot nor in the polariton-blockade regime for large quantum dot, but in the crossover between the two regimes with a moderate quantum-dot radius around 20 nm. The optimal repulsive interaction is found to be largest in MoS2 among commonly used optoelectronic materials. Quantum simulation of strongly correlated many-body systems in a finite chain of coupled cavities and its experimental signature are studied via the exact diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. A method to simulate 1D superlattices for interacting exciton-polariton gases in serially coupled cavities is also proposed. Realistic considerations on experimental realizations reveal advantages of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer quantum dots over conventional semiconductor quantum emitters.

  11. Strong photonic crystal behavior in regular arrays of core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, C. J.; Le Boulbar, E. D.; Lis, S. M.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.


    We show that arrays of emissive nanorod structures can exhibit strong photonic crystal behavior, via observations of the far-field luminescence from core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorods. The conditions needed for the formation of directional Bloch modes characteristic of strong photonic behavior are found to depend critically upon the vertical shape of the nanorod sidewalls. Index guiding by a region of lower volume-averaged refractive index near the base of the nanorods creates a quasi-suspended photonic crystal slab at the top of the nanorods which supports Bloch modes. Only diffractive behavior could be observed without this region. Slab waveguide modelling of the vertical structure shows that the behavioral regime of the emissive nanorod arrays depends strongly upon the optical coupling between the nanorod region and the planar layers below. The controlled crossover between the two regimes of photonic crystal operation enables the design of photonic nanorod structures formed on planar substrates that exploit either behavior depending on device requirements.

  12. Quasienergy Spectroscopy of Excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We theoretically study nonlinear optics of excitons under intense THz irradiation. In particular, the linear near-infrared absorption and resonantly enhanced nonlinear sideband generation are described. We predict a rich structure in the spectra which an be interpreted in terms of the quasienergy...

  13. Triplet exciton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strien, A.J. van.


    Results are presented of electron spin echo experiments combined with laser flash excitation on triplet states of aromatic molecules. Some of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the photoexcited triplet state are discussed in detail and the electron spin echo spectrometers and laser systems are described. All the experiments described in this thesis were performed at liquid helium temperatures. An account is given of the ESE experiments performed on the photoexcited, non-radiative, triplet state of pentacene in napthalene. This is an example of the ESE technique being used to ascertain the zero-field splitting parameters, the populating and depopulating rates, and the orientation of the pentacene molecules in the naphthalene host. A combination of high resolution laser flash excitation and electron-spin echoes in zero-magnetic field allowed the author to observe directly k(vector)→k(vector)' exciton scattering processes in the one-dimensional triplet excitons in tetrachlorobenzene for the first time. Additional experimental data about exciton scattering is provided and a study of the orientational dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation of the triplet excitons in an external magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  14. Measurement of photon (also +jets) production cross sections, jets production cross sections and extraction of the strong coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana Perez, Miguel; The ATLAS collaboration


    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs and tri-photon production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon production in association with gluon, light and heavy quark final states in pp collisions at a centre-of-...

  15. Excitons in InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaid, E; Feddi, E; Khamkhami, J El; Dujardin, F


    Wannier excitons confined in an InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dot (IQD) have been studied theoretically in the framework of the effective mass approximation. A finite-depth potential well has been used to describe the effect of the quantum confinement in the InAs layer. The exciton binding energy has been determined using the Ritz variational method. The spatial correlation between the electron and the hole has been taken into account in the expression for the wavefunction. It has been shown that for a fixed size b of the IQD, the exciton binding energy depends strongly on the core radius a. Moreover, it became apparent that there are two critical values of the core radius, a crit and a 2D , for which important changes of the exciton binding occur. The former critical value, a crit , corresponds to a minimum of the exciton binding energy and may be used to distinguish between tridimensional confinement and bidimensional confinement. The latter critical value, a 2D , corresponds to a maximum of the exciton binding energy and to the most pronounced bidimensional character of the exciton

  16. Bimolecular Recombination Kinetics of an Exciton-Trion Gas (United States)


    particles are created and annihilated in pairs so that there is no accumulation of charge. However, this approach is rigorously correct only for a...8 ~ ( )22 23.75 10 photons/ cm s× ⋅ . A quantum yield for electron-hole pair creation of 0.004 would create a generation flux G within the...hole pairs , magenta—excitons, and blue—trions. The final parameter of interest is Q, which controls the creation of excitons by electron–hole

  17. Exciton-polariton condensation in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayer heterostructure (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Min, Hongki; Chung, Suk Bum

    For the bilayer heterostructure system in an optical microcavity, the interplay of the Coulomb interaction and the electron-photon coupling can lead to the emergence of quasiparticles consisting of the spatially indirect exciton and cavity photons known as dipolariton, which can form the Bose-Einstein condensate above a threshold density. Additional physics comes into play when each layer of the bilayer system consists of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer. The TMD monolayer band structure in the low energy spectrum has two valley components with nontrivial Berry phase, which gives rise to a selection rule in the exciton-polariton coupling, e.g. the exciton from one (the other) valley can couple only to the clockwise (counter-clockwise) polarized photon. We investigate possible condensate phases of exciton-polariton in the bilayer TMD microcavity changing relevant parameters such as detuning, excitation density and interlayer distance. This work was supported in part by the Institute for Basic Science of Korea (IBS) under Grant IBS-R009-Y1 and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Basic Science Research Program Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01058071.

  18. Tunable excitons in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Ju, Long; Wang, Lei; Cao, Ting; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Louie, Steven G.; Rana, Farhan; Park, Jiwoong; Hone, James; Wang, Feng; McEuen, Paul L.


    Excitons, the bound states of an electron and a hole in a solid material, play a key role in the optical properties of insulators and semiconductors. Here, we report the observation of excitons in bilayer graphene (BLG) using photocurrent spectroscopy of high-quality BLG encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. We observed two prominent excitonic resonances with narrow line widths that are tunable from the mid-infrared to the terahertz range. These excitons obey optical selection rules distinct from those in conventional semiconductors and feature an electron pseudospin winding number of 2. An external magnetic field induces a large splitting of the valley excitons, corresponding to a g-factor of about 20. These findings open up opportunities to explore exciton physics with pseudospin texture in electrically tunable graphene systems​.

  19. Ultrafast quantum beats of anisotropic excitons in atomically thin ReS2. (United States)

    Sim, Sangwan; Lee, Doeon; Trifonov, Artur V; Kim, Taeyoung; Cha, Soonyoung; Sung, Ji Ho; Cho, Sungjun; Shim, Wooyoung; Jo, Moon-Ho; Choi, Hyunyong


    Quantum beats, periodic oscillations arising from coherent superposition states, have enabled exploration of novel coherent phenomena. Originating from strong Coulomb interactions and reduced dielectric screening, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit strongly bound excitons either in a single structure or hetero-counterpart; however, quantum coherence between excitons is barely known to date. Here we observe exciton quantum beats in atomically thin ReS 2 and further modulate the intensity of the quantum beats signal. Surprisingly, linearly polarized excitons behave like a coherently coupled three-level system exhibiting quantum beats, even though they exhibit anisotropic exciton orientations and optical selection rules. Theoretical studies are also provided to clarify that the observed quantum beats originate from pure quantum coherence, not from classical interference. Furthermore, we modulate on/off quantum beats only by laser polarization. This work provides an ideal laboratory toward polarization-controlled exciton quantum beats in two-dimensional materials.

  20. Impact of electronic coupling, symmetry, and planarization on one- and two-photon properties of triarylamines with one, two, or three diarylboryl acceptors. (United States)

    Makarov, Nikolay S; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Yesudas, Kada; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Perry, Joseph W; Pron, Agnieszka; Kivala, Milan; Müllen, Klaus


    We have performed a study of the one- and two-photon absorption properties of a systematically varied series of triarylamino-compounds with one, two, or three attached diarylborane arms arranged in linear dipolar, bent dipolar, and octupolar geometries. Two-photon fluorescence excitation spectra were measured over a wide spectral range with femtosecond laser pulses. We found that on going from the single-arm to the two- and three-arm systems, the peak in two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section is suppressed by factors of 3-11 for the lowest excitonic level associated with the electronic coupling of the arms, whereas it is enhanced by factors of 4-8 for the higher excitonic level. These results show that the coupling of arms redistributes the 2PA cross-section between the excitonic levels in a manner that strongly favors the higher-energy excitonic level. The experimental data on one- and two-photon cross-sections, ground- and excited-state transition dipole moments, and permanent dipole moment differences between the ground and the lowest excited states were compared to the results obtained from a simple Frenkel exciton model and from highly correlated quantum-chemical calculations. It has been found that planarization of the structure around the triarylamine moiety leads to a sizable increase in peak 2PA cross-section for the lowest excitonic level of the two-arm system, whereas for the three-arm system, the corresponding peak was weakened and shifted to lower energy. Our studies show the importance of the interarm coupling, number of arms, and structural planarity on both the enhancement and the suppression of two-photon cross-sections in multiarm molecules. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates. (United States)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper


    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole-dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a destructive interference in the annihilation probability. For J-aggregates, where this sign is negative, the interference is constructive instead; as a result, no such coherent suppression of the annihilation rate occurs. As a consequence, room temperature annihilation rates of typical H- and J-aggregates differ by a factor of ∼3, while an order of magnitude difference is found for low-temperature aggregates with a low degree of disorder. These findings, which explain experimental observations, reveal a fundamental principle underlying exciton-exciton annihilation, with major implications for technological devices and experimental studies involving high excitation densities.

  2. Monitoring polariton dynamics in the LHCII photosynthetic antenna in a microcavity by two-photon coincidence counting (United States)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Saurabh, Prasoon; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Debnath, Arunangshu; Mukamel, Shaul


    The relaxation dynamics of light-harvesting complex II in an optical cavity is explored theoretically by multidimensional photon coincidence counting spectroscopy. This technique reveals the dynamics in both single (e) and double (f) excitation bands. We study how the polariton dynamics are affected by coupling to photon modes and molecular vibrations described by a realistic spectral density at 77 K. Without the cavity, the e- and f-band energy transfer pathways are not clearly resolved due to the line broadening caused by fast exciton dephasing. The strong coupling to cavity photons results in well-resolved polariton modes. The hybrid nature of polaritons slows down their energy transfer rates.

  3. Studies of strong and electroweak interactions using final state photon emission in hadronic Z[sup 0] decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acton, P.D.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P.P.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Astbury, A.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bahn, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Banks, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Batley, J.R.; Beaudoin, G.; Beck, A.; Beck, G.A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bella, G.; Bentkowski, P.; Berlich, P.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Boden, B.; Bosch, H.M.; Breuker, H.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, R.M.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Chu, S.L.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Clayton, J.C.; Collins, W.J.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooper, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Jong, S.; Del Pozo, L.A.; Deng, H.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M.S.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Duboscq, J.E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Dumas, D.J.P.; Elcombe, P.A.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fierro, M.; Fincke; OPAL Collaboration


    The cross section and jet rates of Z[sup 0] decays into photons and quarks are compared with matrix element Monte Carlo of [Omicron]([alpha][alpha][sub s]). Good agreement is found between data and theoretical predictions. From the ratio of events with three jets plus a photon to those with two jets plus a photon, [alpha][sub s] in first order is determined to be 0.176[+-]0.010. Combining the cross section of final state photon events with the LEP average hadronic partial decay width of the Z[sup 0], the widths of the Z[sup 0] into up and down type quarks can be calculated. The results [Gamma][sub u-type]=242[+-]46 MeV; [Gamma][sub d-type]=419[+-]30 MeV are in good agreement with the standard model expectation. A comparison of the measured cross section as a function of y[sub cut] with predictions of QCD shower models shows that, at the current level accuracy ARIADNE and, to a lesser extent, HERWIG and JETSET can reproduce the measurement. (orig.).

  4. Exciton Formation in Disordered Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.


    Stationary luminescence spectra of disordered solid solutions can be accounted by the model of localized excitons. Detailed analysis of the long time decay kinetics of luminescence shows that exciton formation in these systems is in great extent due to the bimolecular reaction of separated carrie...

  5. Exciton dynamics in cuprous oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, D. A.; Revcolevschi, A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Stutzmann, M


    This work addresses the mid-infrared properties of cuprous oxide and in particular induced absorption due to the presence of excitons. We probe the population of the non-radiative ground state of para-excitons via laser-induced changes of the transmission in the "hydrogenic" 1s-2p/1s-3p transition

  6. Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities New Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sanvitto, Daniele


    In the past decade, there has been a burst of new and fascinating physics associated to the unique properties of two-dimensional exciton polaritons, their recent demonstration of condensation under non-equilibrium conditions and all the related quantum phenomena, which have stimulated extensive research work. This monograph summarizes the current state of the art of research on exciton polaritons in microcavities: their interactions, fast dynamics, spin-dependent phenomena, temporal and spatial coherence, condensation under non-equilibrium conditions, related collective quantum phenomena and most advanced applications. The monograph is written by the most active authors who have strongly contributed to the advances in this area. It is of great interests to both physicists approaching this subject for the first time, as well as a wide audience of experts in other disciplines who want to be updated on this fast moving field.

  7. Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S. K.


    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch (Δ) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d -4 . However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d≤80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-Δ/k B T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data

  8. Bose condensation of interwell excitons in double quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A V; Ni, P A; Dubonos, S V; Hvam, I; Soerensen, K


    The luminescence of the interwell excitons in the GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells, containing large-scale fluctuations of the random potential in the heteroboundary planes, is studied. The properties of the excitons, wherein the excited electron and hole are spatially separated between the neighboring quantum wells by the density and temperature variation within the domain limits of the scale below one micron, are investigated. The interwell excitons by low pumping (below 50 mW) are strongly localized due to the small-scale fluctuations of the random potential. The localized excitons line grows by increase in the resonance excitation capacity through the threshold method. With the temperature growth this line disappears in the spectrum (T sub c <= 3.4 K). The above phenomenon is related to the Bose-Einstein condensation in the quasi-two-dimensional system of the interwell excitons. The critical values of the exciton density and temperature in the studied temperature range (1.5-3.4 K) grow according to the...

  9. The dynamical frustration of interlayer excitons delocalizing in bilayer quantum antiferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, L.; Wu, K.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Zaanen, J.


    Using the self-consistent Born approximation we study the delocalization of interlayer excitons in the bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet. Under realistic conditions we find that the coupling between the exciton motion and the spin system is strongly enhanced as compared to the case of a

  10. Thermalization of Hot Free Excitons in ZnSe-Based Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, J.; Umlauff, M.; Kalt, H.


    Thermalization of hot-exciton populations in ZnSe quantum wells occurs on a time scale of 100 ps. Strong exciton-phonon coupling in II-VI semiconductors leads to a direct access to the thermalization dynamics via time-resolved spectroscopy of phonon-assisted luminescence. The experimental spectra...

  11. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish


    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  12. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)


    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  13. Efficient three-photon luminescence with strong polarization dependence from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd3+ and Tb3+. (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Deng, Hai-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Lan, Sheng; Qian, Qi-; Yang, Zhong-Min; Gopal, Achanta Venu


    Efficient three-photon luminescence (3PL) from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) was generated by using a focused femtosecond laser beam at 800 nm. Four emission bands centered at 496, 541, 583, and 620 nm were identified as the electronic transitions between the energy levels of Tb(3+) followed by three-photon absorption (3PA) in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and the resonant energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Tb(3+). More interestingly, a strong polarization dependence of the 3PL was observed and it is ascribed to the polarization dependent 3PA in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and/or the angular distribution of photogenerated electrons in the glass.

  14. External quantum efficiency exceeding 100% in a singlet-exciton-fission-based solar cell (United States)

    Baldo, Marc


    Singlet exciton fission can be used to split a molecular excited state in two. In solar cells, it promises to double the photocurrent from high energy photons, thereby breaking the single junction efficiency limit. We demonstrate organic solar cells that exploit singlet exciton fission in pentacene to generate more than one electron per incident photon in the visible spectrum. Using a fullerene acceptor, a poly(3-hexylthiophene) exciton confinement layer, and a conventional optical trapping scheme, the peak external quantum efficiency is (109 +/-1)% at λ = 670 nm for a 15-nm-thick pentacene film. The corresponding internal quantum efficiency is (160 +/-10)%. Independent confirmation of the high internal efficiency is obtained by analysis of the magnetic field effect on photocurrent, which determines that the triplet yield approaches 200% for pentacene films thicker than 5 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first solar cell to generate quantum efficiencies above 100% in the visible spectrum. Alternative multiple exciton generation approaches have been demonstrated previously in the ultraviolet, where there is relatively little sunlight. Singlet exciton fission differs from these other mechanisms because spin conservation disallows the usual dominant loss process: a thermal relaxation of the high-energy exciton into a single low-energy exciton. Consequently, pentacene is efficient in the visible spectrum at λ = 670 nm because only the collapse of the singlet exciton into twotriplets is spin-allowed. Supported as part of the Center for Excitonics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001088.

  15. Recent advances in organic one-dimensional composite materials: design, construction, and photonic elements for information processing. (United States)

    Yan, Yongli; Zhang, Chuang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng


    Many recent activities in the use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photonic elements for optical information processing are explained by huge advantages that photonic circuits possess over traditional silicon-based electronic ones in bandwidth, heat dissipation, and resistance to electromagnetic wave interference. Organic materials are a promising candidate to support these optical-related applications, as they combine the properties of plastics with broad spectral tunability, high optical cross-section, easy fabrication, as well as low cost. Their outstanding compatibility allows organic composite structures which are made of two or more kinds of materials combined together, showing great superiority to single-component materials due to the introduced interactions among multiple constituents, such as energy transfer, electron transfer, exciton coupling, etc. The easy processability of organic 1D crystalline heterostructures enables a fine topological control of both composition and geometry, which offsets the intrinsic deficiencies of individual material. At the same time, the strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton-exciton interaction impart the excellent confinement of photons in organic microstructures, thus light can be manipulated according to our intention to realize specific functions. These collective properties indicate a potential utility of organic heterogeneous material for miniaturized photonic circuitry. Herein, focus is given on recent advances of 1D organic crystalline heterostructures, with special emphasis on the novel design, controllable construction, diverse performance, as well as wide applications in isolated photonic elements for integration. It is proposed that the highly coupled, hybrid optical networks would be an important material basis towards the creation of on-chip optical information processing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Scaling laws of Rydberg excitons (United States)

    Heckötter, J.; Freitag, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.


    Rydberg atoms have attracted considerable interest due to their huge interaction among each other and with external fields. They demonstrate characteristic scaling laws in dependence on the principal quantum number n for features such as the magnetic field for level crossing or the electric field of dissociation. Recently, the observation of excitons in highly excited states has allowed studying Rydberg physics in cuprous oxide crystals. Fundamentally different insights may be expected for Rydberg excitons, as the crystal environment and associated symmetry reduction compared to vacuum give not only optical access to many more states within an exciton multiplet but also extend the Hamiltonian for describing the exciton beyond the hydrogen model. Here we study experimentally and theoretically the scaling of several parameters of Rydberg excitons with n , for some of which we indeed find laws different from those of atoms. For others we find identical scaling laws with n , even though their origin may be distinctly different from the atomic case. At zero field the energy splitting of a particular multiplet n scales as n-3 due to crystal-specific terms in the Hamiltonian, e.g., from the valence band structure. From absorption spectra in magnetic field we find for the first crossing of levels with adjacent principal quantum numbers a Br∝n-4 dependence of the resonance field strength, Br, due to the dominant paramagnetic term unlike for atoms for which the diamagnetic contribution is decisive, resulting in a Br∝n-6 dependence. By contrast, the resonance electric field strength shows a scaling as Er∝n-5 as for Rydberg atoms. Also similar to atoms with the exception of hydrogen we observe anticrossings between states belonging to multiplets with different principal quantum numbers at these resonances. The energy splittings at the avoided crossings scale roughly as n-4, again due to crystal specific features in the exciton Hamiltonian. The data also allow us to

  17. Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail:; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)


    We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.

  18. Nonlinear spectroscopy of excitons and biexcitons in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, L.I.; Paskov, P.P.; Lalov, I.J.


    Four- photon spectroscopy on exciton and biexciton states in ZnS is reported at T = 10 K. The Nd:YAG laser is used as a fundamental source in the experimental setup. Second harmonic radiation ω 2 pumps the dye laser of ω 1 tunable frequency. The ZnS single crystal is placed in an optical cryostat for resonant spectroscopy at low temperature. Four-photon mixing ω 3 = 2ω 1 -ω 2 signal is separated by MDR-23 monochromator and is registered by a laser photometer. The hexagonal ZnS crystal is experimentally investigated when the waves ω 1 and ω 2 propagate colinear with the optical axis. The crystal is cut along the (1120) plane. The photon 2ℎω 1 energy scans over the range 3.895-3.940 eV. The dispersion of I 3 (ω 3 ) upon 2ℎω 1 is obtained. Three resonances are registered E M = 3.8964, E B 1 = 3.9010 and E B 2 = 3.9311 eV. The recorded low temperature resonance in dispersion of nonlinearity χ (3) are identified with B 1 s and B 2 s excitons as well as with biexciton in ZnS which is observed for the first time in this crystal. An experimental dependence of the signal I 3 (ω 3 ) intensity upon the pump I 1 (ω 1 ) is obtained. The E M resonance is saturated with the I 1 (ω 1 ) enhancement while the E B 1 resonance increases. Authors explain such a behaviour by the fact that the recombination probability of the biexcitons to excitons increases with the pump level growth. Estimations for the exciton density and the bounding energy are given. (author)

  19. The Aharonov-Bohm effect for an exciton (United States)

    Römer, R. A.; Raikh, M. E.


    We study theoretically the exciton absorption (luminescence) of a ring-like quantum dot shreded by a magnetic flux. We consider the limit when the width of the ring is smaller than the excitonic Bohr radius a_B. We demonstrate that, despite the electrical neutrality of the exciton, both the spectral position of the exciton peak in the absorption (luminescence), and the corresponding oscillator strength oscillate with magnetic flux with a period Φ0 --- the universal flux quantum. Assuming that the attraction between electron and hole is short-ranged we find analytically the functional form of these oscillations for both quantities.^1 This enables us to trace the magnitude of the effect with changing the ratio 2 π R/aB where R is the radius of the ring. Physically, the origin of the oscillations is the finite probability for electron and hole, created by a photon at the same point, to tunnel in the opposite directions and meet each other on the opposite side of the ring. Possible candidates for the experimental observation of the effect are recently discovered self-assembled quantum ring-like structures of InAs embedded in GaAs.^2,3 ^1R.A. Römer and M.E. Raikh, preprint cond-mat/9906314. ^2A. Lorke et al., Microelectronic Engeneering 47, 95 (1999). ^3H. Petterson et al., Proceedings of EP2DS-13, to be published in Physica E, (1999).

  20. Excitons in InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Assaid, E; Khamkhami, J E; Dujardin, F


    Wannier excitons confined in an InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dot (IQD) have been studied theoretically in the framework of the effective mass approximation. A finite-depth potential well has been used to describe the effect of the quantum confinement in the InAs layer. The exciton binding energy has been determined using the Ritz variational method. The spatial correlation between the electron and the hole has been taken into account in the expression for the wavefunction. It has been shown that for a fixed size b of the IQD, the exciton binding energy depends strongly on the core radius a. Moreover, it became apparent that there are two critical values of the core radius, a sub c sub r sub i sub t and a sub 2 sub D , for which important changes of the exciton binding occur. The former critical value, a sub c sub r sub i sub t , corresponds to a minimum of the exciton binding energy and may be used to distinguish between tridimensional confinement and bidimensional confinement. The latter critical value, a ...

  1. Spectral properties of excitons in the bilayer graphene (United States)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.


    In this paper, we consider the spectral properties of the bilayer graphene with the local excitonic pairing interaction between the electrons and holes. We consider the generalized Hubbard model, which includes both intralayer and interlayer Coulomb interaction parameters. The solution of the excitonic gap parameter is used to calculate the electronic band structure, single-particle spectral functions, the hybridization gap, and the excitonic coherence length in the bilayer graphene. We show that the local interlayer Coulomb interaction is responsible for the semimetal-semiconductor transition in the double layer system, and we calculate the hybridization gap in the band structure above the critical interaction value. The formation of the excitonic band gap is reported as the threshold process and the momentum distribution functions have been calculated numerically. We show that in the weak coupling limit the system is governed by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-like pairing state. Contrary, in the strong coupling limit the excitonic condensate states appear in the semiconducting phase, by forming the Dirac's pockets in the reciprocal space.

  2. Inverse Funnel Effect of Excitons in Strained Black Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo San-Jose


    Full Text Available We study the effects of strain on the properties and dynamics of Wannier excitons in monolayer (phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus (BP, a promising two-dimensional material for optoelectronic applications due to its high mobility, mechanical strength, and strain-tunable direct band gap. We compare the results to the case of molybdenum disulphide (MoS_{2} monolayers. We find that the so-called funnel effect, i.e., the possibility of controlling exciton motion by means of inhomogeneous strains, is much stronger in few-layer BP than in MoS_{2} monolayers and, crucially, is of opposite sign. Instead of excitons accumulating isotropically around regions of high tensile strain like in MoS_{2}, excitons in BP are pushed away from said regions. This inverse funnel effect is moreover highly anisotropic, with much larger funnel distances along the armchair crystallographic direction, leading to a directional focusing of exciton flow. A strong inverse funnel effect could enable simpler designs of funnel solar cells and offer new possibilities for the manipulation and harvesting of light.

  3. Optics of exciton-plasmon nanomaterials (United States)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Nitzan, Abraham


    This review provides a brief introduction to the physics of coupled exciton-plasmon systems, the theoretical description and experimental manifestation of such phenomena, followed by an account of the state-of-the-art methodology for the numerical simulations of such phenomena and supplemented by a number of FORTRAN codes, by which the interested reader can introduce himself/herself to the practice of such simulations. Applications to CW light scattering as well as transient response and relaxation are described. Particular attention is given to so-called strong coupling limit, where the hybrid exciton-plasmon nature of the system response is strongly expressed. While traditional descriptions of such phenomena usually rely on analysis of the electromagnetic response of inhomogeneous dielectric environments that individually support plasmon and exciton excitations, here we explore also the consequences of a more detailed description of the molecular environment in terms of its quantum density matrix (applied in a mean field approximation level). Such a description makes it possible to account for characteristics that cannot be described by the dielectric response model: the effects of dephasing on the molecular response on one hand, and nonlinear response on the other. It also highlights the still missing important ingredients in the numerical approach, in particular its limitation to a classical description of the radiation field and its reliance on a mean field description of the many-body molecular system. We end our review with an outlook to the near future, where these limitations will be addressed and new novel applications of the numerical approach will be pursued.

  4. Unifying Optical Selection Rules for Excitons in Two Dimensions: Band Topology and Winding Numbers (United States)

    Cao, Ting; Wu, Meng; Louie, Steven G.


    We show that band topology can dramatically change the photophysics of two-dimensional semiconductors. For systems in which states near the band extrema are of multicomponent character, the spinors describing these components (pseudospins) can pick up nonzero winding numbers around the extremal k point. In these systems, we find that the strength and required light polarization of an excitonic optical transition are dictated by the optical matrix element winding number, a unique and heretofore unrecognized topological characteristic. We illustrate these findings in three gapped graphene systems—monolayer graphene with inequivalent sublattices and biased bi- and trilayer graphene, where the pseudospin textures manifest into nontrivial optical matrix element winding numbers associated with different valley and photon circular polarization. This winding-number physics leads to novel exciton series and optical selection rules, with each valley hosting multiple bright excitons coupled to light of different circular polarization. This valley-exciton selective circular dichroism can be unambiguously detected using optical spectroscopy.

  5. Trapping photon-dressed Dirac electrons in a quantum dot studied by coherent two dimensional photon echo spectroscopy (United States)

    Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.


    We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated.

  6. Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner


    A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...... theory....

  7. Accessing the dark exciton spin in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Heindel


    Full Text Available The dark exciton state in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs constitutes a long-lived solid-state qubit which has the potential to play an important role in implementations of solid-state-based quantum information architectures. In this work, we exploit deterministically fabricated QD microlenses which promise enhanced photon extraction, to optically prepare and read out the dark exciton spin and observe its coherent precession. The optical access to the dark exciton is provided via spin-blockaded metastable biexciton states acting as heralding states, which are identified by deploying polarization-sensitive spectroscopy as well as time-resolved photon cross-correlation experiments. Our experiments reveal a spin-precession period of the dark exciton of (0.82 ± 0.01 ns corresponding to a fine-structure splitting of (5.0 ± 0.7 μeV between its eigenstates ↑⇑±↓⇓. By exploiting microlenses deterministically fabricated above pre-selected QDs, our work demonstrates the possibility to scale up implementations of quantum information processing schemes using the QD-confined dark exciton spin qubit, such as the generation of photonic cluster states or the realization of a solid-state-based quantum memory.

