WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong emotional ties

  1. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  2. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  3. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  4. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  5. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  6. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-02-10

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  7. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-11-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook.

  8. Competition increases in the face of strong regional ties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoetgen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The current fuel market exhibits a large surplus production capacity and is strongly influenced by regional ties, with imports of fabricated fuel serving to supplement domestic production or to keep domestic vendors competitive. In the future, the market is set to become increasingly competitive, especially in Europe and the United States. (author)

  9. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole C. Krämer; Leonie Rösner; Sabrina C. Eimler; Stephan Winter; German Neubaum

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social media...

  10. Let the Weakest Link Go! Empirical Explorations on the Relative Importance of Weak and Strong Ties on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Krämer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches as well as empirical results in the area of social capital accumulation on social networking sites suggest that weak ties/bridging versus strong ties/bonding social capital should be distinguished and that while bonding social capital is connected to emotional support, bridging social capital entails the provision of information. Additionally, recent studies imply the notion that weak ties/bridging social capital are gaining increasing importance in today’s social media environments. By means of a survey (N = 317 we challenged these presuppositions by assessing the social support functions that are ascribed to three different types of contacts from participants’ network (weak, medium, or strong tie. In contrast to theoretical assumptions, we do not find that weak ties are experienced to supply informational support whereas strong ties first and foremost provide emotional support. Instead we find that within social networking sites, strong ties are perceived to provide both emotional and informational support and weak ties are perceived as less important than recent literature assumes.

  11. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  12. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  13. Impact of Group Emotions on Student Collective Action Tendencies, Ties, and Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Malavika; Sundararajan, Binod; Manderson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The authors tested the dynamics of collective action tendencies of student teams when trying to accomplish a shared goal, with a focus on the impact of member ties and team member interaction and emotional responses on team performance. The results show the direct and indirect impacts of both positive and negative group emotions on the student…

  14. Religious and Non-religious Activity Engagement as Assets in Promoting Social Ties Throughout University: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-08-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed.

  15. Financial and Emotional Support in Close Personal Ties among Central Asian Migrant Women in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    This study advances research on the role of personal networks as sources of financial and emotional support in immigrants' close personal ties beyond the immediate family. Because resource scarcity experienced by members of immigrant communities is likely to disrupt normatively expected reciprocal support, we explored multi-level predictors of exchange processes with personal network members that involve (1) only receiving support, (2) only providing support, and (3) reciprocal support exchanges. We focus on an understudied case of Central Asian migrant women in the Russian Federation using a sample of 607 women from three ethnic groups-Kyrgyz, Tajik, Uzbek-who were surveyed in two large Russian cities-Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. The survey collected information on respondents' demographic, socioeconomic, and migration-related characteristics, as well as characteristics of up to five individuals with whom they had a close relationship. Multi-level multinomial regression analyses were used to account for the nested nature of the data. Our results revealed that closer social relationships (siblings and friends) and greater levels of resources (income and regularized legal status) at both ego and alter levels were positively related to providing, receiving, and reciprocally exchanging financial and emotional support. Egos were more likely to provide financial assistance to transnational alters, whereas they were more likely to engage in mutual exchanges of emotional support with their network members from other countries. Personal network size and density showed no relationship with support exchanges. These findings provide a nuanced picture of close personal ties as conduits for financial and emotional support in migrant communities in a major, yet understudied, migrant-receiving context.

  16. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  17. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Yamamoto, H

    2006-01-01

    Recent research (Flache 1996; Flache and Macy 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  18. Does the rise of the Internet bring erosion of strong ties? Analyses of social media use and changes in core discussion networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, Eva; van Ingen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    We derive hypotheses from popular accounts of how use of social media affects our strong ties. Several authors have suggested that social media use erodes our strong ties by increasing the volume of social interactions and decreasing their depth. Using two-wave panel data representative of the Dutch

  19. Age and the experience of strong self-conscious emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Nangle, Matthew R; Waters, Michele

    2018-04-01

    It remains unclear whether there are age-related changes in the experience of strong self-conscious emotion, such as shame, guilt, pride and embarrassment. Because shame and guilt figure prominently in the aetiology of depressive symptoms and other mental health problems, a better understanding of how age affects the strong experience of these two negative self-conscious emotions is of particular importance. Thirty younger, 30 middle-aged and 30 older adults were compared on standardised cognitive assessments, in addition to an interview-based measure that assessed whether there are age differences in the likelihood of strongly experiencing four different types of self-conscious emotion within the past five years (shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride). The three groups did not differ in their likelihood of reporting an event that strongly elicited the positive self-conscious emotion of pride. However, older adults were more likely to report sources of pride that were other (as opposed to self) focused. Older adults were also less likely to report experiencing events that elicited all three negative self-conscious emotions, in particular, shame. Strong negative self-conscious emotion, and in particular shame, appears to be experienced less by older than younger adults.

  20. Emotional ties that bind: the roles of valence and consistency of group emotion in inferences of cohesiveness and common fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joe C; Tiedens, Larissa Z

    2006-12-01

    In three studies, observers based inferences about the cohesiveness and common fate of groups on the emotions expressed by group members. The valence of expressions affected cohesiveness inferences, whereas the consistency of expressions affected inferences of whether members have common fate. These emotion composition effects were stronger than those due to the race or sex composition of the group. Furthermore, the authors show that emotion valence and consistency are differentially involved in judgments about the degree to which the group as a whole was responsible for group performance. Finally, it is demonstrated that valence-cohesiveness effects are mediated by inferences of interpersonal liking and that consistency-common fate effects are mediated by inferences of psychological similarity. These findings have implications for the literature on entitativity and regarding the function of emotions in social contexts.

  1. Loose Ties or Strong Bonds? The Effect of a Commissioner's Nationality and Partisanship on Voting in the Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killermann, Kira

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the consequences of the increased appointment of political Commissioners for the legislative process. Based on the principal–agent relation between the Council and the Commission, it is hypothesized that governments sharing national and partisan ties with the Commissioner

  2. Frozen style and strong emotions of panic and separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the aesthetics of two Trier prologues using cognitive psychology. It focuses on how the films evoke anxiety and panic, and how the panic is contained by means of providing visual and musical aesthetic order to the dynamic emotional forces; by providing ambiguous reality...

  3. The role of strong-tie social networks in mediating food security of fish resources by a traditional riverine community in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a significant way through which rural communities that manage resources under common property regimes obtain food resources. Previous research on food security and social network analysis has mostly focused on egocentric network data or proxy variables for social networks to explain how social relations contribute to the different dimensions of food security. Whole-network approaches have the potential to contribute to former studies by revealing how individual social ties aggregate into complex structures that create opportunities or constraints to the sharing and distribution of food resources. We used a whole-network approach to investigate the role of network structure in contributing to the four dimensions of food security: food availability, access, utilization, and stability. For a case study of a riparian community from the Brazilian Amazon that is dependent on fish as a key element of food security, we mapped the community strong-tie network among 97% of the village population over 14 years old (n = 336 by integrating reciprocated friendship and occupational ties, as well as close kinship relationships. We explored how different structural properties of the community network contribute to the understanding of (1 the availability of fish as a community resource, (2 community access to fish as a dietary resource, (3 the utilization of fish for consumption in a way that allows the villagers to maximize nutrition while at the same time minimizing toxic risks associated with mercury exposure, and (4 the stability of the fish resources in local ecosystems as a result of cooperative behaviors and community-based management. The contribution of whole-network approaches to the study of the links between community-based natural resource management and food security were discussed in the context of recent social-ecological changes in the Amazonian region.

  4. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; M age =23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The ties to unbind: Age-related differences in feature (unbinding in working memory for emotional faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem ePehlivanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions, as a hyperbinding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition, the face’s emotional expression (expression condition, or both identity and expression of the face (binding condition. Both age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the binding condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory, over and beyond age-related differences observed in perceptual processing (0-Back and attention/short-term memory (1-Back. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/short-term memory and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/short-term memory version of the task (1-Back is more effortful in older adults than younger adults.

  7. An Efficient and Robust Hybrid Damper for LCL- or LLCL-Based Grid-Tied Inverter With Strong Grid-Side Harmonic Voltage Effect Rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2016-01-01

    to resist the effect of the BHV, a feedforward voltage compensator and a proportional resonant regulator with harmonic compensation are often adopted. However, they still have their own limitations, particularly when there are higher order BHVs at the point of common coupling and when the equivalent grid......A high-order (LCL or LLCL) power filter with a small grid-side inductor is becoming more preferred for a grid-tied inverter due to less total inductance and reduced costs. In a microgrid, the background harmonic voltage (BHV) may distort the injected currents of the grid-tied inverters. In order...

  8. Why Seemingly Trivial Events Sometimes Evoke Strong Emotional Reactions: The Role of Social Exchange Rule Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Fernandez, Xuan Duong

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes display strong emotional reactions to events that appear disproportionate to the tangible magnitude of the event. Although previous work has addressed the role that perceived disrespect and unfairness have on such reactions, this study examined the role of perceived social exchange rule violations more broadly. Participants (N = 179) rated the effects of another person's behavior on important personal outcomes, the degree to which the other person had violated fundamental rules of social exchange, and their reactions to the event. Results showed that perceptions of social exchange rule violations accounted for more variance in participants' reactions than the tangible consequences of the event. The findings support the hypothesis that responses that appear disproportionate to the seriousness of the eliciting event are often fueled by perceived rule violations that may not be obvious to others.

  9. Promoting calls to a quitline: quantifying the influence of message theme, strong negative emotions and graphic images in television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Jackson, Christine

    2011-07-01

    To understand the relative effectiveness of television advertisements that differ in their thematic focus and portrayals of negative emotions and/or graphic images in promoting calls to a smokers' quitline. Regression analysis is used to explain variation in quarterly media market-level per smoker calls to the New York State Smokers' Quitline from 2001 to 2009. The primary independent variable is quarterly market-level delivery of television advertisements measured by target audience rating points (TARPs). Advertisements were characterised by their overall objective--promoting cessation, highlighting the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) or other--and by their portrayals of strong negative emotions and graphic images. Per smoker call volume is positively correlated with total TARPs (padvertisements are more effective than SHS advertisements in promoting quitline call volume. Advertisements with graphic images only or neither strong negative emotions nor graphic images are associated with higher call volume with similar effect sizes. Call volume was not significantly associated with the number of TARPs for advertisements with strong negative emotions only (p=0.71) or with both graphic images and strong emotions (p=0.09). Exposure to television advertisements is strongly associated with quitline call volume, and both cessation and SHS advertisements can be effective. The use of strong negative emotions in advertisements may be effective in promoting smoking cessation in the population but does not appear to influence quitline call volume. Further research is needed to understand the role of negative emotions in promoting calls to quitlines and cessation more broadly among the majority of smokers who do not call quitlines.

  10. "I'm Strong within Myself": Gender, Class and Emotional Capital in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Yarrow

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have received increasing attention in educational circles in the last decade. Drawing on Bourdieu, feminist scholars use emotional capital to illustrate the ways gendered inequalities can compound the disadvantages of social class. This paper examines relationships within childcare services in Australia, showing how emotional capital…

  11. The Strength of Direct Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Falck, Oliver; Grosjean, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the economic effects of a developer's connectedness in the electronic game industry. Knowledge spillovers between developers are likely to be of special relevance in this knowledge-intensive and regionally concentrated industry. We calculate social network measures for a developer......'s connectedness to other developers at multiple points in time. In a regression in which we exploit within-career variation in social network measures, we find that the number of direct ties a developer has to other developers has a strong effect on both a game's revenues and critics' scores. The quality...... of indirect ties makes no additional contribution to the game's success....

  12. Family Ties and Civic Virtues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I establish a positive relationship between family ties and civic virtues, as captured by disapproval of tax and benefit cheating, corruption, and a range of other dimensions of exploiting others for personal gain. I find that family ties are a complement to social capital, using within country...... evidence from 83 nations and data on second generation immigrants in 29 countries with ancestry in 85 nations. Strong families cultivate universalist values and produce more civic and altruistic individuals. The results provide a constructive role for families in promoting family values that support...

  13. Senior Managers’ Network Tie Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga; Villeseche, Florence

    While the importance or even necessity to build and maintain resourceful social networks appears as a forthright fact, there is still a lack of certainty as to who benefits from the resources that can be accessed through senior managers’ networks, and under what conditions. In this paper, we...... contribute to answering this puzzle with a sample constituted of senior managers from Denmark and their network ties, and investigate both economic and sociological conditions of senior managers’ tie use. Our results show that the greater the distance between aspiration level and actual firm performance......, the more likely it is that senior managers will use their network ties to access resources that benefit chiefly the individual rather than the organization. In addition, we demonstrate that this rapport is moderated by senior managers’ social identity as a member of the corporate elite, so that a strong...

  14. What about the Child's Tie to the Father? A New Insight into Fathering, Father-Child Attachment, Children's Socio-Emotional Development and the Activation Relationship Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Caroline; Paquette, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The broad aim of this study on father-child attachment was to verify whether the Risky Situation (RS) procedure is a more valid means than the Strange Situation (SS) procedure of predicting children's socio-emotional development, and to evaluate the moderator effect of day-to-day involvement on attachment and activation. Participants were 53…

  15. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  16. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  17. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  18. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  19. More ties than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hirsch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the existing enumeration of neck tie-knots to include tie-knots with a textured front, tied with the narrow end of a tie. These tie-knots have gained popularity in recent years, based on reconstructions of a costume detail from The Matrix Reloaded, and are explicitly ruled out in the enumeration by Fink & Mao (2000. We show that the relaxed tie-knot description language that comprehensively describes these extended tie-knot classes is context free. It has a regular sub-language that covers all the knots that originally inspired the work. From the full language, we enumerate 266,682 distinct tie-knots that seem tie-able with a normal neck-tie. Out of these 266,682, we also enumerate 24,882 tie-knots that belong to the regular sub-language.

  20. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non...

  1. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luan

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties. To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review] that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review, participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase

  2. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  3. The Impact of Strong Ties on Knowledge Acquisition of Enterprises: A View of Social Capital%强联结对企业知识获取绩效的影响研究——社会资本的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓棠; 荆心

    2012-01-01

    Researchers study a lot on the benefits and costs of the strength ties during the procession of knowledge acquisition form the Resource-Based View or Knowledge-based View, but the media role of social capital in the process seems to be ignored. This paper presents a view of social capital and study the impact of social capitals, such as trust, reciprocity, social interaction, network connection on knowledge acquisition under the context of strong ties. The paper proposes enterprises should build strong ties and accumulate social capitals in order to improve knowledge acquisition performance.%现有文献主要从资源基础观及知识基础观视角分析联结的强弱在企业知识获取中的利弊,却忽视了社会资本在此过程中的介质作用.本文从社会资本的新视角,研究强联结情境下,信任、互惠、社会化互动、网络联系等社会资本对企业知识获取绩效的影响路径.文章提出企业应该构建强关联网络,积累良好的社会资本,以提高知识获取绩效.

  4. Inferring tie strength from online directed behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Some social connections are stronger than others. People have not only friends, but also best friends. Social scientists have long recognized this characteristic of social connections and researchers frequently use the term tie strength to refer to this concept. We used online interaction data (specifically, Facebook interactions to successfully identify real-world strong ties. Ground truth was established by asking users themselves to name their closest friends in real life. We found the frequency of online interaction was diagnostic of strong ties, and interaction frequency was much more useful diagnostically than were attributes of the user or the user's friends. More private communications (messages were not necessarily more informative than public communications (comments, wall posts, and other interactions.

  5. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  6. Relevant ties matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Pedersen, Jacob; Mouw, Ted

    What is the effect of social networks on labor market outcomes? The tradition following Grannovetter claims that social ties have a positive effect on wages, job prestige and job satisfaction. Although a number of studies have found positive correlations between friendship characteristics and lab...

  7. All tied up: Tied staying and tied migration within the United States, 1997 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Cooke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family migration literature presumes that women are cast into the role of the tied migrant. However, clearly identifying tied migrants is a difficult empirical task since it requires the identification of a counterfactual: Who moved but did not want to? Objective: This research develops a unique methodology to directly identify both tied migrants and tied stayers in order to investigate their frequency and determinants. Methods: Using data from the 1997 through 2009 U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID, propensity score matching is used to match married individuals with comparable single individuals to create counterfactual migration behaviors: who moved but would not have moved had they been single (tied migrants and who did not move but would have moved had they been single (tied stayers. Results: Tied migration is relatively rare and not limited just to women: rates of tied migration are similar for men and women. However, tied staying is both more common than tied migration and equally experienced by men and women. Consistent with the body of empirical evidence, an analysis of the determinants of tied migration and tied staying demonstrates that family migration decisions are imbued with gender. Conclusions: Additional research is warranted to validate the unique methodology developed in this paper and to confirm its results. One line of future research should be to examine the effects of tied staying, along with tied migration, on well-being, union stability, employment, and earnings.

  8. New Tech, New Ties:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard

    regardless of where they are. But when we are engaged in these intimate conversations with absent friends, what happens to our relationship with the people who are actually in the same room with us? In New Tech, New Ties, Rich Ling examines how the mobile telephone affects both kinds of interactions......The message of this book is simple: the mobile phone strengthens social bonds among family and friends. With a traditional land-line telephone, we place calls to a location and ask hopefully if someone is "there"; with a mobile phone, we have instant and perpetual access to friends and family......—those mediated by mobile communication and those that are face to face. Ling finds that through the use of various social rituals the mobile telephone strengthens social ties within the circle of friends and family—sometimes at the expense of interaction with those who are physically present—and creates what he...

  9. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views.

  10. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  11. The communication of emotion during conflict in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated emotion during interpersonal conflicts between mates. It addressed questions about how clearly couples express emotion (encoding), how accurately they recognize each other's emotion (decoding), and how well they distinguish between types of negative emotion. It was theorized that couples express and perceive both: (a) event-specific emotions, which are unique to particular people on particular occasions, and (b) contextual-couple emotions, which reflect the additive effect of emotions across different events and across both partners. Eighty-three married couples engaged in a series of two conflict conversations. Self-report ratings, observer ratings, and partner ratings were used to assess two types of negative emotion: hard emotion (e.g., angry or annoyed) and soft emotion (e.g., sad or hurt). Couples were reasonably accurate in encoding, decoding, and in distinguishing between types of emotion. Emotion expression was strongly associated with general levels of contextual-couple emotion summed across two conversations, whereas emotion perception was more closely tied to specific events. Hard emotion was readily perceived when it was overtly expressed, and soft emotion could sometimes be recognized even when it was not expressed clearly. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Redes sociais em comunidades de baixa renda: os efeitos diferenciais dos laços fracos e dos laços fortes Social networks in low-income communities: the differential effects of weak and strong ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Pereira Prates

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo demonstramos, a partir de uma replicação qualitativa de um estudo quantitativo, que os sistemas fechados de interação - aqui denominados capital social - e os abertos - laços fracos - são fenômenos de natureza distinta e, consequentemente, desempenham funções distintas na determinação da capacidade de articulação coletiva de indivíduos e no grau de eficácia de ações coletivas. A hipótese principal do artigo é que, enquanto capital social tem a ver com maior capacidade dos membros da comunidade para articular mobilização social, os laços fracos dizem respeito à capacidade de a comunidade conseguir benefícios, como saneamento básico, segurança pública, transporte coletivo, saúde e lazer - aqui denominada eficácia coletiva. A metodologia adotada baseia-se na replicação qualitativa de um survey, com três estudos de caso em comunidades periféricas da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, sobre a importância dos laços fracos para a ação eficaz da comunidade diante do poder público.This article demonstrates, through a qualitative replication of a quantitative research - a survey - that the concepts of closed interaction systems - social capital - and open ones - weak ties - refer to different kinds of social phenomena and, therefore, have independent roles in determining the individuals' capability of collective articulation as well as the effectiveness of the collective actions. The main hypothesis is that while social capital has to do with the people's ability to articulate social mobilization, weak ties have to do with the community's capability to obtain services such as sanitation, public safety, transportation, health care and leisure facilities - here called collective effectiveness. The study comprised a qualitative replication of a survey, with three case studies of low-income communities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area.

  13. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  14. Ties that Blind: Perpetuation of Racial Comfort and Discomfort at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Douglas B.; Hyle, Adrienne E.; Jordan, Kitty V.

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with 17 African American students and 19 White students were employed to examine interracial relations at a predominantly White community college campus. Seen through the lens of Granovetter's strength of ties theory, the interview findings revealed that strong intraracial ties and the absence of weak interracial ties inhibited…

  15. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have...... an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non...

  16. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  17. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  18. Tie Content in Professional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarzecka, Olga

    in resource exchanges and the effect of these differences on the number of, and extent to which, resources are provided by a network tie. Chapter 3 explores how firm underperfomance and social identity with corporate elite alter types of resources a network tie provides. Chapter 4 focuses on a tie’s internal......Professional networks of senior managers have indisputable value for them as well as for their organizations. In recent years, much attention has been given to the structure of these networks as it reflects senior managers’ opportunity to access valuable resources. Surprisingly, the actual...... resources that senior managers acquire through their network ties, i.e. the tie content, remain heavily understudied. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the following question: What resources flow through informal ties in senior managers’ professional networks, and why? The first chapter...

  19. Network ties of self-initiated expatriates: not all relations with host country nationals are the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubovcikova, Annamária; van Bakel, Marian

    members with the type and amount of support they provide. The multilevel dataset consisted of 165 expatriates who rated 575 of their network members on the following learned characteristics: host country knowledge, employment status, and host country origin. We have hypothesized that the three learned......This article explores the immediate network of self-initiated expatriates and how it influences their work information and emotional support. Building on the information seeking theory and the theory of weak and strong ties, we have created a model connecting specific characteristics of the network...... characteristics of the network members will be connected with the frequency of interaction with the expatriate and thus the level and type of support received from the specific tie. We expected positive correlation between host country knowledge and interaction; however empirical results did not confirm this...

  20. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. 23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.111 Tied bids. (a) The STD may tie or permit the tying of Federal-aid...-financed highway projects may be combined in one contract if the conditions of the projects are so similar...

  2. Tying the Manager's Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Vázquez-Vicente, Xosé H.

    2003-01-01

    assets, strong trade unions, corporate culture, etc. may function as constraints on managerial proclivities to opportunistically intervene. Thus, firms can make credible commitments that check managerial proclivities to opportunistically intervene. We derive 5 hypotheses from these ideas, and test them...