  8. Accessing the dark exciton spin in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses (United States)

    Heindel, Tobias; Thoma, Alexander; Schwartz, Ido; Schmidgall, Emma R.; Gantz, Liron; Cogan, Dan; Strauß, Max; Schnauber, Peter; Gschrey, Manuel; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Strittmatter, Andre; Rodt, Sven; Gershoni, David; Reitzenstein, Stephan


    The dark exciton state in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) constitutes a long-lived solid-state qubit which has the potential to play an important role in implementations of solid-state-based quantum information architectures. In this work, we exploit deterministically fabricated QD microlenses which promise enhanced photon extraction, to optically prepare and read out the dark exciton spin and observe its coherent precession. The optical access to the dark exciton is provided via spin-blockaded metastable biexciton states acting as heralding states, which are identified by deploying polarization-sensitive spectroscopy as well as time-resolved photon cross-correlation experiments. Our experiments reveal a spin-precession period of the dark exciton of (0.82 ± 0.01) ns corresponding to a fine-structure splitting of (5.0 ± 0.7) μeV between its eigenstates |↑ ⇑ ±↓ ⇓ ⟩. By exploiting microlenses deterministically fabricated above pre-selected QDs, our work demonstrates the possibility to scale up implementations of quantum information processing schemes using the QD-confined dark exciton spin qubit, such as the generation of photonic cluster states or the realization of a solid-state-based quantum memory.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We demonstrate a novel approach to probing the magnitude and degree of spatial correlation of local (molecular or atomic) energetic disorder in delocalized exciton systems. The approach is based on measuring the correlation between the ground state to one-exciton and the one-exciton to two-exciton

  10. Interplay of Phonon and Exciton-Mediated Superconductivity in Hybrid Semiconductor-Superconductor Structures. (United States)

    Skopelitis, Petros; Cherotchenko, Evgenia D; Kavokin, Alexey V; Posazhennikova, Anna


    We predict a strong enhancement of the critical temperature in a conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor in the presence of a bosonic condensate of exciton polaritons. The effect depends strongly on the ratio of the cutoff frequencies for phonon and exciton-polariton mediated BCS superconductivity, respectively. We also discuss a possible design of hybrid semiconductor-superconductor structures suitable for the experimental observation of such an effect.

  11. Binding energy of the barbell exciton (United States)

    Peeters, F. M.; Golub, J. E.


    The exciton binding energy in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells is calculated. As the system is electrically tuned from type I to type II, the exciton binding energy decreases from that of a two-dimensional exciton to the binding energy of a spatially separated electron-hole pair, i.e., the barbell exciton.$-- We compare our theoretical results with a recent experiment and find good agreement.

  12. Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides (United States)

    Van Tuan, Dinh; Scharf, Benedikt; Žutić, Igor; Dery, Hanan


    Just as photons are the quanta of light, plasmons are the quanta of orchestrated charge-density oscillations in conducting media. Plasmon phenomena in normal metals, superconductors, and doped semiconductors are often driven by long-wavelength Coulomb interactions. However, in crystals whose Fermi surface is comprised of disconnected pockets in the Brillouin zone, collective electron excitations can also attain a shortwave component when electrons transition between these pockets. In this work, we show that the band structure of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides gives rise to an intriguing mechanism through which shortwave plasmons are paired up with excitons. The coupling elucidates the origin for the optical sideband that is observed repeatedly in monolayers of WSe2 and WS2 but not understood. The theory makes it clear why exciton-plasmon coupling has the right conditions to manifest itself distinctly only in the optical spectra of electron-doped tungsten-based monolayers.

  13. Collective state of interwall excitons on GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells under pulse resonant excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A V; Hvam, J; Soerensen, K


    The time evolution and kinetics of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the interwall excitons under the pulse resonant excitation of the interwall excitons are studied in the GaAs/AlGaAs binary quantum well. It is established, that the collective exciton phase originates with the time delay relative to the exciting pulse (several nanoseconds), which is conditioned by the density and temperature relaxation to the equilibrium values.The origination of the collective phase of the interwall excitons is accompanied by the strong narrowing of the corresponding photoluminescence line, the superlinear growth of its intensity and large time of change in the degree of the circular polarization.The collective exciton phase originates at the temperatures < 6 K and the interwall excitons densities 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2

  14. Dynamics of Charged Excitons and Biexcitons in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals Revealed by Femtosecond Transient-Absorption and Single-Dot Luminescence Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yarita, Naoki; Tahara, Hirokazu; Ihara, Toshiyuki; Kawawaki, Tokuhisa; Sato, Ryota; Saruyama, Masaki; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko


    Metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising photonic materials for use in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and lasers. The optoelectronic properties of these devices are determined by the excitons and exciton complexes confined in their NCs. In this study, we determined the relaxation dynamics of charged excitons and biexcitons in CsPbBr 3 NCs using femtosecond transient-absorption (TA), time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), and single-dot second-order photon correlation spectroscopy. Decay times of ∼40 and ∼200 ps were obtained from the TA and PL decay curves for biexcitons and charged excitons, respectively, in NCs with an average edge length of 7.7 nm. The existence of charged excitons even under weak photoexcitation was confirmed by the second-order photon correlation measurements. We found that charged excitons play a dominant role in luminescence processes of CsPbBr 3 NCs. Combining different spectroscopic techniques enabled us to clarify the dynamical behaviors of excitons, charged excitons, and biexcitons.

  15. Colloquium: Excitons in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chernikov, Alexey; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Heinz, Tony F.; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Urbaszek, Bernhard


    Atomically thin materials such as graphene and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit remarkable physical properties resulting from their reduced dimensionality and crystal symmetry. The family of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides is an especially promising platform for fundamental studies of two-dimensional (2D) systems, with potential applications in optoelectronics and valleytronics due to their direct band gap in the monolayer limit and highly efficient light-matter coupling. A crystal lattice with broken inversion symmetry combined with strong spin-orbit interactions leads to a unique combination of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. In addition, the 2D character of the monolayers and weak dielectric screening from the environment yield a significant enhancement of the Coulomb interaction. The resulting formation of bound electron-hole pairs, or excitons, dominates the optical and spin properties of the material. Here recent progress in understanding of the excitonic properties in monolayer TMDs is reviewed and future challenges are laid out. Discussed are the consequences of the strong direct and exchange Coulomb interaction, exciton light-matter coupling, and influence of finite carrier and electron-hole pair densities on the exciton properties in TMDs. Finally, the impact on valley polarization is described and the tuning of the energies and polarization observed in applied electric and magnetic fields is summarized.

  16. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules (United States)

    Bayer, Manfred


    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  17. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng


    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  18. Exciton diamagnetic shift and optical properties in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots in magnetic fields (United States)

    Wu, Shudong; Cheng, Liwen


    The magnetic field dependence of the optical properties of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) is investigated theoretically using a perturbation method within the effective-mass approximation. The results show that the magnetic field lifts the degeneracy of the electron (hole) states. A blue-shift in the absorption spectra of m ≥ 0 exciton states is observed while the absorption peak of m magnetic field strength B. This is attributed to the interplay of the orbital Zeeman effect and the additive confinement induced by the magnetic field. The excitonic absorption coefficient is almost independent of B in the strong confinement regime. The applied magnetic field causes the splitting of degenerated exciton states, resulting in the new absorption peaks. Based on the first-order perturbation theory, we propose the analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy, exciton transition energy and exciton diamagnetic shift of 1s, 1p-1, 1p0, 1p1, 1d-2, 1d-1, 1d0, 1d1, 1d2 and 2s exciton states on the applied magnetic field in the strong confinement regime.

  19. Magnetic exciton dispersion in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainford, B. D.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden


    Measurements of the dispersion of magnetic excitons have been made in a single crystal of praseodymium metal using inelastic neutron scattering. A preliminary analysis of the data yields the first detailed information about the exchange interactions and the crystal field splittings in the light...

  20. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.


    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  1. Structural and quantum chemical analysis of exciton coupling in homo- and heteroaggregate stacks of merocyanines (United States)

    Bialas, David; Zitzler-Kunkel, André; Kirchner, Eva; Schmidt, David; Würthner, Frank


    Exciton coupling is of fundamental importance and determines functional properties of organic dyes in (opto-)electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here we show that strong exciton coupling is not limited to the situation of equal chromophores as often assumed. Quadruple dye stacks were obtained from two bis(merocyanine) dyes with same or different chromophores, respectively, which dimerize in less-polar solvents resulting in the respective homo- and heteroaggregates. The structures of the quadruple dye stacks were assigned by NMR techniques and unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The heteroaggregate stack formed from the bis(merocyanine) bearing two different chromophores exhibits remarkably different ultraviolet/vis absorption bands compared with those of the homoaggregate of the bis(merocyanine) comprising two identical chromophores. Quantum chemical analysis based on an extension of Kasha's exciton theory appropriately describes the absorption properties of both types of stacks revealing strong exciton coupling also between different chromophores within the heteroaggregate. PMID:27680284

  2. Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Single Excitons, Biexcitons, and Trions in Cesium-Lead-Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Makarov, Nikolay S; Guo, Shaojun; Isaienko, Oleksandr; Liu, Wenyong; Robel, István; Klimov, Victor I


    Organic-inorganic lead-halide perovskites have been the subject of recent intense interest due to their unusually strong photovoltaic performance. A new addition to the perovskite family is all-inorganic Cs-Pb-halide perovskite nanocrystals, or quantum dots, fabricated via a moderate-temperature colloidal synthesis. While being only recently introduced to the research community, these nanomaterials have already shown promise for a range of applications from color-converting phosphors and light-emitting diodes to lasers, and even room-temperature single-photon sources. Knowledge of the optical properties of perovskite quantum dots still remains vastly incomplete. Here we apply various time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to conduct a comprehensive study of spectral and dynamical characteristics of single- and multiexciton states in CsPbX3 nanocrystals with X being either Br, I, or their mixture. Specifically, we measure exciton radiative lifetimes, absorption cross-sections, and derive the degeneracies of the band-edge electron and hole states. We also characterize the rates of intraband cooling and nonradiative Auger recombination and evaluate the strength of exciton-exciton coupling. The overall conclusion of this work is that spectroscopic properties of Cs-Pb-halide quantum dots are largely similar to those of quantum dots of more traditional semiconductors such as CdSe and PbSe. At the same time, we observe some distinctions including, for example, an appreciable effect of the halide identity on radiative lifetimes, considerably shorter biexciton Auger lifetimes, and apparent deviation of their size dependence from the "universal volume scaling" previously observed for many traditional nanocrystal systems. The high efficiency of Auger decay in perovskite quantum dots is detrimental to their prospective applications in light-emitting devices and lasers. This points toward the need for the development of approaches for effective suppression of Auger

  3. Spin-exciton interaction and related micro-photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe:Mn DMS nanoribbon. (United States)

    Hou, Lipeng; Zhou, Weichang; Zou, Bingsuo; Zhang, Yu; Han, Junbo; Yang, Xinxin; Gong, Zhihong; Li, Jingbo; Xie, Sishen; Shi, Li-Jie


    For their spintronic applications the magnetic and optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been studied widely. However, the exact relationships between the magnetic interactions and optical emission behaviors in DMS are not well understood yet due to their complicated microstructural and compositional characters from different growth and preparation techniques. Manganese (Mn) doped ZnSe nanoribbons with high quality were obtained by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Successful Mn ion doping in a single ZnSe nanoribbon was identified by elemental energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping and micro-photoluminescence (PL) mapping of intrinsic d-d optical transition at 580 nm, i.e. the transition of 4 T 1 ( 4 G) →  6 A 1 ( 6 s),. Besides the d-d transition PL peak at 580 nm, two other PL peaks related to Mn ion aggregates in the ZnSe lattice were detected at 664 nm and 530 nm, which were assigned to the d-d transitions from the Mn 2+ -Mn 2+ pairs with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling and antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling, respectively. Moreover, AFM pair formation goes along with strong coupling with acoustic phonon or structural defects. These arguments were supported by temperature-dependent PL spectra, power-dependent PL lifetimes, and first-principle calculations. Due to the ferromagnetic pair existence, an exciton magnetic polaron (EMP) is formed and emits at 460 nm. Defect existence favors the AFM pair, which also can account for its giant enhancement of spin-orbital coupling and the spin Hall effect observed in PRL 97, 126603(2006) and PRL 96, 196404(2006). These emission results of DMS reflect their relation to local sp-d hybridization, spin-spin magnetic coupling, exciton-spin or phonon interactions covering structural relaxations. This kind of material can be used to study the exciton-spin interaction and may find applications in spin-related photonic devices besides spintronics.

  4. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  5. Communication: Broad manifold of excitonic states in light-harvesting complex 1 promotes efficient unidirectional energy transfer in vivo (United States)

    Sohail, Sara H.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Allodi, Marco A.; Massey, Sara C.; Ting, Po-Chieh; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Hunter, C. Neil; Engel, Gregory S.


    In photosynthetic organisms, the pigment-protein complexes that comprise the light-harvesting antenna exhibit complex electronic structures and ultrafast dynamics due to the coupling among the chromophores. Here, we present absorptive two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra from living cultures of the purple bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, acquired using gradient assisted photon echo spectroscopy. Diagonal slices through the 2D lineshape of the LH1 stimulated emission/ground state bleach feature reveal a resolvable higher energy population within the B875 manifold. The waiting time evolution of diagonal, horizontal, and vertical slices through the 2D lineshape shows a sub-100 fs intra-complex relaxation as this higher energy population red shifts. The absorption (855 nm) of this higher lying sub-population of B875 before it has red shifted optimizes spectral overlap between the LH1 B875 band and the B850 band of LH2. Access to an energetically broad distribution of excitonic states within B875 offers a mechanism for efficient energy transfer from LH2 to LH1 during photosynthesis while limiting back transfer. Two-dimensional lineshapes reveal a rapid decay in the ground-state bleach/stimulated emission of B875. This signal, identified as a decrease in the dipole strength of a strong transition in LH1 on the red side of the B875 band, is assigned to the rapid localization of an initially delocalized exciton state, a dephasing process that frustrates back transfer from LH1 to LH2.

  6. Near-unity efficiency, single-photon sources based on tapered photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleuse, Joël; Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien


    Single-photon emission from excitons in InAs Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in GaAs Tapered Photonic Wires (TPW) already demonstrated a 0.72 collection efficiency, with TPWs were the apex is the sharp end of the cone. Going to alternate designs, still based on the idea of the adiabatic deconfinement...

  7. Intrinsic homogeneous linewidth and broadening mechanisms of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan


    The band-edge optical response of transition metal dichalcogenides, an emerging class of atomically thin semiconductors, is dominated by tightly bound excitons localized at the corners of the Brillouin zone (valley excitons). A fundamental yet unknown property of valley excitons in these materials is the intrinsic homogeneous linewidth, which reflects irreversible quantum dissipation arising from system (exciton) and bath (vacuum and other quasiparticles) interactions and determines the timescale during which excitons can be coherently manipulated. Here we use optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy to measure the exciton homogeneous linewidth in monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The homogeneous linewidth is found to be nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous width at low temperatures. We evaluate quantitatively the role of exciton–exciton and exciton–phonon interactions and population relaxation as linewidth broadening mechanisms. The key insights reported here—strong many-body effects and intrinsically rapid radiative recombination—are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin semiconductors.

  8. Fragmented-condensate solid of dipolar excitons (United States)

    Andreev, S. V.


    We discuss a possible link between the recently observed macroscopic ordering of ultracold dipolar excitons (MOES) and the phenomenon of supersolidity. In the dilute limit we predict a stable supersolid state for a quasi-one-dimensional system of bosonic dipoles characterized by two- and three-body contact repulsion. We phenomenologically extend our theory to the strongly-correlated regime and find a critical value of the contact interaction parameter at which the supersolid exhibits a quantum phase transition to a fragmented state. The wavelength of the fragmented-condensate solid is defined by the balance between the quantum pressure and the entropy due to fluctuations of the relative phases between the fragments. Our model appears to be in good agreement with the relevant experimental data, including the very recent results on commensurability effect and wavelength of the MOES.

  9. Characteristics of exciton photoluminescence kinetics in low-dimensional silicon structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sachenko, A V; Manojlov, E G; Svechnikov, S V


    The time-resolved visible photoluminescence of porous nanocrystalline silicon films obtained by laser ablation have been measured within the temperature range 90-300 K. A study has been made of the interrelationship between photoluminescence characteristics (intensity, emission spectra, relaxation times, their temperature dependencies and structural and dielectric properties (size and shapes of Si nanocrystals, oxide phase of nanocrystal coating, porosity). A photoluminescence model is proposed that describes photon absorption and emission occurring in quantum-size Si nanocrystals while coupled subsystems of electron-hole pairs and excitons take part in the recombination. Possible excitonic Auger recombination mechanism in low-dimensional silicon structures is considered

  10. Optical nonlinearities of excitonic states in atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Daniel Beom Soo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Proliferation Signatures Discovery and Exploitation Department


    We calculated the optical nonlinearities of the atomically thin monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide material (particularly MoS2), particularly for those linear and nonlinear transition processes that utilize the bound exciton states. We adopted the bound and the unbound exciton states as the basis for the Hilbert space, and derived all the dynamical density matrices that provides the induced current density, from which the nonlinear susceptibilities can be drawn order-by-order via perturbative calculations. We provide the nonlinear susceptibilities for the linear, the second-harmonic, the third-harmonic, and the kerr-type two-photon processes.

  11. Exciton formation and stability in semiconductor heterostructures (United States)

    Siggelkow, S.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.


    The formation and stability of excitons in semiconductors is studied on the basis of a microscopic model that includes Coulomb interacting fermionic electrons and holes as well as phonons. Whereas quasiequilibrium calculations predict substantial exciton fractions coexisting with an electron-hole plasma at low temperatures and densities, dynamic calculations reveal that the exciton formation times under these conditions exceed the characteristic lifetimes. At elevated densities, good agreement between dynamical and quasiequilibrium calculations is obtained.

  12. Exciton liquid in coupled quantum wells. (United States)

    Stern, Michael; Umansky, Vladimir; Bar-Joseph, Israel


    Excitons in semiconductors may form correlated phases at low temperatures. We report the observation of an exciton liquid in gallium arsenide/aluminum gallium arsenide-coupled quantum wells. Above a critical density and below a critical temperature, the photogenerated electrons and holes separate into two phases: an electron-hole plasma and an exciton liquid, with a clear sharp boundary between them. The two phases are characterized by distinct photoluminescence spectra and by different electrical conductance. The liquid phase is formed by the repulsive interaction between the dipolar excitons and exhibits a short-range order, which is manifested in the photoluminescence line shape.

  13. Exciton circular dichroism in channelrhodopsin. (United States)

    Pescitelli, Gennaro; Kato, Hideaki E; Oishi, Satomi; Ito, Jumpei; Maturana, Andrés Daniel; Nureki, Osamu; Woody, Robert W


    Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are of great interest currently because of their important applications in optogenetics, the photostimulation of neurons. The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of C1C2, a chimera of ChR1 and ChR2 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The visible absorption spectrum of C1C2 shows vibronic fine structure in the 470 nm band, consistent with the relatively nonpolar binding site. The CD spectrum has a negative band at 492 nm (Δε(max) = -6.17 M(-1) cm(-1)) and a positive band at 434 nm (Δε(max) = +6.65 M(-1) cm(-1)), indicating exciton coupling within the C1C2 dimer. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations are reported for three models of the C1C2 chromophore: (1) the isolated protonated retinal Schiff base (retPSB); (2) an ion pair, including the retPSB chromophore, two carboxylate side chains (Asp 292, Glu 162), modeled by acetate, and a water molecule; and (3) a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) model depicting the binding pocket, in which the QM part consists of the same ion pair as that in (2) and the MM part consists of the protein residues surrounding the ion pair within 10 Å. For each of these models, the CD of both the monomer and the dimer was calculated with TDDFT. For the dimer, DeVoe polarizability theory and exciton calculations were also performed. The exciton calculations were supplemented by calculations of the coupling of the retinal transition with aromatic and peptide group transitions. For the dimer, all three methods and three models give a long-wavelength C2-axis-polarized band, negative in CD, and a short-wavelength band polarized perpendicular to the C2 axis with positive CD, differing in wavelength by 1-5 nm. Only the retPSB model gives an exciton couplet that agrees qualitatively with experiment. The other two models give a predominantly or solely positive band. We further analyze an N-terminal truncated mutant

  14. Multiple exciton generation in quantum dot-based solar cells (United States)

    Goodwin, Heather; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.


    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum-confined semiconductors is the process by which multiple bound charge-carrier pairs are generated after absorption of a single high-energy photon. Such charge-carrier multiplication effects have been highlighted as particularly beneficial for solar cells where they have the potential to increase the photocurrent significantly. Indeed, recent research efforts have proved that more than one charge-carrier pair per incident solar photon can be extracted in photovoltaic devices incorporating quantum-confined semiconductors. While these proof-of-concept applications underline the potential of MEG in solar cells, the impact of the carrier multiplication effect on the device performance remains rather low. This review covers recent advancements in the understanding and application of MEG as a photocurrent-enhancing mechanism in quantum dot-based photovoltaics.

  15. Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dot Solar Cells (United States)

    Semonin, O. E.

    Photovoltaics are limited in their power conversion efficiency (PCE) by very rapid relaxation of energetic carriers to the band edge. Therefore, photons from the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum typically are not efficiently converted into electrical energy. One approach that can address this is multiple exciton generation (MEG), where a single photon of sufficient energy can generate multiple excited electron-hole pairs. This process has been shown to be more efficient in quantum dots than bulk semiconductors, but it has never been demonstrated in the photocurrent of a solar cell. In order to demonstrate that multiple exciton generation can address fundamental limits for conventional photovoltaics, I have developed prototype devices from colloidal PbS and PbSe quantum dot inks. I have characterized both the colloidal suspensions and films of quantum dots with the goal of understanding what properties determine the efficiency of the solar cell and of the MEG process. I have found surface chemistry effects on solar cells, photoluminescence, and MEG, and I have found some chemical treatments that lead to solar cells showing MEG. These devices show external quantum efficiency (EQE) greater than 100% for certain parts of the solar spectrum, and I extract internal quantum efficiency (IQE) consistent with previous measurements of colloidal suspensions of quantum dots. These findings are a small first step toward breaking the single junction Shockley-Queisser limit of present-day first and second generation solar cells, thus moving photovoltaic cells toward a new regime of efficiency.

  16. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian


    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron-hole pairs: probing Mott physics of magneto-excitons (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro


    Density-dependent Coulomb interactions can drive electron-hole (e - h) pairs in semiconductors through an excitonic Mott transition from an excitonic gas into an e - h plasma. Theoretical studies suggest that these interactions can be strongly modified by an external magnetic field, including the absence of inter-exciton interactions in the high magnetic field limit in two dimensions, due to an e - h charge symmetry, which results in ultrastable magneto-excitons. Here, we present a systematic experimental study of e - h pairs in photo-excited undoped GaAs quantum wells in magnetic fields with ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy. We simultaneously monitored the dynamics of the intraexcitonic 1 s-2 p transition (which splits into 1 s-2p+ and 1 s-2p- transitions in a magnetic field) and the cyclotron resonance of unbound electrons and holes up to 10 Tesla. We found that the 1 s-2p- absorption feature is robust at high magnetic fields even under high excitation fluences, indicating magnetically enhanced stability of excitons. We will discuss the Mott physics of magneto-excitons as a function of temperature, e - h pair density, optical pump delay time, as well as magnetic field, and also compare two-dimensional excitons in GaAs quantum wells with three-dimensional excitons in bulk GaAs.

  18. Excitons in van der Waals heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    -dimensional (2D) excitons is still lacking. Here we provide a critical assessment of a widely used 2D hydrogenic exciton model, which assumes a dielectric function of the form epsilon(q) = 1 + 2 pi alpha q, and we develop a quasi-2D model with a much broader applicability. Within the quasi-2D picture, electrons...

  19. Radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai


    A theory for calculating the radiative lifetime of excitons in amorphous semiconductors is presented. Four possibilities of excitonic radiative recombination are considered and the corresponding rates are derived at thermal equilibrium. The radiative lifetime is calculated from the inverse of the maximum rate for all the four possibilities. Results agree very well with experiments

  20. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  1. Jointly Tuned Plasmonic–Excitonic Photovoltaics Using Nanoshells

    KAUST Repository

    Paz-Soldan, Daniel


    Recent advances in spectrally tuned, solution-processed plasmonic nanoparticles have provided unprecedented control over light\\'s propagation and absorption via engineering at the nanoscale. Simultaneous parallel progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics offers the potential for low-cost, large-area solar power; however, these devices suffer from poor quantum efficiency in the more weakly absorbed infrared portion of the sun\\'s spectrum. Here, we report a plasmonic-excitonic solar cell that combines two classes of solution-processed infrared materials that we tune jointly. We show through experiment and theory that a plasmonic-excitonic design using gold nanoshells with optimized single particle scattering-to-absorption cross-section ratios leads to a strong enhancement in near-field absorption and a resultant 35% enhancement in photocurrent in the performance-limiting near-infrared spectral region. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Exciton-polariton in graphene nano-ribbon embedded In semiconductor microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaei, S., E-mail:; Imannezhad, S.


    In this paper, we investigated coupling of confined photons in the semiconductor microcavity consists of Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR) (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and AlAs/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As) with excitons of gapped Armchair Graphene NanoRibbon (A-GNR) that placed at the maximum of electric field amplitude inside the semiconductor microcavity. Our calculations show that the coupling between GNR's exciton and confined photon modes and appearance of vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), is possible. By the means of Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) we obtain angle dependent reflectance spectrum and Upper, Lower Polariton Branches (UPB&LPB) for the structure. Clear anticrossing between the neutral exciton and the cavity modes with a splitting of about 3 meV obtained that can be enhanced in double-GNR. While, our calculations certify the formation of graphene based exciton-polariton, propose the enhancement of VRS by optimization of relevant parameters to implement the graphene based cavity polaritons in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Magnetic brightening and control of dark excitons in monolayer WSe2. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Cao, Ting; Lu, Zhengguang; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhiqiang; Hone, James C; Robinson, Joshua A; Smirnov, Dmitry; Louie, Steven G; Heinz, Tony F


    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide crystals, as direct-gap materials with strong light-matter interactions, have attracted much recent attention. Because of their spin-polarized valence bands and a predicted spin splitting at the conduction band edges, the lowest-lying excitons in WX 2 (X = S, Se) are expected to be spin-forbidden and optically dark. To date, however, there has been no direct experimental probe of these dark excitons. Here, we show how an in-plane magnetic field can brighten the dark excitons in monolayer WSe 2 and permit their properties to be observed experimentally. Precise energy levels for both the neutral and charged dark excitons are obtained and compared with ab initio calculations using the GW-BSE approach. As a result of their spin configuration, the brightened dark excitons exhibit much-increased emission and valley lifetimes. These studies directly probe the excitonic spin manifold and reveal the fine spin-splitting at the conduction band edges.

  4. Exciton spectroscopy using non-resonant X-ray Raman scattering (United States)

    Feng, Yejun

    Core electron excitations in solids have long been of interest in condensed matter physics. The state of the low-energy photoelectron is dominated by many-body effects from screening by valence electrons and interactions with the core-hole. In some insulators, these interactions create a localized state for the photoelectron core-hole pair, namely a core-exciton. In this dissertation, we use q-dependent non-resonant x-ray Raman scattering together with ab initio simulations to extend exciton spectroscopy to probe the angular characteristics of the near-edge exciton. The transferred momentum q acts as an extra parameter and provides new information about the projected density of states which is inaccessible to traditional core-excitation spectroscopies, such as x-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In several cases, we find that the angular characteristics of the exciton are strongly connected with the local atomic structure and symmetry. This is illustrated by a study on hexagonal boron nitride, in which a dominantly Y10-type exciton was identified necessarily due to the reflection symmetry about the basal plane at every boron site. This new understanding of the relationship between the exciton type and local symmetry has helped solve a site-substitution disorder problem in the icosahedral boron carbide B4C system, where a p -type exciton was identified due to dominant boron occupation at the center of a three-atom chain in the unit cell, the only site with the inversion symmetry. This exciton spectroscopy using q-dependent x-ray Raman scattering may have wide applications in the future, such as in geophysical studies in high pressure diamond anvil cells.

  5. Exciton modeling of energy-transfer dynamics in the LHCII complex of higher plants: a Redfield theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoderezhkin, V.; Salverda, J.M.; Amerongen, van H.; Grondelle, van R.


    We propose an exciton model for the peripheral plant light-harvesting complex LHCII that allows us to explain the absorption (OD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectra, the superradiance (SR), the pump-probe transient absorption (TA), the three-pulse photon echo peak shift (3PEPS), and transient grating

  6. Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis


    We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...

  7. The confinement effect in spherical inhomogeneous quantum dots and stability of excitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Benhaddou


    Full Text Available We investigate in this work the quantum confinement effect of exciton in spherical inhomogeneous quantum dots IQDs. The spherical core is enveloped by two shells. The inner shell is a semiconductor characterized by a small band-gap. The core and the outer shell are the same semiconductor characterized by a large band-gap. So there is a significant gap-offset creating a deep potential well where the excitons are localized and strongly confined. We have adopted the Ritz variational method to calculate numerically the excitonic ground state energy and its binding energy in the strong, moderate and low confinement regimes. The results show that the Ritz variational method is in good agreement with the perturbation method in strong confinement. There is a double confinement effect and dual control. The calculation checks the effective Rydberg R* at the asymptotic limit of bulk semiconductor when the thickness takes very large values. The excitonic binding energy increases, Thus giving the excitons a high stability even at ambient temperature. These nanosystems are promising in several applications: lighting, detection, biological labeling and quantum computing.