  3. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  4. The downside of strong emotional memories: how human memory-related genes influence the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder--a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2014-07-01

    A good memory for emotionally arousing experiences may be intrinsically adaptive, as it helps the organisms to predict safety and danger and to choose appropriate responses to prevent potential harm. However, under conditions of repeated exposure to traumatic stressors, strong emotional memories of these experiences can lead to the development of trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This syndrome is characterized by distressing intrusive memories that can be so intense that the survivor is unable to discriminate past from present experiences. This selective review on the role of memory-related genes in PTSD etiology is divided in three sections. First, we summarize studies indicating that the likelihood to develop PTSD depends on the cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors and on individual predisposing risk factors, including a substantial genetic contribution to PTSD risk. Second, we focus on memory processes supposed to be involved in PTSD etiology and present evidence for PTSD-associated alterations in both implicit (fear conditioning, fear extinction) and explicit memory for emotional material. This is supplemented by a brief description of structural and functional alterations in memory-relevant brain regions in PTSD. Finally, we summarize a selection of studies indicating that genetic variations found to be associated with enhanced fear conditioning, reduced fear extinction or better episodic memory in human experimental studies can have clinical implications in the case of trauma exposure and influence the risk of PTSD development. Here, we focus on genes involved in noradrenergic (ADRA2B), serotonergic (SLC6A4), and dopaminergic signaling (COMT) as well as in the molecular cascades of memory formation (PRKCA and WWC1). This is supplemented by initial evidence that such memory-related genes might also influence the response rates of exposure-based psychotherapy or pharmacological treatment of PTSD, which underscores the

  5. Web API Growing Pains : Loosely Coupled yet Strongly Tied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. Developers using web APIs are forced to accompany the API providers in their software evolution tasks. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we

  6. Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L

    2018-06-01

    Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition. A subset of participants were randomized to a waitlist control group. Impulsivity, emotion regulation, and performance on near and far-transfer cognitive tasks were assessed at baseline and after completion of training. Emotion-related impulsivity declined significantly from pre-training to post-training and at two-week follow-up; improvements were not observed in the waitlist control group. A decrease in brooding rumination and an increase in reappraisal were also observed. Participants showed significant improvements on trained versions of the working memory and inhibition tasks as well as improvements on an inhibition transfer task. In sum, these preliminary findings show that cognitive training appears to be well-tolerated for people with significant emotion-driven impulsivity. Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of cognitive training interventions as a way to reduce emotion-related impulsivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of ILRS Site Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

    2001-12-01

    By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

  8. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  9. Topic Detection Based on Weak Tie Analysis: A Case Study of LIS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Based on the weak tie theory, this paper proposes a series of connection indicators of weak tie subnets and weak tie nodes to detect research topics, recognize their connections, and understand their evolution. Design/methodology/approach: First, keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed. Second, high-frequency keywords are selected to generate weak tie co-occurrence networks. By removing the internal lines of clustered sub-topic networks, we focus on the analysis of weak tie subnets' composition and functions and the weak tie nodes' roles. Findings: The research topics' clusters and themes changed yearly; the subnets clustered with technique-related and methodology-related topics have been the core, important subnets for years; while close subnets are highly independent, research topics are generally concentrated and most topics are application-related; the roles and functions of nodes and weak ties are diversified. Research limitations: The parameter values are somewhat inconsistent; the weak tie subnets and nodes are classified based on empirical observations, and the conclusions are not verified or compared to other methods. Practical implications: The research is valuable for detecting important research topics as well as their roles, interrelations, and evolution trends. Originality/value: To contribute to the strength of weak tie theory, the research translates weak and strong ties concepts to co-occurrence strength, and analyzes weak ties' functions. Also, the research proposes a quantitative method to classify and measure the topics' clusters and nodes.

  10. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  11. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  12. Dual market structures and the likelihood of repeated ties - evidence from pharmaceutical biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijakkers, A.H.W.M.; Hagedoorn, J.; Kranenburg, van H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of repeated ties in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry, a sector that is characterized by a strong dual market structure. Our most important finding is that previous ties in pairs of large pharmaceutical companies and small biotechnology firms have a

  13. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  14. The ties that bind: Ingroup ties are linked with diminished inflammatory immune responses and fewer mental health symptoms through less rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Anisman, Hymie; Matheson, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    The present research explored whether components of social identity, namely ingroup ties, affect, and centrality, were differentially linked to mental health and inflammatory immune responses, and whether rumination mediated those relations. Study 1 (N = 138) indicated that stronger ingroup ties were associated with fewer mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress) symptoms; those relations were mediated by the tendency for individuals with strong ties to rely less on ruminative coping to deal with a stressful life event. Study 2 (N = 54) demonstrated that ingroup ties were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, dispositional rumination, as well as stress-linked inflammatory elements at the physiological level. Consistent associations for centrality and ingroup affect were absent, suggesting that ingroup ties may have unique health benefits.

  15. Personal Ties in the Writing of a Doctoral Dissertation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colombo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of low graduation rates at the graduate level has been linked to the challenges of dissertation work. Given that this is a process of “disciplinary enculturation”, where graduate students acquire the ways of being and doing of each discipline, the social relations of doctoral candidates should be analyzed. Several studies have explored the support provided by social ties within academia but have, nevertheless, ignored other spheres. This qualitative study, based on in-depth interviews, explores the personal-sphere social relations in the dissertation writing process from the point of view of doctoral candidates and recent graduates in the fields of Education and Linguistics. Results indicate that the emotional, financial, economic, and academic support offered by these social ties is a necessary, although not in itself, sufficient condition. Some strategies for increasing institutional support to facilitate the process of writing a dissertation are offered.

  16. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  17. Hanging Together, Together Hung? Career Implications of Interpersonal Ties Between CEOs and Top Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hilger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Is it good or bad for senior executives to have strong interpersonal ties to the CEO? We argue that a strong relationship with the CEO raises the likelihood that a top manager stays in office or makes an upward career move when the CEO leaves office voluntarily. At the same time, such interpersonal ties also reinforce the negative spillover effects of a dismissal of the CEO on the career prospects of the manager concerned. Our empirical analysis lends support to both arguments. We contribute to managerial succession research by underlining the ambivalence of interpersonal ties within top management teams.

  18. Social Ties for Labor Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina

    such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially......We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records...... in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without...

  19. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  20. Close encounters: Analyzing how social similarity and propinquity contribute to strong network connections.

    OpenAIRE

    Reagans, Ray Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Models of network formation emphasize the importance of social similarity and propinquity in producing strong interpersonal connections. The positive effect each factor can have on tie strength has been documented across a number of studies, and yet we know surprisingly very little about how the two factors combine to produce strong ties. Being in close proximity could either amplify or dampen the positive effect that social similarity can have on tie strength. Data on tie strength among teac...

  1. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  2. The emergence of cooperation in tie strength models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Yue, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a tie strength model to explain the emergence of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games, assuming that cooperators preferentially allocate their investments to friends with strong ties. Two types of prisoner's dilemma models are examined in this study: the traditional two-strategy model considering only cooperators and defectors; the expanded three-strategy model consisting cooperators, defectors and extortioners. The results show that tie strength model contributes to the promotion of cooperation in both types of prisoner's dilemma games. However, we point out that the influence of the investment preference is quite different in the two prisoner's dilemma game settings. In the two-strategy prisoner's dilemma game, only small preference contributes to the promotion of cooperation. Once this preference exceeds a critical value, cooperation will be prohibited. We explain this phenomenon by arguing that extremely strong investment preference undermines the ability of cooperative clusters to resist defectors. Moreover, we extend the analysis into the three-strategy case and discover that the catalytic effect of extortioners can eliminate this first up and then down trend in the two-strategy model. The equilibrium fraction of cooperators is always positively correlated to the level of investment preference in three-strategy models.

  3. No strong evidence for abnormal levels of dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and emotional information-processing biases in remitted bipolar I affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Claudia; Meyer, Thomas D; Marquart, Barbara; Thau, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Beck extended his original cognitive theory of depression by suggesting that mania was a mirror image of depression characterized by extreme positive cognition about the self, the world, and the future. However, there were no suggestions what might be special regarding cognitive features in bipolar patients (Mansell & Scott, 2006). We therefore used different indicators to evaluate cognitive processes in bipolar patients and healthy controls. We compared 19 remitted bipolar I patients (BPs) without any Axis I comorbidity with 19 healthy individuals (CG). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, the Emotional Stroop Test, and an incidental recall task. No significant group differences were found in automatic thinking and the information-processing styles (Emotional Stroop Test, incidental recall task). Regarding dysfunctional attitudes, we obtained ambiguous results. It appears that individuals with remitted bipolar affective disorder do not show cognitive vulnerability as proposed in Beck's theory of depression if they only report subthreshold levels of depressive symptoms. Perhaps, the cognitive vulnerability might only be observable if mood induction procedures are used.

  4. The power of indirect social ties

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Xiang; Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    While direct social ties have been intensely studied in the context of computer-mediated social networks, indirect ties (e.g., friends of friends) have seen little attention. Yet in real life, we often rely on friends of our friends for recommendations (of good doctors, good schools, or good babysitters), for introduction to a new job opportunity, and for many other occasional needs. In this work we attempt to 1) quantify the strength of indirect social ties, 2) validate it, and 3) empiricall...

  5. Construction loads experienced by plastic composite ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Damage to plastic composite ties during handling and track installation has been reported by a number of railroads. Results from : a survey conducted to identify specific handling issues were used to develop field and laboratory tests to measure the ...

  6. Tying Trade Flows: A Theory of Countertrade

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Dalia; Schnitzer, Monika

    1994-01-01

    A countertrade contract ties an export to an import. Usually, countertrade is seen as a form of bilateralism and reciprocity and thus as an inefficient form of international exchange. In this paper we argue that there are circumstances where the tying of two technologically unrelated trade flows may be efficiency enhancing. We show that countertrade can be seen as an efficient institution that solves moral hazard problems and restores creditworthiness of countries with large outstanding debt....

  7. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  9. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  10. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  11. Open knot-tying skills: residents skills assessed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Scheele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Open knot-tying and suturing skills are fundamental surgical skills, founding many alternative knot-tying techniques. It is therefore mandatory for residents to possess adequate basic open knot-tying skills. The aim of this study was to compare an objective assessment of open knot-tying skills

  12. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  13. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  14. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  15. Ties that bind: multiple relationships between clinical researchers and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Hill, Suzanne; McNeill, Paul M; Day, Richard

    2005-11-28

    It is believed that pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research leads to the development of multiple ties between clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. To quantify this relationship we conducted a survey of medical specialists listed in the Medical Directory of Australia in 2002 and 2003. A questionnaire was mailed that elicited information about all aspects of research relationships between clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. The odds of reporting multiple additional ties (financial and professional) with pharmaceutical companies by clinicians who had an active research relationship were compared with those who did not. All clinicians who returned a completed questionnaire about their research activities were included in the study. A questionnaire was mailed to 2120 medical specialists; 823 (39%) responded. Of these, 338 (41%) reported involvement in industry-sponsored research in the previous year. They were more likely than others to have been offered industry-sponsored items or activities valued at more than 500 AU dollars (>382 US dollars; odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.7) and support for attending international conferences (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 3.9-7.4). The strongest associations were seen for acting as a paid consultant to industry (OR, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.9-20.4) and for membership on advisory boards (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 5.1-9.6). There was a strong relationship between research collaboration and accumulation of industry ties. For 1 additional tie the OR was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2-3.8) and rose to 6.3 (95% CI, 3.5-11.1) with 3 ties and 41.8 (95% CI, 14.5-143.4) with 6 or more ties. Medical specialists who have research relationships with the pharmaceutical industry are much more likely to have multiple additional ties than those who do not have research relationships. Institutional review should discourage clinical researchers from developing multiple ties.

  16. Relationships: The Critical Ties That Bind Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes that the success of student affairs professionals is more closely tied to their ability to construct and manage essential relationships during their careers than any other activity. The author discusses essential principles and skills in developing and managing professional relationships. (GCP)

  17. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  18. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  19. Work information and emotional support of self-initiated expatriates: multilevel mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubovcikova, Annamária; van Bakel, Marian

    of the network members with the type and amount of support they provide. The dataset consisted of 165 expatriates who rated 575 of their network members on the following learned characteristics: host country knowledge, employment status, and host country origin. The ego-centered network that consists...... of the rated ties is the context in which expatriates are embedded. It was therefore analyzed utilizing a multilevel mediation model. We have hypothesized that all learned characteristics will be determining the frequency of interaction and thus the level and type of support received. Host country knowledge......This article explores the immediate network context of self-initiated expatriates and how it influences their work information and emotional support. Building on the information seeking theory and the theory of weak and strong ties, we have created a model connecting specific characteristics...

  20. Mental health of sub-saharan african migrants: The gendered role of migration paths and transnational ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Pannetier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, migrants are at higher risk of common mental disorders or psychological distress than are natives. Little is known regarding the social determinants of migrant mental health, particularly the roles played by migration conditions and transnational practices, which may manifest themselves in different ways for men and for women. The goal of this paper was to understand the gendered roles of migration paths and transnational ties in mental health among sub-Saharan African migrants residing in the Paris, France, metropolitan area. This study used data from the Parcours study conducted in 2012–2013, which employed a life-event approach to collect data from a representative sample of migrants who visited healthcare facilities (n = 2468. We measured anxiety and depressive symptoms at the time of data collection with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4. Reasons for migration, the living conditions in the host country and transnational ties after migration were taken into account by sex and after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that among sub-Saharan African migrants, mental health is related to the migratory path and the migrant’s situation in the host country but differently for women and men. Among women, anxiety and depressive symptoms were strongly related to having left one’s home country because of threats to one’s life. Among men, residing illegally in the host country was related to impaired mental health. For both women and men, cross-border separation from a child less than 18 years old was not independently associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, social and emotional support from relatives and friends—both from the society of origin and of destination—were associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms. Migrant mental health may be impaired in the current context of anti-migrant policies and an anti-immigrant social environment in Europe.

  1. Performance evaluation of concrete railroad ties on the northeast corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. conducted an investigation into the factors that caused widespread failure in prestressed concrete : railroad ties on the Northeast Corridor. The problem was apparent in ties manufactured and installed circa 19941998....

  2. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  3. Network ties in the international opportunity recognition of family SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kontinen, Tanja; Ojala, Arto

    2011-01-01

    The importance of network ties is emphasized in the current literature on opportunity recognition. However, it is unclear how firms with limited bridging networks, such as family SMEs, recognize international opportunities through their network ties. In this case study we found that in gaining foreign market entry, those family SMEs that lack existing network ties recognize opportunities through weak ties formed in international exhibitions. The findings also indicate that rather than being p...

  4. Nonlinear Price Schedules and Tied Products.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormiston, Michael B; Phillips, Owen R

    1988-01-01

    Illegal tying often occurs when a monopolist jointly sells a product with a complementary requirement, also sold competitively. Along with selling the complement at its competi tive price, this paper shows that profit can increase when a monopoli st lets consumers bundle any amount of the requirement with the basic product at a fixed price. Examples illustrate demand conditions that enhance the profitability of this nonlinear price strategy and show that profits can approximate those earned f...

  5. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  6. Clinical evaluation of the endothelial tie-2 crossmatch in ABO compatible and ABO incompatible renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetzi, Maria L; Boletis, John N; Melexopoulou, Christine A; Tsakris, Athanassios; Iniotaki, Aliki G; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of detection of other than the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) directed antibodies prior to organ transplantation has already been repeatedly reported. A commercial flow cytometric endothelial crossmatch (CM) using isolated peripheral blood tie-2 positive cells provides a tool to detect non-MHC antibodies in addition to antibodies directed to MHC class I and II. The vast majority of circulating tie-2 positive cells expresses HLA-DR but not the A, B blood group antigens. Tie-2 cells are circulating surrogate endothelial cells. In this retrospective study we evaluated the endothelial CM in 51 renal transplantations, 30 with ABO compatible grafts and 21 with ABO incompatible grafts. Fifteen of the ABO compatible recipients (group A) developed unexplained rejection episodes (RE) while the remaining 15 had no RE (group B). Five cases of group A and none of group B had a positive tie-2 CM before transplantation (p=0.042). A positive tie-2 CM was also correlated with graft failure in ABO compatible transplants (p=0.02). No significant correlation was found between a positive pre-transplant tie-2 CM and RE in the ABO incompatible group. This study strongly suggest that a positive tie-2 CM may predict post-transplantation complications in ABO compatible grafts while negative reactions are not predictive. The test is not significantly correlated with RE in ABO incompatible grafts possibly due to applied desensitization. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  8. The Strength of Weak Ties in MBA Job Search: A Within–Person Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Greenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how social ties create value has inspired substantial research in organizational theory, sociology, and economics. Scholars generally believe that social ties impact labor market outcomes. Two explanatory mechanisms have been identified, emphasizing access to better job offers in pecuniary terms and the efficacy of non-redundant information. The evidence informing each theory, however, has been inconsistent and circumstantial. We test predictions from both models using a rich set of job search data collected from an MBA student population, including detailed information about search channels and characteristics of job offers. Importantly, we can compare offers made to the same student derived via different search channels while accounting for industry, function, and non-pecuniary characteristics. We find that contrary to conventional wisdom, search through social networks typically results in job offers with lower total compensation (-17 percent for referrals through strong ties and -16 percent for referrals via weak ties vs. formal search. However, our models also show that students are considerably more likely to accept offers derived via weak ties. They do so because they are perceived to have greater growth potential and other non-pecuniary value. On balance, our tests are consistent with Granovetter’s argument that networks provide value by facilitating access to information that is otherwise difficult to obtain, rather than providing greater pecuniary compensation.

  9. The centrality of social ties to climate migration and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Casey, Joan A

    2017-07-06

    Climate change-related hazards and disasters, known to adversely impact physical and mental health outcomes, are also expected to result in human migration above current levels. Environmentally-motivated migration and displacement may lead to the disruption of existing social ties, with potentially adverse consequences for mobile populations as well as their family members who remain in places of origin. We propose that the disruption of social ties is a key mechanism by which climate-related migration may negatively impact mental health, in particular. Existing social ties may provide social and material resources that buffer mental health stressors related to both prolonged and acute climate events. Preparation for such events may also strengthen these same ties and protect mental health. Communities may leverage social ties, first to mitigate climate change, and second, to adapt and rebuild post-disaster in communities of origin. Additionally, social ties can inform migration decisions and destinations. For example, scholars have found that the drought-motivated adaptive migration of West African Fulbe herders only occurred because of the long-term development of social networks between migrants and non-migrants through trade and seasonal grazing. On the other hand, social ties do not always benefit mental health. Some migrants, including those from poor regions or communities with no formal safety net, may face considerable burden to provide financial and emotional resources to family members who remain in countries of origin. In destination communities, migrants often face significant social marginalization. Therefore, policies and programs that aim to maintain ongoing social ties among migrants and their family and community members may be critically important in efforts to enhance population resilience and adaptation to climate change and to improve mental health outcomes. Several online platforms, like Refugee Start Force, serve to integrate refugees by

  10. The centrality of social ties to climate migration and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change-related hazards and disasters, known to adversely impact physical and mental health outcomes, are also expected to result in human migration above current levels. Environmentally-motivated migration and displacement may lead to the disruption of existing social ties, with potentially adverse consequences for mobile populations as well as their family members who remain in places of origin. We propose that the disruption of social ties is a key mechanism by which climate-related migration may negatively impact mental health, in particular. Existing social ties may provide social and material resources that buffer mental health stressors related to both prolonged and acute climate events. Preparation for such events may also strengthen these same ties and protect mental health. Communities may leverage social ties, first to mitigate climate change, and second, to adapt and rebuild post-disaster in communities of origin. Additionally, social ties can inform migration decisions and destinations. For example, scholars have found that the drought-motivated adaptive migration of West African Fulbe herders only occurred because of the long-term development of social networks between migrants and non-migrants through trade and seasonal grazing. On the other hand, social ties do not always benefit mental health. Some migrants, including those from poor regions or communities with no formal safety net, may face considerable burden to provide financial and emotional resources to family members who remain in countries of origin. In destination communities, migrants often face significant social marginalization. Therefore, policies and programs that aim to maintain ongoing social ties among migrants and their family and community members may be critically important in efforts to enhance population resilience and adaptation to climate change and to improve mental health outcomes. Several online platforms, like Refugee Start Force

  11. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  12. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  13. Vínculos organizacionais Organizational ties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garcez Kramer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de caso único, realizado junto a uma organização pública municipal de Curitiba, e tem como objetivo investigar e compreender os vínculos organizacionais. O estudo dos vínculos é feito por meio dos seus elementos constitutivos: a identificação, o sentimento de pertença, a cooperação, a participação, a criação de inimigos, a idealização, o reconhecimento e valorização dos indivíduos, a solidariedade, a integração, o crescimento e desenvolvimento pessoal e profissional e a autonomia. Foram utilizados, como instrumentos de coleta, questionário fechado e análise documental. O resultado dessa pesquisa é a caracterização dos elementos que são importantes na formação e manutenção dos vínculos e, conseqüentemente, para o comprometimento dos empregados com os objetivos, políticas, problemas, desempenho e resultados da organização.This article presents a unique case study of the organizational ties in a public municipal organization in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The ties are studied through their constitutive elements: identification, sense of belonging, cooperation, participation, creation of enemies, idealization, recognition and appreciation of individuals, solidarity, integration, professional and personal development and growth, and autonomy. Documental analysis and closed questionnaires were used for data collection. The research resulted in the characterization of the elements that are important in making and keeping ties, and consequently committing employees to the organization's objectives, policies, problems, performance and results.

  14. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac W; Joyce, Kenneth M; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L

    2014-04-01

    Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  15. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  16. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

  17. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  18. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the

  19. The role of emotional wisdom in salespersons' relationships with colleagues and customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagozzi, R.P.; Belschak, F.; Verbeke, W.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional wisdom is defined as a set of seven dimensions of basic skills and meta-narratives concerning how to regulate emotions within specific domains in such a way that the individual's and firm's well-being are tied together. Using operationalizations of emotional wisdom for salespersons from a

  20. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gauge Bosons--The Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four basic forces/interactions in nature (strong force, weak force, electromagnetic force and gravity), associated with elementary particles. Focuses on "gauge bosons" (for example, photons), thought to account for strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. (Author/JN)

  2. Expressing emotions in blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Carmina Rodriguez-Hidalgo; Tan, Ed S.; Verlegh, Peeter

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing...... of emotion (SSE, Rimé, 2009). This study content-analyzed Live Journal blogposts for the occurrence of TPC in three phases of online SSE: initiation, feedback and repost. We compared these to TPC on a second type of emotional expression, emotional venting. Based on Social Information processing theory (SIP......, Walther, 1992), and on the Emotional Mimicry in Context (EMC, Hess & Fischer, 2013) framework, we study predictive relationships in TPC usage in our phased model of online SSE. Results showed that TPC prevailed in SSE blogposts and strongly dominated in emotional venting posts. TPC was more common...

  3. Building Social Capital: How the news and the strength of the ties in the political discussion foster reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ardèvol-Abreu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity, a social principle that emerges in non-negotiated, inter-personal exchange, is arguably a key construct in generating social capital. However, little research has made this empirical connection. Building on an Orientation-Stimulus-Reasoning-Orientation-Response model, this study advances a theoretical and empirical model in which news use and political discussion tie strength contributes to the development of reciprocity and social capital. Drawing on two-wave panel data, results suggest that reciprocity is a strong predictor of social capital. News media use also directly predicts reciprocity, as well as political discussion with both strong and weak ties, and social capital. Additionally, discussion with weak ties and reciprocity mediate the relationship between news use and social capital.

  4. Together, Close, Resilient: Essays On Emotion Work Among Black Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Bickerstaff, Jovonne J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intimacy and support are deemed vital to most individuals’ sense of relationship quality and satisfaction. Although relationship outcomes are more closely tied with partners’ sense of emotional well-being in their partnerships, most sociological inquiry focuses on how couples navigate instrumental tasks of family work (e.g. household work, childcare, etc.). Examinations of emotional facets of couple relationship remain rare. This dissertation addresses this dearth by presenting an ...

  5. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  6. Ties That Bind: Building and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Relationships through Family Traditions and Rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Diane, Ed.; Bankston, Karen, Ed.

    This booklet discusses the importance of family rituals as a way of staying connected to children as they move through adolescence. Family rituals give teens a sense of being part of a family that values its time together. Even something as simple as a family meal together can have great impact on maintaining a bond between parents and children.…

  7. Network embeddedness and organizational performance. The strength of strong ties in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, J.; Torenvlied, R.; Allen, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    With only few exceptions, current research in public management on the effects of inter-organizational networks on organizational performance focuses either on network activity or on the inter-organizational network structure. The present paper theoretically links both approaches and tests two

  8. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  9. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  10. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  11. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that a retailer purchase one product (as defined in § 6.11) in... and not individually. However, an industry member is not precluded from selling two or more kinds or...

  12. Tie-breaking in games of perfect information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The paper suggests that ties in an extensive form game have strategic implications if they represent credible threats or promises. We consider a subset of subgame-perfect Nash equilibria obtained by breaking ties according to their strategic implications, and show that the subset is nonempty for ...

  13. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C A; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile saline was taken from specific area on ties at end of first and third working days and sent in transport medium for culture on chocolatised blood and MacConkey agar for 48 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Level of bacteriological growth assessed semiquantitatively (0 for no contamination; for heavy contamination) after swabs had been cultured. At end of study the participants completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude toward wearing different types of necktie. RESULTS--12 doctors (80%) completed the study. Although bow ties were significantly less contaminated at end of first working day (z = -2.354, p = 0.019), this difference was not maintained; there was no difference in level of contamination on third day. Level of contamination did not increase between first and third day of wearing the same garment. One of the 10 doctors who returned the questionnaire found the bow tie very uncomfortable. All participants would consider wearing a bow tie if it proved to be less contaminated than a conventional tie. CONCLUSIONS--Although a significant difference in contamination was established between conventional and bow ties on first day of study, this difference was not confirmed on third day and there is unlikely to be any real association between tie type and bacterial contamination. Because of its negative image and difficulty to tie, the bow tie will probably remain a minority fashion. Images p1583-a PMID:8292945

  14. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  15. A flavour of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    <strong>Background>

    Wine and beer are the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide and are known by the sensory pleasure and short terms effects such as relaxation and mood enhancement. However, it remains unclear what are the specific emotions evoked by wine or beer

  16. Tie Points Extraction for SAR Images Based on Differential Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Jin, G.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, H.

    2018-04-01

    Automatically extracting tie points (TPs) on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC) algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. TIE POINTS EXTRACTION FOR SAR IMAGES BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatically extracting tie points (TPs on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14 by Tie2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth factor receptor bound (Grb proteins 7, 10 and 14 are a family of structurally related multi-domain adaptor proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Grb7, 10 and 14 are known to become serine and/or threonine phosphorylated in response to growth factor (GF stimulation. Grb7 and 10 have also been shown to become tyrosine phosphorylated under certain conditions. Under experimental conditions Grb7 is tyrosine phosphorylated by the Tie2/Tie-2/Tek angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Furthermore, Grb14 has also been shown to interact with Tie2, however tyrosine phosphorylation of this Grb family member has yet to be reported. Results Here we report for the first time tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14. This phosphorylation requires a kinase competent Tie2 as well as intact tyrosines 1100 and 1106 (Y1100 and Y1106 on the receptor. Furthermore, a complete SH2 domain on Grb14 is required for Grb14 tyrosine phosphorylation by Tie2. Grb14 was also able to become tyrosine phosphorylated in primary endothelial cells when treated with a soluble and potent variant of the Tie2 ligand, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP Ang1. Conclusion Our results show that Grb14, like its family members Grb7 and Grb10, is able to be tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, our data indicate a role for Grb14 in endothelial signaling downstream of the Tie2 receptor.

  20. An Exploratory Examination of Social Ties and Crime in Mobile Home Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. McCarty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the systemic model of social disorganization, the purpose of this study was to explore the nature of social ties in mobile home communities and examine how that relates to rates of violent and property crime. Interviews with a small sample of mobile home residents, owners, and managers in Omaha, Nebraska, indicate a wide spectrum of communities, from those characterized by an atomized population to those with strong social ties. Fear of crime, ethnically heterogeneous populations, and lax management were cited by respondents as factors that undermined relationships. Proactive management and a desire to help neighbors were cited by respondents as factors that helped strengthen relationships. Violent and property crime rates for the mobile home communities were largely consistent with the interview data, providing support for the importance of social networks and a systemic model of social disorganization. The implications of these findings for research and policy are also explored.

  1. The Popularity of Picture Books with Television Tie-in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes circulation statistics of television tie-in picture books from the Wake County Public Library System in North Carolina to determine their popularity among patrons. Caldecott winning picture books were used as a point of comparison. This study also examined OPAC holdings from North Carolina public libraries to determine television tie-in picture book popularity among collection builders. The findings of the study show that television tie-in picture books are found to some degree in the vast majority of North Carolina public libraries, and are more popular than award winners in the Wake County system.

  2. The social tie and the malaise facing the helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Tannure Cavalcanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we intend to approach the discourses as social ties, indicated by Lacan, relating them to the freudian concepts of helplessness (Hilflosigkeit and the malaise of civilization. The theory of discourses opens up a new way of thinking about clinical structures and social ties, by articulating language and enjoyment camps, the subject and the unconscious knowledge. This theory, while it takes over Freudian principles, it advances in impasses left by the Viennese master, in particular on the relationship between the metapsychological foundations of the subjective constitution and the conceptual bases concerning culture and actual social ties.

  3. EXPORT PROMOTION: Export-Import Bank and Treasury Differ in Their Approaches to Using Tied Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Under the tied aid program legislation,4 Treasury had the authority to direct and control the use of Ex-Im Bank's Tied Aid Capital Projects Fund, in effect allowing Treasury to veto individual tied aid proposals...

  4. Does Visual Impairment Affect Social Ties in Late Life? Findings of a Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, A; Brettschneider, C; Lühmann, D; Eisele, M; Mamone, S; Wiese, B; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Pentzek, M; Fuchs, A; Stein, J; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Weeg, D; Heser, K; Jessen, F; Maier, W; Scherer, M; Riedel-Heller, S G; König, H-H

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how visual impairment affects social ties in late life longitudinally. Population-based prospective cohort study. Individuals in old age were recruited via general practitioners' offices (at six study centers) in Germany. They were interviewed every 18 months. Individuals aged 75 years and above at baseline. Follow-up wave 2 (36 months after baseline, n=2,443) and wave 4 (72 months after baseline, n=1,618) were used for the analyses presented here. Social ties were assessed using the 14-item form of the questionnaire for social support (F-SozU K-14). Visual impairment was self-rated on a three level Likert scale (no impairment, mild visual impairment, or severe/profound visual impairment). Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, hearing impairment and comorbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of mild visual impairment decreased the social support score, in particular the emotional support score. Additionally, the onset of mild hearing impairment decreased the social support score in men. Moreover, increasing age decreased the social support score in the total sample and in both sexes. Loss of spouse and increasing comorbidity did not affect the social support score. Our results highlight the importance of visual impairment for social ties in late life. Consequently, appropriate strategies in order to delay visual impairment might help to maintain social ties in old age.

  5. Embodied emotion impairment in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkler, Iris; Devignevielle, Sévérine; Achaibou, Amal; Ligneul, Romain V; Brugières, Pierre; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; De Gelder, Beatrice; Scahill, Rachael; Schwartz, Sophie; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment. We used electromyography (EMG) to compare voluntary emotion expression from words to emotion imitation from static face images, and spontaneous emotion mimicry in 28 HD patients and 24 matched controls. For the latter two imitation conditions, an underlying emotion understanding is not imperative (even though performance might be helped by it). EMG measures were compared to emotion recognition and to the capacity to identify and describe emotions using alexithymia questionnaires. Alexithymia questionnaires tap into the more somato-visceral or interoceptive aspects of emotion perception. Furthermore, we correlated patients' expression and recognition scores to cerebral grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). EMG results replicated impaired voluntary emotion expression in HD. Critically, voluntary imitation and spontaneous mimicry were equally impaired and correlated with impaired recognition. By contrast, alexithymia scores were normal, suggesting that emotion representations on the level of internal experience might be spared. Recognition correlated with brain volume in the caudate as well as in areas previously associated with shared action representations, namely somatosensory, posterior parietal, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and subcentral sulcus. Together, these findings indicate that in these patients emotion deficits might be tied to the "motoric level" of emotion expression. Such a double

  6. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the

  7. High-speed passenger rail tie-ballast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Research Results Report presents : evidence of poor tie support and increased : applied loads that were used to determine the : root cause of transient and permanent vertical : displacements at two Amtrak bridge transitions. : These result...

  8. Cracking and impact performance characteristics of plastic composite ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    As followup to a workshop on Engineered Composite Ties sponsored by the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association and the Federal Railroad Administration, the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., in Pueblo, CO, conducted a se...

  9. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  10. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  11. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  12. When community ties lead to violent crimes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Exploring social cohesion and mistrust of the state as drivers of urban ... Evidence suggests that these ties help communities to self-organize and .... acts while weakening social interactions and bonds between neighbours.

  13. Vibration Analysis for Monitoring of Ancient Tie-Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Collini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of vibration analysis to the monitoring of tie-rods. An algorithm for the axial load estimation based on experimentally measured natural frequencies is introduced and its application to a case study is reported. The proposed model of a tie-rod incorporates elastic bed-type boundary conditions that represent the contact between stonework and the tie-rod. The weighed differences between experimentally and numerically determined frequencies are minimized with respect to the parameters of the model, the main being the axial load and the stiffness at the tie-rod/wall interface. Thus, the multidimensional optimization problem is solved. Results are analysed in comparison to a model with simple fixed-end boundary conditions. In addition, the analytical formulation of the problem is delivered.

  14. Leaving Libertarianism: : Social Ties in Robert Nozick's New Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Herbjørnsrud, Dag

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This thesis Leaving Libertarianism: Social Ties in Robert Nozick s New Philosophy challenges the general and most widespread portrayals of the American philosopher Robert Nozick (1938-2002) by studying the notion of social ties in his later philosophy. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1...

  15. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  16. Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C; Christensen, Søren T

    2005-01-01

    Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...... organs play a novel and important sensory role in relaying physiochemical changes from the extracellular environment to epithelial cells of the oviduct, the ovary and extra-ovarian tissues.......Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...

  17. Family Ties and Young Fathers’ Engagement in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shelley; Cotton, Cassandra; Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2015-01-01

    Young South African fathers are often engaged in their children’s lives even if they do not live together. Using longitudinal data on children (n = 1,209) from the Cape Town area, the authors show that although only 26% of young fathers live with their children, 66% of nonresidential fathers maintain regular contact, and 61% provide financial support. The father–child relationship, however, is embedded in broader family ties. The type of father–mother relationship is strongly associated with whether fathers coreside with their children, but not with fathers’ contact with nonresidential children. Close mother and maternal grandmother bonds reduce the likelihood that fathers live with their children, whereas close ties between fathers and paternal grandmothers increase the chance that fathers visit nonresidential children. Family ties do not affect fathers’ financial contributions, which are driven by men’s current economic situation. These findings illustrate that father–child relationships are best understood in the context of interacting family systems. PMID:25774066

  18. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  19. A discrete emotions approach to positive emotion disturbance in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, June; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Johnson, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Converging findings suggest that depressed individuals exhibit disturbances in positive emotion. No study, however, has ascertained which specific positive emotions are implicated in depression. We report two studies that compare how depressive symptoms relate to distinct positive emotions at both trait and state levels of assessment. In Study 1 (N=185), we examined associations between depressive symptoms and three trait positive emotions (pride, happy, amusement). Study 2 compared experiential and autonomic reactivity to pride, happy, and amusement film stimuli between depressive (n=24; DS) and non-depressive (n=31; NDS) symptom groups. Results indicate that symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with decreased trait pride and decreased positive emotion experience to pride-eliciting films. Discussion focuses on the implications these findings have for understanding emotion deficits in depression as well as for the general study of positive emotion. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  20. COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Research When I think of commitment, it is a feeling and an action with a strong moral component. However, as I began researching commitment it became...characteristics of “being committed” must be independent of behavior. One mechanism of doing this is through the analysis of bargaining and side bets .27...Becker uses Schelling’s example of bargaining to buy a house to explain side bets . In this scenario, you offer $16,000, but the seller counters with

  1. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  2. Cultural Modes of Expressing Emotions Influence How Emotions Are Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The brain’s mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, i.e. the magnitude of individuals’ bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during fMRI. As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. While expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals’ overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post-hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions “feel like.” PMID:27270077

  3. Knowledge-based network ties in early rapidly internationalising small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masango, Shingairai Grace; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2014-01-01

    strong knowledge-based contacts. The ERISF acts as the source that provides the technical information and knowledge, which is then adopted by their network partners. This means that the ERISF’s product and technological capabilities drive the international knowledge creation process. The findings provide...... a holistic characterisation of the concept of knowledge in ERISF internationalisation. Within their interorganisational relationships, ERISFs are involved in knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge adoption activities. Network ties developed in existing knowledge pools are extended to new...

  4. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel... (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel that...

  5. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  6. Robust tie points selection for InSAR image coregistration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanderi, Takieddine; Chabira, Boulerbah; Afifa, Belkacem; Belhadj Aissa, Aichouche

    2013-10-01

    Image coregistration is an important step in SAR interferometry which is a well known method for DEM generation and surface displacement monitoring. A practical and widely used automatic coregistration algorithm is based on selecting a number of tie points in the master image and looking for the correspondence of each point in the slave image using correlation technique. The characteristics of these points, their number and their distribution have a great impact on the reliability of the estimated transformation. In this work, we present a method for automatic selection of suitable tie points that are well distributed over the common area without decreasing the desired tie points' number. First we select candidate points using Harris operator. Then from these points we select tie points depending on their cornerness measure (the highest first). Once a tie point is selected, its correspondence is searched for in the slave image, if the similarity measure maximum is less than a given threshold or it is at the border of the search window, this point is discarded and we proceed to the next Harris point, else, the cornerness of the remaining candidates Harris points are multiplied by a spatially radially increasing function centered at the selected point to disadvantage the points in a neighborhood of a radius determined from the size of the common area and the desired number of points. This is repeated until the desired number of points is selected. Results of an ERS1/2 tandem pair are presented and discussed.

  7. Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindquist, K.A.; Gendron, M.; Oosterwijk, S.; Barrett, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for

  8. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  9. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. Results. While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  10. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  11. Impact of weak social ties and networks on poor sleep quality: A case study of Iranian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    The poor sleep quality is one of the major risk factors of somatic, psychiatric and social disorders and conditions as well as the major predictors of quality of employees' performance. The previous studies in Iran had neglected the impacts of social factors including social networks and ties on adults sleep quality. Thus, the aim of the current research was to determine the relationship between social networks and adult employees' sleep quality. This study was conducted with a correlational and descriptive design. Data were collected from 360 participants (183 males and 177 females) who were employed in Yazd public organizations in June and July of 2014. These samples were selected based on random sampling method. In addition, the measuring tools were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Social Relations Inventory (SRI). Based on the results, the prevalence rate of sleep disorder among Iranian adult employees was 63.1% (total PSQI>5). And, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, there was significant difference between individuals with strong and poor social network and ties in terms of overall sleep quality (p<.01), subjective sleep quality (p<.01), habitual sleep efficiency (p<.05), and daytime dysfunction (p<.01). The results also revealed that the employees with strong social network and ties had better overall sleep quality, had the most habitual sleep efficiency, and less daytime dysfunction than employees with poor social network and ties. It can be implied that the weak social network and ties serve as a risk factor for sleep disorders or poor sleep quality for adult employees. Therefore, the social and behavioral interventions seem essential to improve the adult's quality sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endothelial Activation: The Ang/Tie Axis in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Leligdowicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a dysregulated host response to infection that causes life-threatening organ dysfunction, is a highly heterogeneous syndrome with no specific treatment. Although sepsis can be caused by a wide variety of pathogenic organisms, endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is a common mechanism of injury that contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with the syndrome. Perturbations to the angiopoietin (Ang/Tie2 axis cause endothelial cell activation and contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. In this review, we summarize how the Ang/Tie2 pathway is implicated in sepsis and describe its prognostic as well as therapeutic utility in life-threatening infections.

  13. Psychometric properties of Akinboye's emotional intelligence tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies have been carried out on emotional intelligence. But few of these studies have been able to link emotional intelligence to creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. Importantly, the fact that creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship are strongly driven by positive emotions cannot be ignored. This study ...

  14. Do people essentialize emotions? Individual differences in emotion essentialism and emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-08-01

    Many scientific models of emotion assume that emotion categories are natural kinds that carve nature at its joints. These beliefs remain strong, despite the fact that the empirical record on the issue has remained equivocal for over a century. In this research, the authors examined one reason for this situation: People essentialize emotion categories by assuming that members of the same category (e.g., fear) have a shared metaphysical essence (i.e., a common causal mechanism). In Study 1, the authors found that lay people essentialize emotions by assuming that instances of the same emotion category have a shared essence that defines them, even when their surface features differ. Study 2 extended these findings, demonstrating that lay people tend to essentialize categories the more a category is of the body (vs. the mind). In Study 3, we examined the links between emotion essentialism and the complexity of actual emotional experiences. In particular, we predicted and found that individuals who hold essentialist beliefs about emotions describe themselves as experiencing highly differentiated emotional experiences but do not show evidence of stronger emotional differentiation in their momentary ratings of experience in everyday life. Implications for the science of emotion are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Nonverbal Communication of Positive Emotions: An Emotion Family Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire). In closing, some limitations of extant work are noted and some proposals for future research are outlined.

  16. TIE-2 and VEGFR kinase activities drive immunosuppressive function of TIE-2-expressing monocytes in human breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibberson, Mark; Bron, Sylvian; Guex, Nicolas; Faes-van't Hull, Eveline; Ifticene-Treboux, Assia; Henry, Luc; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Delaloye, Jean-François; Coukos, George; Xenarios, Ioannis; Doucey, Marie-Agnès

    2013-07-01

    Tumor-associated TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEM) are highly proangiogenic cells critical for tumor vascularization. We previously showed that, in human breast cancer, TIE-2 and VEGFR pathways control proangiogenic activity of TEMs. Here, we examine the contribution of these pathways to immunosuppressive activity of TEMs. We investigated the changes in immunosuppressive activity of TEMs and gene expression in response to specific kinase inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR. The ability of tumor TEMs to suppress tumor-specific T-cell response mediated by tumor dendritic cells (DC) was measured in vitro. Characterization of TEM and DC phenotype in addition to their interaction with T cells was done using confocal microscopic images analysis of breast carcinomas. TEMs from breast tumors are able to suppress tumor-specific immune responses. Importantly, proangiogenic and suppressive functions of TEMs are similarly driven by TIE-2 and VEGFR kinase activity. Furthermore, we show that tumor TEMs can function as antigen-presenting cells and elicit a weak proliferation of T cells. Blocking TIE-2 and VEGFR kinase activity induced TEMs to change their phenotype into cells with features of myeloid dendritic cells. We show that immunosuppressive activity of TEMs is associated with high CD86 surface expression and extensive engagement of T regulatory cells in breast tumors. TIE-2 and VEGFR kinase activity was also necessary to maintain high CD86 surface expression levels and to convert T cells into regulatory cells. These results suggest that TEMs are plastic cells that can be reverted from suppressive, proangiogenic cells into cells that are able to mediate an antitumoral immune response. ©2013 AACR.

  17. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  18. Wordsworthian Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2010-01-01

    As a great poet in British Romanticism.Wordsworth is not the practioner of an artistic craft designed tO satisfy "taste" of a literary connoisseur.He is,instead."a man speaking to men" with his uniqueness in emotion.This paper tempts to demonstrate how Wordsworth conveys emotion with poetic language.Wordsworthian "emotion recollected in tranquility" is simple,pure and genuine,which is the true art in wordsworth's poems.

  19. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ awareness of target language pragmatic features is influenced by individual difference variables, the least explored one being emotional intelligence. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness, the current study was conducted over 120 Iranian senior undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language at a university in Iran. Pragmatic awareness was measured through a 12-scenario contextualized pragmatic judgment task. Emotional intelligence was also measured through the EQ-i. The results of the Pearson correlation revealed a strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and pragmatic awareness. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of emotion-driven authentic materials in English language classes to invoke emotional intelligence in language learners.

  20. TIE - DYE (ADIRE) AMONG THE JUKUN PEOPLE Gausa Solomon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SO

    clothing scraps or fibrous materials from municipal waste stream (Wikipedia, 2014). ... example fabric that has been tie-dyed can be recycled and used as lamp shades, .... Dye colour is used in the manufacture of plastic products, but their most ...

  1. The Ties That Bind Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    Scientific ties between JINR and CERN date back to 1957, when JINR Vice-Director Marian Danysz, a Polish professor, visited CERN and agreed with CERN Director-General C.J. Bakker on the exchange of scientists and on joint experiments. Since that time to progress and now JINR takes an active part in the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, project at CERN.

  2. Affective social ties - missing link in governance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although governance is about interpersonal relationships, it appears that the antecedents and consequences of affective bonds (social ties) in social groups dealing with common-pool resources and public goods have been neglected. The welfare costs of the neglect of such bonds and their dynamic

  3. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  4. Knotcraft the practical and entertaining art of tying knots

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlan, Allan and Paulette

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive reference work explains how to tie hundreds of practical (and decorative) knots in clear illustrations and precisely worded written instructions. Ideal for boaters and campers. Also covers knots in history, knot mystery and magic, and games, stunts and tricks with rope. Introduction. Index. 166 black-and-white illustrations.

  5. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  6. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behaviour in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behaviour even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behaviour to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behaviour may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum, empathy (anterior insular cortex [AIC] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] as well as altruism and social significance (posterior superior temporal sulcus [pSTS]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behaviour during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

  7. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  8. Measurement of the location of tie-bar shoulders

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vactank is machined on a length of 13m at the location of the rails for HCAL. in addition at one side the inner vactank has shoulders to lodge the M48 tie-bars that will guarantee the fixation to the swivelling platform actually produced at HANJUNG Company in South Korea

  9. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data

  10. Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... SAIC experts explored poverty, violence, and inequality in 40 cities across Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The 15 research ... Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties. October 20 ... in urban spaces. Return to main page: Solutions to make cities safe and inclusive.