  8. On the equivalence of two approaches in the exciton-polariton theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Tan; Nguyen Toan Thang


    The polariton effect in the optical processes involving photons with energies near that of an exciton is investigated by the Bogolubov diagonalization and the Green function approaches in a simple model of the direct band gap semiconductor with the electrical dipole allowed transition. To take into account the non-resonant terms of the interaction Hamiltonian of the photon-exciton system the Green function approach derived by Nguyen Van Hieu is presented with the use of Green's function matrix technique analogous to that suggested by Nambu in the theory of superconductivity. It is shown that with the suitable choice of the phase factors the renormalization constants are equal to the diagonalization coefficients. The disperson of polaritons and the matrix elements of processes with the participation of polaritons are identically calculated by both methods. However the Green function approach has an advantage in including the damping effect of polaritons. (author)

  9. Co-existence of free and self-trapped excitons in J-aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyukin, Yu.V.; Lebedenko, A.N.; Sorokin, A.V.; Yefimova, S.L.


    Nature of excited electronic states of amphi-PIC J-aggregates, which are the source of the self-trapping states, have been investigated using low-temperature site-selective, time-resolved spectroscopy techniques. The self-trapping states are shown to evolve from the delocalized exciton states within the J-band. The strongly localized electronic states located on the low-frequency edge of the J-band, are not able to form polaronic states and, hence, the polaronic relaxation process is particularly collective one. The exciton self-trapping is more effective in J-aggregates with strong disorder, requires overcoming a self-trapping barrier

  10. Local energetic disorder in molecular aggregates probed by the one-exciton to two-exciton transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrant, James R.; Knoester, Jasper; Wiersma, Douwe A.


    We demonstrate a novel approach to probing the magnitude and degree of spatial correlation of local (molecular or atomic) energetic disorder in delocalized exciton systems. The approach is based on measuring the correlation between the ground state to one-exciton and the one-exciton to two-exciton

  11. Pressure-Dependent Light Emission of Charged and Neutral Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xinpeng [State; Li, Fangfei [State; Lin, Jung-Fu [Department; Gong, Yuanbo [State; Huang, Xiaoli [State; Huang, Yanping [State; Han, Bo [State; Zhou, Qiang [State; Cui, Tian [State


    Tailoring the excitonic properties in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) through strain engineering is an effective means to explore their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Here we report pressure-tuned photon emission of trions and excitons in monolayer MoSe2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) through photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculations. Under quasi-hydrostatic compressive strain, our results show neutral (X0) and charged (X–) exciton emission of monolayer MoSe2 can be effectively tuned by alcohol mixture vs inert argon pressure transmitting media (PTM). During this process, X– emission undergoes a continuous blue shift until reaching saturation, while X0 emission turns up splitting. The pressure-dependent charging effect observed in alcohol mixture PTM results in the increase of the X– exciton component and facilitates the pressure-tuned emission of X– excitons. This substantial tunability of X– and X0 excitons in MoSe2 can be extended to other 2D TMDs, which holds potential for developing strained and optical sensing devices.

  12. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh


    One of the most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In the present work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexciton binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. The results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.

  13. Bright monolayer tungsten disulfide via exciton and trion chemical modulations. (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Yu, Xuechao; Li, Jiewei; Liang, Houkun; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Wei; Wang, Qi Jie


    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with exceptional electrical and optical properties have drawn tremendous attention for use in novel optoelectronic applications as photodetectors, transistors, light emitters, etc. However, electron bound trions formed through the combination of neutral excitons and electrons significantly decrease the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of TMDCs. In this study, we report a simple yet efficient chemical doping strategy to modulate the optical properties of monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2). As a demonstrative example, a chemically doped monolayer of WS2 exhibits remarkable PL enhancement of about one order of magnitude higher than that of pristine WS2. This outstanding PL enhancement is attributed to the fact that excess electrons, which promote the formation of electron-bound trions, are reduced in number through charge transfer from WS2 to the chemical dopant. Furthermore, an improved degree of circular polarization from ∼9.0% to ∼41.5% was also observed in the chemically doped WS2 monolayer. This work describes a feasible strategy to manipulate the optical properties of TMDCs via exciton modulation, making TMDCs promising candidates for versatile semiconductor-based photonic devices.

  14. Atomic lattice excitons: from condensates to crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Toermae, P; Zoller, P


    We discuss atomic lattice excitons (ALEs), bound particle-hole pairs formed by fermionic atoms in two bands of an optical lattice. Such a system provides a clean set-up, with tunable masses and interactions, to study fundamental properties of excitons including exciton condensation. We also find that for a large effective mass ratio between particles and holes, effective long-range interactions can mediate the formation of an exciton crystal, for which superfluidity is suppressed. Using a combination of mean-field treatments, bosonized theory based on a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and one-dimensional (1D) numerical computation, we discuss the properties of ALEs under varying conditions, and discuss in particular their preparation and measurement

  15. Atomic lattice excitons: from condensates to crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantian, A [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Daley, A J [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Toermae, P [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Zoller, P [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    We discuss atomic lattice excitons (ALEs), bound particle-hole pairs formed by fermionic atoms in two bands of an optical lattice. Such a system provides a clean set-up, with tunable masses and interactions, to study fundamental properties of excitons including exciton condensation. We also find that for a large effective mass ratio between particles and holes, effective long-range interactions can mediate the formation of an exciton crystal, for which superfluidity is suppressed. Using a combination of mean-field treatments, bosonized theory based on a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, and one-dimensional (1D) numerical computation, we discuss the properties of ALEs under varying conditions, and discuss in particular their preparation and measurement.

  16. Engineering light emission of two-dimensional materials in both the weak and strong coupling regimes (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Ballesteros, Guillem C.; Gerardot, Brian D.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have promising applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and quantum technologies. However, their intrinsically low light absorption limits their performance, and potential devices must be accurately engineered for optimal operation. Here, we apply a transfer matrix-based source-term method to optimize light absorption and emission in 2D materials and related devices in weak and strong coupling regimes. The implemented analytical model accurately accounts for experimental results reported for representative 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. The model has been extended to propose structures to optimize light emission by exciton recombination in MoS2 single layers, light extraction from arbitrarily oriented dipole monolayers, and single-photon emission in 2D materials. Also, it has been successfully applied to retrieve exciton-cavity interaction parameters from MoS2 microcavity experiments. The present model appears as a powerful and versatile tool for the design of new optoelectronic devices based on 2D semiconductors such as quantum light sources and polariton lasers.

  17. Exciton condensation and perfect Coulomb drag. (United States)

    Nandi, D; Finck, A D K; Eisenstein, J P; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W


    Coulomb drag is a process whereby the repulsive interactions between electrons in spatially separated conductors enable a current flowing in one of the conductors to induce a voltage drop in the other. If the second conductor is part of a closed circuit, a net current will flow in that circuit. The drag current is typically much smaller than the drive current owing to the heavy screening of the Coulomb interaction. There are, however, rare situations in which strong electronic correlations exist between the two conductors. For example, double quantum well systems can support exciton condensates, which consist of electrons in one well tightly bound to holes in the other. 'Perfect' drag is therefore expected; a steady transport current of electrons driven through one quantum well should be accompanied by an equal current of holes in the other. Here we demonstrate this effect, taking care to ensure that the electron-hole pairs dominate the transport and that tunnelling of charge between the quantum wells, which can readily compromise drag measurements, is negligible. We note that, from an electrical engineering perspective, perfect Coulomb drag is analogous to an electrical transformer that functions at zero frequency.

  18. Revealing electronic nature of broad bound exciton bands in two-dimensional semiconducting W S2 and Mo S2 (United States)

    Shang, Jingzhi; Cong, Chunxiao; Shen, Xiaonan; Yang, Weihuang; Zou, Chenji; Peimyoo, Namphung; Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Lin, Wei; Huang, Wei; Yu, Ting


    Owing to unique electronic, excitonic, and valleytronic properties, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides are becoming a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor system for diverse electronic and optoelectronic applications. In an ideal 2D semiconductor, efficient carrier transport is very difficult because of lacking free charge carriers. Doping is necessary for electrically driven device applications based on such 2D semiconductors, which requires investigation of electronic structure changes induced by dopants. Therefore probing correlations between localized electronic states and doping is important. Here, we address the electronic nature of broad bound exciton bands and their origins in exfoliated monolayer (1L) W S2 and Mo S2 through monitoring low-temperature photoluminescence and manipulating electrostatic doping. The dominant bound excitons in 1L W S2 vary from donor to acceptor bound excitons with the switching from n - to p -type doping. In 1L Mo S2 , two localized emission bands appear which are assigned to neutral and ionized donor bound excitons, respectively. The deep donor and acceptor states play critical roles in the observed bound exciton bands, indicating the presence of strongly localized excitons in such 2D semiconductors.

  19. Enormous excitonic effects in bulk, mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides using many-body perturbation technique (United States)

    Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi


    Cuprous halides (CuX with X = Cl, Br, I), intensely studied about four decades ago by experimentalists for excitons, are again drawing attention of researchers recently. Potential of cuprous halide systems for device applications has not yet been fully explored. We go beyond the one-particle picture to capture the two-particle physics (electron-hole interaction to form excitons). We have deployed the full tool kit of many-body perturbation technique, GW approximation + Bethe Salpeter equation, to unfurl the rich excitonic physics of the bulk as well as layers of CuX. The negative spin-orbit contribution at the valence band top in CuCl, compared to CuBr and CuI, is in good agreement with experiments. We note that CuX have exceptionally strong excitons, defying the linear fit (between the excitonic binding energy and band gap) encompassing many semiconductors. The mono- and bi- layers of cuprous halides are predicted to be rich in excitons, with exceptionally large binding energies and the resonance energies in UV/visible region. Hence this work projects CuX layers as good candidates for optoelectronic applications. With advancement of technology, we look forward to experimental realization of CuX layers and harnessing of their rich excitonic potential.

  20. Excitonic properties of graphene-based materials. (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chang Ming


    First-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations with quasiparticle corrections and many body effects are performed to study the electronic and optical properties of graphene-based materials. This review summarizes the excitonic properties including optical transition spectra and the distribution of exciton wavefunctions, thus providing the theoretical knowledge and predictions for promising optical applications of graphene materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Fabrication and characterization of solid-core photonic crystal fiber with steering-wheel air-cladding for strong evanescent field overlap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhu, Y.; Bise, R. T.; Kaňka, Jiří; Peterka, Pavel; Du, H.

    Vol. 281, No. 1 (2008), s. 55-60 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0995 Grant - others:US National Science Foundation(US) ECS-0404002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : photonic crystals * fibre optic sensors * optic al fibres Subject RIV: BH - Optic s, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2008

  2. Exciton Resonances in Novel Silicon Carbide Polymers (United States)

    Burggraf, Larry; Duan, Xiaofeng


    A revolutionary technology transformation from electronics to excitionics for faster signal processing and computing will be advantaged by coherent exciton transfer at room temperature. The key feature required of exciton components for this technology is efficient and coherent transfer of long-lived excitons. We report theoretical investigations of optical properties of SiC materials having potential for high-temperature excitonics. Using Car-Parinello simulated annealing and DFT we identified low-energy SiC molecular structures. The closo-Si12C12 isomer, the most stable 12-12 isomer below 1100 C, has potential to make self-assembled chains and 2-D nanostructures to construct exciton components. Using TDDFT, we calculated the optical properties of the isomer as well as oligomers and 2-D crystal formed from the isomer as the monomer unit. This molecule has large optical oscillator strength in the visible. Its high-energy and low-energy transitions (1.15 eV and 2.56 eV) are nearly pure one-electron silicon-to-carbon transitions, while an intermediate energy transition (1.28 eV) is a nearly pure carbon-to-silicon one-electron charge transfer. These results are useful to describe resonant, coherent transfer of dark excitons in the nanostructures. Research supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  3. Energetic disorder and exciton states of individual molecular rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Zapletal, David


    Exciton states in molecular rings (resembling, e.g. the B850 ring from LH2 complexes of purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) with strong intermolecular interaction are still a question of interest [V. Sundstrom, T. Pullerits, R. van Grondelle, J. Phys. Chem. B 103 (1999) 2327]. In our theoretical model we use the ring of two-level systems, simulating, e.g., the bacteriochlorophylls B850. The dynamical aspects in ensemble of rings are reflected in optical line shapes of electronic transitions. The observed linewidths reflect the combined influence of different types of static and dynamic disorder. To avoid the broadening of lines due to ensemble averaging one uses the single-molecule spectroscopy technique to obtain a fluorescence-excitation spectrum. For zero disorder the exciton manifold features two non-degenerate and eight pairwise degenerate states. In the presence of energetic disorder the degeneracy of the exciton states is lifted and oscillator strength is redistributed among the exciton states. A satisfactory understanding of the nature of static disorder in light-harvesting systems has not been reached [S. Jang, S.F. Dempster, R.J. Silbey, J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655]. In the local site basis, there can be present static disorder in both diagonal and off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements. Silbey et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655] pointed out several questions: is former enough or the latter should be included as well? If both are considered, then there remains a question about whether they are independent or correlated. The distribution of the energetic separation E(k=+/-1) and relative orientation of the transition-dipole moments has been recently investigated [S. Jang, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 6655; C. Hofmann, T.J. Aartsma, J. Koehler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 395 (2004) 373]. In our present contribution we have extended such a type of investigation to four models of noncorrelated static disorder: (A) Gaussian disorder in the

  4. Crystalline Nanoporous Frameworks: a Nanolaboratory for Probing Excitonic Device Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Azoulay, Jason; Ford, Alexandra Caroline; Foster, Michael E.; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Leong-Hau, Kirsty; Stavila, Vitalie; Talin, Albert Alec; Wong, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Van Gough, D.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Spoerke, Erik David; Wheeler, David Roger; Deaton, Joseph C.; Centrone, Andrea; Haney, Paul; Kinney, R.; Szalai, Veronika; Yoon, Heayoung P.


    Electro-optical organic materials hold great promise for the development of high-efficiency devices based on exciton formation and dissociation, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV) and organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). However, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of both OPV and OLEDs must be improved to make these technologies economical. Efficiency rolloff in OLEDs and inability to control morphology at key OPV interfaces both reduce EQE. Only by creating materials that allow manipulation and control of the intimate assembly and communication between various nanoscale excitonic components can we hope to first understand and then engineer the system to allow these materials to reach their potential. The aims of this proposal are to: 1) develop a paradigm-changing platform for probing excitonic processes composed of Crystalline Nanoporous Frameworks (CNFs) infiltrated with secondary materials (such as a complimentary semiconductor); 2) use them to probe fundamental aspects of excitonic processes; and 3) create prototype OPVs and OLEDs using infiltrated CNF as active device components. These functional platforms will allow detailed control of key interactions at the nanoscale, overcoming the disorder and limited synthetic control inherent in conventional organic materials. CNFs are revolutionary inorganic-organic hybrid materials boasting unmatched synthetic flexibility that allow tuning of chemical, geometric, electrical, and light absorption/generation properties. For example, bandgap engineering is feasible and polyaromatic linkers provide tunable photon antennae; rigid 1-5 nm pores provide an oriented, intimate host for triplet emitters (to improve light emission in OLEDs) or secondary semiconducting polymers (creating a charge-separation interface in OPV). These atomically engineered, ordered structures will enable critical fundamental questions to be answered concerning charge transport, nanoscale interfaces, and exciton behavior that are inaccessible

  5. Dye concentration dependence of spectral triplet in one-dimensional photonic crystal with cyanine dye J-aggregate in strong coupling regime (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sakata, Tomohiro; Takenobu, Ryouya; Uemura, Shinobu; Miyagawa, Hayato; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki


    We report on the dye concentration dependence of nonlinear transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities containing cyanine dye J-aggregates. Using femtosecond nonlinear transmission spectroscopy, we observed a transition from a polariton doublet state to a spectral triplet state over the whole tested concentration range, even at room temperature. In these samples, changes in the dye concentration affected the Rabi splitting energy in the linear transmission measurements; however, we found that changes in the concentration did not greatly affect the triplet formation.

  6. Plasmon-exciton polaritons in two-dimensional semiconductor/metal interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Bertelsen, L. P.; Xiao, Sanshui


    substrate or coating a metallic thin film. We determine the polaritonic spectrum and show that, in the former case, the addition of a top dielectric layer and, in the latter case, the thickness of the metal film can be used to tune and promote plasmon-exciton interactions well within the strong...

  7. Quantum kinetic exciton-LO-phonon interaction in CdSe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woggon, Ulrike; Gindele, Frank; Langbein, Wolfgang


    Oscillations with a period of similar to 150 fs are observed in the four-wave mixing (FWM) signal of bulk CdSe and interpreted in terms of non-Markovian exciton-LO-phonon scattering. The experiments show evidence of phonon quantum kinetics in semiconductors of strong polar coupling strength...

  8. Electrical pumping and tuning of exciton-polaritons in carbon nanotube microcavities (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Held, Martin; Zakharko, Yuriy; Tropf, Laura; Gather, Malte C.; Zaumseil, Jana


    Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter particles that form upon strong coupling of an excitonic transition to a cavity mode. As bosons, polaritons can form condensates with coherent laser-like emission. For organic materials, optically pumped condensation was achieved at room temperature but electrically pumped condensation remains elusive due to insufficient polariton densities. Here we combine the outstanding optical and electronic properties of purified, solution-processed semiconducting (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a microcavity-integrated light-emitting field-effect transistor to realize efficient electrical pumping of exciton-polaritons at room temperature with high current densities (>10 kA cm-2) and tunability in the near-infrared (1,060 nm to 1,530 nm). We demonstrate thermalization of SWCNT polaritons, exciton-polariton pumping rates ~104 times higher than in current organic polariton devices, direct control over the coupling strength (Rabi splitting) via the applied gate voltage, and a tenfold enhancement of polaritonic over excitonic emission. This powerful material-device combination paves the way to carbon-based polariton emitters and possibly lasers.

  9. Observation of excitonic fine structure in a 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor. (United States)

    Shang, Jingzhi; Shen, Xiaonan; Cong, Chunxiao; Peimyoo, Namphung; Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting


    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (TMD 1Ls), have attracted increasing attention owing to the underlying fundamental physics (e.g., many body effects) and the promising optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes. Though much progress has been made, intrinsic excitonic states of TMD 1Ls are still highly debated in theory, which thirsts for direct experimental determination. Here, we report unconventional emission and excitonic fine structure in 1L WS2 revealed by electrical doping and photoexcitation, which reflects the interplay of exciton, trion, and other excitonic states. Tunable excitonic emission has been realized in a controllable manner via electrical and/or optical injection of charge carriers. Remarkably enough, the superlinear (i.e., quadratic) emission is unambiguously observed which is attributed to biexciton states, indicating the strong Coulomb interactions in such a 2D material. In a nearly neutral 1L WS2, trions and biexcitons possess large binding energies of ∼ 10-15 and 45 meV, respectively. Moreover, our finding of electrically induced robust emission opens up a possibility to boost the luminous efficiency of emerging 1L TMD light emitting diodes.

  10. Impact of the glass transition on exciton dynamics in polymer thin films (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Proepper, Daniel; Graf, Alexander; Jores, Stefan; Boris, Alexander V.; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas


    In the development of organic electronics, unlimited design possibilities of conjugated polymers offer a wide variety of mechanical and electronic properties. Thereby, it is crucially important to reveal universal physical characteristics that allow efficient and forward developments of new chemical compounds. In particular for organic solar cells, a deeper understanding of exciton dynamics in polymer films can help to improve the charge generation process further. For this purpose, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is commonly used as a model system, although exciton decay kinetics have found different interpretations. Using temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy in combination with low-temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry, we can show that P3HT is indeed a model system in which excitons follow a simple diffusion/hopping model. Based on our results we can exclude the relevance of hot-exciton emission as well as a dynamic torsional relaxation upon photoexcitation on a ps time scale. Instead, we depict the glass transition temperature of polymers to strongly affect exciton dynamics.

  11. Excitonic polaritons of zinc diarsenide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dorogan, A. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)


    Excitonic polaritons of ZnAs{sub 2} single crystals had been investigated. Parameters of singlet excitons with Г{sub 2}¯(z) symmetry and orthoexcitons 2Г{sub 1}¯(y)+Г{sub 2}¯(x) had been determined. Spectral dependencies of ordinary and extraordinary dispersion of refractive index had been calculated using interferential reflection and transmittance spectra. It was shown, that A excitonic series were due to hole (V{sub 1}) and electron (C{sub 1}) bands. The values of effective masses of electrons (m{sub c}{sup *}=0.10 m{sub 0}) and holes (m{sub v1}{sup *}=0.89 m{sub 0}) had been estimated. It was revealed that the hole mass m{sub v1}{sup *} changes from 1.03 m{sub 0} to 0.55 m{sub 0} at temperature increasing from 10 K up to 230 K and that the electron mass m{sub c}{sup *} does not depend on temperature. The integral absorption A (eV cm{sup −1}) of the states n=1, 2 and 3 of Г{sub 2}¯(z) excitons depends on the A{sub n}≈n{sup −3} equality, which it is characteristic for S-type excitonic functions. Temperature dependences of the integral absorption of ground states for Г{sub 2}¯(z) and Г{sub 2}¯(Ñ…) excitons differ. The ground states of B and C excitons formed by V{sub 3} – C{sub 1} and V{sub 4} – C{sub 1} bands and its parameters had been determined.

  12. Electrons, holes, and excitons in GaAs polytype quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Segarra, Carlos; Rajadell, Fernando; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)


    Single and multi-band k⋅p Hamiltonians for GaAs crystal phase quantum dots are used to assess ongoing experimental activity on the role of such factors as quantum confinement, spontaneous polarization, valence band mixing, and exciton Coulomb interaction. Spontaneous polarization is found to be a dominating term. Together with the control of dot thickness [Vainorius et al., Nano Lett. 15, 2652 (2015)], it enables wide exciton wavelength and lifetime tunability. Several new phenomena are predicted for small diameter dots [Loitsch et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2195 (2015)], including non-heavy hole ground state, strong hole spin admixture, and a type-II to type-I exciton transition, which can be used to improve the absorption strength and reduce the radiative lifetime of GaAs polytypes.

  13. Identification of excitons, trions and biexcitons in single-layer WS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Kraus, Julia; Paradiso, Nicola; Strunk, Christoph; Schueller, Christian; Korn, Tobias [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg (Germany)


    Single-layer WS{sub 2} is a direct-gap semiconductor showing strong excitonic photoluminescence features in the visible spectral range. Here, we present temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements on mechanically exfoliated single-layer WS{sub 2}, revealing the existence of neutral and charged excitons at low temperatures as well as at room temperature. By applying a gate voltage, we can electrically control the ratio of excitons and trions and assert a residual n-type doping of our samples. At high excitation densities and low temperatures, an additional peak at energies below the trion dominates the photoluminescence, which we identify as biexciton emission. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Plasmon-excitonic polaritons in superlattices (United States)

    Kosobukin, V. A.


    A theory for propagation of polaritons in superlattices with resonant plasmon-exciton coupling is presented. A periodical superlattice consists of a finite number of cells with closely located a quantum well and a monolayer of metal nanoparticles. Under study is the spectrum of hybrid modes formed of the quasitwo- dimensional excitons of quantum wells and the dipole plasmons of metal particles. The problem of electrodynamics is solved by the method of Green's functions with taking account of the resonant polarization of quantum wells and nanoparticles in a self-consistent approximation. The effective polarizability of spheroidal particles occupying a square lattice is calculated with taking into consideration the local-field effect of dipole plasmons of the layer and their images caused by the excitonic polarization of nearest quantum well. Optical reflection spectra of superlattices with GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells and silver particles are numerically analyzed. Special attention is paid to the superradiant regime originated in the Bragg diffraction of polaritons in superlattice. Superradiance is investigated separately for plasmons and excitons, and then for hybrid plasmonexcitonic polaritons. It is demonstrated that the broad spectrum of reflectance associated with plasmons depends on the number of cells in superlattice, and it has a narrow spectral dip in the range of plasmon-excitonic Rabi splitting.

  15. Identification of effective exciton-exciton annihilation in squaraine-squaraine copolymers. (United States)

    Hader, Kilian; May, Volkhard; Lambert, Christoph; Engel, Volker


    Ultrafast time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy is able to monitor the fate of the excited state population in molecular aggregates or polymers. Due to many competing decay processes, the identification of exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA) is difficult. Here, we use a microscopic model to describe exciton annihilation processes in squaraine-squaraine copolymers. Transient absorption time traces measured at different laser powers exhibit an unusual time-dependence. The analysis points towards dynamics taking place on three time-scales. Immediately after laser-excitation a localization of excitons takes place within the femtosecond time-regime. This is followed by exciton-exciton annihilation which is responsible for a fast decay of the exciton population. At later times, excitations being localized on units which are not directly connected remain so that diffusion dominates the dynamics and leads to a slower decay. We thus provide evidence for EEA tracked by time-resolved spectroscopy which has not been reported that clearly before.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review. (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François


    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  17. Non-conservation of excitons in finite molecular chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosic, Bratislav; Sajfert, Vjekoslav; Maskovic, Ljiljana; Bednar, Nikola


    We have analyzed a linear molecular chain with exciton excitations when the number of excitons is not conserved. The dispersion law depends on two independent variables and it is surfaced in a 3D plot. The same conclusion is valid for the concentrations of excitons and exciton pairs. As it was expected, physical characteristics of the finite chain depend on spatial coordinates. All results are compared to the corresponding results of an infinite chain.

  18. A quantum imager for intensity correlated photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiko, D L; Brauer, N; Sergio, M; Niclass, C; Charbon, E [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gunther, N J [Performance Dynamics, 4061 East Castro Valley Blvd, Suite 110, Castro Valley, CA (United States); Beretta, G B [HP Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA (United States)], E-mail:


    We report on a device capable of imaging second-order spatio-temporal correlations g{sup (2)}(x, {tau}) between photons. The imager is based on a monolithic array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) implemented in CMOS technology and a simple algorithm to treat multiphoton time-of-arrival distributions from different SPAD pairs. It is capable of 80 ps temporal resolution with fluxes as low as 10 photons s{sup -1} at room temperature. An important application might be the local imaging of g{sup (2)} as a means of confirming the presence of true Bose-Einstein macroscopic coherence (BEC) of cavity exciton polaritons.

  19. Excitonic singlet-triplet ratios in molecular and polymeric organic materials (United States)

    Baldo, Marc; Agashe, Shashank; Forrest, Stephen


    A simple technique is described for the determination of the internal efficiency and excitonic singlet-triplet formation statistics of electroluminescent organic thin films. The internal efficiency is measured by optically exciting a luminescent film within an electroluminescent device under reverse bias. This gives minimum singlet fractions of (0.20+/-0.03) and (0.19+/-0.04) for tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), respectively. These results are discussed in terms of the current understanding of exciton formation within organic materials. We also present measurements of the out-coupling fraction, or the fraction of photons emitted in the forward direction, as a function of the position of the emitting layer within a microcavity.

  20. On the theory of three types of polaritons (phonon, exciton and plasmon polaritons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Duong Thi; Thuy, Dinh Thi; Hoa, Vo Thi; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Viet, Nguyen Ai


    We have investigated the similarities and difference between three well-known types of polaritons: phonon polariton, exciton polariton and surface plasmon polariton. For first two types (phonon polariton and exciton polariton) the interaction between photon and media can be expressed via a longitudinal-transversal splitting (LT-splitting), while for third type of polariton (surface plasmon polariton) via the boundary condition. Considering an analogy of these three types of polaritons, an effective LT-splitting was introduced for surface plasmon polariton. We discuss a possible existence of an evanescent state in the band gap of polaritons. Finally, the Nambu broken symmetry theory and Anderson-Higgs mechanism are discussed for lower branch of these polaritons. (paper)

  1. Generalized bipolariton model. propagation of a ultrashort laser pulse through a thin semiconductor film in the conditions of two-photon generation of biexcitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Beloussov


    A generalized bipolariton model is proposed. Bipolaritons is formed from virtual excitons of four kinds. There exists both attractive and repulsive interaction between these excitons, though only excitons of a specific type can interact with light. A substantial difference between conventional and our models is shown for the case of nonlinear transmission/reflection of ultrashort laser pulses by a thin semiconductor film under two-photon generation of biexcitons. (author)

  2. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haissinski, J.


    The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2

  3. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.L.


    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved

  4. Measuring the Influence of Dielectric Environment on 2D Excitons in Monolayer Semiconductors: Insight from High Magnetic Fields1 (United States)

    Stier, Andreas

    The relatively heavy electrons and holes in monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2 form tightly-bound excitons with large binding energies, thus motivating magneto-optical studies in high magnetic fields. Because 2D excitons in these materials necessarily lie close to a surface, their properties are expected to be strongly influenced by the surrounding dielectric environment. However, systematic studies exploring this role are challenging, in part because the most readily accessible exciton parameter - the exciton's optical transition energy - is largely unaffected by the surrounding medium. Here we show that the role of the dielectric environment can be revealed through its systematic influence on the size of the exciton, which can be directly measured via the diamagnetic shift of the exciton transition in high magnetic fields. Using exfoliated WSe2 monolayers affixed to single-mode optical fibers, we tune the surrounding dielectric environment by encapsulating the monolayers with different materials, and perform polarization resolved low-temperature magneto-absorption studies to 65 tesla. The systematic increase of the exciton's size with dielectric screening, and concurrent two-fold reduction in binding energy (also inferred from these measurements), is quantitatively compared with leading theoretical models based on the Keldysh potential. These results demonstrate how exciton properties can be tuned in future 2D devices and van der Waals heterostructures. 1In collaboration with S.A. Crooker (NHMFL); J. Kono (Rice University); K.M. McCreary, B.T. Jonker (Naval Research Lab); N.P. Wilson, G. Clark, X. Xu (University of Washington).

  5. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods:Application to Conjugated Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Fauvell, Thomas J.; Kelley, Matthew S.; Chen, Lin X.; Schatz, George C.; Ratner, Mark A.


    The theoretical description of the timeevolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to the excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further evelopments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.

  6. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.


    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  7. Exciton-exciton annihilation and relaxation pathways in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Narkeliunas, Jonas; Graham, Matt W; Fleming, Graham R; Valkunas, Leonas


    We present a thorough analysis of one- and two-color transient absorption measurements performed on single- and double-walled semiconducting carbon nanotubes. By combining the currently existing models describing exciton-exciton annihilation-the coherent and the diffusion-limited ones-we are able to simultaneously reproduce excitation kinetics following both E11 and E22 pump conditions. Our simulations revealed the fundamental photophysical behavior of one-dimensional coherent excitons and non-trivial excitation relaxation pathways. In particular, we found that after non-linear annihilation a doubly-excited exciton relaxes directly to its E11 state bypassing the intermediate E22 manifold, so that after excitation resonant with the E11 transition, the E22 state remains unpopulated. A quantitative explanation for the observed much faster excitation kinetics probed at E22 manifold, comparing to those probed at the E11 band, is also provided.

  8. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Moody, G.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.


    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ˜2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with "ab initio" theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A1 ' phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  9. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Moody, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colarado 80305 (United States); Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R. [Chernivtsi Department, Frantsevich Institute of Material Sciences Problems, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Iryna Vilde St., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Romero, A. H. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 2205, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)


    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A{sub 1}{sup ′} phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  10. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D.; Moody, G.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.


    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A 1 ′ phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal

  11. Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit (United States)

    Boulais, Étienne; Sawaya, Nicolas P. D.; Veneziano, Rémi; Andreoni, Alessio; Banal, James L.; Kondo, Toru; Mandal, Sarthak; Lin, Su; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Woodbury, Neal W.; Yan, Hao; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Bathe, Mark


    Natural light-harvesting systems spatially organize densely packed chromophore aggregates using rigid protein scaffolds to achieve highly efficient, directed energy transfer. Here, we report a synthetic strategy using rigid DNA scaffolds to similarly program the spatial organization of densely packed, discrete clusters of cyanine dye aggregates with tunable absorption spectra and strongly coupled exciton dynamics present in natural light-harvesting systems. We first characterize the range of dye-aggregate sizes that can be templated spatially by A-tracts of B-form DNA while retaining coherent energy transfer. We then use structure-based modelling and quantum dynamics to guide the rational design of higher-order synthetic circuits consisting of multiple discrete dye aggregates within a DX-tile. These programmed circuits exhibit excitonic transport properties with prominent circular dichroism, superradiance, and fast delocalized exciton transfer, consistent with our quantum dynamics predictions. This bottom-up strategy offers a versatile approach to the rational design of strongly coupled excitonic circuits using spatially organized dye aggregates for use in coherent nanoscale energy transport, artificial light-harvesting, and nanophotonics.

  12. Excitonic optical bistability in n-type doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong


    A resonant monochromatic pump laser generates coherent excitons in an n-type doped semiconductor. Both exciton-exciton and exciton-donor interactions come into play. The former interaction can give rise to the appearance of optical bistability which is heavily influenced by the latter one. When optical bistability occurs at a fixed laser frequency both its holding intensity and hysteresis loop size are shown to decrease with increasing donor concentration. Two possibilities are suggested for experimentally determining one of the two parameters of the system - the exciton-donor coupling constant and the donor concentration, if the other parameter is known beforehand. (author). 36 refs, 2 figs

  13. Ultrafast exciton transport in organic nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pugzlys, A; Hania, R; Didraga, C; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J; Duppen, K; Kobayashi, T; Okada, T; Kobayashi, T; Nelson, KA; DeSilvestri, S


    The dynamics of exciton transport between the inner and outer walls of double-layer cylindrical aggregates is measured. Downhill transport is fast (275 A) and excitation intensity independent. Uphill transport is much slower (3.5 ps), but this rate increases when the excitation density is raised.

  14. Triplet exciton formation in organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xudong; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Howard, Ian; Ford, Thomas; Friend, Richard; Hodgkiss, Justin; Greenham, Neil [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    We have recently found that the formation of triplet excitons can be an important loss mechanism in organic photovoltaics, particularly in donor-acceptor blends designed to have high open-circuit voltages. This can occur when the intrachain triplet state lies lower in energy than the charge-transfer state formed at the heterojunction. We find that in a blend based on the polyfluorene derivatives F8BT and PFB, triplet excitons are formed after photoexcitation with much higher efficiency than in the component polymers. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to study the dynamics of charges and triplet excitons on timescales from picoseconds to microseconds. This allows us to determine a characteristic time of {proportional_to} 40 ns for intersystem crossing in the charge-separated state, and to estimate that as many as 75% of photoexcitations lead to the formation of triplet states. To avoid losses to triplet excitons in photovoltaic devices, it is necessary to separate charge pairs before intersystem crossing can occur. We also present photophysical measurements of saturation and relaxation of the triplet excited state absorption used to quantify triplet populations.

  15. Phonon-Driven Oscillatory Plasmonic Excitonic Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschner, Matthew S. [Department; Ding, Wendu [Department; Li, Yuxiu [Center; College; Chapman, Craig T. [Department; Lei, Aiwen [College; Lin, Xiao-Min [Center; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Schatz, George C. [Department; Schaller, Richard D. [Department; Center


    We demonstrate that coherent acoustic phonons derived from plasmonic nanoparticles can modulate electronic interactions with proximal excitonic molecular species. A series of gold bipyramids with systematically varied aspect ratios and corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance energies, functionalized with a J-aggregated thiacarbocyanine dye molecule, produce two hybridized states that exhibit clear anti-crossing behavior with a Rabi splitting energy of 120 meV. In metal nanoparticles, photoexcitation generates coherent acoustic phonons that cause oscillations in the plasmon resonance energy. In the coupled system, these photo-generated oscillations alter the metal nanoparticle’s energetic contribution to the hybridized system and, as a result, change the coupling between the plasmon and exciton. We demonstrate that such modulations in the hybridization is consistent across a wide range of bipyramid ensembles. We also use Finite-Difference Time Domain calculations to develop a simple model describing this behavior. Such oscillatory plasmonic-excitonic nanomaterials (OPENs) offer a route to manipulate and dynamically-tune the interactions of plasmonic/excitonic systems and unlock a range of potential applications.

  16. Conjugated “Molecular Wire” for Excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, Y.; Miller, J.; Imahori, H.; Sreearunothai, P.; Cook, A.R.


    We have synthesized new conjugated, rigid rod oligomers of fluorene, F{sub n}(C{sub 60}){sub 2}, n = 4, 8, 12, and 16. These pure compounds have F{sub n} chains up to 140 {angstrom} long. The C{sub 60} groups covalently attached at both ends serve as traps for excitons created in the F{sub n} chains. Excitons created in the chains by photoexcitation reacted rapidly with the C{sub 60} groups with decays described well by the sum of two exponentials. Mean reaction times were 2.3, 5.5, and 10.4 ps for n = 8, 12, and 16. In F{sub 16}(C{sub 60}){sub 2}, the 10.4 ps reaction time was 40 times faster than that found in earlier reports on molecules of slightly longer length. The simplest possible model, that of one-dimensional diffusion of excitonic polarons that react whenever they encounter the end of a chain, fits the results to obtain diffusion coefficients. Deviations of those fits from the data may point to the need for alternative pictures or may just indicate that diffusion is not ideal. The definite lengths of these molecules enable a stringent test for theories. These results reveal that exciton transport can be much faster than previously believed, a finding that could, along with appropriate nanoassembly, enable new kinds of high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.

  17. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  18. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin


    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  19. Annihilation of the triplet excitons in the nanoporous glass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasyev, D.A.; Ibrayev, N.Kh.; Saletsky, A.M.; Starokurov, Y.V.; Gun'ko, V.M.; Mikhalovsky, S.V.


    The spectra and kinetics of fluorescence decay of 1,2-benzanthracene (1,2-BA) molecular clusters adsorbed in nanoporous borosilicate glasses were investigated. It has been shown that the type of the decay kinetics of delayed fluorescence is determined by the annihilation of triplet excitons in crystalline and percolation clusters. The influence of an external magnetic field on the annihilation rate constant of triplet excitons in the adsorbed 1,2-BA molecules has been studied. The response of the molecular clusters to the magnetic field strongly depends on temperature, pore size and time scale of the observation. Clusters with the crystal structure dominate in the decay kinetics of triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA) and delayed fluorescence in the initial microsecond period of time after excitation. Amorphous clusters determine the form of decay kinetics of delayed fluorescence in the millisecond range. The increase in the pore size and concentration of the adsorbate lead to the dominance of crystalline components. The results presented here can be used to develop techniques for probing the structure of the adsorbed layer in nanoporous systems examining the effect of an external magnetic field on the annihilation delayed fluorescence (ADF) kinetics. Highlights: ► Molecular clusters of 1,2-benzanthracene adsorbed in nanoporous borosilicate glasses. ► Form of decay kinetics of delayed fluorescence. ► Magnetic field effects depend on temperature, pore size and observation time range. ► Clusters with crystal structure and amorphous clusters form in porous glasses

  20. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.


    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  1. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.


    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Nonlinear silicon photonics (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.


    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  3. Dynamics of excitonic complexes bound to isoelectronic centers: Toward the realization of optically addressable qubits (United States)

    St-Jean, Philippe

    The realization of qubits that can be efficiently coupled to optical fields is necessary for long distance transmission of quantum information, e.g. inside quantum networks. The principal hurdle preventing the realization of such optically addressable qubits arises from the challenging task of finding a platform that offers as well high optical homogeneity and strong light-matter coupling. In regard to this challenge, isoelectronic centers (ICs), which are isovalent impurities in a semiconductor host, represent a very promising alternative to the well-studied epitaxial quantum dots and NV centers in diamond which suffer, respectively,from a large inhomogeneous broadening and a less effective coupling to optical fields than ICs. Indeed, the atomic nature of ICs insures an optical homogeneity comparable to NV centers, and their ability to bind excitonic complexes with strong electric dipole moments allows them to offer an optical coupling similar to quantum dots. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to evaluate the potential of different excitonic complexes bound to these ICs for building optically addressable qubits. This thesis by articles, is separated in two parts. In the first part, corresponding to Article 1 and 2, I study the physics of exciton qubits bound to N ICs in GaP (Article 1) and in GaAas (Article 2). More precisely, these articles present an analysis combining time-resolve PL measurements and balance of population models, allowing to identify and quantify the different mechanisms involved in the exciton recombination dynamics. In the second part, I demonstrate the initialization of a hole-spin qubit bound to a Te IC in ZnSe. Contrary to exciton qubits the coherence time of spin qubit is not limited by their spontaneous emission, allowing to preserve coherence on a much more significant timescale. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Role of excitons in the energy resolution of scintillators used for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai


    Theoretical investigations suggest that the nonproportionality in a scintillator is caused by the high excitation density created within the track of an X-ray or γ ray photon entering in a scintillating crystal. In this paper an analytical expression for the scintillator yield is derived. For the case of BaF 2 scintillator the role of excitons created within the γ-ray track in the scintillator yield is studied. By comparing the results of two theories an analytical expression is also derived for an energy parameter which could otherwise only be determined by fitting the theoretical yield to the experimental data.

  5. Role of excitons in the energy resolution of scintillators used for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)


    Theoretical investigations suggest that the nonproportionality in a scintillator is caused by the high excitation density created within the track of an X-ray or {gamma} ray photon entering in a scintillating crystal. In this paper an analytical expression for the scintillator yield is derived. For the case of BaF{sub 2} scintillator the role of excitons created within the {gamma}-ray track in the scintillator yield is studied. By comparing the results of two theories an analytical expression is also derived for an energy parameter which could otherwise only be determined by fitting the theoretical yield to the experimental data.

  6. Field-induced exciton dissociation in PTB7-based organic solar cells (United States)

    Gerhard, Marina; Arndt, Andreas P.; Bilal, Mühenad; Lemmer, Uli; Koch, Martin; Howard, Ian A.


    The physics of charge separation in organic semiconductors is a topic of ongoing research of relevance to material and device engineering. Herein, we present experimental observations of the field and temperature dependence of charge separation from singlet excitons in PTB7 and PC71BM , and from charge-transfer states created across interfaces in PTB 7 /PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells. We obtain this experimental data by time-resolving the near infrared emission of the states from 10 K to room temperature and electric fields from 0 to 2.5 MVcm -1 . Examining how the luminescence is quenched by field and temperature gives direct insight into the underlying physics. We observe that singlet excitons can be split by high fields, and that disorder broadens the high threshold fields needed to split the excitons. Charge-transfer (CT) states, on the other hand, can be separated by both field and temperature. Also, the data imply a strong reduction of the activation barrier for charge splitting from the CT state relative to the exciton state. The observations provided herein of the field-dependent separation of CT states as a function of temperature offer a rich data set against which theoretical models of charge separation can be rigorously tested; it should be useful for developing the more advanced theoretical models of charge separation.

  7. Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard. (United States)

    Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A


    Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

  8. Importance and Nature of Short-Range Excitonic Interactions in Light Harvesting Complexes and Organic Semiconductors. (United States)

    Fornari, Rocco P; Rowe, Patrick; Padula, Daniele; Troisi, Alessandro


    The singlet excitonic coupling between many pairs of chromophores is evaluated in three different light harvesting complexes (LHCs) and two organic semiconductors (amorphous and crystalline). This large database of structures is used to assess the relative importance of short-range (exchange, overlap, orbital) and long-range (Coulombic) excitonic coupling. We find that Mulliken atomic transition charges can introduce systematic errors in the Coulombic coupling and that the dipole-dipole interaction fails to capture the true Coulombic coupling even at intermolecular distances of up to 50 Å. The non-Coulombic short-range contribution to the excitonic coupling is found to represent up to ∼70% of the total value for molecules in close contact, while, as expected, it is found to be negligible for dimers not in close contact. For the face-to-face dimers considered here, the sign of the short-range interaction is found to correlate with the sign of the Coulombic coupling, i.e. reinforcing it when it is already strong. We conclude that for molecules in van der Waals contact the inclusion of short-range effects is essential for a quantitative description of the exciton dynamics.

  9. Investigations of the coherent hard photon yields from (50-300) GeV/c electrons/positrons in the strong crystalline fields of diamond, Si, and Ge crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    The aim of this experiment is to measure the influence of strong fields on QED-processes like: Emission of coherent radiation and pair-production when multi-hundred GeV electrons/positrons and photons penetrate single crystals near axial/planar directions. The targets will be diamond, Si, Ge and W crystals.\\\\\\\\ QED is a highly developed theory and has been investigated experimentally in great detail. In recent years it has become technically possible to investigate QED-processes in very strong electromagnetic fields around the characteristic strong field E$_{0}$ = m$^{2}$c$^{3}$/eh = 1.32.10$^{16}$ V/cm. The work of such a field over the Compton length equals the electron mass. The theoretical description of QED in such fields is beyond the framework of perturbation theory. Such fields are only obtained in laboratories for a) heavy ion collisions b) interactions of multi-GeV electrons with extremely intense laser fields and in oriented crystals. In fact it turns out that crystals are unique for this type of e...

  10. The influence of morphology on excitons in single conjugated molecules (United States)

    Thiessen, Alexander

    The electronic properties of pi-conjugated molecules are strongly related to their molecular shape and morphology of assembly in three-dimensional space. Understanding the various structure-property relationships is relevant to the applications of these materials in optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic cells. The fact that conjugated systems interact with visible light opens these materials to a plethora of noninvasive spectroscopic investigation techniques. In this work, electronic properties of different pi-conjugated systems are studied spectroscopically on the ensemble and the single molecule levels. Single molecule spectroscopy is advantageous in that it allows the investigation of the individual nuclear building blocks that contribute to the properties of the ensemble. Additionally, transient photoluminescence spectroscopy methods can provide useful insight into the temporal evolution of the emissive states. In combination with these methods, novel pi-conjugated model molecules are used to probe processes related to exciton dynamics. For the first time, the spatial localization of excited states is probed experimentally in a molecule with a circular chromophoric structure. In addition, a set of model molecules with different geometries is employed to study exciton relaxation in pi-conjugated systems. The molecular morphology is utilized to distinguish between processes such as nuclear reorganization and torsional relaxation. Furthermore, single molecule spectroscopy is used to study the electronic structure of individual polymer chains in the photovoltaic cell material poly-(3-hexylthiophene). Optical spectra of this polymer are known to change with the morphology of the bulk film. Single molecule studies reveal that individual polymer chains exhibit similar behavior and indicate that spectral diversity is an intrinsic property of single P3HT molecules. The main results of this work are the

  11. Axion-photon conversion in space and in low symmetrical dielectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S


    The opportunities of axions detection as the result of axion-photon conversion processes in the space and in low symmetrical dielectric crystals are discussed. In accordance with the modern theory predictions, axions are pseudoscalar vacuum particles having very small (0.001-1.0 meV) rest energy. The possibility of axions conversion into photons and vice-versa processes in vacuum at the presence of outer magnetic field has been analyzed before. Pseudoscalar (axion type) modes are existing in some types of crystals. Polar pseudoscalar lattice and exciton modes in low symmetrical crystals are strongly interacted with axions. In this work, optical excitation of axion-type modes in low symmetrical crystals is proposed for observation of axion - photon conversion processes. Instead of outer magnetic field, the crystalline field of such crystals may be used. The experimental schemes for axion-photon conversion processes observation with recording the secondary emission of luminescence, infrared or Stimulated Raman Scattering in some dielectric crystals are discussed. (paper)

  12. Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis


    The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....

  13. Excitonic transitions in homoepitaxial GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Criado, G.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Inst. and Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Valencia (Spain); Miskys, C.R.; Ambacher, O.; Stutzmann, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik


    The photoluminescence spectrum of a high quality homoepitaxial GaN film has been measured as a function of temperature. As temperature increases the recombination of free excitons dominates the spectra. Their energy shift has successfully fitted in that temperature range by means of the Bose-Einstein expression instead of Varshni's relationship. Values for the parameters of both semi-empirical relations describing the energy shift are reported and compared with the literature. (orig.)

  14. Chiral topological excitons in a Chern band insulator (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Shindou, Ryuichi


    A family of semiconductors called Chern band insulators are shown to host exciton bands with nonzero topological Chern integers and chiral exciton edge modes. Using a prototypical two-band Chern insulator model, we calculate a cross-correlation function to obtain the exciton bands and their Chern integers. The lowest exciton band acquires Chern integers such as ±1 and ±2 in the electronic Chern insulator phase. The nontrivial topology can be experimentally observed both by a nonlocal optoelectronic response of exciton edge modes and by a phase shift in the cross-correlation response due to the bulk mode. Our result suggests that magnetically doped HgTe, InAs/GaSb quantum wells, and (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films are promising candidates for a platform of topological excitonics.

  15. Excitons confined in quantum dots spheroidal prolate; Excitones confinados en puntos cuanticos esferoidales prolatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella M, A.; Rosas, R.A.; Marin, J.L.; Riera, R. [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 1626, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    The variational method is used to solve in approximately way the Schroedinger wave equation associated to a Wannier-Mott exciton confined within a spheroidal quantum dot. The confinement effect on the ground-state energy of the electron-hole pair trapped inside a crystallite with this geometry, and with soft or hard walls, is analyzed. The walls can be modeled as finite or infinite potential barriers with suitable border conditions, which will depend on the considered case. The results of this work are compared with those obtained by other authors through more sophisticated methods. A comparison with experimental data of CdS crystallites embedded in materials of different composition is made, too. For a finite potential barrier, a critical size of the crystallite from which the exciton escapes of the quantum dot, is predicted. This is in opposition with the infinite potential barrier model where the exciton never can leave the region where it is confined. (Author)

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.


    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.


    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  18. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.


    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  19. Exciton transport phenomena in monolayer MoS2 (United States)

    Onga, Masaru; Zhang, Yijin; Ideue, Toshiya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit unique optical phenomena owing to the two-dimensional structure and valley degree of freedom. Many researchers have revealed that excitonic states play an important role in optical response, and have observed the diffusion transport of excitons in this system at room temperature. Here we report exciton transport phenomena in monolayer MoS2 at low temperature through photoluminescence mapping. Our results can provide us a new platform for exciton-based optoelectronics with valley degrees of freedom.

  20. Phase Diagram of the Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dremin, A. A.; Timofeev, V. B.; Larionov, A. V.


    was coated with a metal mask containing special openings (windows) of a micron size or smaller. Both photoexcitation and observation of luminescence were performed through these windows by the fiber optic technique. At low pumping powers, the interwell excitons were strongly localized because of the residual...... was constructed....

  1. Multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in the semimagnetic semiconductor Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Mn sub x Te: Froehlich and deformation potential exciton-phonon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Riera, R; Marin, J L; Bergues, J M; Campoy, G


    A theory describing multiphonon resonant Raman scattering (MPRRS) processes in wide-gap diluted magnetic semiconductors is presented, with Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Mn sub x Te as an example. The incident radiation frequency omega sub l is taken above the fundamental absorption region. The photoexcited electron and hole make real transitions through the LO phonon, when one considers Froehlich (F) and deformation potential (DP) interactions. The strong exchange interaction, typical of these materials, leads to a large spin splitting of the exciton states in the magnetic field. Neglecting Landau quantization, this Zeeman splitting gives rise to the formation of eight bands (two conduction and six valence ones) and ten different exciton states according to the polarization of the incident light. Explicit expressions for the MPRRS intensity of second and third order, the indirect creation and annihilation probabilities, the exciton lifetime, and the probabilities of transition between different exciton states and diff...

  2. Exceptionally slow rise in differential reflectivity spectra of excitons in GaN: effect of excitation-induced dephasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, C.J.; Kenrow, J.; El Sayed, K.; Jho, Y.D.; Kim, D.S.; Song, J.J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph


    Femtosecond differential reflectivity spectroscopy (DRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM) experiments were performed simultaneously to study the initial temporal dynamics of the exciton line-shapes in GaN epilayers. Beats between the A-B excitons were found only for positive time delay in both DRS and FWM experiments. The rise time at negative time delay for the DRS was much slower than the FWM signal or differential transmission spectroscopy at the exciton resonance. A numerical solution of a six band semiconductor Bloch equation model including nonlinearities at the Hartree-Fock level shows that this slow rise in the DRS results from excitation induced dephasing, that is, the strong density dependence of the dephasing time which changes with the laser excitation energy.

  3. Exciton–Exciton Annihilation Is Coherently Suppressed in H-Aggregates, but Not in J-Aggregates (United States)


    We theoretically demonstrate a strong dependence of the annihilation rate between (singlet) excitons on the sign of dipole–dipole couplings between molecules. For molecular H-aggregates, where this sign is positive, the phase relation of the delocalized two-exciton wave functions causes a destructive interference in the annihilation probability. For J-aggregates, where this sign is negative, the interference is constructive instead; as a result, no such coherent suppression of the annihilation rate occurs. As a consequence, room temperature annihilation rates of typical H- and J-aggregates differ by a factor of ∼3, while an order of magnitude difference is found for low-temperature aggregates with a low degree of disorder. These findings, which explain experimental observations, reveal a fundamental principle underlying exciton–exciton annihilation, with major implications for technological devices and experimental studies involving high excitation densities. PMID:29190421

  4. The Cascade-Exciton Approach to Nuclear Reactions. (Foundation and Achievements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashnik, S.G.


    The relativistic kinetic equations describing nuclear reactions at intermediate energies are obtained on the dynamical basis. These equations are analyzed and realized in several versions of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM). The CEM assumes that reactions occur in three stages: the intranuclear cascade, pre-equilibrium and the evaporative ones. A large variety of experimental data on hadron- and photonuclear reactions in the bombarding energy range up to several GeV are analyzed in this approach. The contributions of different pion and photon absorption mechanisms and the relative role of different particle and photon production mechanisms in these reactions are estimated. The CEM describes adequately nuclear reactions at intermediate energies and has one of the best predictive powers as compared to other available modern models. 55 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  5. Semiconducting {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} towards optoelectronics and photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Yoshihito [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail:


    This article explains some recent studies on a mechanism of luminescence from {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} and its applications to optoelectronics and photonics. A luminescence at 0.805 eV (i.e. the A-band) can be understood to be originated from dissolution process of indirect excitons. Photonic crystals using {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} with a high refractive index are one of the promising applications to realize high performance photonic circuits.

  6. Molecular weight dependence of exciton diffusion in poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masri, Zarifi; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Emelianova, Evguenia V.


    A joint experimental and theoretical study of singlet exciton diffusion in spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films and its dependence on molecular weight is presented. The results show that exciton diffusion is fast along the co-facial π–π aggregates of polymer chromophores and about 100...

  7. Bose Condensation of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Ni, P. A.


    in the domain. With a rise in temperature, this line disappears from the spectrum (Tc 3.4 K). The observed phenomenon is attributed to Bose–Einstein condensation in a quasi-two-dimensional system of interwell excitons. In the temperature range studied (1.5–3.4 K), the critical exciton density and temperature...

  8. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  9. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.


    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

  10. Directing energy transport in organic photovoltaic cells using interfacial exciton gates. (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J


    Exciton transport in organic semiconductors is a critical, mediating process in many optoelectronic devices. Often, the diffusive and subdiffusive nature of excitons in these systems can limit device performance, motivating the development of strategies to direct exciton transport. In this work, directed exciton transport is achieved with the incorporation of exciton permeable interfaces. These interfaces introduce a symmetry-breaking imbalance in exciton energy transfer, leading to directed motion. Despite their obvious utility for enhanced exciton harvesting in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the emergent properties of these interfaces are as yet uncharacterized. Here, directed exciton transport is conclusively demonstrated in both dilute donor and energy-cascade OPVs where judicious optimization of the interface allows exciton transport to the donor-acceptor heterojunction to occur considerably faster than when relying on simple diffusion. Generalized systems incorporating multiple exciton permeable interfaces are also explored, demonstrating the ability to further harness this phenomenon and expeditiously direct exciton motion, overcoming the diffusive limit.

  11. Vacuum Rabi splitting of exciton-polariton emission in an AlN film. (United States)

    Li, Kongyi; Wang, Weiying; Chen, Zhanghai; Gao, Na; Yang, Weihuang; Li, Wei; Chen, Hangyang; Li, Shuping; Li, Heng; Jin, Peng; Kang, Junyong


    The vacuum Rabi splitting of exciton-polariton emission is observed in cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence spectra of an AlN epitaxial film. Atomic force microscopy and CL measurements show that the film has an atomically flat surface, high purity, and high crystal quality. By changing the temperature, anticrossing behavior between the upper and lower polariton branch can be obtained in low temperature with a Rabi splitting of 44 meV, in agreement with the calculation. This large energy splitting is caused by strong oscillator strength, intrinsically pure polarization in wurtzite AlN semiconductor, and high fraction of free exciton in the sample. These properties indicate that AlN can be a potential semiconductor for the further development of polariton physics and polariton-based novel devices.

  12. Dephasing of excited-state excitons in InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E.A.; Zimmermann, R.


    We measure the dephasing time of the first optically-active excited-state excitonic transition in strongly confined InGaAs quantum dots using transient four-wave mixing. The optically-driven excited-state polarization shows a bi-exponential decay with a significant fraction of the probed excited states exhibiting a very long dephasing time, in the nanosecond range at 10 K. The full time-dependent four-wave mixing polarization is microscopically calculated by taking into account both virtual and real acoustic phonon-assisted transitions. The bi-exponential decay is qualitatively explained by a model of two-bright excitonic excited states non-degenerate in the absence of in-plane cylindrical symmetry. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Anisotropy of exciton spectrum and spin-orbit interactions in quantum wells in tilted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olendski, Oleg; Shahbazyan, Tigran V


    We study theoretically excitonic energy spectrum and optical absorption in narrowgap semiconductor quantum wells in strong magnetic field. We show that, in the presence of an in-plane field component, the absorption coefficient exhibit a double-peak structure due to hybridization of bright and dark excitons. If both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit terms are present, the spectrum is anisotropic in in-plane field orientation with respect to [100] axis. In particular, the magnitude of the splitting can be tuned in a wide interval by varying the azimuthal angle of the in-plane field. The absorption spectrrum anisotropy would allow simultaneous measurement Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coefficients

  14. Electrical control of neutral and charged excitons in a monolayer semiconductor. (United States)

    Ross, Jason S; Wu, Sanfeng; Yu, Hongyi; Ghimire, Nirmal J; Jones, Aaron M; Aivazian, Grant; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G; Xiao, Di; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong


    Monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as semiconducting alternatives to graphene in which the true two-dimensionality is expected to illuminate new semiconducting physics. Here we investigate excitons and trions (their singly charged counterparts), which have thus far been challenging to generate and control in the ultimate two-dimensional limit. Utilizing high-quality monolayer molybdenum diselenide, we report the unambiguous observation and electrostatic tunability of charging effects in positively charged (X(+)), neutral (X(o)) and negatively charged (X(-)) excitons in field-effect transistors via photoluminescence. The trion charging energy is large (30 meV), enhanced by strong confinement and heavy effective masses, whereas the linewidth is narrow (5 meV) at temperatures charging energies for X(+) and X(-) to be nearly identical implying the same effective mass for electrons and holes.