  11. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  12. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  13. High tie versus low tie of the inferior mesenteric artery in colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yafan; Wang, Guiying; He, Jingli; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xi, Jinchuan; Wang, Feifei

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer surgery includes "high tie" and "low tie"of the inferior mesenteric artery(IMA). However, different ligation level is closely related to the blood supply of anastomosis, which may increase the leakage rate, and it is unclear which technique confers a lower anastomotic leakage rate(AL) and survival advantage. To compare the effectiveness and impact of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) high ligation versus IMA low ligation on anastomotic leakage, lymph nodes yield rates and 5-year survival. A list of these studies, published in English from 1990 to 2017, was obtained independently by two reviewers from databases such as PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. Anastomotic leakage rate, the yield of lymph nodes and 5-year survival were compared using Review Manager 5.3. There was no significant difference in anastomotic leakage, number of lymph nodes retrieved and 5-year survival rate for both techniques. Neither the high tie nor the low tie strategy has an evidence in terms of anastomotic leakage rate, harvested lymph nodes, and the 5-year survival rate. Further RCT is needed. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  15. Four- year thyroidectomy procedures: Ligasure Vs. clamp & tie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki AR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system is an adjunct to the hemostatic technique, which has been successfully used in many abdominal operation, recently made available to thyroid surgery. The purpose of this was compare the outcomes of new hemostatic technique with traditional method of clamp and tie."n"nMethods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study has been done in surgery's wards of Milad & Rasul- Akram hospitals in Tehran, Iran. During three- year period between 2005-2008 all patients with different kind of pathology that need operation were assessed. Time duration of surgery and hospital stay and post surgery complication in two group, ligasure (n=45 and clamp & tie (n=145 were compared with each others."n"nResults: No difference was seen between two groups in time duration of surgery. Significant difference was seen in hospital stay and complications of surgery. Time of operation in Ligasure group was 132/22 minute and in clamp and tie group was 130/10 minute. There was found significant difference in duration of hospital stay and postoperative complication. Hypocalcemia were seen in two and 24 cases in Ligasure and Clamp & Tie group, respectively (p<0.05. Hospital stay was 2

  16. Neural processing of emotional-intensity predicts emotion regulation choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Roni; Thiruchselvam, Ravi; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J; Sheppes, Gal

    2016-12-01

    Emotional-intensity is a core characteristic of affective events that strongly determines how individuals choose to regulate their emotions. Our conceptual framework suggests that in high emotional-intensity situations, individuals prefer to disengage attention using distraction, which can more effectively block highly potent emotional information, as compared with engagement reappraisal, which is preferred in low emotional-intensity. However, existing supporting evidence remains indirect because prior intensity categorization of emotional stimuli was based on subjective measures that are potentially biased and only represent the endpoint of emotional-intensity processing. Accordingly, this study provides the first direct evidence for the role of online emotional-intensity processing in predicting behavioral regulatory-choices. Utilizing the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials, we evaluated online neural processing of stimuli's emotional-intensity (late positive potential, LPP) prior to regulatory-choices between distraction and reappraisal. Results showed that enhanced neural processing of intensity (enhanced LPP amplitudes) uniquely predicted (above subjective measures of intensity) increased tendency to subsequently choose distraction over reappraisal. Additionally, regulatory-choices led to adaptive consequences, demonstrated in finding that actual implementation of distraction relative to reappraisal-choice resulted in stronger attenuation of LPPs and self-reported arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  18. Regulating deviance with emotions: Emotional expressions as signals of acceptance and rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    An individual group member’s deviant behavior can provoke strong emotional reactions from other group members. I have investigated the role of such emotional reactions in regulating deviance by investigating how the deviant is influenced by these emotional reactions. The idea that angry reactions

  19. Emotion and Prejudice: Specific Emotions Toward Outgroups

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This research draws on ideas about emotion-related appraisal tendencies to generate and test novel propositions about intergroup emotions. First, emotion elicited by outgroup category activation can be transferred to an unrelated stimulus (incidental emotion effects). Second, people predisposed toward an emotion are more prejudiced toward groups that are likely to be associated with that emotion. D...

  20. Close social ties and health in later life: Strengths and vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Karen S; Charles, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    The world is aging at an unprecedented rate, with older adults representing the fastest-growing segment of the population in most economically developed and developing countries. This demographic shift leaves much uncharted territory for researchers who study social relationships and health. Social relationships exert powerful influences on physical health in later adulthood, a critical consideration given age-related increases in the prevalence of chronic health conditions and physical disability. A large body of research indicates that older adults report greater satisfaction with their social networks than do younger adults, and that they often take measures to minimize their exposure to negative social encounters. These emotionally satisfying and generally positive social ties afford some health protection against a backdrop of mounting physical limitations and play an important role when juxtaposed with the potentially health-damaging frictions that sometimes emerge in older adults' social relationships. Although most older adults report that they are satisfied with their social ties, some older adults experience frequent conflicts or ambivalent exchanges with members of their social networks, and these experiences detract from their health. In addition, many older adults will experience the loss of one or more close relationships during the course of their lives, with ramifications for their health and, often, for the reorganization of their social lives over time. Understanding how both the strengths and vulnerabilities of close social relationships affect health and well-being in later life is an important goal, particularly in view of the accelerating rate of population aging worldwide. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Mobile phones, social ties, and collective action mobilization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of mobile phones as a recruitment tool in collective actions, this study explores the use of mobile phones for mobilizing protest in China. Using in-depth interviews and investigating four cases in which Chinese people employed mobile devices to recruit...... participants for protests, this study observes that mobile communication in China embodies guanxi, the indigenous social tie in Chinese society that introduces reciprocity as an influential facilitator of collective actions. The embedment of reciprocity facilitates the proliferation of mobilizing calls......, legitimizes mobilizing appeals, generates obligations and consolidates solidarity for collective actions. The study concludes with a consideration of the relevance of mobile phones for the embedment of reciprocity in social ties in the mobilization of collective action in authoritarian regimes such as China....

  2. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271

  3. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Emotional Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...

  5. Changes of Personal Network Composition and Inter-Group Ties from 1987 to 2005 in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGA V., Attila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents the changes and stability of assortative mixing, and inter-group ties in Hungary from 1987 to 2005. The demographic categories under investigation are age, sex, and education. The analysis has a special focus on the rearrangement of the context of tie formation, and the inequality of receiving choices into personal networks along social categories. The most substantial change during the period, is the strong decrease in gender homophily, and some strengthening of intergenerationalties. Both of these findings are in line with the observation that personal networks are recruited more often among the members of the nuclear-family. This latter phenomenon is probably due to the shrinking network size. However, this set of finding is prone to the methodological criticism formulated in the US context, that these observations are in fact the result of the interviewer effect. Finally, the study found stable patterns of educational network prestige, and describes the changes of social capital attached to categories of gender and age.

  6. The Ties That Bind Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Scientific ties between JINR and CERN date back to 1957, when JINR Vice-Director Marian Danysz, a Polish professor, visited CERN and agreed with CERN Director-General C.J. Bakker on the exchange of scientists and on joint experiments. Political confrontation did not affect extensive contacts between scientists. By the early 1970s, the meetings of the heads of two international centres, JINR and CERN, had become regular occurrences.

  7. The ties between natural gas and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2006-01-01

    On the European continent, the price of natural gas is still tied directly and to a great extent to the price of competing energies, especially heavy fuel oil and home heating oil. In other words, the gas market is linked to the oil market. Under the effect of deregulation, this model is likely to change in the future, making a shift like that which took place on the American market in the past. (author)

  8. Circulating Angiopoietin-2 and Its Soluble Receptor Tie-2 Concentrations Are Related to Renal Function in Two Population-Based Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Anna; Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dörr, Marcus; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Lerch, Markus M; Lieb, Wolfgang; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between renal function and serum Ang-2 or serum Tie-2 concentrations in the general population. Data of 3081 and 4088 subjects from two population-based studies, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and SHIP-Trend, were used. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, cystatin C concentration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR(crea)], cystatin C-based eGFR [eGFR(cys)] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). Analyses of variance and linear regression models were calculated. In both cohorts, strong positive associations between serum cystatin C concentrations and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations as well as inverse associations between eGFR(cys) and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations were found. These relations were also present in a subpopulation without hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2. Furthermore, we detected weak U-shaped associations between serum creatinine concentrations or eGFR(crea) and serum Ang-2 concentrations. With respect to uACR a strong positive association with serum Ang-2 concentrations was revealed. Serum Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with sensitive parameters of renal impairment like serum cystatin C, uACR and eGFR(cys). These findings persisted even after exclusion of subjects with hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2, conditions that predispose to chronic renal disease and are associated with increased Ang-2 concentrations. Interestingly, we did not detect the same strong relations between serum creatinine and eGFR(crea) with serum Ang-2 concentration. Additionally, significant association of serum Tie-2 concentrations with cystatin C and eGFR(cys) were detected.

  9. Circulating Angiopoietin-2 and Its Soluble Receptor Tie-2 Concentrations Are Related to Renal Function in Two Population-Based Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hennings

    Full Text Available An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between renal function and serum Ang-2 or serum Tie-2 concentrations in the general population.Data of 3081 and 4088 subjects from two population-based studies, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 and SHIP-Trend, were used. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, cystatin C concentration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR(crea], cystatin C-based eGFR [eGFR(cys] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were calculated.In both cohorts, strong positive associations between serum cystatin C concentrations and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations as well as inverse associations between eGFR(cys and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations were found. These relations were also present in a subpopulation without hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2. Furthermore, we detected weak U-shaped associations between serum creatinine concentrations or eGFR(crea and serum Ang-2 concentrations. With respect to uACR a strong positive association with serum Ang-2 concentrations was revealed.Serum Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with sensitive parameters of renal impairment like serum cystatin C, uACR and eGFR(cys. These findings persisted even after exclusion of subjects with hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2, conditions that predispose to chronic renal disease and are associated with increased Ang-2 concentrations. Interestingly, we did not detect the same strong relations between serum creatinine and eGFR(crea with serum Ang-2 concentration. Additionally, significant association of serum Tie-2 concentrations with cystatin C and eGFR(cys were detected.

  10. Automated Simultaneous Local Ties with GNSS and Robot Tacheometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ulla; Lösler, Michael; Bergstrand, Sten; Haas, Rüdiger; Eschelbach, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    We have used GPS-based local-tie measurements simultaneously with geo-VLBI observations since 2008 during every geodetic VLBI session at Metsähovi. This system uses gimbal-mounted GNSS antennas that are mounted on the reflector of the Metsähovi 14-m radio telescope. A similar system was installed in 2013 at the Onsala 20-m radio telescope and has been used for a large number of VLBI sessions, including, e.g., the 15-day-long CONT14 campaign. In order to verify the results of the two systems, we performed a dedicated measurement campaign in the framework of the SIB60 project, involving both Metsähovi and Onsala. During this campaign the local ties at the two stations were measured simultaneously during two VLBI sessions in August and September 2015 where both stations participated. The robot tacheometer monitoring system HEIMDALL was used for the automated classical monitoring of the telescopes at both stations. Moreover, additional local terrestrial measurements were performed several times to derive the full IVS-IGS local ties at both sites. The kinematic GPS measurements at the two stations were analyzed with two independently developed analysis programs. We present here the preparations of the campaign, the measurement process, and preliminary results.

  11. Student Mobility and Transnational Social Ties as Factors of Reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to develop and apply new quantitative measurement instruments capable of significantly improving understanding of the relationship between the transnational mobility and transnational social ties of students, along with their reflexive capacities. With a focus on students building their personal networks, educational and professional activities that extend beyond the nation’s borders and organising their day-to-day routines in transnational social spaces, we analyse the role of mobility in their reflexive capacities. Applying a tool that is line with Archer’s theory and indicators to measure reflexivity, and transnational social ties as proposed by Molina et al., we analyse data collected via an on-line survey questionnaire administered to Slovenian students. In addition, students from the Middle East (Lebanon and the USA (Hawai’i are added for comparative purposes. The results of path analysis show the Slovenian students’ mobility as such implies higher scores for meta reflexivity, combined with lower scores for communicative and fractured reflexivity. Further, social transactions reaching beyond one’s physical localities in terms of transnational social ties implies they have higher levels of reflexivity in general.

  12. ERT and Well Data Tie for Nickel Laterite Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Sabrianto; Mamela Mais, Difar; Syamsuddin; Wanni

    2018-03-01

    The need of ERT method in nickel latentes exploration can’t be deny. This method have capability to make exploration more effective and efficient. In reality this method still remain ambiguity in its application, especially for geologist and mining expert. These ambiguity related with layer zone determination (limonite, saprolite and bedrock), the same resistivity values in the different zones and determination of bedrock. This paper try to expose interesting fact to overcome this ambiguity by using ERT data and drill data tie. This tie will show characteristic of nickel lateric based on resisitivity value and the contribution of chemistry element for resistivity value. Data ERT was collected by using gradient configuration and well data consist of mayor element and minor element. Tie result showed difference resistivity value in limonite layer influence by Fe, H2O and Ni, where resistivity value from saprolite layer influenced by Fe, H2O, Si02, MgO, Al, Cr, and Ni in certain accumulation. In bedrock layer, almost all drill data did not reach bedrock but only reached the boulder alone, it is supported by the value of the resistivity of rock unserpentinized peridotite which should show a relatively large resistivity value

  13. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties AGENCY: Federal Railroad... concrete ties, which contain certain components not manufactured in the United States. In furtherance of... concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the four States for the following projects: (a) The...

  14. Identifying Weak Ties from Publicly Available Social Media Data in an Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash Gupta, Jayesh; Menon, Karan; Kärkkäinen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The concept of weak ties was introduced by Granovetter through the seminal paper titled "Strength of weak ties". Since then the role of weak ties in general and their specific role as occupying the structural hole has been explored in many different fields. In this study, we identify actual or po...

  15. Cultural modes of expressing emotions influence how emotions are experienced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Intellectual emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  17. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  18. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  19. Emotional Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Filipa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Adrião, Joana; Lopes, Ricardo; Esteves, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research on the psychology of gaming has examined the negative and positive outcomes of playing video games. Thus far, a variety of affective phenomena have been investigated. In this chapter we will continue this exploration by examining the emotions elicited by the act of playing video games. Because the study of emotions must rely on different type of methods, including subjective self-reports (e.g., description of feelings), neuropsychophysiological measurements ...

  20. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  1. Predifining Emotion Through Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Reni, Theresia; Hudrasyah, Herry

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades the business environment has changed tremendously due to the advance of globalization and competition, changing the essentials for success. To overcome competitive pressure, marketer and designer have to focus on customer's sensory needs and desires to create a deep rooted relationship through emotional dialogue. In this context, innovativeness appears to be a key ingredient to create and control consumer's emotion. Perceived of innovativeness is strongly infl...

  2. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  3. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  4. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  5. Cultural affordances and emotional experience: socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Karasawa, Mayumi

    2006-11-01

    The authors hypothesized that whereas Japanese culture encourages socially engaging emotions (e.g., friendly feelings and guilt), North American culture fosters socially disengaging emotions (e.g., pride and anger). In two cross-cultural studies, the authors measured engaging and disengaging emotions repeatedly over different social situations and found support for this hypothesis. As predicted, Japanese showed a pervasive tendency to reportedly experience engaging emotions more strongly than they experienced disengaging emotions, but Americans showed a reversed tendency. Moreover, as also predicted, Japanese subjective well-being (i.e., the experience of general positive feelings) was more closely associated with the experience of engaging positive emotions than with that of disengaging emotions. Americans tended to show the reversed pattern. The established cultural differences in the patterns of emotion suggest the consistent and systematic cultural shaping of emotion over time.

  6. COMMITMENT, ENTRENCHMENT AND EMOTIONAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC SERVICE WORKERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grillo Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the relation between the individual’s patterns of ties with the organization, emotional expressions, and the use of emotional regulation strategies to deal with work situations. The instrument used for data collection included a scale to measure commitment and entrenchment and 21 work settings for which participants had to assign emotion regulation strategies. Participants included 400 employees of public institutions located in Florianopolis. The article is structured into sections that discuss the core concepts, describe the method, present and debate the results. In the sample result most individuals showed high levels of commitment and use of deep emotional control strategies. Anger was the most frequent emotion and, conversely, fear was the less common.

  7. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  8. The temporal deployment of emotion regulation strategies during negative emotional episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Time is given a central place in theoretical models of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015), but key questions regarding the role of time remain unanswered. We investigated 2 such unanswered questions. First, we explored when different emotion regulation strategies were used within the course of an emotional episode in daily life. Second, we investigated the association between the temporal deployment of strategies and negative emotional experience. We conducted a daily diary study in which participants (N = 74) drew an intensity profile depicting the temporal unfolding of their negative emotional experience across daily events (N = 480), and mapped their usage of emotion regulation strategies onto this intensity profile. Strategies varied in their temporal deployment, with suppression and rumination occurring more at the beginning of the episode, and reappraisal and distraction occurring more toward the end of the episode. Strategies also varied in their association with negative emotion: rumination was positively associated with negative emotion, and reappraisal and distraction were negatively associated with negative emotion. Finally, both rumination and reappraisal interacted with time to predict negative emotional experience. Rumination was more strongly positively associated with negative emotions at the end of the episode than the beginning, but reappraisal was more strongly negatively associated with negative emotion at the beginning of the episode than the end. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for timing in the study of emotion regulation, as well as the necessity of studying these temporal processes in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Integrating Micro-level Interactions with Social Network Analysis in Tie Strength Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre, Osku; Gupta, Jayesh Prakash; Kärkkäinen, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    of tie strength based on reciprocal interaction from publicly available Facebook data, and suggest that this approach could work as a basis for further tie strength studies. Our approach makes use of weak tie theory, and enables researchers to study micro-level interactions (i.e. discussions, messages......A social tie is a target for ongoing, high-level scientific debate. Measuring the tie strength in social networks has been an important topic for academic studies since Mark Granovetter's seminal papers in 1970's. However, it is still a problematic issue mainly for two reasons: 1) existing tie...... strengthening process in online social networks. Therefore, we suggest a new approach to tie strength research, which focuses on studying communication patterns (edges) more rather than actors (nodes) in a social network. In this paper we build a social network analysis-based approach to enable the evaluation...

  10. A small world of weak ties provides optimal global integration of self-similar modules in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Makse, Hernán A; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-02-21

    The human brain is organized in functional modules. Such an organization presents a basic conundrum: Modules ought to be sufficiently independent to guarantee functional specialization and sufficiently connected to bind multiple processors for efficient information transfer. It is commonly accepted that small-world architecture of short paths and large local clustering may solve this problem. However, there is intrinsic tension between shortcuts generating small worlds and the persistence of modularity, a global property unrelated to local clustering. Here, we present a possible solution to this puzzle. We first show that a modified percolation theory can define a set of hierarchically organized modules made of strong links in functional brain networks. These modules are "large-world" self-similar structures and, therefore, are far from being small-world. However, incorporating weaker ties to the network converts it into a small world preserving an underlying backbone of well-defined modules. Remarkably, weak ties are precisely organized as predicted by theory maximizing information transfer with minimal wiring cost. This trade-off architecture is reminiscent of the "strength of weak ties" crucial concept of social networks. Such a design suggests a natural solution to the paradox of efficient information flow in the highly modular structure of the brain.

  11. Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamil Kozan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tests whether strong rather than weak ties account for small business growth in Turkey. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire filled out by the owners of small firms operating in four cities. Growth is comprised of two main areas, production expansion and knowledge acquisition. Results show that strong ties are positively related to both types of growth. In contrast, loose ties have no effect on small business growth in either area. This finding is attributed to the influence of the collectivistic nature of the mainstream Turkish culture, where owners of small businesses are likely to rely on in-groups rather than out-groups for advice and for financial support. Implications of relative absence of weak ties for small business growth and innovation in emerging economies are discussed. The findings suggest that culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible moderating role of affective and cognition-based trust in the relation of strong and weak ties to small business growth.

  12. Ties That Bind: Creating and sustaining community-academic partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kynna N. Wright

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest among academics and health professionals in finding new ways to study and address complex health and social problems has manifested in recent years with increasing community demands for research and program implementation that is community-based, rather than merely community placed. In the United States, community-based participatory research (CBPR, with its emphasis on the creation and use of community-university or community-academic partnerships, is the prevailing paradigm to address these complex problems, especially those concerning racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. While the need to strengthen the relationship between researchers and the community has been recognised, often from the viewpoint of the university partner, discussions on sustainability of partnerships have been few. The aim of this paper is to share reflections, through the eyes of the community members, on the core elements that tie community and academic members together and the challenges in understanding and nurturing those ties so that the community-academic partnership is sustained over time, and to offer possible recommendations for sustainability. This article speaks from the community’s perspective and reflects on the vital elements/components that tie together community-university partnerships and the challenges that may occur when trying to sustain and grow the partnership. It is based on a research CBPR study that was conducted to (1 evaluate the functioning and future sustainability of the community-university partnership of the Community Child Health Network Study Los Angeles (CCHN-LA community-university partnership, and (2 evaluate the experience and beliefs of the current CCHN-LA community-university partnership members in their understanding of current functioning. Keywords Community-academic partnerships; sustainability; challenges; solutions

  13. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dezio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to create a complete analysis about tongue-tie (or short lingual frenum or ankyloglossia according to the most important works published in literature. The analysis allowed us to do a complete evaluation of this problem, from embriology to the therapeutic approach we could use today, focusing our attention on laser-assisted therapy. This review is based on the research on the PubMed Database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov of studies about lingual frenum written in English between January 1980 and May 2014. The keywords inserted were “lingual frenum”, “frenectomy”, “laser therapy”. We have analyzed: case series, case reports, clinical studies, and also literature reviews in which embryology, physiology, diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia were described. We excluded laboratory studies, studies based on animal tests and studies about patients with particular syndromes in which we can also find tongue-tie. The selection criteria allowed us to select 42 articles. The treatment options for the releasing of the frenum are surgically represented by frenotomy (i.e. simple horizontal cut of this training and frenectomy (i.e. removal. In both cases, the intervention on the short lingual frenum is simple, short-lasting, and without particular complications. Furthermore, this kind of treatment can be carried out with different devices: with the typical cold blade scalpel or by the use of laser, a new method that shows more advantages over the prior art. Laser-assisted therapy permits to intervene on newborns (from 0 to 20 days, when there are breastfeeding problems without total anesthesia and suture. The Er:YAG, CO2 laser (according to literature data and Diode laser (according to our experience are advantageous, safe and effective in tongue-tie treatment.

  14. Quality of clinical supervision and counselor emotional exhaustion: the potential mediating roles of organizational and occupational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Abraham, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Counselor emotional exhaustion has negative implications for treatment organizations as well as the health of counselors. Quality clinical supervision is protective against emotional exhaustion, but research on the mediating mechanisms between supervision and exhaustion is limited. Drawing upon data from 934 counselors affiliated with treatment programs in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network (CTN), this study examined commitment to the treatment organization and commitment to the counseling occupation as potential mediators of the relationship between quality clinical supervision and emotional exhaustion. The final ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model, which accounted for the nesting of counselors within treatment organizations, indicated that these two types of commitment were plausible mediators of the association between clinical supervision and exhaustion. Higher quality clinical supervision was strongly correlated with commitment to the treatment organization as well as commitment to the occupation of SUD counseling. These findings suggest that quality clinical supervision has the potential to yield important benefits for counselor well-being by strengthening ties to both their employing organization as well the larger treatment field, but longitudinal research is needed to establish these causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  16. Intergenerational family ties and the diffusion of cohabitation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rosina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohabitation has been spreading in the population during the last thirty years, and this is one of the most striking aspects of wider social changes that have taken place throughout the industrialized world. However, this change did not take place uniformly across Europe. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current debate around the compatibility of cohabitation experiences with the Italian cultural context. Using an individual-level diffusion approach we obtain results that are consistent with the crucial role that family ties play in the choice of cohabitation in place of (or before marriage.