  15. Competing role of Interactions in Synchronization of Exciton-Polariton condensates (United States)

    Khan, Saeed; Tureci, Hakan E.

    We present a theoretical study of synchronization dynamics in incoherently pumped exciton-polariton condensates in coupled traps. Our analysis is based on an expansion in non-Hermitian modes that take into account the trapping potential and the pump-induced complex-valued potential. We find that polariton-polariton and reservoir-polariton interactions play competing roles in the emergence of a synchronized phase as pumping power is increased, leading to qualitatively different synchronized phases. Crucially, these interactions can also act against each other to hinder synchronization. We present a phase diagram and explain the general characteristics of these phases using a generalized Adler equation. Our work sheds light on dynamics strongly influenced by competing interactions particular to incoherently pumped exciton-polariton condensates, which can lead to interesting features in recently engineered polariton lattices. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  16. CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists

  17. Application of the theory of excitons to study the formation of positronium and optical transition in matter (United States)

    Pietrow, M.


    Considerable similarity between a positronium atom and an exciton in a quantum dot is indicated. Following this, we apply the calculation regime from the theory of excitons to describe an electron - positron pair near a free volume in matter where the positronium is created. It is shown that, in general, this actual confined state cannot be equated to a classical atom in vacuum. Besides the release of the energy of the pair in the phononic way during the Ps formation, we analyse the possibility of photonic deexcitation and show the way of calculation of its probability. The optical transitions speculated here are dependent on the electronic properties of the matter and, if detected, could allow improving experimental studies of solid matter properties with positron techniques.

  18. Excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes: environmental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrnov, O.A.


    The properties of excitons in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) isolated in vacuum or a medium and their contributions to the optical spectra of nanotubes are studied within the elementary potential model, in which an exciton is represented as a bound state of two oppositely charged quasiparticles confined to the nanotube surface. The emphasis is given on the influence of the dielectric environment surrounding a nanotube on the exciton spectra. For nanotubes in the environment with a permittivity less than ∼ 1:8; the ground-state exciton binding energies exceed the respective energy gaps, whereas the obtained binding energies of excitons in nanotubes in a medium with permittivity greater than ∼ 4 are in good accordance with the corresponding experimental data and consistent with the known scaling relation for the environmental effect. The stabilization of a single-electron spectrum in SWCNTs in media with rather low permittivities is discussed.

  19. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.


    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro


    The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Exciton Splitting of Adsorbed and Free 4-Nitroazobenzene Dimers: A Quantum Chemical Study. (United States)

    Titov, Evgenii; Saalfrank, Peter


    , strong red shift for the present system. (iv) At a next-nearest neighbor distance (of ∼3.6 Å), the exciton splitting is ∼0.3 eV, with or without "surface", suggesting a rapid quenching of the molecular π → π* excitation. At larger distances, exciton splitting decreases rapidly.

  3. Few-photon optical diode


    Roy, Dibyendu


    We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficie...

  4. Single-Photon Optomechanics (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.


    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  5. Modal expansions in periodic photonic systems with material loss and dispersion (United States)

    Wolff, Christian; Busch, Kurt; Mortensen, N. Asger


    We study band-structure properties of periodic optical systems composed of lossy and intrinsically dispersive materials. To this end, we develop an analytical framework based on adjoint modes of a lossy periodic electromagnetic system and show how the problem of linearly dependent eigenmodes in the presence of material dispersion can be overcome. We then formulate expressions for the band-structure derivative (∂ ω )/(∂ k ) (complex group velocity) and the local and total density of transverse optical states. Our exact expressions hold for 3D periodic arrays of materials with arbitrary dispersion properties and in general need to be evaluated numerically. They can be generalized to systems with two, one, or no directions of periodicity provided the fields are localized along nonperiodic directions. Possible applications are photonic crystals, metamaterials, metasurfaces composed of highly dispersive materials such as metals or lossless photonic crystals, and metamaterials or metasurfaces strongly coupled to resonant perturbations such as quantum dots or excitons in 2D materials. For illustration purposes, we analytically evaluate our expressions for some simple systems consisting of lossless dielectrics with one sharp Lorentzian material resonance added. By combining several Lorentz poles, this provides an avenue to perturbatively treat quite general material loss bands in photonic crystals.

  6. Intrinsic optical bistability of thin films of linear molecular aggregates : The two-exciton approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, Joost; Malyshev, Victor; Knoester, Jasper


    We generalize our recent work on the optical bistability of thin films of molecular aggregates [J. A. Klugkist et al., J. Chem. Phys. 127, 164705 (2007)] by accounting for the optical transitions from the one-exciton manifold to the two-exciton manifold as well as the exciton-exciton annihilation of

  7. Transport of Indirect Excitons in High Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Dorow, C. J.; Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    Spatially- and spectrally-resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields are presented. The high magnetic field regime for excitons is realized when the cyclotron splitting compares to the exciton binding energy. Due to small mass and binding energy, the high magnetic field regime for excitons is achievable in lab, requiring a few Tesla. Long indirect exciton lifetimes allow large exciton transport distances before recombination, giving an opportunity to study transport and relaxation kinetics of indirect magnetoexcitons via optical imaging. Indirect excitons in several Landau level states are realized. 0e -0h indirect magnetoexcitons (formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels) travel over large distances and form an emission ring around the excitation spot. In contrast, the 1e -1h and 2e -2h states do not exhibit long transport distances, and the spatial profiles of the emission closely follow the laser excitation. The 0e -0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. Accompanying theoretical work explains these effects in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement. Supported by NSF Grant No. 1407277. J.W. was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/L022990/1). C.J.D. was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1144086.

  8. Exciton Transfer in Carbon Nanotube Aggregates for Energy Harvesting Applications (United States)

    Davoody, Amirhossein; Karimi, Farhad; Knezevic, Irena

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising building blocks for organic photovoltaic devices, owing to their tunable band gap, mechanical and chemical stability. We study intertube excitonic energy transfer between pairs of CNTs with different orientations and band gaps. The optically bright and dark excitonic states in CNTs are calculated by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We calculate the exciton transfer rates due to the direct and exchange Coulomb interactions, as well as the second-order phonon-assisted processes. We show the importance of phonons in calculating the transfer rates that match the measurements. In addition, we discuss the contribution of optically inactive excited states in the exciton transfer process, which is difficult to determine experimentally. Furthermore, we study the effects of sample inhomogeneity, impurities, and temperature on the exciton transfer rate. The inhomogeneity in the CNT sample dielectric function can increase the transfer rate by about a factor of two. We show that the exciton confinement by impurities has a detrimental effect on the transfer rate between pairs of similar CNTs. The exciton transfer rate increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0008712.

  9. Exciton binding energy in a pyramidal quantum dot (United States)

    Anitha, A.; Arulmozhi, M.


    The effects of spatially dependent effective mass, non-parabolicity of the conduction band and dielectric screening function on exciton binding energy in a pyramid-shaped quantum dot of GaAs have been investigated by variational method as a function of base width of the pyramid. We have assumed that the pyramid has a square base with area a× a and height of the pyramid H=a/2. The trial wave function of the exciton has been chosen according to the even mirror boundary condition, i.e. the wave function of the exciton at the boundary could be non-zero. The results show that (i) the non-parabolicity of the conduction band affects the light hole (lh) and heavy hole (hh) excitons to be more bound than that with parabolicity of the conduction band, (ii) the dielectric screening function (DSF) affects the lh and hh excitons to be more bound than that without the DSF and (iii) the spatially dependent effective mass (SDEM) affects the lh and hh excitons to be less bound than that without the SDEM. The combined effects of DSF and SDEM on exciton binding energy have also been calculated. The results are compared with those available in the literature.

  10. Synthesis and Exciton Dynamics of Triplet Sensitized Conjugated Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Andernach, Rolf


    We report the synthesis of a novel polythiophene-based host-guest copolymer incorporating a Pt-porphyrin complex (TTP-Pt) into the backbone for efficient singlet to triplet polymer exciton sensitization. We elucidated the exciton dynamics in thin films of the material by means of Transient Absorption Spectrosopcy (TAS) on multiple timescales and investigated the mechanism of triplet exciton formation. During sensitization, single exciton diffusion is followed by exciton transfer from the polymer backbone to the complex where it undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the complex. We directly monitored the triplet exciton back transfer from the Pt-porphyrin to the polymer and find that 60% of the complex triplet excitons are transferred with a time constant of 1087 ps. We propose an equilibrium between polymer and porphyrin triplet states as a result of the low triplet diffusion length in the polymer backbone and hence an increased local triplet population resulting in increased triplet-triplet annihilation. This novel system has significant implications for the design of novel materials for triplet sensitized solar cells and up-conversion layers.

  11. Exciton Dynamics, Transport, and Annihilation in Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Semiconductors. (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Wang, Ti; Zhu, Tong; Zhou, Mingwei; Huang, Libai


    Large binding energy and unique exciton fine structure make the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) an ideal platform to study exciton behaviors in two-dimensional (2D) systems. While excitons in these systems have been extensively researched, there currently lacks a consensus on mechanisms that control dynamics. In this Perspective, we discuss extrinsic and intrinsic factors in exciton dynamics, transport, and annihilation in 2D TMDCs. Intrinsically, dark and bright exciton energy splitting is likely to play a key role in modulating the dynamics. Extrinsically, defect scattering is prevalent in single-layer TMDCs, which leads to rapid picosecond decay and limits exciton transport. The exciton-exciton annihilation process in single-layer TMDCs is highly efficient, playing an important role in the nonradiative recombination rate in the high exciton density regime. Future challenges and opportunities to control exciton dynamics are discussed.

  12. Excitonic pathway to photoinduced magnetism in colloidal nanocrystals with nonmagnetic dopants (United States)

    Pinchetti, Valerio; Di, Qiumei; Lorenzon, Monica; Camellini, Andrea; Fasoli, Mauro; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Meinardi, Francesco; Zhang, Jiatao; Crooker, Scott A.; Brovelli, Sergio


    Electronic doping of colloidal semiconductor nanostructures holds promise for future device concepts in optoelectronic and spin-based technologies. Ag+ is an emerging electronic dopant in iii-v and ii-vi nanostructures, introducing intragap electronic states optically coupled to the host conduction band. With its full 4d shell Ag+ is nonmagnetic, and the dopant-related luminescence is ascribed to decay of the conduction-band electron following transfer of the photoexcited hole to Ag+. This optical activation process and the associated modification of the electronic configuration of Ag+ remain unclear. Here, we trace a comprehensive picture of the excitonic process in Ag-doped CdSe nanocrystals and demonstrate that, in contrast to expectations, capture of the photohole leads to conversion of Ag+ to paramagnetic Ag2+. The process of exciton recombination is thus inextricably tied to photoinduced magnetism. Accordingly, we observe strong optically activated magnetism and diluted magnetic semiconductor behaviour, demonstrating that optically switchable magnetic nanomaterials can be obtained by exploiting excitonic processes involving nonmagnetic impurities.

  13. Excitonic pathway to photoinduced magnetism in colloidal nanocrystals with nonmagnetic dopants. (United States)

    Pinchetti, Valerio; Di, Qiumei; Lorenzon, Monica; Camellini, Andrea; Fasoli, Mauro; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Meinardi, Francesco; Zhang, Jiatao; Crooker, Scott A; Brovelli, Sergio


    Electronic doping of colloidal semiconductor nanostructures holds promise for future device concepts in optoelectronic and spin-based technologies. Ag + is an emerging electronic dopant in III-V and II-VI nanostructures, introducing intragap electronic states optically coupled to the host conduction band. With its full 4d shell Ag + is nonmagnetic, and the dopant-related luminescence is ascribed to decay of the conduction-band electron following transfer of the photoexcited hole to Ag + . This optical activation process and the associated modification of the electronic configuration of Ag + remain unclear. Here, we trace a comprehensive picture of the excitonic process in Ag-doped CdSe nanocrystals and demonstrate that, in contrast to expectations, capture of the photohole leads to conversion of Ag + to paramagnetic Ag 2+ . The process of exciton recombination is thus inextricably tied to photoinduced magnetism. Accordingly, we observe strong optically activated magnetism and diluted magnetic semiconductor behaviour, demonstrating that optically switchable magnetic nanomaterials can be obtained by exploiting excitonic processes involving nonmagnetic impurities.

  14. Exciton-dopant and exciton-charge interactions in electronically doped OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christopher; Lee, Sergey; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, A. Anvar


    The electronic dopants, like tetrafluorocyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ) molecules, used for p-doping of hole transport layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are found to quench the electroluminescence (EL) if they diffuse into the emissive layer. We observed EL quenching in OLED with F 4 -TCNQ doped N,N'-diphenyl-N'N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine hole transport layer at large dopant concentrations, >5%. To separate the effects of exciton-dopant quenching, from exciton-polaron quenching we have intentionally doped the emissive layer of (8-tris-hydroxyquinoline) with three acceptors (A) of different electron affinities: F 4 -TCNQ, TCNQ, and C 60 , and found that C 60 is the strongest EL-quencher, while F 4 -TCNQ is the weakest, contrary to intuitive expectations. The new effects of charge transfer and usually considered energy transfer from exciton to neutral (A) and charged acceptors (A - ) are compared as channels for non-radiative Ex-A decay. At high current loads the EL quenching is observed, which is due to decay of Ex on free charge carriers, hole polarons P + . We consider contributions to Ex-P + interaction by short-range charge transfer and describe the structure of microscopic charge transfer (CT)-processes responsible for it. The formation of metastable states of 'charged excitons' (predicted and studied by Agranovich et al. Chem. Phys. 272 (2001) 159) by electron transfer from a P to an Ex is pointed out, and ways to suppress non-radiative Ex-P decay are suggested

  15. Ordered Dissipative Structures in Exciton Systems in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Chernyuk


    Full Text Available A phenomenological theory of exciton condensation in conditions of inhomogeneous excitation is proposed. The theory is applied to the study of the development of an exciton luminescence ring and the ring fragmentation at macroscopical distances from the central excitation spot in coupled quantum wells. The transition between the fragmented and the continuous ring is considered. With assumption of a defect in the structure, a possibility of a localized island of the condensed phase in a fixed position is shown. Exciton density distribution is also analyzed in the case of two spatially separated spots of the laser excitation.

  16. Transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.


    We present spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. Long indirect exciton lifetimes give the opportunity to measure magnetoexciton transport by optical imaging. Indirect excitons formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels (0e-0h indirect magnetoexcitons) travel over large distances and form a ring emission pattern around the excitation spot. In contrast, the spatial profiles of 1e-1h and 2e-2h indirect magnetoexciton emission closely follow the laser excitation profile. The 0e-0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. These effects are explained in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement.

  17. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.


    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Ultrafast electric phase control of a single exciton qubit (United States)

    Widhalm, Alex; Mukherjee, Amlan; Krehs, Sebastian; Sharma, Nandlal; Kölling, Peter; Thiede, Andreas; Reuter, Dirk; Förstner, Jens; Zrenner, Artur


    We report on the coherent phase manipulation of quantum dot excitons by electric means. For our experiments, we use a low capacitance single quantum dot photodiode which is electrically controlled by a custom designed SiGe:C BiCMOS chip. The phase manipulation is performed and quantified in a Ramsey experiment, where ultrafast transient detuning of the exciton energy is performed synchronous to double pulse π/2 ps laser excitation. We are able to demonstrate electrically controlled phase manipulations with magnitudes up to 3π within 100 ps which is below the dephasing time of the quantum dot exciton.

  19. Electronic structures and excitonic transitions in nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide diluted magnetic semiconductor films: an optical spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Wu, Jiada; Gan, Jie; Zhu, Min; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao


    Nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide (Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2)) films with x from 0 to 0.2 were prepared on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analysis show that the films are of the rutile structure at low compositions and an impurity phase related to Fe(2)O(3) appears until the x is up to 0.2, suggesting the general change of lattice structure due to the Fe ion substitution. The dielectric functions are successfully determined from 0.0248 to 6.5 eV using the Lorentz multi-oscillator and Tauc-Lorentz dispersion models in the low and high photon energy regions, respectively. With increasing Fe composition, the highest-frequency transverse optical phonons E(u) shifts towards a lower energy side and can be well described by (608 - 178x) cm(-1). From the transmittance spectra, the fundamental absorption edge is found to be decreased with the Fe composition due to the joint contributions from SnO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). It can be observed that the doped films exhibit evident excitonic excitation features, which are strongly related to the Fe doping. Among them, the 6A(1g)→ 4T(2g) transition contributes to the onset of optical absorption. Moreover, the remarkable intensity reduction and a red-shift trend with the doping composition, except for the pure film, can be testified by the photoluminescence spectra. It can be concluded that the replacement of Sn with the Fe ion could induce the 2p-3d hybridization and result in the electronic band structure modification of the Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2) films.

  20. Exciton transfer under dichotomic noise: GME treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Warns, C.; Reineker, P.


    The exciton energy transfer between molecules in a dimer is investigated using a model, in which the influence of the phonons is described by a dichotomic stochastic process with colored noise giving rise to modulations of the molecular excitation energies. The solution of equations of motion for the density matrix of the system (obtained algebraically on a computer) is used to determine (also algebraically) the form of the memory functions which enter the Generalized Master Equation. The behaviour of the roots and their weights in the memory function is discussed thoroughly. Connection of the so called coherence time to stochastic parameters is treated analytically. Different limiting cases are investigated. (author). 14 refs, 9 figs

  1. Mapping of exciton-exciton annihilation in MEH-PPV by time-resolved spectroscopy: experiment and microscopic theory. (United States)

    Hader, Kilian; Consani, Cristina; Brixner, Tobias; Engel, Volker


    Transient absorption traces taken on samples of the polymer MEH-PPV are measured as a function of the laser intensity. In increasing the laser power, different decay dynamics of the signal are obtained. This suggests that effective exciton-exciton annihilation takes place. The signals are interpreted using a microscopic quantum mechanical model. The analysis points at an ultrafast excitonic decay via interchain and intrachain annihilation, where the latter process is roughly thirty times slower. Afterwards, diffusion-induced annihilation and relaxation become effective and thus determine the long-time behavior of the excited-state decay.

  2. Genuine entanglement among coherent excitonic states of three quantum dots located individually in separated coupled QED cavities (United States)

    Behzadi, Naghi; Ahansaz, Bahram; Shojaei, Saeid


    New scheme for generating genuine three-partite entanglement among three quantum dots (QDs) is proposed. The QDs are trapped in an one-dimensional (1D) array of three equidistance single-mode coupled cavities. Photon hopping is considered to be responsible for coupling between the cavities. The effective dynamics of the system leads to generate genuine three-partite entangled coherent excitonic states in QDs. The entanglement of these states, after encoding as three-qubit system, can be detected by entanglement witnesses (EWs) based on GHZ-states. It is shown that the generated entangled states can be arbitrarily very close to the GHZ-states.

  3. Hopping approach towards exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianova, E. V.; Auweraer, M. van der; Baessler, H.


    By employing random walk an analytic theory for the dissociation of singlet excitons in a random organic solid, for instance, a conjugated polymer, has been developed. At variance of conventional three-dimensional Onsager theory, it is assumed that an exciton with finite lifetime can first transfer endothermically an electron to an adjacent site, thereby generating a charge transfer state whose energy is above the energy of that of the initial exciton. In a second step the latter can fully dissociate in accordance with Onsager's concept Brownian motion. The results indicate that, depending of the energy required for the first jump, the first jump contributes significantly to the field dependence of the dissociation yield. Disorder weakens the temperature dependence of the yield dramatically and precludes extracting information on the exciton binding energy from it

  4. Spin-excitons in heavy-fermion semimetals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riseborough, Peter S., E-mail: [Temple University, Philadelphia (United States); Magalhaes, S.G. [Univ. Federal, Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Spin-excitons are sharp and dispersive magnetic fluctuations in paramagnetic semiconductors where the dispersion relation lies within the semiconducting gap. Spin-excitons are found in the vicinity of magnetic quantum critical points in semiconductors, much the same as antiparamagnons are precursor fluctuations for quantum critical points in metals. Here we show that this concept of spin-exciton excitations can be extended to heavy-fermion semimetals and provides a natural explanation of the magnetic modes found by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on paramagnetic CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. - Highlights: • We discuss the theory of spin excitons in heavy-fermion semiconductors as precritical fluctuations. • We show that relatively sharp magnetic in-gap excitations can also occur in semiconductors. • The magnetic excitations are only sharp for a restricted range of center of mass momenta. • They may merge with the quasi-elastic peak associated with incommensurate nesting of electron and hole pockets.

  5. Direct Writing of Photonic Structures by Two-Photon Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan


    Full Text Available Single-mode dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton nanowaveguides with strong mode confinement at excitation wavelength of 830 nm and high-Q polymer whispering gallery mode microcavities with surface roughness less than 12 nm have been directly written by two-photon polymerization, which pave the way to fabricate 3D plasmonic photonic structures by direct laser writing.

  6. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide


    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  7. Directional Control of Plasmon-Exciton interaction with Plexcitonic Crystals (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla


    Plexcitons are strongly coupled plasmon excitons modes. In this work, we developed a platform, consisting of one and two dimensional corrugated surface patterns coated with a thin metal film and a dye solution. This system shows a controlled coupling action based on the excitation direction of SPP modes. Our scheme is based on the control of wavelengths of the forbidden SPP modes. Three kinds of patterns have been tested; a one dimensional uniform, a triangular, and a square lattice type crystals. For all three cases, lowest wavelength of the band gap is observed in Γ to M direction. For triangular and square lattice cases, band gap center oscillates between two finite values for every 60° and 90°s, respectively. We utilized this behavior to control SPP and J-aggregate coupling. We observe directional dependence of Rabi splitting energy varying between 0 meV and 60 meV . Square lattice gives the ability to tune a larger band gap, whereas triangular lattice gives higher number of symmetry points. Simulations show that, an 80 nm deep triangular lattice with 280 nm periodicity can result in omnidirectional decoupling of plexcitons. TUBITAK, Grants 110T790, 110T589, and 112T091.

  8. Accelerating FRET between Near-Infrared Emitting Quantum Dots Using a Molecular J-Aggregate as an Exciton Bridge. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Weiss, Emily A


    Fast energy transfer (EnT) among quantum dots (QDs) with near-infrared (NIR) emission is essential for fully exploiting their light harvesting and photon downconversion (multiexciton generation) abilities. This paper demonstrates a relayed EnT mechanism that accelerates the migration of NIR excitons between PbS QDs by a factor of 20 from that of one-step EnT through a polyelectrolyte and even a factor of ∼2 from that of one-step EnT between QDs in direct contact, by employing a J-aggregate (J-agg) of a cyanine dye as an exciton bridge. The donor QDs, acceptor QDs, and J-agg are electrostatically assembled into a sandwich structure with layer-by-layer deposition. Estimates of EnT rate and yield from transient and steady-state absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies show that the rate-limiting step in the relay is EnT from the donor QD to the J-agg, while EnT from the J-agg to the acceptor QD occurs in J-agg with more intermolecular order. This work demonstrates the viability of relayed EnT through a molecular bridge as a strategy for accelerating long-distance exciton migration in assemblies of QDs, in particular in the near-infrared.

  9. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  10. Optical properties of localized excitons in semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner


    -dannede kvantepunkter. Optiske spektre af GaAs/AlAs kvantebrønde med grænseflader, der er ru på forskellige længdeskalaer, er blevet undersøgt for indvirkningen af exciton lokalisering i planen. Exciton lokalisering er også blevet studeret med stor rumlig opløsning ved hjælp af mikro-fotoluminescens. Rumligt...

  11. Decoherence suppression of excitons by bang-bang control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Mitsumori, Y.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Sasaki, M.; Minami, F.


    We report the demonstration of decoherence control of excitons on a layered compound semiconductor GaSe by using successive three femtosecond pulses, i.e., the six-wave mixing configuration. The second pulse acts as a π pulse which reverses the time evolution of non-Markovian dynamics. By changing the pulse interval conditions, we confirmed for the first time the suppression of exciton decoherence by π pulse irradiation

  12. Coherent secondary emission from resonantly excited two-exciton states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan


    of the secondary emission from quantum wells following ultrafast resonant excitation and find that it provides information on not only the bound biexcitons but also the biexciton continuum. Due to the heterodyne nature of the experimental technique we obtain both amplitude and phase of the coherent emission....... This allow us to present our data using the Wiegner-function formalism and compare directly with recent theoretical results for the contribution to the nonlinear susceptibility from exciton-exciton correlation in semiconductor quantum wells....

  13. Excitonic effects in the luminescence of quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveaud, B.; Kappei, L.; Berney, J.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Portella-Oberli, M.T.; Szczytko, J.; Piermarocchi, C.


    We report on the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells. This study is carried out by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments performed on a very high-quality InGaAs quantum well sample in which the photoluminescence contributions at the energy of the exciton and at the band edge can be clearly separated and traced over a broad range of times and densities. This allows us to compare the two conflicting theoretical approaches to the question of the origin of the excitonic luminescence in quantum wells: the model of the exciton population and the model of the Coulomb correlated plasma. We measure the exciton formation time and we show the fast exciton formation and its dependence with carrier density. We are also able to give the boundaries of the Mott transition in our system, and to show the absence of observable renormalization of the gap below the onset of this transition. We detail the characteristics of the trion formation and evidence the possible formation of both positive and negative trions in the absence of any resident free carrier populations

  14. Acousto-exciton interaction in a gas of 2D indirect dipolar excitons in the presence of disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    A theory for the linear and quadratic responses of a 2D gas of indirect dipolar excitons to an external surface acoustic wave perturbation in the presence of a static random potential is considered. The theory is constructed both for high temperatures, definitely greater than the exciton gas condensation temperature, and at zero temperature by taking into account the Bose–Einstein condensation effects. The particle Green functions, the density–density correlation function, and the quadratic response function are calculated by the “cross” diagram technique. The results obtained are used to calculate the absorption of Rayleigh surface waves and the acoustic exciton gas drag by a Rayleigh wave. The damping of Bogoliubov excitations in an exciton condensate due to theirs scattering by a random potential has also been determined.

  15. Singlet-to-triplet intermediates and triplet exciton dynamics in pentacene thinfilms (United States)

    Thorsmolle, Verner; Korber, Michael; Obergfell, Emanuel; Kuhlman, Thomas; Campbell, Ian; Crone, Brian; Taylor, Antoinette; Averitt, Richard; Demsar, Jure

    Singlet-to-triplet fission in organic semiconductors is a spin-conserving multiexciton process in which one spin-zero singlet excitation is converted into two spin-one triplet excitations on an ultrafast timescale. Current scientific interest into this carrier multiplication process is largely driven by prospects of enhancing the efficiency in photovoltaic applications by generating two long-lived triplet excitons by one photon. The fission process is known to involve intermediate states, known as correlated triplet pairs, with an overall singlet character, before being interchanged into uncorrelated triplets. Here we use broadband femtosecond real-time spectroscopy to study the excited state dynamics in pentacene thin films, elucidating the fission process and the role of intermediate triplet states. VKT and AJT acknowledge support by the LDRD program at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER118. MK, MO and JD acknowledge support by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  16. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov


    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  17. High magnetic field reveals the nature of excitons in a single GaAs/AlAs core/shell nanowire. (United States)

    Plochocka, P; Mitioglu, A A; Maude, D K; Rikken, G L J A; del Águila, A Granados; Christianen, P C M; Kacman, P; Shtrikman, Hadas


    Magneto-photoluminescence measurements of individual zinc-blende GaAs/AlAs core/shell nanowires are reported. At low temperature, a strong emission line at 1.507 eV is observed under low power (nW) excitation. Measurements performed in high magnetic field allowed us to detect in this emission several lines associated with excitons bound to defect pairs. Such lines were observed before in epitaxial GaAs of very high quality, as reported by Kunzel and Ploog. This demonstrates that the optical quality of our GaAs/AlAs core/shell nanowires is comparable to the best GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Moreover, strong free exciton emission is observed even at room temperature. The bright optical emission of our nanowires in room temperature should open the way for numerous optoelectronic device applications.

  18. Highly luminescent two dimensional excitons in atomically thin CdSe nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, O.; Pradhani, A.; Rath, S., E-mail: [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Toshali Bhawan, Satyanagar, Bhubaneswar 751 007 (India); Sahoo, P. K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Sachivalaya marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)


    Atomically thin Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) nanosheets have been synthesized using a surfactant mediated growth technique. The transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the presence of single layered nanosheets with thickness 1.31 nm and their stacking structures which are complemented by the small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The strongly bound and polarized character of two dimensional excitonic states with enhanced oscillator strength yielding distinct narrow blue luminescence has been observed from the CdSe nanosheets using room temperature based optical studies.

  19. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H


    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  20. Experimental demonstration of highly anisotropic decay rates of single quantum dots inside photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    We have systematically measured the variation of the spontaneous emission rate with polarization for self-assembled single quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystal membranes and obtained a maximum anisotropy factor of 6 between the decay rates of the two nondegenerate bright exciton states....

  1. Ligand Enhanced Upconversion of Near-Infrared Photons with Nanocrystal Light Absorbers (United States)


    based photon upconversion in the NIR with the use of earth -abundant materials.Introduction Multi-excitonic processes can be harnessed to reorganize...transmitter ligands per NC ( hollow blue triangles) for (a) PbS, and (b) PbSe NC versus [CPT] in the ligand exchange solution. Both of the samples

  2. Surface modification and multiple exciton generation studies of lead(II) sulfide nanoparticles (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.


    Solar energy is a green alternative to fossil fuels but solar technologies to date have been plagued by low conversion efficiencies and high input costs making solar power inaccessible to much of the developing world. Semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) may provide a route to efficient, economical solar devices through a phenomenon called multiple exciton generation (MEG). Through MEG, semiconductor NPs use a high-energy input photon to create more than one exciton (electron-hole pair) per photon absorbed, thereby exhibiting large photoconversion efficiencies. While MEG has been studied in many NP systems, and we understand some of the factors that affect MEG, a rigorous analysis of the NP-ligand interface with respect to MEG is missing. This dissertation describes how the NP ligand shell directly affects MEG and subsequent charge carrier recombination. Chapter I describes the motivation for studying MEG with respect to NP surface chemistry. Chapter II provides an in-depth overview of the transient absorption experiment used to measure MEG in the NP samples. Chapter III highlights the effect of oleic acid and sodium 2, 3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate on MEG in PbS NPs. The differences in carrier recombination were accounted for by two differences between these ligands: the coordinating atom and/or the secondary structure of the ligand. Because of these hypotheses, experiments were designed to elucidate the origin of these effects by controlling the NP ligand shell. Chapter IV details a viable synthetic route to thiol and amine-capped PbS NPs using sodium 3-mercaptopropane sulfonate as an intermediate ligand. With the versatile ligand exchange described in Chapter IV, the MEG yield and carrier recombination was investigated for ligands with varying headgroups but the same secondary structure. The correlation of ligand donor atom to MEG is outlined in Chapter V. Finally, Chapter VI discusses the conclusions and future outlook of the research reported in this dissertation

  3. Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de MicrotecnologIa, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Sarkar, D, E-mail: eva.gallardo@uam.e [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)


    Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g{sup (2)}(0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.

  4. Nonlinear spectroscopy of photon-dressed Dirac electrons in a quantum dot (United States)

    Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.


    We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short-lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross-peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional photon-echo spectra are discussed.

  5. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells; Estudo teorico de complexos excitonicos em pocos quanticos de semicondutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando


    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  6. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, M; Budkin, G; Reznitsky, A


    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings. (paper)

  7. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers (United States)

    Eremenko, M.; Budkin, G.; Reznitsky, A.


    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings.

  8. Photonic crystals in epitaxial semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    La Rue, R M de


    The title of the paper uses the expression "photonic crystals". By photonic crystals, we mean regular periodic structures with a substantial refractive index variation in one-, two- or three- dimensional space. Such crystals can $9 exist naturally, for example natural opal, but are more typically fabricated by people. Under sufficiently strong conditions, i.e., sufficiently large refractive index modulation, correct size of structural components, and $9 appropriate rotational and translational symmetry, these crystals exhibit the characteristics of a photonic bandgap (PBG) structure. In a full photonic bandgap structure there is a spectral stop band for electromagnetic waves $9 propagating in any direction through the structure and with an arbitrary state of polarization. This behavior is of interest both from a fundamental viewpoint and from the point of view of novel applications in photonic devices. The $9 paper gives an outline review of work on photonic crystals carried out by the Optoelectronics Researc...

  9. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole


    A review is given of the space-time wave mechanics of single photons, a subject with an almost century long history. The Landau-Peierls photon wave function, which is related nonlocally to the electromagnetic field is first described, and thereafter the so-called energy wave function, based...... on the positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...... in a hyperfine spin transition shows an exponential falloff with the distance from the atomic nucleus. The length parameter in this falloff is the Bohr radius....

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.


    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno


    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  12. Correlated Pair States Formed by Singlet Fission and Exciton-Exciton Annihilation. (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D


    Singlet fission to form a pair of triplet excitations on two neighboring molecules and the reverse process, triplet-triplet annihilation to upconvert excitation, have been extensively studied. Comparatively little work has sought to examine the properties of the intermediate state in both of these processes-the bimolecular pair state. Here, the eigenstates constituting the manifold of 16 bimolecular pair excitations and their relative energies in the weak-coupling regime are reported. The lowest-energy states obtained from the branching diagram method are the triplet pairs with overall singlet spin |X1⟩ ≈ (1)[TT] and quintet spin |Q⟩ ≈ (5)[TT]. It is shown that triplet pair states can be separated by a triplet-triplet energy-transfer mechanism to give a separated, yet entangled triplet pair (1)[T···T]. Independent triplets are produced by decoherence of the separated triplet pair. Recombination of independent triplets by exciton-exciton annihilation to form the correlated triplet pair (i.e., nongeminate recombination) happens with 1/3 of the rate of either triplet migration or recombination of the separated correlated triplet pair (geminate recombination).

  13. Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure (United States)

    Scott, Riccardo; Heckmann, Jan; Prudnikau, Anatol V.; Antanovich, Artsiom; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Owschimikow, Nina; Artemyev, Mikhail; Climente, Juan I.; Woggon, Ulrike; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Achtstein, Alexander W.


    Intrinsically directional light emitters are potentially important for applications in photonics including lasing and energy-efficient display technology. Here, we propose a new route to overcome intrinsic efficiency limitations in light-emitting devices by studying a CdSe nanoplatelets monolayer that exhibits strongly anisotropic, directed photoluminescence. Analysis of the two-dimensional k-space distribution reveals the underlying internal transition dipole distribution. The observed directed emission is related to the anisotropy of the electronic Bloch states governing the exciton transition dipole moment and forming a bright plane. The strongly directed emission perpendicular to the platelet is further enhanced by the optical local density of states and local fields. In contrast to the emission directionality, the off-resonant absorption into the energetically higher 2D-continuum of states is isotropic. These contrasting optical properties make the oriented CdSe nanoplatelets, or superstructures of parallel-oriented platelets, an interesting and potentially useful class of semiconductor-based emitters.

  14. The creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.M.


    The ammonium halides crystals and alkali halides crystals are analogous by kind chemical bonds and crystalline lattices. The anionic sublattice is identical in this crystals. It is known the main mechanism of defect creation by irradiation is radiationless decay of excitons in alkali halides crystals. The F-, H-centers are formation in this processes. However, F, H-centres are not detected in ammonium halides. The goal of this work is investigation the creation of defects in ammonium halides by excitons. We established that excitons in ammonium chlorides and bromides are similar to excitons in alkali halides. It is known excitons are self-trapped and have identical parameters of the exciton-phonon interaction in both kind crystals. It is supposed, that processes of radiationless disintegration of excitons are identical in ammonium and alkali halides. It is necessary to understand why F-, H-centers are absent in ammonium halides. V k -centres are created by the excitation of the ammonium halides crystals in the absorption band of excitons. It was established by thermoluminescence and spectrums of absorption. The V k -centers begin to migrate at 110-120 K in ammonium chlorides and bromides. The curve of thermoluminescence have peak with maximum at this temperatures. It is known V k -centers in ammonium chlorides have the absorption band at 380 nm. We discovered this absorption band after irradiation of crystals by ultra-violet. In alkali halides F-center is anionic vacancy with electron. The wave function of electron are spread ed at the cations around anionic vacancy. We established the cation NH 4 + in ammonium halides can to capture electron. The ion NH 4 2+ is unsteady. It is disintegrated to NH 3 + and H + . We suppose that excitons in ammonium and alkali halides are disintegrated identically. When cation NH 4 + capture electron, in the anionic sublattice the configuration are created in a direction (100) The indicated configuration is unsteady in relation to a

  15. Tailorable Exciton Transport in Doped Peptide–Amphiphile Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Lee A. [Center; Sykes, Matthew E. [Center; Wu, Yimin A. [Center; Schaller, Richard D. [Center; Department; Wiederrecht, Gary P. [Center; Fry, H. Christopher [Center


    Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains. We find that this peptide assembly can enable long-range exciton diffusion, yet it also induces the formation of excimers between adjacent molecules, which serve as exciton traps. Electronic coupling between neighboring porphyrin molecules is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. The exciton diffusion process is then probed through transient photoluminescence and absorption measurements and fit to a model for one-dimensional hopping. Because excimer formation impedes exciton hopping, increasing the interchromophore spacing allows for improved diffusivity, which we control through porphyrin doping levels. We show that diffusion lengths of over 60 nm are possible at low porphyrin doping, representing an order of magnitude improvement over the highest doping fractions.

  16. Electrically Controlled Coherent Excitonic Steady States in Semiconductor Bilayers (United States)

    Xie, Ming; MacDonald, Allan

    Spatially indirect excitons are long lived bosonic quasiparticles that can form quasi-equilibrium condensed states. Optical access to these excitons has been limited by their small optical matrix elements. Here we propose a promising electrical process that can be used both to populate and to probe fluids of indirect excitons, and is analogous to the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) process of Cooper pairs in superconductors. We consider vertically stacked multilayer heterostructures containing two transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers that host the indirect excitons, graphene layers on the top and the bottom of the heterostructure, and hBN tunnel barrier layers of variable thickness. When the bias voltage between the graphene leads is smaller than the indirect gap, tunneling between the graphene leads and the TMD hetero-bilayer is possible only through the CAR process. Both DC and low frequency AC bias cases are explored and establish that electrical measurements can be used to determine crucial properties such as the condensate density, interaction strength and CAR tunneling amplitudes. We have also proposed a way to electrically manipulate another type of bosonic quasiparticles, cavity exciton-polaritons, in a laterally contacted structure.

  17. Effect of disorder on exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuwen; Zhao Hui; Chen Yuguang; Yan Yonghong


    By using a multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree–Fock (MCTDHF) method for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and a Newtonian equation of motion for lattice, we investigate the disorder effects on the dissociation process of excitons in conjugated polymer chains. The simulations are performed within the framework of an extended version of the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model modified to include on-site disorder, off-diagonal, electron–electron interaction, and an external electric field. Our results show that Coulomb correlation effects play an important role in determining the exciton dissociation process. The electric field required to dissociate an exciton can practically impossibly occur in a pure polymer chain, especially in the case of triplet exciton. However, when the on-site disorder effects are taken into account, this leads to a reduction in mean dissociation electric fields. As the disorder strength increases, the dissociation field decreases effectively. On the contrary, the effects of off-diagonal disorder are negative in most cases. Moreover, the dependence of exciton dissociation on the conjugated length is also discussed. (paper)

  18. Charge recombination and exciton annihilation reactions in conjugated polymer blends. (United States)

    Howard, Ian A; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Zhang, Xinping; Kirov, Kiril R; Bronstein, Hugo A; Williams, Charlotte K; Friend, Richard H; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Greenham, Neil C


    Bimolecular interactions between excitations in conjugated polymer thin films are important because they influence the efficiency of many optoelectronic devices that require high excitation densities. Using time-resolved optical spectroscopy, we measure the bimolecular interactions of charges, singlet excitons, and triplet excitons in intimately mixed polyfluorene blends with band-edge offsets optimized for photoinduced electron transfer. Bimolecular charge recombination and triplet-triplet annihilation are negligible, but exciton-charge interactions are efficient. The annihilation of singlet excitons by charges occurs on picosecond time-scales and reaches a rate equivalent to that of charge transfer. Triplet exciton annihilation by charges occurs on nanosecond time-scales. The surprising absence of nongeminate charge recombination is shown to be due to the limited mobility of charge carriers at the heterojunction. Therefore, extremely high densities of charge pairs can be maintained in the blend. The absence of triplet-triplet annihilation is a consequence of restricted triplet diffusion in the blend morphology. We suggest that the rate and nature of bimolecular interactions are determined by the stochastic excitation distribution in the polymer blend and the limited connectivity between the polymer domains. A model based on these assumptions quantitatively explains the effects. Our findings provide a comprehensive framework for understanding bimolecular recombination and annihilation processes in nanostructured materials.

  19. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.


    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  20. Exciton diffusion in WSe2 monolayers embedded in a van der Waals heterostructure (United States)

    Cadiz, F.; Robert, C.; Courtade, E.; Manca, M.; Martinelli, L.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Amand, T.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Paget, D.; Urbaszek, B.; Marie, X.


    We have combined spatially resolved steady-state micro-photoluminescence with time-resolved photoluminescence to investigate the exciton diffusion in a WSe2 monolayer encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride. At 300 K, we extract an exciton diffusion length of LX = 0.36 ± 0.02 μm and an exciton diffusion coefficient of DX = 14.5 ± 2 cm2/s. This represents a nearly 10-fold increase in the effective mobility of excitons with respect to several previously reported values on nonencapsulated samples. At cryogenic temperatures, the high optical quality of these samples has allowed us to discriminate the diffusion of the different exciton species: bright and dark neutral excitons, as well as charged excitons. The longer lifetime of dark neutral excitons yields a larger diffusion length of LXD=1.5 ±0.02 μ m.

  1. Many-body dynamics and exciton formation studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (United States)

    Hoyer, W.; Ell, C.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Chatterjee, S.; Mosor, S.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.; Stolz, H.


    The dynamics of exciton and electron-hole plasma populations is studied via time-resolved photoluminescence after nonresonant excitation. By comparing the peak emission at the exciton resonance with the emission of the continuum, it is possible to experimentally identify regimes where the emission originates predominantly from exciton and/or plasma populations. The results are supported by a microscopic theory which allows one to extract the fraction of bright excitons as a function of time.

  2. Dynamics of charge-transfer excitons in type-II semiconductor heterostructures (United States)

    Stein, M.; Lammers, C.; Richter, P.-H.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.; Vänskä, O.; Weseloh, M. J.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.


    The formation, decay, and coherence properties of charge-transfer excitons in semiconductor heterostructures are investigated by applying four-wave-mixing and terahertz spectroscopy in combination with a predictive microscopic theory. A charge-transfer process is identified where the optically induced coherences decay directly into a charge-transfer electron-hole plasma and exciton states. It is shown that charge-transfer excitons are more sensitive to the fermionic electron-hole substructure than regular excitons.

  3. Model of fragmentation of the exciton inner ring in semiconductor quantum wells


    Chernyuk, A. A.; Sugakov, V. I.; Tomylko, V. V.


    The appearance of the non-homogeneous structures of the indirect exciton density distribution in the region of the quantum well (in the region of the inner ring) is explained. The structure (the fragmentation) occurs due to the exciton condensed phase formation because of interaction between excitons. The formation of the structure is related with the non-equalibrity of the system, which is caused by the exciton finite lifetime and the presence of the pumpimg. The structure emerges in the sha...

  4. Optical control of charged exciton states in tungsten disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, M.; Hanbicki, A. T.; Jonker, B. T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kioseoglou, G. [University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 71003 (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)


    A method is presented for optically preparing WS{sub 2} monolayers to luminescence from only the charged exciton (trion) state–completely suppressing the neutral exciton. When isolating the trion state, we observed changes in the Raman A{sub 1g} intensity and an enhanced feature on the low energy side of the E{sup 1}{sub 2g} peak. Photoluminescence and optical reflectivity measurements confirm the existence of the prepared trion state. This technique also prepares intermediate regimes with controlled luminescence amplitudes of the neutral and charged exciton. This effect is reversible by exposing the sample to air, indicating the change is mitigated by surface interactions with the ambient environment. This method provides a tool to modify optical emission energy and to isolate physical processes in this and other two-dimensional materials.

  5. Excitons in van der Waals Heterostructures: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone

    in a generalized hydrogenic model to compute exciton binding energies in isolated, supported, or encapsulated 2D semiconductors. The non-locality of the dielectric screening is inherently included in our method and we can successfully describe the non-hydrogenic Rydberg series of low-dimensional systems......)electronics devices, e.g. light emitting diodes, solar cells, ultra-fast photodetectors, transistors etc., have been successfully fabricated. It is well established that for isolated 2D semiconductors and vdWHs the optical response is governed by excitonic effects. While it is understood that the reduced amount...... limitations of standard ab-initio methods. In this thesis first-principles models that overcome the limitations of standard ab-initio techniques are developed for the description of dielectric, electronic and excitonic properties in isolated 2D materials and vdWHs. The main contribution is a multi...

  6. Correlation effect of Rabi oscillations of excitons in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, J.; Akahane, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kujiraoka, M.; Ema, K.; Sasaki, M.


    We performed a transient four-wave mixing experiment on a strain-compensated InAs quantum dot (QD) ensemble over a wide range of excitation intensities. Under the resonant excitation of an exciton ground state, an extremely long dephasing time of 1 ns was found. By increasing the areas of the excitation pulses, Rabi oscillations of excitonic polarizations were clearly observed. The corresponding Rabi frequency is three orders of magnitude higher than the measured dephasing rate. For larger pulse areas, we found that the deviation of experimental data from two-level predictions became significant. The deviations cannot be explained by taking into account, as has been suggested in other research, excitation density-dependent dephasing or Hartree-Fock-type Coulomb interactions between excitons

  7. Enhanced Second-Order Nonlinearity for THz Generation by Resonant Interaction of Exciton-Polariton Rabi Oscillations with Optical Phonons (United States)

    Rojan, Katharina; Léger, Yoan; Morigi, Giovanna; Richard, Maxime; Minguzzi, Anna


    Semiconductor microcavities in the strong-coupling regime exhibit an energy scale in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, which is fixed by the Rabi splitting between the upper and lower exciton-polariton states. While this range can be tuned by several orders of magnitude using different excitonic media, the transition between both polaritonic states is dipole forbidden. In this work, we show that, in cadmium telluride microcavities, the Rabi-oscillation-driven THz radiation is actually active without the need for any change in the microcavity design. This feature results from the unique resonance condition which is achieved between the Rabi splitting and the phonon-polariton states and leads to a giant enhancement of the second-order nonlinearity.

  8. Hallo photons calls photon; Allo photon appelle photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    When a pair of photons is created, it seems that these 2 photons are bound together by a mysterious link. This phenomenon has been discovered at the beginning of the seventies. In this new experiment the 2 photons are separated and have to follow different ways through optic cables until they face a quantum gate. At this point they have to chose between a short and a long itinerary. Statistically they have the same probability to take either. In all cases the 2 photons agree to do the same choice even if the 2 quantum gates are distant of about 10 kilometers. Some applications in ciphering and coding of messages are expected. (A.C.)

  9. Coherent dynamics of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizeikis, V.; Birkedal, Dan; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner


    of them, the Is heavy-hole exciton, is almost identical to the same state in noninteracting quantum wells, while the other, the heavy-hole interwell exciton, is composed of an electron and a heavy hole in adjacent wells. The interwell exciton leads to a resonant enhancement in the four-wave mixing spectra...

  10. Exciton dephasing and biexciton binding in CdSe/ZnSe islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Tranitz, H.-P.; Preis, H


    The dephasing of excitons and the formation of biexcitons in self-organized CdSe/ZnSe islands grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is investigated using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing. A distribution of exciton-exciton scattering efficiencies and dephasing times in the range of 0.5-10 ps are obs...

  11. Nonlinear optical response of a novel polydiacetylene poly(1,4 bis(3-quinolyl)-1,3 butadyne): Role of exciton-phonon interaction (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Nampoothiri, A. V. V.; Kundu, T.; Puntambekar, P. N.; Saha, D.; Dhanabalan, A.; Talwar, S. S.


    A model incorporating the exciton-phonon interaction for a quantitative description of the third-order nonlinear optical response of a one-dimensional conjugated polymer chain in the vicinity of a one-photon resonance is proposed. This model has been used to describe our observations on the dispersion of the second molecular hyperpolarizability, γ( - ωω,ω, - ω), of poly(1,4 bis(3-quinolyl))-1,3 butadyne in the spectral range 720 810 nm satisfactorily. The large observed precipitous enhancement close to the absorption tail could not be explained by the essential states models. It is found that the phonon-mediated shift of the exciton resonance is responsible for the large monotonic variation of γ, whilst the phase space filling effect renders γ its self-defocusing character.

  12. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H


    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  13. Photon diffraction (United States)

    Hodge, John


    In current light models, a particle-like model of light is inconsistent with diffraction observations. A model of light is proposed wherein photon inferences are combined with the cosmological scalar potential model (SPM). That the photon is a surface with zero surface area in the travel direction is inferred from the Michelson-Morley experiment. That the photons in slits are mathematically treated as a linear antenna array (LAA) is inferred from the comparison of the transmission grating interference pattern and the single slit diffraction pattern. That photons induce a LAA wave into the plenum is inferred from the fractal model. Similarly, the component of the photon (the hod) is treated as a single antenna radiating a potential wave into the plenum. That photons are guided by action on the surface of the hod is inferred from the SPM. The plenum potential waves are a real field (not complex) that forms valleys, consistent with the pilot waves of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the Afshar experiment result is explained, supports Bohm, and falsifies Copenhagen. The papers may be viewed at˜scjh/.

  14. One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm


    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  15. Defect Structure of Localized Excitons in a WSe2 Monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuai


    The atomic and electronic structure of intrinsic defects in a WSe2 monolayer grown on graphite was revealed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Instead of chalcogen vacancies that prevail in other transition metal dichalcogenide materials, intrinsic defects in WSe2 arise surprisingly from single tungsten vacancies, leading to the hole (p-type) doping. Furthermore, we found these defects to dominate the excitonic emission of the WSe2 monolayer at low temperature. Our work provided the first atomic-scale understanding of defect excitons and paved the way toward deciphering the defect structure of single quantum emitters previously discovered in the WSe2 monolayer.

  16. Realization of an all optical exciton-polariton router

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsault, Félix; Nguyen, Hai Son; Tanese, Dimitrii; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Sagnes, Isabelle; Amo, Alberto; Bloch, Jacqueline


    We report on the experimental realization of an all optical router for exciton-polaritons. This device is based on the design proposed by Flayac and Savenko [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201105 (2013)], in which a zero-dimensional island is connected through tunnel barriers to two periodically modulated wires of different periods. Selective transmission of polaritons injected in the island, into either of the two wires, is achieved by tuning the energy of the island state across the band structure of the modulated wires. We demonstrate routing of ps polariton pulses using an optical control beam which controls the energy of the island quantum states, thanks to polariton-exciton interactions

  17. Exciton dynamics in solid-state green fluorescent protein (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Siegert, Marie; Betzold, Simon; Ohmer, Jürgen; Fischer, Utz; Höfling, Sven


    We study the decay characteristics of Frenkel excitons in solid-state enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) dried from solution. We further monitor the changes of the radiative exciton decay over time by crossing the phase transition from the solved to the solid state. Complex interactions between protonated and deprotonated states in solid-state eGFP can be identified from temperature-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence experiments that further allow the determination of activation energies for each identified process.

  18. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.


    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopy of excitons and carriers in GaN and InGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyhm, K.


    The emission mechanisms in GaN and ln x Ga 1-x N is systematically studied to investigate carrier and exciton dynamics. Reflectance, time-integrated luminescence, and time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy are used to study exciton transitions in GaN, and the saturation of the exciton resonances with increasing carrier density has been measured in the case of resonant and non-resonant excitations. The coincidence between the density for the onset of the stimulated emission and the Mott density leads us to the conclusion that the stimulated emission mechanism in GaN is due to the electron-hole plasma. A detailed study of hot carrier relaxation at low temperature is presented, using pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. At early times, phonon satellites are seen, and a strong non-thermal electron distribution in the region of the LO-phonon energy arising from the remarkably strong electron-LO phonon interaction are observed. A measure of the mean energy of the carriers in non-thermal states agree well with our Monte-Carlo model, and confirms the dominance of hot phonon effect at early times. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements are performed in a In 0.02 Ga 0.98 N/In 0.16 Ga 0.84 N multiple quantum well structure to investigate the spontaneous recombination mechanism. The gain spectrum for the different stripe lengths using the VSLM technique suggests that nearly delocalised electron-hole pairs from the lowest confined level are responsible for the gain in our sample. The polarization dependence of biexcitonic signals and quantum beats between A-excitons (X A ) and A-biexcitons (X A X A ) in a high-quality GaN epilayer are measured by spectrally-resolved and time-integrated four-wave mixing measurements. We also measured the polarization dependent B-biexciton (X B X B ) signal. (author)

  20. Third generation photovoltaics based on multiple exciton generation in quantum confined semiconductors. (United States)

    Beard, Matthew C; Luther, Joseph M; Semonin, Octavi E; Nozik, Arthur J


    Improving the primary photoconversion process in a photovoltaiccell by utilizing the excess energy that is otherwise lost as heat can lead to an increase in the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE). Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with at least one dimension small enough to produce quantum confinement effects provide new ways of controlling energy flow not achievable in thin film or bulk semiconductors. Researchers have developed various strategies to incorporate these novel structures into suitable solar conversion systems. Some of these methods could increase the PCE past the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit of ∼33%, making them viable "third generation photovoltaic" (TGPV) cell architectures. Surpassing the SQ limit for single junction solar cells presents both a scientific and a technological challenge, and the use of semiconductor NCs to enhance the primary photoconversion process offers a promising potential solution. The NCs are synthesized via solution phase chemical reactions producing stable colloidal solutions, where the reaction conditions can be modified to produce a variety of shapes, compositions, and structures. The confinement of the semiconductor NC in one dimension produces quantum films, wells, or discs. Two-dimensional confinement leads to quantum wires or rods (QRs), and quantum dots (QDs) are three-dimensionally confined NCs. The process of multiple exciton generation (MEG) converts a high-energy photon into multiple electron-hole pairs. Although many studies have demonstrated that MEG is enhanced in QDs compared with bulk semiconductors, these studies have either used ultrafast spectroscopy to measure the photon-to-exciton quantum yields (QYs) or theoretical calculations. Implementing MEG in a working solar cell has been an ongoing challenge. In this Account, we discuss the status of MEG research and strategies towards implementing MEG in working solar cells. Recently we showed an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent of greater

  1. Broadband Light Collection Efficiency Enhancement of Carbon Nanotube Excitons Coupled to Metallo-Dielectric Antenna Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayan, Kamran [Department; Rabut, Claire [Department; Kong, Xiaoqing [Department; Li, Xiangzhi [Department; Luo, Yue [Department; Mistry, Kevin S. [National Renewable; Blackburn, Jeffrey L. [National Renewable; Lee, Stephanie S. [Department; Strauf, Stefan [Department


    The realization of on-chip quantum networks ideally requires lossless interfaces between photons and solid-state quantum emitters. We propose and demonstrate on-chip arrays of metallo-dielectric antennas (MDA) that are tailored toward efficient and broadband light collection from individual embedded carbon nanotube quantum emitters by trapping air gaps on chip that form cavity modes. Scalable implementation is realized by employing polymer layer dry-transfer techniques that avoid solvent incompatibility issues, as well as a planar design that avoids solid-immersion lenses. Cryogenic measurements demonstrate 7-fold enhanced exciton intensity when compared to emitters located on bare wafers, corresponding to a light collection efficiency (LCE) up to 92% in the best case (average LCE of 69%) into a narrow output cone of +/-15 degrees that enables a priori fiber-to-chip butt coupling. The demonstrated MDA arrays are directly compatible with other quantum systems, particularly 2D materials, toward enabling efficient on-chip quantum light sources or spin-photon interfaces requiring unity light collection, both at cryogenic or room temperature.

  2. Single-photon absorption by single photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes (United States)

    Chan, Herman C. H.; Gamel, Omar E.; Fleming, Graham R.; Whaley, K. Birgitta


    We provide a unified theoretical approach to the quantum dynamics of absorption of single photons and subsequent excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes. Our analysis combines a continuous mode -photon quantum optical master equation for the chromophoric system with the hierarchy of equations of motion describing excitonic dynamics in presence of non-Markovian coupling to vibrations of the chromophores and surrounding protein. We apply the approach to simulation of absorption of single-photon coherent states by pigment–protein complexes containing between one and seven chromophores, and compare with results obtained by excitation using a thermal radiation field. We show that the values of excitation probability obtained under single-photon absorption conditions can be consistently related to bulk absorption cross-sections. Analysis of the timescale and efficiency of single-photon absorption by light-harvesting systems within this full quantum description of pigment–protein dynamics coupled to a quantum radiation field reveals a non-trivial dependence of the excitation probability and the excited state dynamics induced by exciton–phonon coupling during and subsequent to the pulse, on the bandwidth of the incident photon pulse. For bandwidths equal to the spectral bandwidth of Chlorophyll a, our results yield an estimation of an average time of ∼0.09 s for a single chlorophyll chromophore to absorb the energy equivalent of one (single-polarization) photon under irradiation by single-photon states at the intensity of sunlight.

  3. Temperature-dependent exciton recombination in asymmetrical ZnCdSe/ZnSe double quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Guang You; Zhang, J Y; Zheng, Z H; Yang, B J; Zhao Xiao Wei; Shen De Zhen; Kong Xiang Gui


    Temperature-dependent exciton recombination in asymmetrical ZnCdSe/ZnSe double quantum wells is studied by recording photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence decay spectra. The exciton tunnelling from the wide well to the narrow well and the thermal dissociation of excitons are two factors that influence the exciton recombination in this structure. In the narrow well, both of the two processes decrease the emission intensity, whereas, in the wide well, these two processes have contrary influences on the exciton density. The change of the emission intensity depends on which is the stronger one. (author)

  4. Photoluminescence dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Katouf, Redouane; Kojima, Osamu; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Sasaki, Masahide; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Isu, Toshiro


    We investigate the dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) technique. When excitation energy was above the resonant energy of the exciton, a long PL rise time of about 200 ps was observed. It is considered that an exciton formation process from excited continuum energy states to discrete energy states of the exciton in the thin film causes the slow PL rise. The observed PL decay time constant was about 14 ns due to high quality fabricated samples. The observed population dynamics can be surely ascribed to the specific features of weakly confined excitons

  5. Decay of orientational grating of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, O.; Isu, T.; Ishi-Hayase, J.; Kanno, A.; Katouf, R.; Sasaki, M.; Tsuchiya, M.