  17. Contact dermatitis in tie and dye industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, N K; Mathur, A; Banerjee, K

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the Tie and Dye industry of Jodhpur City in India was made to investigate occupational dermatoses. 49 (16.6%) of 250 workers had incapacitating dermatitis. Skin lesions were seen mostly over the dorsa of the hands and fingers. 26 patients were patch tested with various dyes and chemicals; 14 were positive. Fast Red RC salt was the most potent sensitizer. Other dyes showing positive reactions were Orange GC salt, Bordeaux GP salt, Blue B salt, Red B base and naphthol.

  18. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agneta H; Kret, Mariska E; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions.

  19. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions. PMID:29370198

  20. Emotional Labour and Wellbeing: What Protects Nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting) in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered. PMID:27916880

  1. Emotional Labour and Wellbeing: What Protects Nurses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Kinman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although compassionate care has wide-ranging benefits for patients, it can be emotionally demanding for healthcare staff. This may be a particular problem for those with little experience in a caring role. This study utilises the job demands-resources model to examine links between “emotional labour” and emotional exhaustion in student nurses. In line with the triple-match principle—whereby interactive effects are more likely when job demands, resources, and outcomes are within the same qualitative domain—the protective role of emotional support and emotion-focused coping (i.e., emotional venting in the relationship between emotional labour and exhaustion is also explored. An online questionnaire was completed by 351 student nurses with experience working in healthcare settings. A strong positive relationship was found between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion, and some support was found for the moderating effects of emotional support and emotion-focused coping. Ways to help student and qualified nurses develop the emotional resilience required to protect their wellbeing, while providing high-quality compassionate care to patients are considered.

  2. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevreau, F.R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: chevreau@cindy.ensmp.fr; Wybo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: wybo@cindy.ensmp.fr; Cauchois, D. [Process Safety Department, Sanofi-Aventis, Site de Production de Vitry sur Seine, 9 Quai Jules Guesdes, 94400 Vitry sur Seine (France)]. E-mail: didier.cauchois@sanofi-aventis.com

    2006-03-31

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety.

  3. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, F.R.; Wybo, J.L.; Cauchois, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety

  4. Emotion in Schizophrenia: Where Feeling Meets Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kring, Ann M.; Caponigro, Janelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research...

  5. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  6. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  7. Poor textural image tie point matching via graph theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Wei; Cai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Feature matching aims to find corresponding points to serve as tie points between images. Robust matching is still a challenging task when input images are characterized by low contrast or contain repetitive patterns, occlusions, or homogeneous textures. In this paper, a novel feature matching algorithm based on graph theory is proposed. This algorithm integrates both geometric and radiometric constraints into an edge-weighted (EW) affinity tensor. Tie points are then obtained by high-order graph matching. Four pairs of poor textural images covering forests, deserts, bare lands, and urban areas are tested. For comparison, three state-of-the-art matching techniques, namely, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speeded up robust features (SURF), and features from accelerated segment test (FAST), are also used. The experimental results show that the matching recall obtained by SIFT, SURF, and FAST varies from 0 to 35% in different types of poor textures. However, through the integration of both geometry and radiometry and the EW strategy, the recall obtained by the proposed algorithm is better than 50% in all four image pairs. The better matching recall improves the number of correct matches, dispersion, and positional accuracy.

  8. Dynamic risk analysis using bow-tie approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Accident probability estimation is a common and central step to all quantitative risk assessment methods. Among many techniques available, bow-tie model (BT) is very popular because it represent the accident scenario altogether including causes and consequences. However, it suffers a static structure limiting its application in real-time monitoring and probability updating which are key factors in dynamic risk analysis. The present work is focused on using BT approach in a dynamic environment in which the occurrence probability of accident consequences changes. In this method, on one hand, failure probability of primary events of BT, leading to the top event, are developed using physical reliability models, and constantly revised as physical parameters (e.g., pressure, velocity, dimension, etc) change. And, on the other hand, the failure probability of safety barriers of the BT are periodically updated using Bayes’ theorem as new information becomes available over time. Finally, the resulting, updated BT is used to estimate the posterior probability of the consequences which in turn results in an updated risk profile. - Highlights: ► A methodology is proposed to make bow-tie method adapted for dynamic risk analysis. ► Physical reliability models are used to revise the top event. ► Bayes’ theorem is used to update the probability of safety barriers. ► The number of accidents in sequential time intervals is used to form likelihood function. ► The risk profile is updated for varying physical parameters and for different times.

  9. Infectious disease research investments follow colonial ties: questionable ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-01

    International funding for global health research is not systematically documented. We have assessed the level of research funding awarded by UK funders of international research to low- and middle-income countries or research institutions in these countries. We analysed 6165 studies; from these we selected 522 that matched our criteria and used them to evaluate research funding by pathogen, disease, research and development value chain, funding organisation and country. Investment in infectious disease research in the countries studied totalled £264 million. Distribution of research investments closely mirrored that of the UK's former colonial territories; the top five countries, and eight of the top 10, have historical links with the UK, being current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations. HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases attracted the greatest investment (£219 million; 82.8%), with most studies focussing on operational and epidemiological research (£109 million; 41.3%). International financing of infectious disease research by UK funding organisations follows former colonial ties. Funding institutions should review their funding policies to ensure that they also assist low- and middle-income countries without colonial ties to address their disease burden. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding for international research and guide the allocation of scarce resources to reduce the global disease burden.

  10. Coronary Heart Disease and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachaki, Chrisanthy; Maridaki Kassotaki, Katerina

    2013-09-23

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is associated with emotions, especially negative ones, namely anxiety and depression. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a psychological model that consists of a variety of emotional skills. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between different dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and coronary heart disease. A total of 300 participants were studied during a 3-year period in an attempt to partially replicate and further expand a previous study conducted in Greece among CHD patients, which indicated a strong association between certain dimensions of Emotional Intelligence and the incidence of CHD. All participants completed a self-report questionnaire, assessing several aspects of Emotional Intelligence. The results showed that there is a link between the regulation of emotions and the occurrence of CHD. The evidence reported in the present study makes stronger the claim that EI plays a significant role in the occurrence of CHD.

  11. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-843] Prestressed Concrete Steel...'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico is being... element levels; suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High...

  12. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation... of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the PRC, and Thailand... Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and Thailand, filed on April 23, 2013 (the...

  13. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  14. Social Functions of Emotions in Social Dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.J. Wubben (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSocial dilemmas, or situations in which individual and collective interests collide, elicit strong emotions. But are these emotions socially functional in that they help establish cooperation? Generally, they are, as four empirical chapters showed. In dyadic relations, refusal to return

  15. Communication technologies and emotionality in transnational families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Ramírez Contreras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated in 2009 that 11,500.0 millions Mexican immigrants were living in the United States (Pew Hispanic Center, 2009. However, such immigrants can’t take their families with them to the US breaking-up of the family unit. Therefore, immigrants and their families become members of a transnational family.  In order to cope with such family break-up, members of such families try to balance themselves through developing an emotional intimacy using communication technologies. However, what kind of emotional support is offered when one of the members of the transnational family is a senior citizen and chronically ill? What kind of emotions do these transnational families experience? Which communication technologies do they use to be in touch? How these communication technologies are related to the emotional support? In order to answer these research questions, I explored previous studies in which I found that they only included the immigrants’ point of view. To overcome this limitation in this study, I included the point of view of all members of transnational families. I conducted a qualitative study. It took place in Sahuayo, Michoacan. I interviewed members of 15 transnational families during 2012 and 2013. The results showed that emotional support was identified as: a contacting relatives in Mexico, initiated by immigrants, b exchanging daily life experiences; c solving issues and conflicts; and d immigrants supporting, participating or being virtually in special celebrations. Immigrants also used communication technologies in order to maintain emotional ties and give emotional support to their parents. The communication help immigrants to provide the emotional support to their parents and also to express their feelings. I recommend studying national migrants and rural populations, in order to analyse any differences between them and my sample.

  16. Studi Tentang Political Tie, Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pemberian Kredit Bank di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tjondro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses bank loan data to examine the effect of (political tie between the company and the government to on the assessment of companies financial leverage and profitability in the bank lending decisions in Indonesia. The numbers of samples are 1465 observations. This study uses moderated regression analysis (MRA. The study finds that a political tie affect corporate profitability assessment in bank lending decisions. Firms with lower profitability receive larger bank loan because their political tie (rent-seeking hypothesis. However, this study inds that a political tie does not affect the assessment of financial leverage in bank's lending decisions. This finding also supports Faccio (2010, Fisman (2001, and Backman (2001. Indonesia condition which has a weak institutional regulation and high information asymmetry is beneficial for companies that have a political tie. This leads to more trusted political tie as an indicator of the profitability.

  17. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Liu, Lu; You, Weijia

    2011-01-01

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  18. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo, E-mail: xubosuper@163.com [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China); Liu, Lu; You, Weijia [Department of Information Systems, School of Economics and Management, Beihang University (China)

    2011-06-13

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. -- Highlights: → Tie strength is used to measure heterogeneous influences of different pairs of nodes. → Weak ties play a role in maintaining cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games. → Micro-dynamics of nodes are illustrated to explain the conclusion.

  19. Representation of Women With Industry Ties in Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashvini K; Bounds, Gregory W; Bakri, Sophie J; Gordon, Lynn K; Smith, Justine R; Haller, Julia A; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2016-06-01

    Women in ophthalmology are growing in number and have made strides in traditional metrics of professional achievement. Professional ties to industry represent another potential means of career advancement, recognition, and income. To report the representation of women among ophthalmologists receiving industry remuneration for research, consulting, honoraria, grants, royalties, and faculty/speaker roles. In this observational, retrospective study, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database for payments to ophthalmologists by biomedical companies was reviewed for representation, median payments, and mean payments by women and men for industry relationships in 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed from July 2015 to November 2015. The primary outcome measures were percentage representation of women vs men overall and in industry research, consulting, speaking roles, royalties and licenses, grants, services other than consulting, and honoraria. Secondary outcome measures included mean and median payments from industry to female vs male ophthalmologists. In 2013, 4164 of 21 380 (19.5%) ophthalmologists were women, and of 1204 ophthalmologists analyzed for industry payments, 176 (4.2%) women had industry ties compared with 1028 (6%) men (P women were $11 419 compared with $20 957 for men (P = .001), and median payments to women were $3000 compared with $4787 for men (P = .007). In 2013, women were underrepresented among ophthalmologists receiving industry payments for research (49 of 462 [10.6%]), consulting (96 of 610 [15.7%]), honoraria (3 of 47 [6.4%]), industry grants (1 of 7 [14.3%]), royalties and licenses (1 of 13 [7.7%]), and faculty/speaker roles (2 of 48 [4.2%]). In 2014, 4352 of 21 531 (20.2%) of ophthalmologists were women. Of 1518 ophthalmologists analyzed for industry payments, 255 (6%) women had industry ties compared with 1263 (7.4%) men (P women were $14 848 compared with $30 513 for men (P = .004

  20. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  1. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  2. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  3. Performance and Characterization of Shear Ties for Use in Insulated Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    stainless 14 steel, galvanized carbon steel, carbon- fiber -reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass- fiber -reinforced polymer 15 (GFRP), and basalt - fiber ...CFRP Grid, (E) Universal Building Products GFRP Teplo Tie, and (F) Universal Building Products 6 Basalt FRP RockBar. Traditional steel connections...1.6 E Universal Building Products TeploTie GFRP Tie 10 mm dia. x 150 mm F RockBar Basalt FRP Bar 7 in. x 5/16 in. G TSA Manufacturing C-Clip

  4. EMOTIONAL HANDICAPS TO LEARNING IN TWO CULTURES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-06

    Mar 6, 1971 ... Emotional problems in 11 European and 16 African schoolchildren are ... Cognitive Inefficiency ... motivation in 3 cases, a strong desire for acceptance by the peer .... to affect the children secondarily include social incom-.

  5. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Liu, Lu; You, Weijia

    2011-06-01

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

  6. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  7. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  8. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    , and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...

  9. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  10. Evaluating the Adequacy of Social-Emotional Measures in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokiert, Rebecca J.; Georgis, Rebecca; Tremblay, Melissa; Krishnan, Vijaya; Vandenberghe, Christine; Lee, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Technical adequacy and usability are important considerations in selecting early childhood social-emotional (SE) screening and assessment measures. As identification of difficulties can be tied to programming, intervention, accountability, and funding, it is imperative that practitioners and decision makers select appropriate and quality measures…

  11. Emotion and Emotion Regulation: From Another Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and…

  12. When familiarity breeds accuracy: cultural exposure and facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Ambady, Nalini

    2003-08-01

    Two studies provide evidence for the role of cultural familiarity in recognizing facial expressions of emotion. For Chinese located in China and the United States, Chinese Americans, and non-Asian Americans, accuracy and speed in judging Chinese and American emotions was greater with greater participant exposure to the group posing the expressions. Likewise, Tibetans residing in China and Africans residing in the United States were faster and more accurate when judging emotions expressed by host versus nonhost society members. These effects extended across generations of Chinese Americans, seemingly independent of ethnic or biological ties. Results suggest that the universal affect system governing emotional expression may be characterized by subtle differences in style across cultures, which become more familiar with greater cultural contact.

  13. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  14. Emotions in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  15. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Trampe

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  16. Emotion models for textual emotion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, O.; Avetisyan, H.; Holub, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with textual emotion classification which gained attention in recent years. Emotion classification is used in user experience, product evaluation, national security, and tutoring applications. It attempts to detect the emotional content in the input text and based on different approaches establish what kind of emotional content is present, if any. Textual emotion classification is the most difficult to handle, since it relies mainly on linguistic resources and it introduces many challenges to assignment of text to emotion represented by a proper model. A crucial part of each emotion detector is emotion model. Focus of this paper is to introduce emotion models used for classification. Categorical and dimensional models of emotion are explained and some more advanced approaches are mentioned.

  17. Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Magnano; Giuseppe Craparo; Anna Paolillo

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...

  18. Resilience and emotional intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Magnano, Paola; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Craparo, Giuseppe; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Paolillo, Anna; Dipartimento Filosofia, Pedagogia e Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italia.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...

  19. Impaired Emotion Recognition in Music in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction…

  20. Impaired emotion recognition in music in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tricht, Mirjam J.; Smeding, Harriet M. M.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched

  1. Impaired emotion recognition in music in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tricht, M.J.; Smeding, H.M.M.; Speelman, J.D.; Schmand, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 20 matched

  2. Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery explores how the emotions and affective norms of the Antebellum South were conditioned upon and constructed through the institution of slavery. Though slavery is a subject wrought with emotion, there has been no focus in recent historical scholarship on the affective dimensions of slavery. Studies in the history of emotion have also largely ignored slavery. My intervention in these fields reveals the ways that both slaveholders and slaves ...

  3. Managing emotions - an ability of emotional intelligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...

  4. ‘Not a Problem Until it Becomes a Problem’: A Qualitative Study of Values and Risks of In-house Family Ties in Swedish Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Haugen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In-house family ties at workplaces occur in most contexts, and are associated with both advantages and disadvantages. On the basis of 40 interviews with human resource managers at Swedish workplaces, the values and risks of in-house family ties and their importance within the workplace are analyzed jointly, thus allowing for a holistic perspective. The interviews reveal values and risks on a strategic level, for day-to-day operations, for the social work environment, and on the level of individuals. Crucially, even when in-house family ties are perceived as uncomplicated, there is a latent risk that problems might arise. The interpretation of the role of in-house family ties is also strongly related to whether they are paired with asymmetrical (vertical power relations. It also depends heavily on the chosen perspective—that of the organization, the social work environment, the individual, or the broader society—and the perceived advantages tend to come with corresponding inverted disadvantages.

  5. “Strength of Weak Ties,” Neighborhood Ethnic Heterogeneity, and Depressive Symptoms among Adults: A Multilevel Analysis of Korean General Social Survey (KGSS 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Hyun-soo Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of research, based largely on North American and European contexts, demonstrates that social networks play a critical role in protecting and promoting mental, as well as physical, health. The purpose of this study is to examine how “weak” and “strong” network relations are differentially related to individual mental health (depressive symptoms based on a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. Using multilevel analysis, the current research also investigates the extent to which contextual or neighborhood-level factors moderate the associations between depression and social network. Findings show that regular interaction with weaker ties (acquaintances, neighbors, coworkers, etc. are associated with better mental health. The number of strong ties (family members and friends, on the other hand, is not a significant predictor of psychological distress. In addition, a cross-level interaction term is observed: The negative relationship between weak ties and depressive symptoms is diminished in neighborhoods with more foreign-born residents or immigrants. General implications beyond the empirical case under investigation are discussed, as to why weak ties can be “strong” in relation to mental health and how this phenomenon can vary according to residential characteristics such as ethnic heterogeneity.

  6. Circulating Angiopoietin-2 and Its Soluble Receptor Tie-2 Concentrations Are Related to Renal Function in Two Population-Based Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennings, Anna; Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate the associ......BACKGROUND: An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate...... the associations between renal function and serum Ang-2 or serum Tie-2 concentrations in the general population. METHODS: Data of 3081 and 4088 subjects from two population-based studies, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and SHIP-Trend, were used. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, cystatin...... C concentration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR(crea)], cystatin C-based eGFR [eGFR(cys)] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). Analyses of variance and linear regression models were calculated. RESULTS: In both cohorts, strong positive associations between...

  7. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  8. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  9. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Emotional Ideology, Experience, and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatfield

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available How universal are men and women’s attitudes toward the expression of emotion? How similar are the emotions that men and women from various ethnic groups experience and express in their close love relationships? In this study, 144 men and 307 women of European, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry were asked about their ideologies as to how people ought to deal with strong emotions in close relationships, how often they themselves felt a variety of emotions, and how they dealt with such feelings in close relationships. Finally, they were asked how satisfied they were with their close relationships. Men and women appeared to possess different emotional ideologies. Women tended to favor direct expression of emotion; men to favor emotional management. People of Chinese, European, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry also possessed different ideologies as to how people ought to deal with strong emotions in intimate relationships.

  10. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    OpenAIRE

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investiga...

  11. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  12. The functional role of the periphery in emotional language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Havas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Language can impact emotion, even when it makes no reference to emotion states. For example, reading sentences with positive meanings (The water park is refreshing on the hot summer day induces patterns of facial feedback congruent with the sentence emotionality (smiling, whereas sentences with negative meanings induce a frown. Moreover, blocking facial afference with botox selectively slows comprehension of emotional sentences. Therefore, theories of cognition should account for emotion-language interactions above the level of explicit emotion words, and the role of peripheral feedback in comprehension. For this special issue exploring frontiers in the role of the body and environment in cognition, we propose a theory in which facial feedback provides a context-sensitive constraint on the simulation of actions described in language. Paralleling the role of emotions in real-world behavior, our account proposes that 1 facial expressions accompany sudden shifts in well-being as described in language; 2 facial expressions modulate emotion states during reading; and 3 emotion states prepare the reader for an effective simulation of the ensuing language content. To inform the theory and guide future research, we outline a framework based on internal models for motor control. To support the theory, we assemble evidence from diverse areas of research. Taking a functional view of emotion, we tie the theory to behavioral and neural evidence for a role of facial feedback in cognition. Our theoretical framework provides a detailed account that can guide future research on the role of emotional feedback in language processing, and on interactions of language and emotion. It also highlights the bodily periphery as relevant to theories of embodied cognition.

  13. The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale: a cognitive-developmental measure of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R D; Quinlan, D M; Schwartz, G E; Walker, P A; Zeitlin, S B

    1990-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is based on a new cognitive-developmental model of emotional experience. The scale poses evocative interpersonal situations and elicits descriptions of the emotional responses of self and others which are scored using specific structural criteria. Forty undergraduates (20 of each sex) were tested. Interrater reliability and intratest homogeneity of the LEAS were strong. The LEAS was significantly correlated with two measures of maturity: the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of Ego Development, and the Parental Descriptions Scale-a cognitive-developmental measure of object representation. In addition, the LEAS correlated positively with openness to experience and emotional range but not with measures of specific emotions, repression or the number of words used in the LEAS responses. These findings suggest that it is the level of emotion, not the specific quality of emotion, that is tapped by the LEAS.

  14. Individual differences in emotion lateralisation and the processing of emotional information arising from social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J; Watling, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Previous research examining the possible association between emotion lateralisation and social anxiety has found conflicting results. In this paper two studies are presented to assess two aspects related to different features of social anxiety: fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and emotion regulation. Lateralisation for the processing of facial emotion was measured using the chimeric faces test. Individuals with greater FNE were more strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for the processing of anger, happiness and sadness; and, for the processing of fearful faces the relationship was found for females only. Emotion regulation strategies were reduced to two factors: positive strategies and negative strategies. For males, but not females, greater reported use of negative emotion strategies is associated with stronger right hemisphere lateralisation for processing negative emotions. The implications for further understanding the neuropsychological processing of emotion in individuals with social anxiety are discussed.

  15. Differentiating emotional hotel experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Guiza Caicedo, D.; Van Hout, M.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions experienced in response to hotel services were examined with an online questionnaire. The study resulted in 348 cases of hotel service emotions. The frequency of reported pleasant emotions was similar to the frequency of reported unpleasant emotions. Often reported pleasant emotions were

  16. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon migration from creosote-treated railway ties into ballast and adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Brooks

    2004-01-01

    Occasionally, creosote-treated railroad ties need to be replaced, sometimes in sensitive environments such as wetlands. To help determine if this is detrimental to the surrounding environment, more information is needed on the extent and pattern of creosote, or more specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), migration from railroad ties and what effects this...

  18. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Embedded Ties In Business-to-Business Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Noordhoff (Corine); K. Kyriakopoulos (Kyriakos); C. Moorman (Christina); P. Pauwels (Pieter); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile the number and importance of joint innovation projects between suppliers and their customers continue to rise, the literature has yet to resolve a key question—do embedded ties with customers help or hurt supplier innovation? Drawing on both the tie strength and knowledge

  19. The bright side and dark side of embedded ties in business-to-business innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Noordhoff (Corine); K. Kyriakopoulos (Kyriakos); C. Moorman (Christina); P. Pauwels (Pieter); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the number and importance of joint innovation projects between suppliers and their customers continue to rise, the literature has yet to resolve a key question: Do embedded ties with customers help or hurt supplier innovation? Drawing on both the tie strength and knowledge

  20. The use of nylon cable ties to repair rib fractures in neonatal foals

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Chris; Rodgerson, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available nylon cable ties were used as a method of internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in 8 equine neonates. The procedure was effective, well-tolerated, rapid, and inexpensive. The use of nylon cable ties as internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in foals is an effective surgical procedure.

  1. Experimental Effects of Program Management Approach on Teachers' Professional Ties and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Kim, James S.

    2018-01-01

    Theory and empirical work suggest that teachers' social capital influences school improvement efforts. Social ties are prerequisite for social capital, yet little causal evidence exists on how malleable factors, such as instructional management approaches, affect teachers' ties. In this cluster-randomized trial, we apply a decision-making…

  2. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  3. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bault, Nadège; Pelloux, Benjamin; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Winden, Frans

    2015-06-01

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual's public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie-as estimated by our model-supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual's prosocial decisions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of antidumping duty..., by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand...

  5. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... China, Mexico, and Thailand. Accordingly, effective April 23, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  6. The VEGF system and tie-2 are spatio-temporal expressed during tayassu placentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.; Papa, P.C.

    Objectives: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important vascular mitogens, while the angiotensin receptor Tie-2 binds to the angiopoietin and stabilizes newly formed vessels. We therefore wanted to localize VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and the Tie-2 recep...

  7. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements AGENCY: Federal... Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17... information collection is contained in Sections 4(i), 303(r), and 628 of the Communications Act of 1934, as...

  8. Weak Ties and Self-Regulation in Job Search: The Effects of Goal Orientation on Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, John-Paul; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between the self-regulatory variable of goal orientation and the extent to which job seekers reach out to and use weak ties in their job search. Weak ties, as defined by Granovettor, are connections to densely knit networks outside the individual's direct contacts who could…

  9. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Sr., Armando [Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM (United States); Bibeau, Tiffany A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  10. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  11. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  12. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.

  13. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  14. Physiological signals distinguish between reading emotional and non-emotional sections in a novel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Reuderink, B.; Werf, Y. van der; Erp, J.B.F. van der

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in monitoring an individual’s emotions during the reading of a novel. While physiological responses to experimentally induced emotions are often small and inconsistent, being engaged in a novel may elicit relatively strong responses. We analyzed EEG, ECG, skin conductance and

  15. Physiological signals distinguish between reading emotional and non-emotional sections in a novel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten; Reuderink, B.; van der Werf, Ysbrand; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in monitoring an individual’s emotions during the reading of a novel. While physiological responses to experimentally induced emotions are often small and inconsistent, being engaged in a novel may elicit relatively strong responses. We analyzed EEG, ECG, skin conductance and

  16. Influence of ties on the behavior of short reinforced concrete columns strengthened by external CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsam Kaiss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the behavior of normal strength reinforce concret (RC circular short column strengthned with “carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets”. Three series comprising totally of (15 specimens loaded until failure under concentric compresion load. Strengthening was varied by changing the number of CFRP strips, spacing and wrapping methods. The findings of this research can be summarized as follows: for the columns without CFRP, the influence of the tie spacing was significant: compared with 130 mm tie spacing, dropping the spacing to 100 mm and 70 mm increased the load carrying capacity by 18% and 26%, respectively. The columns with less internal confinement (lesser amount of ties were strengthened more significantly by the CFRP than the ones with greater amount of internal ties. As an example of the varying effectiveness of the fully wrapped CFRP, the column with ties at 130 mm was strengthened by 90% with the CFRP. In contrast, the ones with 70 mm spaced ties only increased in strength with CFRP by 66%. Compared with the control specimen (no CFRP, the same amount of CFRP when used as hoop strips led to more strengthening than using CFRP as a spiral strip- the former led to nearly 9% more strengthening than the latter in the case of 130 mm spaced internal steel ties. In the case of 100 mm internal steel ties, the difference (between the hoops & spiral CFRP strengthening is close to 4%. In contrast, there is no difference between the two methods of strengthening in the heavily tied columns (70 mm tied spacing.

  17. Emotional crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during

  18. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Managing Your Emotional Reactions KidsHealth / For Teens / Managing Your Emotional Reactions ... Think about what you might do next time. Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our ...

  19. Emotion recognition in body dysmorphic disorder: application of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Winter, Anna; Kathmann, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by perceived appearance-related defects, often tied to aspects of the face or head (e.g., acne). Deficits in decoding emotional expressions have been examined in several psychological disorders including BDD. Previous research indicates that BDD is associated with impaired facial emotion recognition, particularly in situations that involve the BDD sufferer him/herself. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the ability to read other people's emotions among 31 individuals with BDD, and 31 mentally healthy controls. We applied the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task, in which participants are presented with a series of pairs of eyes, one at a time, and are asked to identify the emotion that describes the stimulus best. The groups did not differ with respect to decoding other people's emotions by looking into their eyes. Findings are discussed in light of previous research examining emotion recognition in BDD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Strut elaboration in strut-and-tie model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad PANJEHPOUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Strut-and-Tie Model (STM has been incorporated into the codes and standards because of its consistency and rationality since last decade. However, it has encountered few challenges whilst its implementation. The effective compressive strength of strut has been a complex issue among researchers since emergence of STM. This review serves as a base for future developments of STM. It addresses several ways towards enhancing our understanding of strut performance in the STM. It also throws up questions for further investigation of effective compressive strength of strut in the STM. This review is confined to the evaluation of strut effectiveness factor based on the available codes and standards particularly AASHTO LRFD and ACI 318-08. According to the example given in this paper, there is sometimes a marked difference of approximately 50% between strut effectiveness factor recommended by AASHTO LRFD and ACI 318-08. More broadly, research is needed to determine which of the complicated strut effectiveness factor recommended by AASHTO LRFD and the simple one recommended by ACI 318-08 is optimum.

  1. Ties that bind: revisiting context, identity, and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Krueger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on group-based features of issue publics and advances the concept of residual group saliency as a way to organize members of issue publics. We accord veterans exemplar or prototype status, and civilians as periphery members of this issue public. As issue public exemplars, veterans anchor the “right” attitudes and behaviors for the veteran issue public, and civilians, especially those with family ties to veterans, gravitate toward those exemplar attitudes. We argue that pressure to conform to these “right” attitudes among civilians who are connected to a veteran is greater when there are more veterans in their environment. However, veterans and civilians who are not connected to a veteran are not responsive to such contextual effects, the former because they are already exemplars, and the latter because there is no motivation to evaluate the self in relation to veterans. We test and find support for these claims using data from the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. We conclude with an evaluative discussion and suggestions for future research.

  2. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  3. Transnational Corporate Ties: A Synopsis of Theories and Empirical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nollert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, corporations are not isolated actors in an economic “war of all against all” but members of corporate networks of global reach. Although the literature on globalization emphasizes the increasing economic power of these networks and postulates the formation of a transnational capitalist class, there is still a lack of empirical findings. The article starts with a review of theoretical perspectives (resource dependence, social capital, coordination of markets, financial hegemony, class hegemony, inner circle, and transnational capitalist class which focuses on the functions and structures of corporate interlocks at the national and the transnational level. The subsequent section offers an outline of empirical studies concerning transnational corporate networks. These analyses of corporate ties (interlocking directorates, financial participations and policy group affiliations suggest the emergence of transnational economic elites whose members, however, have not lost their national identity. In the final section, the theoretical perspectives will be assessed and some prospects are sketched out. Finally, it will be argued that the disintegration of the world society, which is considerably driven by rent-seeking corporate networks, can only be restrained if a potential global regulatory agency will be anchored in a post-Washington consensus.

  4. Dzimuma stereotipizācija tiešsaistes laikrakstos

    OpenAIRE

    Tirzīte, Asne

    2015-01-01

    Pētnieciskā darba mērķis ir atrast un analizēt stereotipus britu tiešsaites avīžu The Guardian un Daily Mail rakstos par biznesu, lai uzzinātu no kādiem valodas elementiem sastāv stereotipu atspoguļojums un kā mediju diskursā tiek atspoguļotas dzimuma un profesionālās identitātes. Darba teorētiskā daļa apskata pašreizējā pētījuma metodi un iepriekšējo pētnieku darbus par šo tēmu. Izmantotā kvalitatīvā pētījuma metode ir Normana Fērklova (1992) trīsdimensionālais kritiskās diskursa analīzes mo...

  5. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  6. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    SLR techniques via the so-called space ties, instead of relying on the terrestrial ties evaluated with ground measurement campaigns at co-located ITRF sites.

  8. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  10. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Stepfamily Communication Strengths: Understanding the Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golish, Tamara D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the communication strategies that differentiate "strong" stepfamilies from stepfamilies having more difficulty, inductively deriving a composite of stepfamily "communication strengths." Finds that in general, strong stepfamilies reported using everyday talk, more openness, spending time together as a family, communicating clear rules and…

  13. Family ties: the multilevel effects of households and kinship on the networks of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity. To test this prediction, I advance the Group-Structured Social Relations Model, a generalized linear mixed model that tests for group-level effects in the inter-household social networks of individuals. The empirical data stem from social support interviews conducted in a community of indigenous Nicaraguan horticulturalists, and model results show high group-level reciprocity among households. Although support networks are organized around kinship, covariates that test predictions of kin selection models do not receive strong support, potentially because most kin-directed altruism occurs within households, not between households. In addition, the models show that households with high genetic relatedness in part from children born to adulterous relationships are less likely to assist each other.

  14. Emotional Diathesis, Emotional Stress, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Jones, Robin M.; Kim, Hanjoe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether emotional reactivity and emotional stress of children who stutter (CWS) are associated with their stuttering frequency, (b) when the relationship between emotional reactivity and stuttering frequency is more likely to exist, and (c) how these associations are mediated by a 3rd…

  15. Emotional display rules and emotional labor: the moderating role of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosserand, Robin H; Diefendorff, James M

    2005-11-01

    The authors examined whether commitment to emotional display rules is a necessary condition for emotional display rules to affect behavior at work. Results using structural equation modeling revealed that display rule commitment moderated the relationships of emotional display rule perceptions with surface acting, deep acting, and positive affective delivery at work, such that the relationships were strong and positive when commitment to display rules was high and weak when commitment to display rules was low. These findings suggest that motivation plays a role in the emotional labor process in that individuals must be committed to display rules for these rules to affect behavior. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Taking emotion seriously: meeting students where they are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2014-03-01

    Emotions are often portrayed as subjective judgments that pose a threat to rationality and morality, but there is a growing literature across many disciplines that emphasizes the centrality of emotion to moral reasoning. For engineers, however, being rational usually means sequestering emotions that might bias analyses-good reasoning is tied to quantitative data, math, and science. This paper brings a new pedagogical perspective that strengthens the case for incorporating emotions into engineering ethics. Building on the widely established success of active and collaborative learning environments, in particular the problem-based learning (PBL) philosophy and methodology, the paper articulates new strategies for incorporating emotion into engineering ethics education. An ethics education pilot study is analyzed to explore how PBL can engage students' emotions. Evidence suggests that PBL empowers students to cultivate value for engineering ethics and social responsibility, and in doing so, redefine the societal role of the engineer. Taking students' emotions seriously in engineering ethics offers an effective strategy to meaningfully engage students in ethical learning.

  17. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    <strong>Background and aim:strong> Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on

  18. Beyond Emotion Regulation: Emotion Utilization and Adaptive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David

    2008-01-01

    Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of...

  19. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  20. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  1. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hee-Chung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil, E-mail: yslee0425@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  2. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  4. Resilience by solidary ties (Resiliencia por lazos de solidaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers an empirical approach to the relationships among three well known concepts: “Benevolence” (Schwartz, Solidarity and Resilience ("Subjective wellbeing scale" - SWB. The first concept refers to cultural values, the second one to social networks and the third to the ability to recover from crisis. The measurement of solidarity has been done from the point of view of supportive ties. The baseline hypothesis considers that the presence of a high value in Benevolence contributes to the involvements in solidarity networks. Participation in supportive relationships facilitates recovery from personal crisis. Using data from the European Social Survey (ESS6, we conclude from this structural analysis that the resilience reflected in a society is partly a consequence of the supportive networks shaped by the presence of benevolence values. | Tras introducir teóricamente los conceptos de "Benevolencia" (Schwartz, "Lazos de solidaridad" y "Resiliencia", se presenta su operativización en la Encuesta Social Europea de 2012. La hipótesis de partida plantea que la presencia de un valor alto en Benevolencia influye en la participación en interacciones solidarias y que la participación en redes solidarias facilita el recobrarse de las crisis. A partir de estos datos, y considerando varias sociedades europeas, se han testado dos modelos alternativos, según el efecto de la Benevolencia y los lazos de solidaridad sobre la resiliencia. Se concluye que existe un efecto directo de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Solidaridad, y de esta sobre la Resiliencia. La influencia de los valores de Benevolencia sobre la Resiliencia se establece de forma indirecta mediante la activación de relaciones solidarias.

  5. Emotional Interdependence and Well-Being in Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114

  6. Emotional interdependence and well-being in close relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSels

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64% did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction or even negatively (empathic concern related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects. Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions.

  7. Fictional Emotions within Emotion Driven Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address imaginative experiences of emotions by drawing Kendall Walton’s theory of make-believe. Moreover, we use a design case as means for investigating how a child’s felt emotions towards a hospital situation relates to his or her imaginative experiences of emotions...... towards a fictive character in a computer game simulating the real-world situation. In so doing, we contribute with new insights to existing theories of emotions in design, which tend to focus narrowly on felt and measurable emotions....

  8. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF......-with-ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from Partner), which allows lesbian couples to 'share motherhood', with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible, but here I argue that the increased biological ties which IVF...

  9. Square and bow-tie configurations in the cyclic evasion problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M. D.; Golich, M.; Grim, A.; Vargas, L.; Zharnitsky, V.

    2017-05-01

    Cyclic evasion of four agents on the plane is considered. There are two stationary shapes of configurations: square and degenerate bow-tie. The bow-tie is asymptotically attracting while the square is of focus-center type. Normal form analysis shows that square is nonlinearly unstable. The stable manifold consists of parallelograms that all converge to the square configuration. Based on these observations and numerical simulations, it is conjectured that any non-parallelogram non-degenerate configuration converges to the bow-tie.

  10. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China... prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation...

  11. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  12. Loving transgressions: Queer of color bodies, affective ties, transformative community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Rowe, Aimee; Royster, Francesca T

    2017-07-03

    This introductory article considers the importance of queer woman of color theorizations of affect in thinking more fully the recent interdisciplinary turn to affect. The affective turn has vitally invited culture and feminist critics to interrogate emotion beyond the individual to examine the political and cultural production of emotion. Even as women of color are often associated with excessive affect, the theoretical contributions women of color make to the field of affect studies are often overlooked. Our introduction and this special issue more broadly examine how this solipsism shapes projects invested in critical knowledge production, as well as the stakes of centering a queer woman of color genealogy. For instance, we argue for the importance of retaining U.S. third-world feminist concepts-like interpellation, oppositional consciousness, and the generative force of negative affects-even as they fall out of favor within affect studies. Centering theory that emerges from the vexed spaces of queer women of color lived experiences generates a vital interdisciplinary conversation that contributes to the ongoing political task of mobilizing affect for social action as a critical praxis. In the articles that follow we see this critical praxis at work in the form of community organizing, music, poetry, and performance art.

  13. Emotion regulation mediates age differences in emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Wong, Carmen K M; Lok, David P P

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at testing the proposition of socioemotional selectivity theory whether older people would use more antecedent-focused emotion regulatory strategies like cognitive reappraisal but fewer response-focused strategies like suppression. It also aimed at investigating the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between age and emotions. The sample consisted of 654 younger and older adults aged between 18 and 64. Results showed that age was significantly associated with positive emotions and cognitive reappraisal. No difference was found in negative emotions and suppression between younger and older adults. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated the effect of age on positive emotions. Findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanism of age variations in emotional experiences.

  14. Personality, basic emotions, and satisfaction: primary emotions in the mountaineering experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faullant, Rita; Matzler, Kurt; Mooradian, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption-related emotions – usually operationalized as broad, summary dimensions such as positive and negative emotions or, alternatively, pleasure and arousal – have been shown to be influenced by enduring personality traits and, in turn, to influence customer satisfaction. Experiential tourism...... activities such as mountaineering evoke powerful emotions that strongly influence tourist satisfaction. Although Zajonc (1980) proposed and more recent neurophysiological evidence confirms that emotions, especially fear, can be primary (can precede cognitions), consumption-related emotions have heretofore...... been modeled as occurring concurrently with or consequent to cognitive appraisals. Our results show that two basic consumption-related emotions, fear and joy, are influenced by neuroticism and extraversion, respectively, and in turn and in conjunction with cognitive appraisals influence tourist...

  15. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  16. The self and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Bosma, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    (from the introduction) In this chapter, the author discusses emotions. Emotions, according to the author's componential emotion theory (1986) are always about something; they emerge in the person's relationship with the world. In addition, emotions signal that one's own person is at stake.

  17. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  18. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  19. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  20. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  1. Culture and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-06-01

    While anthropological research has long emphasized cultural differences in whether emotions are viewed as beneficial versus harmful, psychological science has only recently begun to systematically examine those differences and their implications for emotion regulation and well-being. Underscoring the pervasive role of culture in people's emotions, we summarize research that has examined links between culture, emotion regulation, and well-being. Specifically, we focus on two questions. First, how does culture lead individuals to regulate their emotions? And second, how does culture modulate the link between emotion regulation and well-being? We finish by suggesting directions for future research to advance the study of culture and emotion regulation.

  2. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  3. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  4. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  5. Emotional Inertia is Associated with Lower Well-Being Controlling for Differences in Emotional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKoval

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have linked higher emotional inertia (i.e., a stronger autoregressive slope of emotions with lower well-being. We aimed to replicate these findings, while extending upon previous research by addressing a number of unresolved issues and controlling for potential confounds. Specifically, we report results from two studies (Ns = 100 & 202 examining how emotional inertia, assessed in response to a standardized sequence of emotional stimuli in the lab, correlates with several measures of well-being. The current studies build on previous research by examining how inertia of both positive emotions (PE and negative emotions (NE are related to both positive (e.g., life satisfaction and negative (e.g., depressive symptoms indicators of well-being, while controlling for between-person differences in the mean level and variability of emotions. Our findings replicated previous research and further revealed that a NE inertia was more strongly associated with lower well-being than PE inertia; b emotional inertia correlated more consistently with negative indicators (e.g., depressive symptoms than positive indicators (e.g., life satisfaction of well-being; and c these relationships were independent of individual differences in mean level and variability of emotions. We conclude, in line with recent findings, that higher emotional inertia, particularly of NE, may indicate increased vulnerability to depression.

  6. Reclaiming Melancholy by Emotion Tracking? Datafication of Emotions in Health Care and at the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janasik-Honkela Nina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the time between the world wars, the language of emotions has been dominated by the discourse of therapy, starting a style of emotional expression and practice. Somewhat paradoxically, at the same time as a new professional group emerged with authority to pronounce on all matters emotional as part of the unfolding of modern emotional capitalism, the categories of psychic suffering have witnessed a veritable emptying out of emotions. Currently, the emphasis is placed, rather, on various kinds of lack of behaviour. For instance, “melancholy” as an existential category for strong and energy-intense reactions to all kinds of loss, has been squeezed into the clinical category of “depression,” literally meaning “pressing down.” Negative emotional states have, however, recently appeared in many self-tracking activities, including in the “datafication” of emotions in the form of the Finnish application Emotion Tracker. In this article, I ask whether this introduction of self-tracking into the context of health care and the workplace has written any differences into the current practices of emotional capitalism. My findings suggest that by placing itself in the opaque middle ground between professional psychology and ordinary life, Emotion Tracker creates a new space where the rich tapestry of melancholy is again allowed to figure.

  7. Emotional Inertia is Associated with Lower Well-Being when Controlling for Differences in Emotional Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have linked higher emotional inertia (i.e., a stronger autoregressive slope of emotions) with lower well-being. We aimed to replicate these findings, while extending upon previous research by addressing a number of unresolved issues and controlling for potential confounds. Specifically, we report results from two studies (Ns = 100 and 202) examining how emotional inertia, assessed in response to a standardized sequence of emotional stimuli in the lab, correlates with several measures of well-being. The current studies build on previous research by examining how inertia of both positive emotions (PE) and negative emotions (NE) relates to positive (e.g., life satisfaction) and negative (e.g., depressive symptoms) indicators of well-being, while controlling for between-person differences in the mean level and variability of emotions. Our findings replicated previous research and further revealed that (a) NE inertia was more strongly associated with lower well-being than PE inertia; (b) emotional inertia correlated more consistently with negative indicators (e.g., depressive symptoms) than positive indicators (e.g., life satisfaction) of well-being; and (c) these relationships were independent of individual differences in mean level and variability of emotions. We conclude, in line with recent findings, that higher emotional inertia, particularly of NE, may be an indicator of increased vulnerability to depression.

  8. Moving with the Military: Race, Class, and Gender Differences in the Employment Consequences of Tied Migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Previous research demonstrates negative employment and earnings consequences for tied migrants, but little is known about how the impact of such mobility differs by the gender, race, and class of the trailing spouse. The U.S...

  9. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps

  10. Group formation in a public good experiment: on the dynamics of social ties structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.H.; van Dijk, F.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Economic behavior often takes place in groups of small numbers of peopleinteracting with each other (like work teams, neighborhoods, socialnetworks, etc.). Characteristic of such interaction is the development of(affective) interpersonal relationships, or social ties. According tosociologists, the

  11. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. One long tie bar broken after 3 days because of hydrogen contamination.

    CERN Multimedia

    H. Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The tie bars have been produced with a high yield strength. As known for these type of high strength bolts, and hydrogen contamination during manufacture or heat treatment could lead to rupture under stress after several days.

  13. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bault, N.; Pelloux, B.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational

  14. Multi-area economic dispatch with tie-line constraints employing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The economic dispatch problem is frequently solved without considering ... programming algorithm was proposed for the MAED solution with tie-line constraints ..... are the difference between two randomly chosen parameter vectors, a concept.

  15. Do Social Ties Affect Our Health? Exploring the Biology of Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do Social Ties Affect Our Health? Exploring the Biology of Relationships En español Send us your comments ... neighbors, or others, social connections can influence our biology and well-being. Wide-ranging research suggests that ...

  16. Fiber Optic Tamper Indicating Enclosure (TIE); A Case Study in Authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2015-07-15

    A robust fiber optic-based tamper-indicating enclosure (TIE) has been developed by PNNL through funding by the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification over the past few years. The objective of this work is to allow monitors to have confidence in both the authenticity and integrity of the TIE and the monitoring equipment inside, throughout the time it may be located at a host facility. Incorporating authentication features into the design were the focus of fiscal year 2014 development efforts. Throughout the development process, modifications have been made to the physical TIE design based on lessons learned via exercises and expert elicitation. The end result is a robust and passive TIE which can be utilized to protect monitoring party equipment left in a host facility.

  17. Unreal bots with emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Bída, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with usage of emotions in artificial inteligence in computer games. It inspects possible benefits of emotions for artificial inteligence in the means of better imitation of human behavior. Main goal of this work is the implementation of an emotion model in the enviroment of the game Unreal Tournament (project UT Emotion Bots) and appraisal of its properties and suitability for the simulation of emotions in FPS games. This work introduces platforms used in the developmen...

  18. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    With the growing demand for a reliable electrical grid, backup power supplies and energy management systems are a necessity. Systems such as server...ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER

  19. Division of tongue tie: review of practice through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, R W

    2012-10-01

    Recent NICE guidance declared that evidence regarding surgical division of tongue tie was adequate to support the use of the procedure, provided that normal arrangements are in place for consent, audit and clinical governance. This work aimed to carry out a retrospective review of those patients who have previously undergone tongue tie division through a tertiary paediatric otorhinolaryngology service. We further aimed to identify the referral patterns, indications for, and outcomes following, division.

  20. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Venneri, Mary Anna; De Palma, Michele; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Pucci, Ferdinando; Scielzo, Cristina; Zonari, Erika; Mazzieri, Roberta; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), have been implicated in tumor progression. We recently described a lineage of mouse monocytes characterized by expression of the Tie2 angiopoietin receptor and required for the vascularization and growth of several tumor models. Here, we report that TIE2 expression in human blood identifies a subset of monocytes distinct from classical inflammatory monocytes and comprised within the less abundant "resident" popul...