    We report the dynamical properties of the exciton orientation in GaAs thin films using the orientational grating (OG) technique. From the results of excitation-power dependence of OG signal, we confirmed that the OG signal comes from the optical nonlinearity of weakly confined excitons. In addition, the OG-decay time decreases with an increase of excitation power due to exciton-exciton interaction, and the shortest decay time is below 1 ps. Our results may imply the potential application of optical nonlinearity of weakly confined exciton to ultrafast switching devices operating at 1 Tbit/s

  6. Simple Screened Hydrogen Model of Excitons in Two-Dimensional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Latini, Simone; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm


    We present a generalized hydrogen model for the binding energies (EB) and radii of excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials that sheds light on the fundamental differences between excitons in two and three dimensions. In contrast to the well-known hydrogen model of three-dimensional (3D) excitons......, the description of 2D excitons is complicated by the fact that the screening cannot be assumed to be local. We show that one can consistently define an effective 2D dielectric constant by averaging the screening over the extend of the exciton. For an ideal 2D semiconductor this leads to a simple expression for EB...

  7. A comparison between experiment and theory on few-quantum-dot nanolasing in a photonic-crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Ates, Serkan; Lorke, Michael


    We present an experimental and theoretical study on the gain mechanism in a photonic-crystal-cavity nanolaser with embedded quantum dots. From time-resolved measurements at low excitation power we find that four excitons are coupled to the cavity. At high excitation power we observe a smooth low-...

  8. Strong excitonic effects in CuAlO2 delafossite transparent conductive oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laskowski, Robert; Christensen, Niels Egede; Blaha, Peter


    The imaginary part of the dielectric function of CuAlO2 has been calculated including the electron-hole correlation effects within Bethe-Salpeter formalism (BSE). In the initial step of the BSE solver the band structure was calculated within density-functional theory plus an orbital field (LDA/GG...

  9. Nonmonotonic energy harvesting efficiency in biased exciton chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, S.M.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.


    We theoretically study the efficiency of energy harvesting in linear exciton chains with an energy bias, where the initial excitation is taking place at the high-energy end of the chain and the energy is harvested (trapped) at the other end. The efficiency is characterized by means of the average

  10. Luminescence and decay of excitons in lead tungstate crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, V. V.; Nikl, Martin; Zazubovich, S.


    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 515-520 ISSN 1350-4487 Grant - others:Estonian Science Foundation(EE) 6548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : luminescence * excitons defects, * lead tungstate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2007

  11. Excitonic magnetism in d.sup.6./sup. perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, J.F.; Kuneš, Jan


    Roč. 95, č. 11 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 115131. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 646807 - EXMAG Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : excitonic magnetism * cobaltites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  12. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  13. On the possibility of excitonic magnetism in Ir double perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajskr, K.; Novák, Pavel; Pokorný, Vladislav; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Arita, R.; Kuneš, Jan


    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 035129. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25251S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-orbit coupling * double perovskite * excitonic magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  14. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide : Nanocrystals versus Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M.; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI(3)) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is

  15. Optical absorption of charged excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia


    In this article we examine the absorption coefficient of charged excitons in carbon nanotubes. We investigate the temperature and damping dependence of the absorption spectra. We show that the trion peak in the spectrum is asymmetric for temperatures greater than approximately 1 K whereas...

  16. Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)


    The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Highly mobile charge-transfer excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene heterostructures (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Yuan, Long; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Mingwei; Wan, Yan; Mei, Jianguo; Huang, Libai


    Charge-transfer (CT) excitons at heterointerfaces play a critical role in light to electricity conversion using organic and nanostructured materials. However, how CT excitons migrate at these interfaces is poorly understood. We investigate the formation and transport of CT excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene van der Waals heterostructures. Electron and hole transfer occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds, and emission of interlayer CT excitons with a binding energy of ~0.3 eV has been observed. Transport of the CT excitons is directly measured by transient absorption microscopy, revealing coexistence of delocalized and localized states. Trapping-detrapping dynamics between the delocalized and localized states leads to stretched-exponential photoluminescence decay with an average lifetime of ~2 ns. The delocalized CT excitons are remarkably mobile with a diffusion constant of ~1 cm2 s−1. These highly mobile CT excitons could have important implications in achieving efficient charge separation. PMID:29340303

  18. Mapping the Local Density of Optical States of a Photonic Crystal with Single Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter


    We use single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots as internal probes to map the local density of optical states of photonic crystal membranes. The employed technique separates contributions from nonradiative recombination and spin-flip processes by properly accounting for the role of the exciton...... fine structure. We observe inhibition factors as high as 70 and compare our results to local density of optical states calculations available from the literature, thereby establishing a quantitative understanding of photon emission in photonic crystal membranes. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  19. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P


    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  20. Probing bath-induced entanglement in a qubit pair by measuring photon correlations (United States)

    Cotlet, Ovidiu; Lovett, Brendon W.


    Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are ideal structures in which to test theories of open quantum systems: confined exciton states can be coherently manipulated and their decoherence properties are dominated by interactions with acoustic phonons. We here describe the interaction of a pair of un-coupled, driven, QD excitons with a common phonon environment, and find that this coupling effectively generates two kinds of interaction between the two QDs: an elastic coupling mediated by virtual phonons and an inelastic coupling mediated by real phonons. We show that both of these interactions produce steady state entanglement between the two QD excitons. We also show that photon correlations in the emission of the QDs can provide a signature of the common environment. Experiments to demonstrate our predictions are feasible with the state-of-the-art technology and would provide valuable insight into QD carrier-phonon dynamics.

  1. Solid state photon upconversion utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules as triplet sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony C.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.

  2. Construction of Nanowire Heterojunctions: Photonic Function-Oriented Nanoarchitectonics. (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian


    Nanophotonics has received broad research interest because it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations of electronic circuits. So far, diverse photonic functions, such as light generation, modulation, and detection, have been realized based on various nano-materials. The exact structural features of these material systems, including geometric characteristics, surface morphology, and material composition, play a key role in determining the photonic functions. Therefore, rational designs and constructions of materials on both morphological and componential levels, namely nanoarchitectonics, are indispensable for any photonic device with specific functionalities. Recently, a series of nanowire heterojunctions (NWHJs), which are usually made from two or more kinds of material compositions, were constructed for novel photonic applications based on various interactions between different materials at the junctions, for instance, energy transfer, exciton-plasmon coupling, or photon-plasmon coupling. A summary of these works is necessary to get a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between photonic functions and architectonics of NWHJs, which will be instructive for designing novel photonic devices towards integrated circuits. Here, photonic function oriented nanoarchitectonics based on recent breakthroughs in nanophotonic devices are discussed, with emphasis on the design mechanisms, fabrication strategies, and excellent performances. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Frederic


    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  4. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadga Jung Karki


    Full Text Available Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3 is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  5. Photonics Explorer: revolutionizing photonics in the classroom (United States)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Fischer, Robert; Vlekken, Johan; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo


    The `Photonics Explorer' is a unique intra-curricular optics kit designed to engage, excite and educate secondary school students about the fascination of working with light - hands-on, in their own classrooms. Developed with a pan European collaboration of experts, the kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental material provided within a supporting didactic framework, distributed in conjunction with teacher training courses. The material has been specifically designed to integrate into European science curricula. Each kit contains robust and versatile components sufficient for a class of 25-30 students to work in groups of 2-3. The didactic content is based on guided inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques with a strong emphasis on hands-on experiments, team work and relating abstract concepts to real world applications. The content has been developed in conjunction with over 30 teachers and experts in pedagogy to ensure high quality and ease of integration. It is currently available in 7 European languages. The Photonics Explorer allows students not only to hone their essential scientific skills but also to really work as scientists and engineers in the classroom. Thus, it aims to encourage more young people to pursue scientific careers and avert the imminent lack of scientific workforce in Europe. 50 Photonics Explorer kits have been successfully tested in 7 European countries with over 1500 secondary school students. The positive impact of the kit in the classroom has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. A non-profit organisation, EYESTvzw [Excite Youth for Engineering Science and Technology], is responsible for the large scale distribution of the Photonics Explorer.

  6. Search for chameleon particles via photon regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Aaron S.; CCPP, New York U.


    We report the first results from the GammeV search for chameleon particles, which may be created via photon-photon interactions within a strong magnetic field. The chameleons are assumed to have matter effects sufficiently strong that they reflect from all solid surfaces of the apparatus, thus evading detection in our previous search for weakly-interacting axion-like particles. We implement a novel technique to create and trap the reflective particles within a jar and to detect them later via their afterglow as they slowly convert back into photons. These measurements provide the first experimental constraints on the couplings of chameleons to photons

  7. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny


    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  8. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  9. Microfabrication Technology for Photonics (United States)


    11.3.5 Biexcitons in CuCi ............................. 14 11.3.6 Intervalence band transitions in p-type HgCdTe, GaAs, & bound b-xcto freethermal fillinq exciton iexciton exciton QVEST saturationi 2_ phtn aturationi UdS InAs UdS CuCi GaAs GaAs InS InSb I KQI~VS InSe

  10. Coherent acoustic phonon oscillation accompanied with backward acoustic pulse below exciton resonance in a ZnO epifilm on oxide-buffered Si(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Liu, Wei-Rein; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsieh, Wen-Feng


    Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump–probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator. (paper)

  11. Peculiar enhancement of the excitonic emission of CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells at ˜ 90 K when excited with a HeCd laser (United States)

    Alfaro-Martínez, Adrián; Hernández-Calderón, Isaac


    The close coincidence at low temperatures of the HeCd blue laser line (442 nm, Elaser = 2.808 eV) with the ZnSe bandgap, Eg = 2.821 eV, and with the excitonic emission at ˜2.80 eV, allows the observation of peculiar effects during photoluminescence studies of CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with a typical experimental setup. One effect is the enhancement of the excitonic emission at ˜ 90 - 100 K; the second effect is the presence of strong longitudinal optical (LO) phonon lines (in a broad temperature range) due to resonant Raman scattering. Here, we will show that the enhancement of the excitonic emission, that can be misinterpreted as caused by an intrinsic temperature dependent behavior of the quantum wells, is due to the high absorption of the blue laser light by the barriers when the ZnSe bandgap coincides with Elaser at ˜ 90 K, electron and holes produced in the barriers diffuse to the quantum wells enhancing their excitonic emission.

  12. Pressure shifts of valence and core exciton peaks in potassium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Akio; Fukutani, Hirohito; Miyabe, Masabumi; Yagi, Kazutoshi; Kato, Hiroo; Koide, Tsuneharu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Sato, Shigeru.


    Hydrostatic pressure shifts of valence and core exciton peaks in KI are measured with a modulation method at about 120 K. The pressure coefficients are determined to be, in units of 10 -3 meV/bar, 17.0 and 4.7 for the valence excitons at 5.73 and 7.22 eV, and 18.8, 17.0 and -38.7 for the core excitons at 19.95, 20.20 and 21.05 eV, respectively. The pressure shifts of the lowest exciton at 5.73 eV and the core excitons are discussed with a simple model of localized transitions. Experimental results for the lowest exciton and the core excitons at 19.95 and 20.20 eV are explained well in this model, but the shift of the core exciton at 21.05 eV does not agree with the theoretical expectation. The exciton-phonon interaction term contributing to thermal shifts of the excitons is deduced from the present pressure coefficients. (author)

  13. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  14. Excitonic and Polaronic Properties of 2D Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun


    We theoretically characterize the unusual white-light emission properties of two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic inorganic perovskites with an APbX(4) structure (where A is a bidentate organic cation and X = Cl, Br). In addition to band structure calculations including corrections due to spin orbit couplings and electron hole interactions, a computationally intensive molecular cluster approach is exploited to describe the excitonic and polaronic properties of these 2D perovskites at the atomistic level. Upon adding or removing an electron from the neutral systems, we find that strongly localized small polarons form in the 2D clusters. The polaron charge density is distributed over just lattice sites, which is consistent with the calculated large polaron binding energies, on the order of similar to 0.4-1.2 eV.

  15. Single walled carbon nanotubes: a model system for excitons in one dimension (United States)

    Lefebvre, J.; Finnie, P.


    The semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNTs) with its direct bandgap and its strong 1D character absorbs and emits light efficiently. In contrast with other nanomaterials, the structure of an SWNT is uniquely defined and is set by a discrete number of carbon rings along its tubular section. Experimentally, optical spectroscopy has recently revealed this remarkable quantization. In our group, we focus primarily on the luminescence properties of individual s-SWNTs. Using imaging techniques, we reveal unambiguously that each s-SWNT with its quantized structure is characterized by a specific manifold of excitonic states. With the large diameter tunability achieved in SWNTs, we show that the material represents a model system for 1D photophysics. This proceeding is meant to be a review of past work and includes complementary data that have been presented at conferences but otherwise have never been published. Some emphasis is given on experimental details for luminescence imaging and spectroscopy.

  16. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.


    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF 2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  17. Natural photonic crystals (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla


    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  18. Linewidths in excitonic absorption spectra of cuprous oxide (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter


    We present a theoretical calculation of the absorption spectrum of cuprous oxide (Cu2O ) based on the general theory developed by Y. Toyozawa. An inclusion not only of acoustic phonons but also of optical phonons and of specific properties of the excitons in Cu2O like the central-cell corrections for the 1 S exciton allows us to calculate the experimentally observed linewidths in experiments by T. Kazimierczuk et al. [T. Kazimierczuk, D. Fröhlich, S. Scheel, H. Stolz, and M. Bayer, Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] within the same order of magnitude, which demonstrates a clear improvement in comparison to earlier work on this topic. We also discuss a variety of further effects, which explain the still observable discrepancy between theory and experiment but can hardly be included in theoretical calculations.

  19. Non-Hermitian exciton dynamics in a photosynthetic unit system (United States)

    Thilagam, A.


    The non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic systems is investigated using a dissipative two-level dimer model. The approach is based on Green's function formalism which permits consideration of decoherence and intersite transfer processes on comparable terms. The results indicate a combination of coherent and incoherent behavior at higher temperatures with the possibility of exceptional points occurring at the coherent-incoherent crossover regime at critical temperatures. When each dimer site is coupled equally to the environmental sources of dissipation, the excitonic wavepacket evolves with time with a coherent component, which can be attributed to the indistinguishability of the sources of dissipation. The time evolution characteristics of the B850 Bchls dimer system is analysed using typical parameter estimates in photosynthetic systems, and the quantum brachistochrone passage times are obtained for a range of parameters.

  20. Magnetic dependence of exciton levels in diluted magnetic semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, A.V.; Sugakov, V.I.


    Energy levels of Wannier exciton in a semi magnetic quantum well structures in external magnetic field are calculated with the use of a variational approach. We consider two heterojunctions: Cd Mr Te/Cd Te/Cd Mn Te and Cd Mn Te/Cd Zn Te/Cd Mn Te. Dependences of the lowest interband transitions energies on the well width are qualitatively different for these two systems. In the first case energy splitting of σ + and σ - transitions in the magnetic field decreases as the well width increases, in the second case it increases. It is connected with the more significant role of exchange interaction between exciton and magnetic ions in the case when the well is doped by magnetic impurities (the first case) than in that one when barriers are doped by these impurities (the second case) because of exponential decay of wave functions in barriers. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  1. Excitonic processes and their contribution to non-proportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Koblov, A.


    Using the derived expression for the light yield in a scintillator, the influence of linear radiative and non-radiative (quenching) rates on the non-proportionality in light yield is studied. It is found that if the excitation created within the electron track initiated by a γ-photon incident on a scintillator, remains mainly excitonic, then non-proportionality can be minimized by inventing a scintillator material with linear radiative rate > 10 7 s -1 , linear quenching rate 6 s -1 and track radius ≥ 70 nm along with maintaining the rates of other non-linear processes as discovered earlier. If one can increase the linear radiative rate to 10 9 s -1 , then the non-proportionality can be eliminated at a track radius > 20 nm. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.


    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  3. Bi donor hyperfine state populations studied by optical transitions of donor bound excitons in enriched {sup 28}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkhchy, K. Saeedi; Steger, M.; Thewalt, M. L. W. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Abrosimov, N.; Riemann, H. [Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Becker, P. [PTB Braunschweig, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Pohl, H.-J. [Vitcon Projectconsult GmbH, 07745 Jena (Germany)


    We report on the first optical studies of Bi donor bound excitons in {sup 28}Si, using absorption rather than emission spectroscopy, and a new noncontact photoconductivity method which has much higher sensitivity and spectral resolution than photoluminescence spectroscopy. Individual hyperfine components of this potential semiconductor qubit can be resolved under an applied magnetic field, and we find that strong nonresonant optical hyperpolarization towards both the I{sub z} = +9/2 and −9/2 hyperfine states can be observed, depending on the intensity of the above-gap excitation.

  4. Spatially resolved and time-resolved imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields (United States)

    Dorow, C. J.; Hasling, M. W.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.


    We present the direct measurements of magnetoexciton transport. Excitons give the opportunity to realize the high magnetic-field regime for composite bosons with magnetic fields of a few tesla. Long lifetimes of indirect excitons allow the study of kinetics of magnetoexciton transport with time-resolved optical imaging of exciton photoluminescence. We performed spatially, spectrally, and time-resolved optical imaging of transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. We observed that an increasing magnetic field slows down magnetoexciton transport. The time-resolved measurements of the magnetoexciton transport distance allowed for an experimental estimation of the magnetoexciton diffusion coefficient. An enhancement of the exciton photoluminescence energy at the laser excitation spot was found to anticorrelate with the exciton transport distance. A theoretical model of indirect magnetoexciton transport is presented and is in agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Exciton spectra of mixed LiH1-xDx crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, V.G.


    The results of low-tempertaure experimental investigation of exciton spectra of pure surface of mixed crystals LiH 1-x d x forming the continuous series of a solved solution are presented. The long-wave reflection spectra is formed, as in pure crystals, by excitons of a large radius. The developed structure of spectra of exciton luminiscence consisting mainly of LO-lines, testifies to the intraband Frelich mechanism of free exciton scattering by LO-phonos, playing the considerable role in renormalization of the exciton Rydberg and the energy of interband transitions. Increase of the concentration of deuterium in mixed crystals causes a short-wave shift in the reflection spectrum and luminescence and continuous decrease of LO-phonon energy together with the increase of Rydberg exciton

  6. Exciton diffusion coefficient measurement in ZnO nanowires under electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Donatini, Fabrice; Pernot, Julien


    In semiconductor nanowires (NWs) the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolution cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single NWs. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO NW is measured versus the electron beam dose (EBD) via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The behavior of the measured exciton lifetime is consistent with our recent work on the EBD dependence of the exciton diffusion length in similar NWs investigated under comparable SEM conditions. Combining the two results, the exciton diffusion coefficient in ZnO is determined at room temperature and is found constant over the full span of EBD.

  7. The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yamagata, H.


    A theory for polarized absorption in crystalline oligoacenes is presented, which includes Frenkel exciton coupling, the coupling between Frenkel and charge-transfer (CT) excitons, and the coupling of all neutral and ionic excited states to the dominant ring-breathing vibrational mode. For tetracene, spectra calculated using all Frenkel couplings among the five lowest energy molecular singlet states predict a Davydov splitting (DS) of the lowest energy (0-0) vibronic band of only -32cm-1, far smaller than the measured value of 631cm-1 and of the wrong sign-a negative sign indicating that the polarizations of the lower and upper Davydov components are reversed from experiment. Inclusion of Frenkel-CT coupling dramatically improves the agreement with experiment, yielding a 0-0 DS of 601cm-1 and a nearly quantitative reproduction of the relative spectral intensities of the 0-n vibronic components. Our analysis also shows that CT mixing increases with the size of the oligoacenes. We discuss the implications of these results on exciton dissociation and transport. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Excitons in conjugated polymers: Do we need a paradigma change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Wichard J.D. [Department of Theoretical Physics I, Ilmenau University of Thechnology (Germany)


    We have previously shown that both, polymer conformation and dynamics are crucial for the exciton transport in conjugated polymers. Thereby we found that the usual Foerster-type hopping transfer model - even if one applies the line-dipole approximation - falls short in one crucial aspect: the nature of the sites the excitons are transferred between is still unclear. We found that the simple model of spectroscopic units defined as segments of the polymer chains separated by structural defects breaking the {pi}-conjugation is only justified for chemical defects like hydrogenated double bonds, or extreme gauche (90 ) torsions between the monomers. Both defects are far too rare in a well-prepared conjugated polymer to explain the mean spectroscopic-unit length of typically 6-7 monomers. Meanwhile, also the concept of dynamical formation of the spectroscopic units, we had previously suggested, has also failed. Thus the question of a paradigma change concerning the exciton transport in conjugated polymers appears on the agenda. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Photoluminescence and Confinement of Excitons in Disordered Porous Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, N. V., E-mail:; Brodin, M. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Brodin, A. M. [National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI” (Ukraine); Matveevskaya, N. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine)


    The exciton confinement effect in quantum dots at the surface of SiO{sub 2} spheres and the percolation phase transition in films based on a mixture of pure SiO{sub 2} spheres and spheres covered by CdS quantum dots (SiO{sub 2}/CdS nanoparticles) are studied. It is found that, due to the high surface energy of spheres, the quantum dots deposited onto their surface are distorted, which modifies the exciton confinement effect: the effect is retained only in one direction, the direction normal to the surface of the spheres. As a result, the energy of the exciton ground state exhibits a complex dependence on both the quantum-dot radius and sphere size. In the optical spectra of films based on this mixture, the clustering of small-sized nanoparticles and then, at a critical concentration of nanoparticles of ~60%, the formation of a percolation cluster are detected for the first time. The critical concentration is twice higher than the corresponding quantity given by the model of geometrical “colored percolation”, which is a consequence of interaction between submicrometer nanoparticles. The relation between the basic parameters of the percolation transition, such as the film porosity, coordination number, and the quantity defining the number of particles in the percolation cluster, is obtained and analyzed.

  10. Collective Behavior of a Spin-Aligned Gas of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Bayer, M.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The kinetics of a spin-aligned gas of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (n–i–n heterostructure) is studied. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time for excitons, in which a photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated between two adjacent quantum well...... is associated with indirect evidence of the coherence of the collective phase of interwell excitons at temperatures below the critical value....

  11. PCBM : P3HT polymer composites for photonic crystal all-optical switching applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Hu Xiaoyong; Zhang Jiaxiang; Yang Hong; Gong Qihuang


    An all-optical switching with an operating pump intensity of 1 MW cm -2 is realized in a one-dimensional nonlinear organic photonic crystal made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) doped with 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C 61 , fabricated by focused ion-beam etching. The femtosecond pump and probe method is adopted to measure the transmittance changes of the probe laser based on the photonic bandgap shift induced by the pump laser. Under resonant excitation, a large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10 -9 cm 2 W -1 is obtained for the polymer composite. A switching time of 58.9 ps is maintained due to intermolecular charge transfer and exciton-exciton annihilation.

  12. PCBM : P3HT polymer composites for photonic crystal all-optical switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhiqiang; Hu Xiaoyong; Zhang Jiaxiang; Yang Hong; Gong Qihuang, E-mail:, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    An all-optical switching with an operating pump intensity of 1 MW cm{sup -2} is realized in a one-dimensional nonlinear organic photonic crystal made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) doped with 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C{sub 61}, fabricated by focused ion-beam etching. The femtosecond pump and probe method is adopted to measure the transmittance changes of the probe laser based on the photonic bandgap shift induced by the pump laser. Under resonant excitation, a large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2} W{sup -1} is obtained for the polymer composite. A switching time of 58.9 ps is maintained due to intermolecular charge transfer and exciton-exciton annihilation.

  13. Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Dridi, Kim


    Approximate dispersion and bending properties of all-silica two-dimensional photonic crystal fibres are characterised by the combination of an effective-index model and classical analysis tools for optical fibres. We believe for the first time to have predicted the dispersion properties of photonic...... crystal fibres. The results strongly indicate that these fibres have potential applications as dispersion managing components...

  14. The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazovskii, S., E-mail: [Université Paris-Saclay, LPTMS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France); Kirova, N. [Université Paris-Saclay, LPS, CNRS, Univ. Paris-sud (France)


    We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor–acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.

  15. Spatial mapping of exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reparaz


    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial dependence of the exciton lifetimes in single ZnO nanowires. We have found that the free exciton and bound exciton lifetimes exhibit a maximum at the center of nanowires, while they decrease by 30% towards the tips. This dependence is explained by considering the cavity-like properties of the nanowires in combination with the Purcell effect. We show that the lifetime of the bound-excitons scales with the localization energy to the power of 3/2, which validates the model of Rashba and Gurgenishvili at the nanoscale.

  16. Plasmonic Structure Enhanced Exciton Generation at the Interface between the Perovskite Absorber and Copper Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Hsiung Chang


    Full Text Available The refractive index and extinction coefficient of a triiodide perovskite absorber (TPA were obtained by fitting the transmittance spectra of TPA/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass using the transfer matrix method. Cu nanoplasmonic structures were designed to enhance the exciton generation in the TPA and to simultaneously reduce the film thickness of the TPA. Excitons were effectively generated at the interface between TPA and Cu nanoparticles, as observed through the 3D finite-difference time-domain method. The exciton distribution is advantageous for the exciton dissociation and carrier transport.

  17. Effect of localized surface-plasmon mode on exciton transport and radiation emission in carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Cherqui, Charles; Dunlap, David H; Piryatinski, Andrei


    We report on a general theoretical approach to study exciton transport and emission in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) in the presence of a localized surface-plasmon (SP) mode within a metal nanoparticle interacting via near-field coupling. We derive a set of quantum mechanical equations of motion and approximate rate equations that account for the exciton, SP, and the environmental degrees of freedom. The material equations are complemented by an expression for the radiated power that depends on the exciton and SP populations and coherences, allowing for an examination of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation that would be measured in experiment. Numerical simulations for a (6,5) SWNT and cone-shaped Ag metal tip (MT) have been performed using this methodology. Comparison with physical parameters shows that the near-field interaction between the exciton-SP occurs in a weak coupling regime, with the diffusion processes being much faster than the exciton-SP population exchange. In such a case, the effect of the exciton population transfer to the MT with its subsequent dissipation (i.e., the Förster energy transfer) is to modify the exciton steady state distribution while reducing the equilibration time for excitons to reach a steady sate distribution. We find that the radiation distribution is dominated by SP emission for a SWNT-MT separation of a few tens of nanometers due to the fast SP emission rate, whereas the exciton-SP coherences can cause its rotation.

  18. Plasmonic Structure Enhanced Exciton Generation at the Interface between the Perovskite Absorber and Copper Nanoparticles (United States)

    Lin, Kuen-Feng; Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey


    The refractive index and extinction coefficient of a triiodide perovskite absorber (TPA) were obtained by fitting the transmittance spectra of TPA/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass using the transfer matrix method. Cu nanoplasmonic structures were designed to enhance the exciton generation in the TPA and to simultaneously reduce the film thickness of the TPA. Excitons were effectively generated at the interface between TPA and Cu nanoparticles, as observed through the 3D finite-difference time-domain method. The exciton distribution is advantageous for the exciton dissociation and carrier transport. PMID:25295290

  19. The excitonic insulator route through a dynamical phase transition induced by an optical pulse (United States)

    Brazovskii, S.; Kirova, N.


    We consider a dynamical phase transition induced by a short optical pulse in a system prone to thermodynamical instability. We address the case of pumping to excitons whose density contributes directly to the order parameter. To describe both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on equal footing, we adopt a view of the excitonic insulator for the phase transition and suggest a formation of the Bose condensate for the pumped excitons. The work is motivated by experiments in donor-acceptor organic compounds with a neutral- ionic phase transition coupled to the spontaneous lattice dimerization and to charge transfer excitons. The double nature of the ensemble of excitons leads to an intricate time evolution, in particular, to macroscopic quantum oscillations from the interference between the Bose condensate of excitons and the ground state of the excitonic insulator. The coupling of excitons and the order parameter also leads to self-trapping of their wave function, akin to self-focusing in optics. The locally enhanced density of excitons can surpass a critical value to trigger the phase transformation, even if the mean density is below the required threshold. The system is stratified in domains that evolve through dynamical phase transitions and sequences of merging. The new circumstances in experiments and theory bring to life, once again, some remarkable inventions made by L.V. Keldysh.

  20. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko


    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact on the photocurrent generation by organic solar cell devices. However, very little is known about the material properties controlling the lifetimes of singlet excitons, with most of our knowledge originating from studies of small organic molecules. Herein, we provide a brief summary of the nature of the excited states in conjugated polymer films and then present an analysis of the singlet exciton lifetimes of 16 semiconducting polymers. The exciton lifetimes of seven of the studied polymers were measured using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and compared to the lifetimes of seven of the most common photoactive polymers found in the literature. A plot of the logarithm of the rate of exciton decay vs. the polymer optical bandgap reveals a medium correlation between lifetime and bandgap, thus suggesting that the Energy Gap Law may be valid for these systems. This therefore suggests that small bandgap polymers can suffer from short exciton lifetimes, which may limit their performance in organic solar cell devices. In addition, the impact of film crystallinity on the exciton lifetime was assessed for a small bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole co-polymer. It is observed that the increase of polymer film crystallinity leads to reduction in exciton lifetime and optical bandgap again in agreement with the Energy Gap Law.