  1. Evaluation of Shear Tie Connectors for Use in Insulated Concrete Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    stainless steel, galvanized carbon steel, carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), and basalt fiber reinforced polymer...Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Delta Tie produced by Dayton Superior; • (B) THERMOMASS® composite GFRP pins; • (C) THERMOMASS® non-composite...GFRP pins; • (D) Altus Group CFRP Grid; • (E) Universal Building products GFRP Teplo Tie; and • (F) Universal Building products Basalt FRP

  2. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Jacobs van Goethem, T.H.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional

  3. A pc program for the fast assessment of long-arc shrouds and continuous-tie arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, S.M.; Lam. T.C.T.; Redding, M.L.; Ortolano, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a computer program LARC (Long-arc Axial Response Calculation) has been successfully developed to achieve the fast assessment for the effectiveness of a proposed long-arc shroud or continuous-tie arrangement, with respect to the axial modes of vibration. The program allows designers/analysts to conveniently perform modal as well as forced harmonic response calculations for various proposed blade group arrangements. Comparisons between responses for different group lengths will indicate the susceptibility of each grouping to strong dynamic response. LARC is a PC-based program with a user-friendly interface and graphic display. Natural frequencies are calculated by an eigenvalue extraction technique. Resonant response, obtained in term s of the axial displacement at the blade tip, will provide analysts with the information necessary to evaluate the potential success of the proposed configuration. Test case results from LARC compare well against results from BLADE

  4. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  5. Relationships between authorship contributions and authors' industry financial ties among oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susannah L; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Joffe, Steven

    2010-03-10

    PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that authors who play key scientific roles in oncology clinical trials, and who therefore have increased influence over the design, analysis, interpretation or reporting of trials, are more likely than those who do not play such roles to have financial ties to industry. METHODS Data were abstracted from all trials (n = 235) of drugs or biologic agents published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. Article-level data included sponsorship, age group (adult v pediatric), phase, single versus multicenter, country (United States v other), and number of authors. Author-level data (n = 2,927) included financial ties (eg, employment, consulting) and performance of key scientific roles (ie, conception/design, analysis/interpretation, or manuscript writing). Associations between performance of key roles and financial ties, adjusting for article-level covariates, were examined using generalized linear mixed models. Results One thousand eight hundred eighty-one authors (64%) reported performing at least one key role, and 842 authors (29%) reported at least one financial tie. Authors who reported performing a key role were more likely than other authors to report financial ties to industry (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 99% CI, 3.0 to 6.0; P analysis, and interpretation, or reporting of oncology clinical trials are more likely than authors who do not perform such roles to have financial ties to industry.

  6. [Medical equipment companies and their ties with technology development centers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Arredondo, A; Cruz, C; Sánchez, E; Damián, T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the companies that produce, distribute, and service medical equipment in Mexico and the factors related to whether or not they had established ties with research and technology development centers. The data analyzed came from a survey of such companies carried out in Mexico City and environs in 1989. The information was updated in 1991. Multivariate analyses were carried out in order to identify the characteristics of companies that had established ties or wished to do so and the areas of interest of those companies. Of 208 companies surveyed, only 23% had ties with research centers. The companies that had such ties or were interested in establishing them tended to invest in research and to have made plans for expansion. The establishment of ties appeared to be a two-way process, with positive consequences for the companies involved, the research centers, and the health sector. It was concluded that it would be advantageous to design programs to promote ties with companies having the characteristics mentioned.

  7. Multipronged regulatory functions of a novel endonuclease (TieA) from Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Naveen; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-11-02

    Helicobacter pylori portrays a classical paradigm of persistent bacterial infections. A well balanced homeostasis of bacterial effector functions and host responses is purported to be the key in achieving long term colonization in specific hosts. H. pylori nucleases have been shown to assist in natural transformation, but their role in virulence and colonization remains elusive. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the involvement of these nucleases in the pathogenesis of H. pylori Here, we report the multifaceted role of a TNFR-1 interacting endonuclease A (TieA) from H. pylori. tieA expression is differentially regulated in response to environmental stress and post adherence to gastric epithelial cells. Studies with isogenic knockouts of tieA revealed it to be a secretory protein which translocates into the host gastric epithelial cells independent of a type IV secretion system, gets phosphorylated by DNA-PK kinase and auto-phosphorylates as serine kinase. Furthermore, TieA binds to and cleaves DNA in a non-specific manner and promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in AGS cells. Additionally, TieA induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion via activation of transcription factor AP-1 and signaled through MAP kinase pathway. Collectively, TieA with its multipronged and moonlighting functions could facilitate H. pylori in maintaining a balance of bacterial adaptation, and elimination by the host responses. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, N.; Mather, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for bio...

  9. Emotion in Schizophrenia: Where Feeling Meets Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Caponigro, Janelle M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research has pointed to the importance of considering the time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This work has shown that people with schizophrenia have the ability to experience emotion in the moment; however, they appear to have difficulties when anticipating future pleasurable experiences, and this perhaps affects their motivation to have such experiences. While advancements in our understanding of emotional experience and expression in individuals with schizophrenia have been made, these developments have led to a new collection of research questions directed at understanding the time course of emotion in schizophrenia, including the role of memory and anticipation in motivated behavior, translating laboratory findings to the development of new assessment tools and new treatments targeting emotional impairments in people with this disorder.

  10. Ties that Bind? American Influences on Canadian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Heyking, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about the "Americanization" of Canadian schools have been raised frequently throughout the history of Canadian education. Fear of American influence was behind the requirement in the 1816 Common School Act in Upper Canada that all teachers take an oath of allegiance to the Crown. It was the reason for the strong promotion of the…

  11. Language as Social Fabric: Ties That Bind and Separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Keith; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that speakers of Black English and their behavior evoke strong responses outside and inside their communities. Asserts that members of the black communities are rarely permitted to describe or defend their language or ways of using it. Offers the essays, comments, and class interactions of an African-American/Linguistics class on language…

  12. The Strength of Friendship Ties in Proximity Sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links—on average—also have lower link-weights and probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link...

  13. Noteworthy: Fortune 500: Texas ties California for national lead

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Nicholson

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2010 Fortune 500, released in April, Texas hosts the headquarters of 57 of the nation's 500 largest companies, ranked by gross revenues. Texas secured its place as a Fortune 500 leader through its position as focal point of the domestic energy industry, its relatively strong economic growth over the past decade, and its relatively low tax rates and living costs.

  14. [Construction of recombinant lentiviral vector of Tie2-RNAi and its influence on malignant melanoma cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiu-ying; Liu, Zhao-liang; Wang, Biao; Guo, Guo-xiang; Wang, Mei-shui; Zhuang, Fu-lian; Cai, Chuan-shu; Zhang, Ming-feng; Zhang, Yan-ding

    2011-07-01

    To construct lentivector carrying Tie2-Small interfering RNA (SiRNA), so as to study its influence on malignant melanoma cells. Recombinant plasmid pSilencer 1.0-U6-Tie2-siRNA and plasmid pNL-EGFP were digested with XbaI, ligated a target lentiviral transfer plasmid of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I or pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II, and then the electrophoresis clones was sequenced. Plasmids of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II were constructed and combined with pVSVG and pHelper, respectively, to constitute lentiviral vector system of three plasmids. The Lentiviral vector system was transfected into 293T cell to produce pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2- I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II lentivirus. Then the supernatant was collected to determine the titer. Malignant melanoma cells were infected by both lentiviruses and identified by Realtime RT-PCR to assess inhibitory efficiency. The recombinant lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi were constructed successfully which were analyzed with restriction enzyme digestion and identified by sequencing. And the titer of lentiviral vector was 8.8 x 10(3)/ml, which was determined by 293T cell. The results of Realtime RT-PCR demonstrated that the lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi could infect malignant melanoma cells and inhibit the expression of Tie2 genes in malignant melanoma cells (P0.05) between the two lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi. Lentivector carrying Tie2-SiRNA can be constructed successfully and inhibit the expression of Tie2 gene in vitro significantly. The study will supply the theory basis for the further research on the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.

  15. Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; Mathews, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if" to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Financial ties of principal investigators and randomized controlled trial outcomes: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Rosa; Woodbridge, Alexandra; Abraham, Ann; Saba, Susan; Korenstein, Deborah; Madden, Erin; Boscardin, W John; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2017-01-17

     To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding.  Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).  Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013.  Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy.  Association between financial ties of principal investigators and study outcome.  A total of 190 papers describing 195 studies met inclusion criteria. Financial ties between principal investigators and the pharmaceutical industry were present in 132 (67.7%) studies. Of 397 principal investigators, 231 (58%) had financial ties and 166 (42%) did not. Of all principal investigators, 156 (39%) reported advisor/consultancy payments, 81 (20%) reported speakers' fees, 81 (20%) reported unspecified financial ties, 52 (13%) reported honorariums, 52 (13%) reported employee relationships, 52 (13%) reported travel fees, 41 (10%) reported stock ownership, and 20 (5%) reported having a patent related to the study drug. The prevalence of financial ties of principal investigators was 76% (103/136) among positive studies and 49% (29/59) among negative studies. In unadjusted analyses, the presence of a financial tie was associated with a positive study outcome (odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.1). In the primary multivariate analysis, a financial tie was significantly associated with positive RCT outcome after adjustment for the study funding source (odds ratio 3.57 (1.7 to 7.7). The secondary analysis controlled for additional RCT characteristics such as study phase, sample size, country of first authors, specialty, trial registration, study design, type of analysis, comparator, and outcome measure. These characteristics did not appreciably affect the relation between financial ties and study outcomes (odds ratio 3.37, 1

  17. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  18. Emotion and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-03

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  19. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campanelli

    Full Text Available Primary myelofibrosis (PMF is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph- myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2 have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs, and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008 in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ.

  20. Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Hossain, Mohammad B; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Marini, Frank C; Alonso, Marta M; Lang, Frederick; Yung, W K; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-03-29

    Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. Our group has previously reported that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are aberrantly present at the tumor/normal brain interface after anti-VEGF therapies and their significant role in the invasive outgrowth of these tumors. Here, we aimed to further understand the mechanisms leading to this pro-invasive tumor microenvironment. Examination of a U87MG xenogeneic glioma model and a GL261 murine syngeneic model showed increased tumor expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a natural ligand of Tie2, after anti-angiogenesis therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptor (VEGFR), as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of tumor lysates. Migration and gelatinolytic assays showed that Ang2 acts as both a chemoattractant of TEMs and an enhancing signal for their tumor-remodeling properties. Accordingly, in vivo transduction of Ang2 into intracranial gliomas increased recruitment of TEMs into the tumor. To reduce invasive tumor outgrowth after anti-angiogenesis therapy, we targeted the Ang-Tie2 axis using a Tie2 decoy receptor. Using syngeneic models, we observed that overexpression of soluble Tie2 within the tumor prevented the recruitment of TEMs to the tumor and the development of invasion after anti-angiogenesis treatment. Taken together, these data indicate an active role for the Ang2-Tie2 pathway in invasive glioma recurrence after anti-angiogenesis treatment and provide a rationale for testing the combined targeting of VEGF and Ang-Tie2 pathways in patients with glioblastoma.

  1. An Artificial Emotion Model For Visualizing Emotion of Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Junseok Ham; Chansun Jung; Junhyung Park; Jihye Ryeo; Ilju Ko

    2009-01-01

    It is hard to express emotion through only speech when we watch a character in a movie or a play because we cannot estimate the size, kind, and quantity of emotion. So this paper proposes an artificial emotion model for visualizing current emotion with color and location in emotion model. The artificial emotion model is designed considering causality of generated emotion, difference of personality, difference of continual emotional stimulus, and co-relation of various emo...

  2. Positive emotion, reward, and cognitive control: emotional versus motivational influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively-valenced subjective experience versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses.

  3. Emotions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...

  4. Pain and your emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000417.htm Pain and your emotions To use the sharing features on this page, ... or hurting yourself What to do About Your Emotions A common type of therapy for people with ...

  5. Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Magnano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancement and success in an organizational setting and with individual performance. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence is considered an antecedent to resilience. The present study aims to investigate the role of resilience and emotional intelligence in achievement motivation, verifying if emotional intelligence mediates the relationship among resilience and achievement motivation. Participants are 488 Italian workers, aged between 18 and 55 years. The findings confirm the significant role played by emotional intelligence on resilience and on motivation to achievement.

  6. Perception of emotion in abstract artworks: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David; Bacci, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    There is a long-standing and fundamental debate regarding how emotion can be expressed by fine art. Some artists and theorists have claimed that certain features of paintings, such as color, line, form, and composition, can consistently express an "objective" emotion, while others have argued that emotion perception is subjective and depends more on expertise of the observer. Here, we discuss two studies in which we have found evidence for consistency in observer ratings of emotion for abstract artworks. We have developed a stimulus set of abstract art images to test emotional priming, both between different painting images and between paintings and faces. The ratings were also used in a computational vision analysis of the visual features underlying emotion expression. Overall, these findings suggest that there is a strong bottom-up and objective aspect to perception of emotion in abstract artworks that may tap into basic visual mechanisms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  8. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  9. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  10. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  11. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-12-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA (Reception of Oocytes from Partner), which allows lesbian couples to 'share motherhood', with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible, but here I argue that the increased biological ties which IVF-with-ROPA allows for do not have any particular value beside the satisfaction of a legitimate wish, because there is no intrinsic value in a biological tie between parents and children; further, I argue that equality within parental projects cannot be achieved by redistributing biological ties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  13. Up with Emotional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that…

  14. Emotions and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Frijda, N.H.; Fischer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationships between emotion and action. Emotion, by its very nature, is change in action readiness to maintain or change one's relationship to an object or event. Motivation, or motivational change, is one of the key aspects of emotions. Even so, action follows only

  15. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  16. Next generation Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Saveland

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...

  17. Emotional Geographies of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Introduces emotional geographies, which describe patterns of closeness and distance in human interactions that shape the emotions people experience about relationships to themselves, others, and the world around them. Using an interview-based study of elementary and secondary teachers, the paper describes five emotional geographies of…

  18. Race, Emotions, and Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  19. The role of emotion in moral agency: some meta-ethical issues in the moral psychology of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rietti, Sophie

    2003-01-01

    This thesis aims to elucidate an apparent paradox about the role of emotion in moral agency. A number of lines of concern suggest emotion may have serious negative impact on moral agency. On the other hand, there are considerations that suggest emotion also plays a crucial role in motivating, informing and even constituting moral agency. Significantly, there is a strong connection between participant reactive attitudes and ascription of moral status as agent or subject. Nonemot...

  20. Emotional control in Chinese female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Samuel M Y

    2004-11-01

    Chinese persons are not known as strong in expressing emotions, especially negative ones. However, being diagnosed with cancer and going through treatment can be an emotionally traumatic experience and cancer patients are supposed to have a stronger need to express these negative feelings. The control of expression of negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression in Chinese female cancer survivors (n=139) was examined in the present study using the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). The reliability, internal consistency and validity of the Chinese CECS were comparable to the original English scale. Correlation analyses suggested that cancer survivors with higher emotional control tended to have higher stress, anxiety and depression levels and to adopt negative coping with cancer. Regression analysis showed that emotional control would positively predict stress level even after the effect of depressed mood was under control. Further investigations are suggested in order to elucidate the causal relationships and specific cultural factors affecting emotional control in Chinese cancer survivors and, most importantly, its effect on health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Odor Emotional Quality Predicts Odor Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Schulze, Patrick; Kuchinke, Lars

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly agreed upon a strong link between emotion and olfaction. Odor-evoked memories are experienced as more emotional compared with verbal, visual, and tactile stimuli. Moreover, the emotional quality of odor cues increases memory performance, but contrary to this, odors are poor retrieval cues for verbal labels. To examine the relation between the emotional quality of an odor and its likelihood of identification, this study evaluates how normative emotion ratings based on the 3-dimensional affective space model (that includes valence, arousal, and dominance), using the Self-Assessment Manikin by Bradley and Lang (Bradley MM, Lang PJ. 1994. Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 25(1):49-59.) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 54(6):1063-1070.) predict the identification of odors in a multiple choice condition. The best fitting logistic regression model includes squared valence and dominance and thus, points to a significant role of specific emotional features of odors as a main clue for odor identification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  3. Corticolimbic gating of emotion-driven punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Jan, Katharine; Asplund, Christopher L; Ginther, Matthew R; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

    2014-09-01

    Determining the appropriate punishment for a norm violation requires consideration of both the perpetrator's state of mind (for example, purposeful or blameless) and the strong emotions elicited by the harm caused by their actions. It has been hypothesized that such affective responses serve as a heuristic that determines appropriate punishment. However, an actor's mental state often trumps the effect of emotions, as unintended harms may go unpunished, regardless of their magnitude. Using fMRI, we found that emotionally graphic descriptions of harmful acts amplify punishment severity, boost amygdala activity and strengthen amygdala connectivity with lateral prefrontal regions involved in punishment decision-making. However, this was only observed when the actor's harm was intentional; when harm was unintended, a temporoparietal-medial-prefrontal circuit suppressed amygdala activity and the effect of graphic descriptions on punishment was abolished. These results reveal the brain mechanisms by which evaluation of a transgressor's mental state gates our emotional urges to punish.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  5. Delineating functional principles of the bow tie structure of a kinase-phosphatase network in the budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Rabbo, Diala; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-03-16

    Kinases and phosphatases (KP) form complex self-regulating networks essential for cellular signal processing. In spite of having a wealth of data about interactions among KPs and their substrates, we have very limited models of the structures of the directed networks they form and consequently our ability to formulate hypotheses about how their structure determines the flow of information in these networks is restricted. We assembled and studied the largest bona fide kinase-phosphatase network (KP-Net) known to date for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Application of the vertex sort (VS) algorithm on the KP-Net allowed us to elucidate its hierarchical structure in which nodes are sorted into top, core and bottom layers, forming a bow tie structure with a strongly connected core layer. Surprisingly, phosphatases tend to sort into the top layer, implying they are less regulated by phosphorylation than kinases. Superposition of the widest range of KP biological properties over the KP-Net hierarchy shows that core layer KPs: (i), receive the largest number of inputs; (ii), form bottlenecks implicated in multiple pathways and in decision-making; (iii), and are among the most regulated KPs both temporally and spatially. Moreover, top layer KPs are more abundant and less noisy than those in the bottom layer. Finally, we showed that the VS algorithm depends on node degrees without biasing the biological results of the sorted network. The VS algorithm is available as an R package ( https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/VertexSort/index.html ). The KP-Net model we propose possesses a bow tie hierarchical structure in which the top layer appears to ensure highest fidelity and the core layer appears to mediate signal integration and cell state-dependent signal interpretation. Our model of the yeast KP-Net provides both functional insight into its organization as we understand today and a framework for future investigation of information processing in yeast and eukaryotes

  6. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan.

  7. A longitudinal research on the development of emotional autonomy during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Agueda; Oliva, Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to study the development of emotional autonomy through adolescence analysing its association with family relationships. The development of emotional autonomy involves an increase in adolescents' subjective sense of his or her independence, especially in relation to parents. From some scholars emotional autonomy is a normative manifestation of the detachment process from parents, however, others point out that detachment from parental ties is not the norm, so high level of adolescent emotional autonomy is the consequence of negative family relationships. In our study a sample of 101 adolescents were followed for 5 years, from early to middle adolescence, and completed questionnaires to measure their emotional autonomy and the quality of their family relationships. Our results showed that over the course of adolescence some dimensions of emotional autonomy increase, meanwhile others decrease, so the global level of emotional autonomy global level remains stable. On the other hand, emotional autonomy is associated with negative family relationships, so emotional autonomy, more than a necessary process to become adult, could be indicating an insecure attachment to parents.

  8. What do emotions do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    analyses how emotions of annoyance, hostility, shame and empathy circulate between the researcher, the gatekeepers and the studied people. Asking what do emotions do? the chapter looks into how the circulation of emotions establish both distance and proximity among the subjects. Spanger argues...... that such circulations of emotions springs from particular discourses of feminism and social policy. From this stance, emotions are approached as discursive practices that establish hierarchies among the implied subjects that forms the premises for producing knowledge. The chapter is based on empirical examples from...

  9. Emotional Labour and Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Merete

    2017-01-01

    simultaneously benefit the individual worker and reproduce inequalities that may be detrimental to workers’ well-being. The goal of this article is to develop our theoretical understanding of power in emotional labour and show how power is related to emotional labour not only constrainedly in terms of lack......This article examines the interplay between governance and cost-containment efforts in the public sector and the emotional labour and well-being of childcare workers. Care work researchers have highlighted the complexities of power in emotional labour, such as the fact that emotional labour may...

  10. Analysis and design of type b package tie-down systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, C.; Tombini, C.; Tanguy, L.

    1993-01-01

    In order to analyse the incidence of tie-down conditions as a cause of road accidents and to advise carriers on methods of calculating the risk, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), within the framework of a research contract financed by the European Community, conducted a survey into road accidents in which B type packages were involved. After analysis of the survey results, the CEA then conducted reduced scale tests on representative models to establish design rules for tie-down systems. These rules have been the subject of various publications and have at last resulted in the production of a software aid to the design and monitoring of tie-down systems. This document states the various stages involved in this work and the way in which the ARRIMAGE software is arranged. (J.P.N.)

  11. A matched Bow-tie antenna at 433MHz for use in underwater wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, A A; Shaw, A; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A; Cullen, J; Wylie, S; Diallo, M

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation underwater is been disregarded because of attenuation at high frequencies, however the theory predicts that propagation is possible at some useful distance in the lower Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Common transceivers rely on narrowband antennas and matching circuit. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband 433MHz bow-tie antenna and experiment it in air and water without a matching circuit. This antenna could be attached to wireless transceivers and form a Wireless Sensor Network for deployment in various underwater applications. The bow-tie antennas were designed, simulated and constructed in laboratory. Experiments were setup carefully by using a completely isolated transmitter from electronics to avoid airborne transmission. The 433MHz. bow-tie proved its suitability for use in Underwater.

  12. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  13. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency. Particul......This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  14. A community of strangers: the dis-embedding of social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties--the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities--the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion.

  15. A community of strangers: the dis-embedding of social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Parigi

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties--the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities--the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion.

  16. A Synchronization Method for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    The controllers of single-phase grid-tied inverters require improvements to enable distribution generation systems to meet the grid codes/standards with respect to power quality and the fault ride through capability. In that case, the response of the selected synchronization technique is crucial...... for the performance of the entire grid-tied inverter. In this paper, a new synchronization method with good dynamics and high accuracy under a highly distorted voltage is proposed. This method uses a Multi-Harmonic Decoupling Cell (MHDC), which thus can cancel out the oscillations on the synchronization signals due...... to the harmonic voltage distortion while maintaining the dynamic response of the synchronization. Therefore, the accurate and dynamic response of the proposed MHDC-PLL can be beneficial for the performance of the whole single-phase grid-tied inverter....

  17. The strength of friendship ties in proximity sensor data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Sekara

    Full Text Available Understanding how people interact and socialize is important in many contexts from disease control to urban planning. Datasets that capture this specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the last few years. We have yet to understand, however, to what extent such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life social interactions. For an observational dataset, gathered using mobile phones, we analyze the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as how to highlight important social interactions. Applying the Bluetooth signal strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links-on average-also have lower link-weights and probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties.