  1. Harnessing singlet exciton fission to break the Shockley-Queisser limit (United States)

    Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.


    Singlet exciton fission is a carrier multiplication process in organic semiconductors that generates two electron-hole pairs for each photon absorbed. Singlet fission occurs on sub-100 fs timescales with yields of up to 200%, and photovoltaic devices based on singlet fission have achieved external quantum efficiencies above 100%. The major challenge for the field is to use singlet fission to improve the efficiency of conventional inorganic solar cells, such as silicon, and to break the Shockley-Queisser limit on the efficiency of single-junction photovoltaics. Achieving this goal requires a broader and more collaborative effort than the one used at present. Synthetic chemists, spectroscopists, theorists, materials scientists, device physicists and engineers will need to work together. In this Review, we critically assess the current status of the field, highlight the key results and identify the challenges ahead. In doing so, we seek to open the field to new expertise and ideas, which will in turn promote both fundamental science and device applications.

  2. Update on photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Romero, N.; Cochard, G.; Ong, S.; Amiens Univ., 80; Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Nicolaidis, A.; Parisi, J.; Courau, A.


    This report is the continuation of the 'Update' of last year (L.P.C. 79-03, March 1979, in French). In Part I, the structure functions of the photon in QCD are examined. It is shown that, while large psub(T) hadron production is similar to some extent in γγ collisions and in hadron-hadron collisions, the point-like nature of the photon introduces new terms which are entirely calculable, providing new means to test the dynamics of strong interactions. In Part II, problems of analysis in γγ experiments are discussed. The pros and cons of various options with regard to the measurement of outgoing electrons (non-tagging, finite-angle tagging, tagging at 0 0 ) are compared. It is shown that (a) non-tagging may be applied to the study of a limited number of processes only; (b) finite-angle tagging counters allow for various possibilities (double-tagging, single-tagging, double anti-tagging), but none of them is entirely satisfactory; (c) the ideal measurement is double tagging at 0 0 , provided the problem of bremsstrahlung saturation of the tagging counters can be solved

  3. Photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, J.; Huke, K.; Chikawa, J.


    The Photon Factory (PF) was established on April 1, 1978 at KEK. The PF is a synchrotron radiation facility, which has a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring fully dedicated to the SR usage and a 2.5 GeV electron linac supplying electrons and positrons to the PF ring and the accumulation ring of TRISTAN (30 GeV electron-positron colliding machine). The PF consists of three departments, injector linac, light source, and instrumentation department. The facility is described

  4. Magnetic field effect on the energy levels of an exciton in a GaAs quantum dot: Application for excitonic lasers. (United States)

    Jahan, K Luhluh; Boda, A; Shankar, I V; Raju, Ch Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok


    The problem of an exciton trapped in a Gaussian quantum dot (QD) of GaAs is studied in both two and three dimensions in the presence of an external magnetic field using the Ritz variational method, the 1/N expansion method and the shifted 1/N expansion method. The ground state energy and the binding energy of the exciton are obtained as a function of the quantum dot size, confinement strength and the magnetic field and compared with those available in the literature. While the variational method gives the upper bound to the ground state energy, the 1/N expansion method gives the lower bound. The results obtained from the shifted 1/N expansion method are shown to match very well with those obtained from the exact diagonalization technique. The variation of the exciton size and the oscillator strength of the exciton are also studied as a function of the size of the quantum dot. The excited states of the exciton are computed using the shifted 1/N expansion method and it is suggested that a given number of stable excitonic bound states can be realized in a quantum dot by tuning the quantum dot parameters. This can open up the possibility of having quantum dot lasers using excitonic states.

  5. Engineering Photon-Photon Interactions within Rubidium-Filled Waveguides (United States)

    Perrella, C.; Light, P. S.; Vahid, S. Afshar; Benabid, F.; Luiten, A. N.


    Strong photon-photon interactions are a required ingredient for deterministic two-photon optical quantum logic gates. Multiphoton transitions in dense atomic vapors have been shown to be a promising avenue for producing such interactions. The strength of a multiphoton interaction can be enhanced by conducting the interaction in highly confined geometries such as small-cross-section optical waveguides. We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, that the strength of such interactions scale only with the optical mode diameter, d , not d2 as might be initially expected. This weakening of the interaction arises from atomic motion inside the waveguides. We create an interaction between two optical signals, at 780 and 776 nm, using the 5 S1 /2→5 D5 /2 two-photon transition in rubidium vapor within a range of hollow-core fibers with different core sizes. The interaction strength is characterized by observing the absorption and phase shift induced on the 780-nm beam, which is in close agreement with theoretical modeling that accounts for the atomic motion inside the fibers. These observations demonstrate that transit-time effects upon multiphoton transitions are of key importance when engineering photon-photon interactions within small-cross-section waveguides that might otherwise be thought to lead to enhanced optical nonlinearity through increased intensities.

  6. Investigating Optical Properties of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Containing Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mokhtarnejad


    Full Text Available This study examined MQWs made of InGaAs/GaAs, InAlAs/InP, and InGaAs/InP in terms of their band structure and reflectivity. We also demonstrated that the reflectivity of MQWs under normal incident was at maximum, while both using a strong pump and changing incident angle reduced it. Reflectivity of the structure for a weak probe pulse depends on polarization, intensity of the pump pulse, and delay between the probe pulse and the pump pulse. So this system can be used as an ultrafast all-optical switch which is inspected by the transfer matrix method. After studying the band structure of the one-dimensional photonic crystal, the optical stark effect (OSE was considered on it. Due to the OSE on virtual exciton levels, the switching time can be in the order of picoseconds. Moreover, it is demonstrated that, by introducing errors in width of barrier and well as well as by inserting defect, the reflectivity is reduced. Thus, by employing the mechanism of stark effect MQWs band-gaps can be easily controlled which is useful in designing MWQ based optical switches and filters. By comparing the results, we observe that the reflectivity of MWQ containing 200 periods of InAlAs/InP quantum wells shows the maximum reflectivity of 96%.

  7. Characterization of InP and InGaN quantum dots for single photon sources and AlGaInAs quantum dots in intermediate band solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, Stefan


    single QDs. Finally, the emission of single photons has been demonstrated using autocorrelation measurements. For a more efficient diffraction-limited output coupling of photons, the InP QDs grown by cyclic material deposition were embedded in micropillar resonator structures and investigated by means of spectroscopy. First, structures with different diameters were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Second, the energy of a single QD exciton and the energy of the cavity were tuned into resonance by changing the temperature. In the regime of weak coupling a luminescence enhancement due to the Purcell Effect was observed. Finally, also in the regime of weak coupling, the emission of single photons has been demonstrated by autocorrelation measurements. In terms of applications, electrical operations are desirable. Therefore, the Bragg mirrors of the micropillar resonator were doped for an efficient current injection and electrical contacts were deposited. After basic electrical characterization, the regime of weak coupling of a single QD exciton and the cavity resulting in a luminescence enhancement were demonstrated by the Purcell effect. Finally, the emission of single photons based on autocorrelation measurements is shown. In this chapter, the luminescence properties of single InGaN QD were investigated. Based on the wurtzite crystal structure of nitrite-compound semiconductors strong piezoelectric fields occur that lead to strongly linearly polarized luminescence. Several QDs were investigated and statistical studies were performed. Excitation power depending measurements allows one to identify the different exciton states of a single QD. In addition, the emission of single photons of InGaN QDs up to a temperature of 50 K was demonstrated for the first time. In the final chapter, an application of QDs in solar cells is presented to specifically exploit the unique properties of QDs in optical devices. The concept of the intermediate band solar cell utilizes

  8. Hybrid colloidal plasmonic-photonic crystals. (United States)

    Romanov, Sergei G; Korovin, Alexander V; Regensburger, Alois; Peschel, Ulf


    We review the recently emerged class of hybrid metal-dielectric colloidal photonic crystals. The hybrid approach is understood as the combination of a dielectric photonic crystal with a continuous metal film. It allows to achieve a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering at electronic excitations in the metal component into moulding of the light flow in series to the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystal. We consider different realizations of hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals based on two- and three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystals in association with flat and corrugated metal films. In agreement with model calculations, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tuneable functionality of these crystals. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems (United States)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.


    The OECS11 (International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems) was the eleventh of a very successful series of conferences that started in 1987 in Rome (Italy). Afterwards the conference was held at Naxos (Sicily, Italy, 1991), Montpellier (France, 1993), Cortona (Italy, 1995), Göttingen (Germany, 1997), Ascona (Switzerland, 1999), Montpellier (France, 2001), Lecce (Italy, 2003), Southampton (UK, 2005) and Patti (Sicily, Italy, 2007). It is addressed to scientists who lead fundamental and applied research on the optical properties of excitons in novel condensed-matter nanostructures. The 2009 meeting (7-11 September 2009) has brought together a large representation of the world leading actors in this domain, with the aim of stimulating the exchange of ideas, promoting international collaborations, and coordinating research on the newest exciton-related issues such as quantum information science and exciton quantum-collective phenomena. The meeting has included invited lectures, contributed oral presentations and posters, covering the following general topics: low-dimensional heterostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots polaritons quantum optics with excitons and polaritons many-body effects under coherent and incoherent excitation coherent optical spectroscopy quantum coherence and quantum-phase manipulation Bose-Einstein condensation and other collective phenomena excitons in novel materials The OECS 11 was held at the campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in Cantoblanco. The scientific program was composed of more than 200 contributions divided into 16 invited talks, 44 oral contributions and 3 poster sessions with a total of 150 presentations. The scientific level of the presentations was guaranteed by a selection process where each contribution was rated by three members of the Program Committee. The Conference has gathered 238 participants from 21 different countries, with the following distribution: Germany (43

  10. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidal, G.


    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Polarons and excitons in insulators: insight from computer simulations (United States)

    Shluger, Alexander


    Localization of electrons and holes as well as excitons in insulators is a ubiquitous phenomenon which controls carrier mobility, luminescence and radiation damage of many materials. When such localization takes place in a perfect lattice it is called self-trapping, however in many cases it is facilitated by perturbation induced by intrinsic defects and impurities. Whatever the mechanism, it is hard to prove experimentally and especially theoretically. I will first review briefly the established models of self-trapped polarons and excitons (STE) in alkali halides and cubic oxides and will demonstrate how they are linked to the mechanisms of photo-induced desorption of these materials [1]. I will then discuss the results of our modeling, which extend these models further to more complex oxides forming so called electrides -- materials where electrons serve as anions [2], and to a qualitatively new type of electron trapping at grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials with negative electron affinity [3]. Combining periodic and embedded cluster methods we can explain and sometimes predict the properties of polarons and excitons in a range of insulators, such as amorphous SiO2 [4], and polycrystalline HfO2 [5] and HfSiO4. I will discuss the applicability of different techniques to studying localization problems in insulators and will compare the predictions of periodic plane wave and embedded cluster DFT calculations. [4pt] [1] W. P. Hess, et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 19563 (2005) [0pt] [2] P. V. Sushko et al. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 129, 942 (2007) [0pt] [3] K. P. McKenna and A. L. Shluger, Nature Materials, 7, 859 (2008) [0pt] [4] A. V. Kimmel, et al. J. Non-Cryst. Sol., 353, 599 (2007) [0pt] [5] D. Munoz Ramo, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 155504 (2007)

  12. Relaxation dynamics of a driven two-level system coupled to a Bose–Einstein condensate: application to quantum dot-dipolar exciton gas hybrid systems (United States)

    Kovalev, Vadim M.; Tse, Wang-Kong


    We develop a microscopic theory for the relaxation dynamics of an optically pumped two-level system (TLS) coupled to a bath of weakly interacting Bose gas. Using Keldysh formalism and diagrammatic perturbation theory, expressions for the relaxation times of the TLS Rabi oscillations are derived when the boson bath is in the normal state and the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) state. We apply our general theory to consider an irradiated quantum dot coupled with a boson bath consisting of a two-dimensional dipolar exciton gas. When the bath is in the BEC regime, relaxation of the Rabi oscillations is due to both condensate and non-condensate fractions of the bath bosons for weak TLS-light coupling and pre dominantly due to the non-condensate fraction for strong TLS-light coupling. Our theory also shows that a phase transition of the bath from the normal to the BEC state strongly influences the relaxation rate of the TLS Rabi oscillations. The TLS relaxation rate is approximately independent of the pump field frequency and monotonically dependent on the field strength when the bath is in the low-temperature regime of the normal phase. Phase transition of the dipolar exciton gas leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the TLS relaxation rate on both the pump field frequency and field strength, providing a characteristic signature for the detection of BEC phase transition of the coupled dipolar exciton gas.

  13. Preequilibrium decay in the exciton model for nuclear potential with a finite depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogila, Ye.A.; Kolomiets, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.


    The spectra of preequilibrium particles, taking into account the energy dependence of the single-particle level density, are calculated using the particle-hole (exciton) level density. We demonstrate the significant effect of the finite depth of the potential well (continuum effect) on partial emission spectra for configurations with a small exciton number

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons in a phosphorene double layer (United States)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.


    We study the formation of dipolar excitons and their superfluidity in a phosphorene double layer. The analytical expressions for the single dipolar exciton energy spectrum and wave function are obtained. It is predicted that a weakly interacting gas of dipolar excitons in a double layer of black phosphorus exhibits superfluidity due to the dipole-dipole repulsion between the dipolar excitons. In calculations are employed the Keldysh and Coulomb potentials for the interaction between the charge carriers to analyze the influence of the screening effects on the studied phenomena. It is shown that the critical velocity of superfluidity, the spectrum of collective excitations, concentrations of the superfluid and normal component, and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are anisotropic and demonstrate the dependence on the direction of motion of dipolar excitons. The critical temperature for superfluidity increases if the exciton concentration and the interlayer separation increase. It is shown that the dipolar exciton binding energy and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are sensitive to the electron and hole effective masses. The proposed experiment to observe a directional superfluidity of excitons is addressed.

  15. Radiation effects from first principles : the role of excitons in electronic-excited processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Bryan Matthew


    Electron-hole pairs, or excitons, are created within materials upon optical excitation or irradiation with X-rays/charged particles. The ability to control and predict the role of excitons in these energetically-induced processes would have a tremendous impact on understanding the effects of radiation on materials. In this report, the excitonic effects in large cycloparaphenylene carbon structures are investigated using various first-principles methods. These structures are particularly interesting since they allow a study of size-scaling properties of excitons in a prototypical semi-conducting material. In order to understand these properties, electron-hole transition density matrices and exciton binding energies were analyzed as a function of size. The transition density matrices allow a global view of electronic coherence during an electronic excitation, and the exciton binding energies give a quantitative measure of electron-hole interaction energies in these structures. Based on overall trends in exciton binding energies and their spatial delocalization, we find that excitonic effects play a vital role in understanding the unique photoinduced dynamics in these systems.

  16. Magneto-optical quantum interferences in a system of spinor excitons (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Gudmundsson, Vidar


    In this work we investigate magneto-optical properties of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum-ring excitons with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions threaded by a magnetic flux perpendicular to the plane of the ring. By calculating the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm spectrum, we study the Coulomb and spin-orbit effects on the Aharonov-Bohm features. From the light-matter interactions of the excitons, we find that for scalar excitons, there are open channels for spontaneous recombination resulting in a bright photoluminescence spectrum, whereas the forbidden recombination of dipolar excitons results in a dark photoluminescence spectrum. We investigate the generation of persistent charge and spin currents. The exploration of spin orientations manifests that by adjusting the strength of the spin-orbit interactions, the exciton can be constructed as a squeezed complex with specific spin polarization. Moreover, a coherently moving dipolar exciton acquires a nontrivial dual Aharonov-Casher phase, creating the possibility to generate persistent dipole currents and spin dipole currents. Our study reveals that in the presence of certain spin-orbit generated fields, the manipulation of the magnetic field provides a potential application for quantum-ring spinor excitons to be utilized in nano-scaled magneto-optical switches.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of confined and localised excitons and biexcitons in low-dimensional semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola


    Coherent optical spectroscopy in the form of nonlinear transient four-wave mixing (TFWM) and linear resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) has been applied to investigate the exciton dynamics of low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures. The dephasing times of excitons are determined from...

  18. Observation of Frenkel and charge transfer excitons in pentacene single crystals using spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Dongchen; Su, Haibin; Bastjan, M.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Palstra, T. M.; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Ruebhausen, M.; Rusydi, A.; Rübhausen, M.


    We report on the emerging and admixture of Frenkel and charge transfer (CT) excitons near the absorption onset in pentacene single crystals. Using high energy-resolution spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry with in-plane polarization dependence, the excitonic nature of three lowest lying

  19. Optical nonlinearity due to nonbosonity of Wannier-Mott excitons in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Hoang Xuan Nguyen


    Shown that the nonbosonity of Wannier-Mott excitons leads to the energy level blue shift which might result in optical bistability. The dependences of the complex dielectric function on both exciton density and pump laser intensity are considered and numerically evaluated for CdS. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  20. Direct measurement of the triplet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Ruiter, R.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.


    We present a new method to measure the triplet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors. N,N′-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPD) has been used as a model system. Triplet excitons are injected into a thin film of NPD by a phosphorescent thin film, which is

  1. Real-Time Tracking of Singlet Exciton Diffusion in Organic Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozlov, Oleg V.; de Haan, Foppe; Kerner, Ross A.; Rand, Barry P.; Cheyns, David; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.


    Exciton diffusion in organic materials provides the operational basis for functioning of such devices as organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Here we track the exciton diffusion process in organic semiconductors in real time with a novel technique based on femtosecond photoinduced

  2. Excitonic localization in AlN-rich AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN multi-quantum-well grain boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.


    AlGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells (MQW) with AlN-rich grains have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The grains are observed to have strong excitonic localization characteristics that are affected by their sizes. The tendency to confine excitons progressively intensifies with increasing grain boundary area. Photoluminescence results indicate that the MQW have a dominant effect on the peak energy of the near-bandedge emission at temperatures below 150 K, with the localization properties of the grains becoming evident beyond 150 K. Cathodoluminescence maps reveal that the grain boundary has no effect on the peak intensities of the AlGaN/AlGaN samples.

  3. Trapping effects in exciton motion in the framework of CTRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.


    Influence of a trap (sink) on an exciton transfer in molecular aggregates is investigated. Pausing time distribution functions φ p m (t) and probability densities Q mn (t) on the continuous time random walk theory are calculated from memory functions entering the generalized master equations. The presence of the sink changes their analytical form. We used trimmer as example to show that only for large trapping rates pausing time distribution functions become nonnegative. Only in this case they could be used in Monte Carlo modelling. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs

  4. Relaxation process of self-trapping exciton in C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Zhang, G.P.; Ma, Y.S.; Fu, R.L.


    When C 60 is photoexcited, a self-trapping exciton (STE) is formed. The bond structure is distorted while the states A 1u and A 2u are pulled into the energy gap from HOMO and LUMO respectively. A dynamical scheme is employed to simulate the relaxation of STE. The evolutions of both bond structure and electronic states show that the relaxation time for STE is about 100 fs. It is noticed that this relaxation time is much shorter than that of the charge transfer in C 60 , and the origin for this big difference is discussed. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  5. Exciton and Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer: Fullerene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loosdrecht P. H. M.


    Full Text Available Ultrafast hole transfer dynamics from fullerene derivative to polymer in bulk heterojunction blends are studied with visible-pump - IR-probe spectroscopy. The hole transfer process is found to occur in 50/300 fs next to the interface, while a longer 15-ps time is attributed to exciton diffusion towards interface in PC71BM domains. High polaron generation efficiency in P3HT blends indicates excellent intercalation between the polymer and the fullerene even at highest PC71BM concentration thereby yielding a valuable information on the blend morphology.

  6. Defect production at exciton decay in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushchik, Ch.B.


    On the example of alkali halide crystals experimentally detected phenomenon of structural point defect production in wide-gap nonmetallic solids at low-temperature radiationless decay of self-localizing excitons and recombination of electrons with self-localized holes is considered. Factors promoting radiationless transformation of electron excitations to not small oscillations of many atoms (heat release), but to separate ion large shifts, that determine one of the most important mechanisms of radiation instability of solids, used, in particular, for data recording, are discussed

  7. InAs Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure (United States)


    with a 100x near- infrared corrected long working distance objective (Mi- tutoyo, Plan Apo NIR), using a 640 nm pulsed diode laser for excitation...Fernée, M. J.; Louyer, Y.; Tamarat, P.; Lounis, B. Comment on “Spin-Flip Limited Exciton Dephasing in CdSe/ ZnS Colloidal Quantum Dots”. Phys. Rev. Lett... Spectroscopy of single nanocrystals. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2014, 43, 1311–1337. [10] Bruns, O. T.; Bischof, T. S.; Harris, D. K.; Shi, Y.; Riedemann, L.; Reiberger

  8. Excitonic Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures Measured by Speckle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    A new method to measure the time-dependent coherence of optical excitations in solids is presented, in which the coherence degree of light emission is deduced from its intensity fluctuations over the emission directions (speckles). With this method the decays of intensity and coherence...... are determined separately, thus distinguishing lifetime from pure dephasing. In particular, the secondary emission of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells is investigated. Here, the combination of static disorder and inelastic scattering leads to a partially coherent emission. The temperature dependence...

  9. Orientation-Dependent Exciton-Plasmon Coupling in Embedded Organic/Metal Nanowire Heterostructures. (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Hong, Yan; Peng, Qian; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng


    The excitation of surface plasmons by optical emitters based on exciton-plasmon coupling is important for plasmonic devices with active optical properties. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the orientation of exciton dipole can significantly influence the coupling strength, yet systematic study of the coupling process in nanostructures is still hindered by the lack of proper material systems. In this work, we have experimentally investigated the orientation-dependent exciton-plasmon coupling in a rationally designed organic/metal nanowire heterostructure system. The heterostructures were prepared by inserting silver nanowires into crystalline organic waveguides during the self-assembly of dye molecules. Structures with different exciton orientations exhibited varying coupling efficiencies. The near-field exciton-plasmon coupling facilitates the design of nanophotonic devices based on the directional surface plasmon polariton propagations.

  10. Excitons in semiconducting quantum filaments of CdS and CdSe with dielectric barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Dneprovskij, V S; Shalygina, O A; Lyaskovskij, V L; Mulyarov, E A; Gavrilov, S A; Masumoto, I


    The peculiarities of the luminescence spectra obtained by different polarization and intensity of the pumping excitation and luminescence kinetics of the CdS and CdSe nanocrystals are explained by the exciton transitions in the semiconducting quantum threads with dielectric barriers. The exciton transition energies correspond to the calculated ones with an account of both their dimensional quantization and the effect of the excitons dielectric intensification. It is shown that the excitons transition energies do not change by the change in the quantum threads diameter within the wide range, while the increase in the one-dimensional forbidden zone width of quantum thread by the decrease in its diameter is compensated through the decrease in the excitons binding energy

  11. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun


    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  12. Subsurface electric field effect on excitonic reflection spectra of CdSe monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrev, A.S.; Novikov, B.V.; Cherednichenko, A.E.


    Changes in exciton reflection spectra of CdSe monocrystals under bombardment with 2-3.5 keV electrons at T=4.2 K have been experimentally investigated. Under the same conditions measured was a relative value of surface photo e.m.f. depending on a dose of electron bombardment. A structure, resulted from the Stark well for excitons near surface and bound state in it - mechanical surface exciton, has been detected in nonirradiated crystals. Correlation between changes in the value of photo e.m.f. and the exciton reflection spectrum contour in the process of irradiation has been traced. It is shown that a number of peculiarities in experimental exciton reflection spectra is not explained with the model of the Thomas and Hopfield ''dead layer''. The Kiselev model is used to explain the results [ru

  13. Probing long-lived dark excitons in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Julsgaard, Brian; Stobbe, Søren


    Long-lived dark exciton states are formed in self-assembled quantum dots due to the combination of the angular momentum of electrons and holes. The lifetime of dark excitons are determined by spin-flip processes that transfer dark excitons into radiative bright excitons. We employ time......-resolved spontaneous emission measurements in a modified local density of optical states to unambiguously record the spin-flip rate. Pronounced variations in the spin-flip rate with the quantum dot emission energy are observed demonstrating that the exciton storage time can be extended by controlling the quantum dot...... size. The energy dependence is compared to a recent model from the literature, in which the spin flip is due to the combined action of short-range exchange interaction and acoustic phonons. We furthermore observe a pronounced enhancement of the spin-flip rate close to semiconductor-air interfaces...

  14. Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper


    The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...... designs allowing for electrical contacting, polarization control, improved efficiency and simplified fabrication....

  15. Excitonic effects in ZnO nanowires and hollow nanotubes (United States)

    Willander, M.; Lozovik, Y. E.; Zhao, Q. X.; Nur, O.; Hu, Q.-H.; Klason, P.


    Energy levels and wave functions of ground and excited states of an exciton are calculated by the method of imaginary time. Energy levels as functions of radius of single and double wall nanotube are studied. Asymptotic behavior of energy levels at large and small values of the radius using perturbation theory and adiabatic approximation is considered. Spatially indirect exciton in semiconductor nanowire is also investigated. Experimental result from high quality reproducible ZnO nanowires grown by low temperature chemical engineering is presented. State of the art high brightness white light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) are demonstrated from the grown ZnO nano-wires. The color temperature and color rendering index (CRI) of the HB-LEDs values was found to be (3250 K, 82), and (14000 K, 93), for the best LEDs, which means that the quality of light is superior to one obtained from GaN LEDs available on the market today. The role of V Zn and V ° on the emission responsible for the white light band as well as the peak position of this important wide band is thoroughly investigated in a systematic way.

  16. Exciton fine structure in CdSe nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.; Pokrant, S.; Whaley, K.B.


    The fine structure in the CdSe nanocrystal absorption spectrum is computed by incorporating two-particle electron-hole interactions and spin-orbit coupling into a tight-binding model, with an expansion in electron-hole single-particle states. The exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling give rise to dark, low-lying states that are predominantly triplet in character, as well as to a manifold of exciton states that are sensitive to the nanocrystal shape. Near the band gap, the exciton degeneracies are in qualitative agreement with the effective mass approximation (EMA). However, instead of the infinite lifetimes for dark states characteristic of the EMA, we obtain finite radiative lifetimes for the dark states. In particular, for the lowest, predominantly triplet, states we obtain radiative lifetimes of microseconds, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measured lifetimes. The resonant Stokes shifts obtained from the splitting between the lowest dark and bright states are also in good agreement with experimental values for larger crystallites. Higher-lying states exhibit significantly more complex behavior than predicted by EMA, due to extensive mixing of electron-hole pair states. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai


    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  18. RR photons

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, Pablo G; Marchesano, Fernando


    Type II string compactifications to 4d generically contain massless Ramond-Ramond U(1) gauge symmetries. However there is no massless matter charged under these U(1)'s, which makes a priori difficult to measure any physical consequences of their existence. There is however a window of opportunity if these RR U(1)'s mix with the hypercharge $U(1)_Y$ (hence with the photon). In this paper we study in detail different avenues by which $U(1)_{RR}$ bosons may mix with D-brane U(1)'s. We concentrate on Type IIA orientifolds and their M-theory lift, and provide geometric criteria for the existence of such mixing, which may occur either via standard kinetic mixing or via the mass terms induced by St\\"uckelberg couplings. The latter case is particularly interesting, and appears whenever D-branes wrap torsional $p$-cycles in the compactification manifold. We also show that in the presence of torsional cycles discrete gauge symmetries and Aharanov-Bohm strings and particles appear in the 4d effective action, and that ty...

  19. Ultrafast terahertz electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Liang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis summarizes my work on using ultrafast laser pulses to study Terahertz (THz) electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures and microstructures. Ultrafast timeresolved (optical, NIR, MIR, THz) pump-probe spectroscopy setup has been successfully built, which enables me to perform a series of relevant experiments. Firstly, a novel high e ciency and compact THz wave emitter based on split-ring-resonators has been developed and characterized. The emitter can be pumped at any wavelength by tailoring the magnetic resonance and could generate gapless THz waves covering the entire THz band. Secondly, two kinds of new photonic structures for THz wave manipulation have been successfully designed and characterized. One is based on the 1D and 2D photo-imprinted di ractive elements. The other is based on the photoexcited double-split-ring-resonator metamaterials. Both structures are exible and can modulate THz waves with large tunability. Thirdly, the dark excitons in semiconducting singlewalled carbon nanotubes are studied by optical pump and THz probe spectroscopy, which provides the rst insights into the THz responses of nonequilibrium excitonic correlations and dynamics from the dark ground states in carbon nanotubes. Next, several on-going projects are brie y presented such as the study of ultrafast THz dynamics of Dirac fermions in topological insulator Bi2Se3 with Mid-infrared excitation. Finally, the thesis ends with a summary of the completed experiments and an outlook of the future plan.

  20. Photon and secondary ion emission from keV cluster bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, R.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    CsI clusters (Cs{sub n}I{sup {minus}}{sub n+1} n = 0 to 4) in the keV energy range (15 to 45 keV) have been used to bombard CsI targets in time-of-flight mass spectrometry experiments to study the relationships between secondary ion and photon emissions. Single ions and photons were detected simultaneously from the impact of single projectiles. The secondary ion yields from the polyatomic projectiles are proportional to the projectile momentum. The photon yields are roughly proportional to both the electronic and the nuclear stopping powers. The photon emission from the bulk of the CsI targets is attributed to excitonic processes.