  18. The strength of friendship ties in proximity sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekara, Vedran; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how people interact and socialize is important in many contexts from disease control to urban planning. Datasets that capture this specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the last few years. We have yet to understand, however, to what extent such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life social interactions. For an observational dataset, gathered using mobile phones, we analyze the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as how to highlight important social interactions. Applying the Bluetooth signal strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links-on average-also have lower link-weights and probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties.

  19. HIL evaluation of control unit in grid-tied coverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porobić Vlado B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL emulation is poised to become unsurpassed design tool for development, testing, and optimization of real-time control algorithms for grid connected power electronics converters for distributed generation, active filters and smart grid applications. It is strongly important to examine and test how grid connected converters perform under different operating conditions including grid disturbances and faults. In that sense, converter’s controller is a key component responsible for ensuring safe and high-performance operation. This paper demonstrates an example how ultra-low latency and high fidelity HIL emulator is used to easily, rapidly and exhaustively test and validate standard control strategy for grid connected power electronics converters, without need for expensive hardware prototyping and laboratory test equipment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of AP Vojvodina under contract No. 114-451-3508/2013-04

  20. Reconsidering Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Alessandra; Covanti, Serena; Rossi Monti, Mario; Starcevic, Vladan

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to review the concept of emotion dysregulation, focusing on issues related to its definition, meanings and role in psychiatric disorders. Articles on emotion dysregulation published until May 2016 were identified through electronic database searches. Although there is no agreement about the definition of emotion dysregulation, the following five overlapping, not mutually exclusive dimensions of emotion dysregulation were identified: decreased emotional awareness, inadequate emotional reactivity, intense experience and expression of emotions, emotional rigidity and cognitive reappraisal difficulty. These dimensions characterise a number of psychiatric disorders in various proportions, with borderline personality disorder and eating disorders seemingly more affected than other conditions. The present review contributes to the literature by identifying the key components of emotion dysregulation and by showing how these permeate various forms of psychopathology. It also makes suggestions for improving research endeavours. Better understanding of the various dimensions of emotion dysregulation will have implications for clinical practice. Future research needs to address emotion dysregulation in all its multifaceted complexity so that it becomes clearer what the concept encompasses.

  1. REGISTRATION OF LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND AERIAL IMAGES USING EITHER ARTIFICIAL OR NATURAL TIE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rönnholm

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of laser scanning data and photographs is an excellent combination regarding both redundancy and complementary. Applications of integration vary from sensor and data calibration to advanced classification and scene understanding. In this research, only airborne laser scanning and aerial images are considered. Currently, the initial registration is solved using direct orientation sensors GPS and inertial measurements. However, the accuracy is not usually sufficient for reliable integration of data sets, and thus the initial registration needs to be improved. A registration of data from different sources requires searching and measuring of accurate tie features. Usually, points, lines or planes are preferred as tie features. Therefore, the majority of resent methods rely highly on artificial objects, such as buildings, targets or road paintings. However, in many areas no such objects are available. For example in forestry areas, it would be advantageous to be able to improve registration between laser data and images without making additional ground measurements. Therefore, there is a need to solve registration using only natural features, such as vegetation and ground surfaces. Using vegetation as tie features is challenging, because the shape and even location of vegetation can change because of wind, for example. The aim of this article was to compare registration accuracies derived by using either artificial or natural tie features. The test area included urban objects as well as trees and other vegetation. In this area, two registrations were performed, firstly, using mainly built objects and, secondly, using only vegetation and ground surface. The registrations were solved applying the interactive orientation method. As a result, using artificial tie features leaded to a successful registration in all directions of the coordinate system axes. In the case of using natural tie features, however, the detection of correct heights was

  2. Social position, social ties and adult's oral health: 13 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Faerstein, Eduardo; Baker, Sarah Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study explored different pathways by which social position and social ties influence adult's oral health over a 13-year period. A cohort investigation (Pro-Saúde Study) was conducted of non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (N=1613). Baseline data collected in 1999 included age, social position, social ties, and access to dental care. Psychological factors and smoking were assessed in 2001, whereas tooth loss and self-rated oral health (SROH) were collected in 2012. A hypothesised model exploring different direct and indirect pathways was developed and tested using structural equation modelling. The model was a good fit to the data and accounted for 40% and 27% of the variance in tooth loss and SROH, respectively. A greater social position was linked to more social ties (β=0.31), health insurance (β=0.48), low psychological distress (β=0.07), less smoking (β=-0.21), more regular dental visiting (β=0.30), less tooth loss (β=-0.44) and better SROH (β=-0.25) over time. Social position (β=0.0005) and social ties (β=-0.0015) were linked indirectly with psychological distress, smoking and tooth loss. Social position was linked indirectly with social ties, psychological distress and SROH (β=-0.0071). Poor social position and weak social ties were important predictors for tooth loss and poor SROH in adults over the 13-year period. Direct and indirect pathways via psychological factors and smoking on the aforementioned relationships were identified, suggesting different areas of intervention to promote adults' oral health. Adult's oral health is influenced by social conditions through direct and indirect pathways, including via psychological factors and smoking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. FEATURES OF DESIGN OF TIED-ARCH BRIDGES WITH FLEXIBLE INCLINED SUSPENSION HANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Samosvat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation and analysis of the hanger arrangement and the structural stability of a Network arch bridge – a tied-arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. It is also necessary to make a comparative analysis with other types of hanger arrangements. Methodology. The authors in their research investigated a large number of parameters to determine their influence in the force distribution in the arch. Eventually they determined optimal values for all parameters. These optimal values allowed developing a design guide that leads to optimal arch design. When solving this problem, the authors used three-dimensional finite element models and the objective was to determine the most suitable solution for a road bridge, with a span of 100 meters, consisting of two inclined steel arches, located on a road with two traffic lanes, subjected to medium traffic. The virtual prototype of the model is performed by finite element simulator Midas Civil. Findings. In this study, for the bridge deck, a concrete tie appears to be the best solution considering the structural behavior of network arches, but economic advantages caused by easier erection may lead to steel or a composite bridge deck as better alternatives. Design requirements and local conditions of each particular bridge project will decide the most economic deck design.Originality. To ensure passenger comfort and the stability and continuity of the track, deformations of bridges are constricted. A network arch is a stiff structure with small deflections and therefore suitable to comply with such demands even for high speed railway traffic.
A network arch bridge with a concrete tie usually saves more than half the steel required for tied arches with vertical hangers and concrete ties. Practical value. Following the study design advice given in this article leads to savings of about 60 % of structural steel compared with conventional tied arch bridges with

  4. The emotionally competent leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence.

  5. How emotions change time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett eSchirmer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding-up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing-down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share.

  6. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust

  7. A 10-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Ties and Functional Health among the Old: The AGES Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chiyoe; Saito, Tami; Tsuji, Taishi; Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-07-03

    In Asian nations, family ties are considered important. However, it is not clear what happens among older people with no such ties. To investigate the association, we used longitudinal data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) project. Functionally independent older people at baseline ( N = 14,088) in 10 municipalities were followed from 2003 to 2013. Social ties were assessed by asking about their social support exchange with family, relatives, friends, or neighbors. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the association between social ties and the onset of functional disability adjusting for age, health status, and living arrangement. We found that social ties with co-residing family members, and those with friends or neighbors, independently protected functional health with hazard ratios of 0.81 and 0.85 among men. Among women, ties with friend or neighbors had a stronger effect on health compared to their male counterparts with a hazard ratio of 0.89. The fact that social ties with friends or neighbors are associated with a lower risk of functional decline, independent of family support, serves to underscore the importance of promoting social ties, especially among those lacking family ties.

  8. Emotional Facet of Language Teaching: Emotion Regulation and Emotional Labor Strategies as Predictors of Teacher Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Royaei, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to scrutinize the multidimensional nature of teacher emotion. Three emotion-associated constructs, namely, emotion regulation, emotional labor strategies, and burnout were studied within a single framework. In particular, it was hypothesized that English as a foreign language teachers' emotion regulation and emotional labor…

  9. Artifacts in magnetic spirals retrieved by transport of intensity equation (TIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Yao, Y.; Shen, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Yu, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    The artifacts in the magnetic structures reconstructed from Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) images with TIE method have been analyzed in detail. The processing for the simulated images of Bloch and Neel spirals indicated that the improper parameters in TIE may overestimate the high frequency information and induce some false features in the retrieved images. The specimen tilting will further complicate the analysis of the images because the LTEM image contrast is not the result of the magnetization distribution within the specimen but the integral projection pattern of the magnetic induction filling the entire space including the specimen.

  10. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz SWORA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  11. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...... through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, they show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories, and different worker...

  12. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Three-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive control offers an accurate current control scheme for grid-tied converters to feed high quality sinusoidal current into the grid. However, with grid frequency being treated as a constant value, conventional repetitive controller fail to produce high quality feeding current in the prese......Repetitive control offers an accurate current control scheme for grid-tied converters to feed high quality sinusoidal current into the grid. However, with grid frequency being treated as a constant value, conventional repetitive controller fail to produce high quality feeding current...

  13. "People Are Either Too Fake or Too Real": Opportunities and Challenges in Tie-Based Anonymity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiao; Andabili, Nazanin; Barkhuus, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi-structu...... disclosure needs and social probing. Still, challenges for making such applications successful, for example the prevalence of negativity and bullying, are substantial.......In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi...

  14. The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities-a 'quark-gluon plasma (QGP)'. A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called 'elliptic flow' in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This paper explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements which led to the conclusion that the QGP is an almost perfect liquid, and shows how they tie relativistic heavy-ion physics into other burgeoning fields of modern physics, such as strongly coupled Coulomb plasmas, ultracold systems of trapped atoms and superstring theory

  15. Joint recognition-expression impairment of facial emotions in Huntington's disease despite intact understanding of feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkler, Iris; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder that causes major motor impairments, also show cognitive and emotional deficits. While their deficit in recognising emotions has been explored in depth, little is known about their ability to express emotions and understand their feelings. If these faculties were impaired, patients might not only mis-read emotion expressions in others but their own emotions might be mis-interpreted by others as well, or thirdly, they might have difficulties understanding and describing their feelings. We compared the performance of recognition and expression of facial emotions in 13 HD patients with mild motor impairments but without significant bucco-facial abnormalities, and 13 controls matched for age and education. Emotion recognition was investigated in a forced-choice recognition test (FCR), and emotion expression by filming participants while they mimed the six basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and joy) to the experimenter. The films were then segmented into 60 stimuli per participant and four external raters performed a FCR on this material. Further, we tested understanding of feelings in self (alexithymia) and others (empathy) using questionnaires. Both recognition and expression were impaired across different emotions in HD compared to controls and recognition and expression scores were correlated. By contrast, alexithymia and empathy scores were very similar in HD and controls. This might suggest that emotion deficits in HD might be tied to the expression itself. Because similar emotion recognition-expression deficits are also found in Parkinson's Disease and vascular lesions of the striatum, our results further confirm the importance of the striatum for emotion recognition and expression, while access to the meaning of feelings relies on a different brain network, and is spared in HD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  17. Increasing Organizational Productivity Through Heightened Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, a strong IQ can set the baseline for success but does not guarantee prosperity. Goleman believes that factors contributing to "emotional intelligence" (for example, self-control, zeal and persistence, and ability to motivate oneself) are key to success in the corporate world. Howard Gardner has…

  18. An agent-based model for emotion contagion and competition in online social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Jichang

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that human emotions diffuse in not only real-world communities but also online social media. However, a comprehensive model that considers up-to-date findings and multiple online social media mechanisms is still missing. To bridge this vital gap, an agent-based model, which concurrently considers emotion influence and tie strength preferences, is presented to simulate the emotion contagion and competition. Our model well reproduces patterns observed in the empirical data, like anger's preference on weak ties, anger-dominated users' high vitalities and angry tweets' short retweet intervals, and anger's competitiveness in negative events. The comparison with a previously presented baseline model further demonstrates its effectiveness in modeling online emotion contagion. It is also surprisingly revealed by our model that as the ratio of anger approaches joy with a gap less than 12%, anger will eventually dominate the online social media and arrives the collective outrage in the cyber space. The critical gap disclosed here can be indeed warning signals at early stages for outrage control. Our model would shed lights on the study of multiple issues regarding emotion contagion and competition in terms of computer simulations.

  19. Family ties after divorce: long-term implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R

    2007-03-01

    Drawing on the data from the longitudinal Binuclear Family Study, 173 grown children were interviewed 20 years after their parents' divorce. This article addresses two basic questions: (1) What impact does the relationship between parents have on their children 20 years after the divorce? and (2) When a parent remarries or cohabits, how does it impact a child's sense of family? The findings show that the parental subsystem continues to impact the binuclear family 20 years after marital disruption by exerting a strong influence on the quality of relationships within the family system. Children who reported that their parents were cooperative also reported better relationships with their parents, grandparents, stepparents, and siblings. Over the course of 20 years, most of the children experienced the remarriage of one or both parents, and one third of this sample remembered the remarriage as more stressful than the divorce. Of those who experienced the remarriage of both of their parents, two thirds reported that their father's remarriage was more stressful than their mother's. When children's relationships with their fathers deteriorated after divorce, their relationships with their paternal grandparents, stepmother, and stepsiblings were distant, negative, or nonexistent. Whether family relationships remain stable, improve, or get worse is dependent on a complex interweaving of many factors. Considering the long-term implications of divorce, the need to emphasize life course and family system perspectives is underscored.

  20. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  1. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  2. Emotional Aging: A Discrete Emotions Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eKunzmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct. Sadness is elicited by an irreversible loss and associated with low situational control, high goal adjustment tendencies, and the motivation to search for social support. The experience of anger, by contrast, is typically triggered by other individuals who intentio

  3. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  4. The role of emotion and attention in semantic processing: Evidence from N400

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Tromp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Does emotional state affect language processing? Little yet is known about the interface between language and emotion. With regard to semantic processing we have shown that emotional state modulates the standard N400 effect. In particular, the N400 cloze probability effect was strongly reduced in a

  5. A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

  6. Self-Study in Emotion Work: Organizing Chaos by Negotiating Private and Public Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve her practice, a teacher educator explored emotions as catalysts for teaching and learning by asking the research question, "How can I support preservice teachers' emotional intelligence (EI), as well as my own, as we negotiate the impact of strong emotions in the pedagogical environment?" Three levels of reflection…

  7. Emotion Ontology for Context Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelon , Franck; Sander , Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We present an emotion ontology for describing and reasoning on emotion context in order to improve emotion detection based on bodily expression. We incorporate context into the two-factor theory of emotion (bodily reaction plus cognitive input) and demonstrate the importance of context in the emotion experience. In attempting to determine emotion felt by another person, the bodily expresson of their emotion is the only evidence directly available, eg, ''John looks angr...

  8. EMCORE - Emotional Cooperative Groupware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, N.; Messina, A.

    In the last years considerable effort has been spent to develop groupware applications. Despite this, no general consenus has been met by groupware applications in computer field. Interdisciplinary approach could prove very useful to overcome these difficulties. A workgroup is not simply a set of people gathered together, working for a common goal. It can also be thought as a strong, hard mental reality. Actually, sociological and psychological definitions of group differ considerably. At sociological level a group is generally described in the view of the activities and events occurring inside the group itself. On the other hand, the psychological group approach considers not only the actions occurring inside the group, but also all the mental activities originated by belonging to the group, be they emotional or rational nature. Since early '60 simple work group (i.e. discussion group) has been analyzed in his psychological behavior. EMCORE is a prototype which aims to support computer science methods with psychological approach. The tool has been developed for a discussion group supported by heterogeneous distributed systems and has been implemented according to the CORBA abstraction augmented by the machine independent JAVA language. The tool allows all the common activities of a discussion group: discussion by voice or by chatting board if multimedia device are not present; discussion and elaboration of a shared document by text and/or graphic editor. At the same time, tools are provided for the psychoanalytic approach, according to a specific methodology.

  9. Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; best way to deal with emotions; best ways to deal with relationships; how to build relationships; how to strengthen relationships

  10. A Meta-analysis on the Association Between Emotional Awareness and Borderline Personality Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Youri P M J; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-06-01

    Theories on borderline personality pathology (BPP) suggest that characteristic emotional dysregulation is due to low levels of emotional awareness or alexithymia. This study is the first meta-analysis to systematically review and analyze the evidence. A systematic search of the literature was performed using PsycInfo, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and Scopus. The term "borderline personality disorder" was searched for in conjunction with "emotional awareness," "emotional self-awareness," "emotion recognition," "alexithymia," "emotional processing," "emotional granularity," "emotional intelligence," or "emotion regulation." All references in the included studies were reviewed for additional relevant articles. Thirty-nine studies were then evaluated in a random effects meta-analysis to assess the association between BPP and emotional awareness. An overall moderate positive association between BPP and emotional awareness was significant (r = 0.359; 95% CI [0.283, 0.431]; Z = 8.678; p emotional awareness and those using alexithymia instruments. The strongest associations with regard to aspects of alexithymia were found for difficulties in identifying and describing emotions rather than externally oriented thinking. The results corroborate a moderate relationship between low emotional awareness and BPP. However, the mono-method self-report used in almost all studies is found problematic and precludes drawing definite conclusions. Since leading psychotherapeutic treatments strongly focus on increasing emotional awareness, future research should address this issue and further examine to what extent low levels of emotional awareness, particularly alexithymia, can be treated.

  11. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  12. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, D D; Snowdon, D A; Friesen, W V

    2001-05-01

    Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.

  13. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  14. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature in Santa Ines ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Farias Pereira da Câmara Barros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to develop and assess the feasibility, postoperative pain and inflammatory response of the single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy in ewes, using a simple pre-tied loop ligature technique. Pre-tied Meltzer's knot was employed for prophylactic hemostasis of the ovarian pedicle. Slipknot was inserted within the abdominal cavity through a 14-gauge needle and tied surrounding the ovarian pedicle. Mean surgical time, manipulation, ligature and resection of each ovary and anesthesia time were 63±20, 20±10 and 91±26 minutes, respectively. No bleeding occurred during the surgeries. Ewes showed low scores pain (0.5±0.5 at all time-points. Postsurgical plasma fibrinogen was within the normal range for sheep specie at all time-points. The ewes showed a significant weight gain in comparison to the basal scaling (one day before the surgery. Single-port laparoscopic ovariectomy using a pre-tied loop ligature is feasible in the ovine specie and provided minimal postoperative distress and quick weight gain.

  15. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster...

  16. The Ties That Bind: Linkages among Secondary Schools, Two-Year Colleges, and Baccalaureate Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, James J.

    This document discusses the roles of secondary schools, two-year colleges, and the upper level university in the University of Wisconsin System. Because of close ties with the host communities, Wisconsin's two-year institutions are uniquely situated to function as community resources. The paper discusses the advantages of a collaborative…

  17. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  18. Social ties within school classes : The roles of gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and

  19. Magnetic perturbations seen by CHAMP and evaluated using the TIE-GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Mozzoni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM is a self-consistent, global, atmospheric model that can be used to estimate magnetic perturbations at satellite altitude. These computed perturbations can then be compared with the magnetic vector data provided by low-earth orbiting satellites. In this initial study, the quietest day of each month from 2001–2005 was selected for comparison. CHAMP magnetic vector residuals were computed for these intervals using the CHAOS model to remove core and crustal geomagnetic contributions. Under various input parameters, the TIE-GCM predictions were compared with the CHAMP residuals on an orbit by orbit basis. Initial results demonstrate a reasonable agreement between the TIE-GCM estimates and the CHAMP residuals in non-polar, dayside regions (±50° magnetic latitude where both are able to resolve the Equatorial Electro-Jet (EEJ and solar quiet (Sq current systems. Although no clear component or temporal correlation was discerned, evidence showing the decrease in residual comparisons presents the possibility of using the TIE-GCM to pre-process geomagnetic data for main field modeling purposes.

  20. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  1. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programmes : evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that

  2. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other

  3. Quiet eye training improves surgical knot tying more than traditional technical training: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of squat shear walls using continuous strut-and-tie resistant models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.H. de C; Silva, R.E. da

    1993-01-01

    A new approach is presented for designing squat shear walls, subjected to seismic loading. In this approach, the strut-and-tie resistant models, proposed by Schlaich et al., are generalized in order to analyze continuous fields of compression and tension stresses. The application of the presented methodology is illustrated through numerical examples. (author)

  5. An Agent Model for a Human’s Social Support Network Tie Preference During Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Lang, J.; Mitra, S.; Parsons, S.; Pasi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Seeking support from their environment is important for people suffering from a depression. People usually have different social networks to which they are attached with different ties. In this paper, a computational model is presented that describes the selection of network members for seeking

  6. Ties between parents and their adult children: a Western European typology of late-life families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, P.A.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Following Reher’s (1998) seminal paper on family ties in western Europe, the perspective that family solidarity patterns are divided along the lines of an individualistic north and a familialistic south has dominated the research literature. We challenge this view and address variability in

  7. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the

  8. Measurement of flow phenomena in the vicinity of a PWR tie plate geometry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.S.L.; Srinivasan, J.; Cho, S.K.; Wang, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The flow of an air-water droplet dispersion in a simulated 3D test section in the reflood portion of LOCA is studied. For this purpose, a new scheme of Laser-Doppler Anemometry for the simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of large-size (0.5mm-6mm) droplets has been developed and utilized. In terms of droplet reentrainment from the tie-plate, three flow regimes have been identified, depending on the velocity level of the flow; the dome formation stage, the oscillating dome stage and the wall film breaking up stage. Detailed measurements have been made in these regimes to obtain the local droplet sizes, droplet velocity distribution, air velocity distributions and momentum flux of both incoming and outgoing dispersion through the tie-plate. It has been observed that the size distribution of the reentrained droplets depends mainly on the flow regimes and is essentially independent of that of the incoming dispersion below the tie-plate. These reentrained droplets are found to be mostly in the neighborhood of 1mm in size and their trajectories on leaving the tie-plate essentially oriented close to the vertical direction. Also the momentum flux of outgoing dispersion differs from that of the incoming dispersion. The measuring technique, the experimental set-up, on-line data acquisition system and the results of the measurements are reported

  9. Third Party Referrals in the Venture Capital Financing Process: Do Network Ties Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, J.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and

  10. Modelling of bow-tie microstrip antennas using modified locally conformal FDTD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of bow-tie microstrip antennas is presented based on the use of the modified locally conformal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach enables the number of cells along the antenna length and width to be chosen independently of the antenna central width, which helps to

  11. Stress wave techniques for determining quality of dimensional lumber from switch ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C. Schad; D. E. Kretschmann; K. A. McDonald; R. J. Ross; D. W. Green

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, have been studying nondestructive techniques for evaluating the strength of wood. This report describes the results of a pilot study on using these techniques to determine the quality of large dimensional lumber cut from switch ties. First, pulse echo and dynamic (transverse vibration) techniques were...

  12. 75 FR 9691 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... involving programming they own, that impede competition in the video distribution market. See H.R. Rep. No... availability of programming and charging discriminatory prices to non- cable technologies.'' H.R. Rep. No. 102... Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol...

  13. Founding a business inspired by close entrepreneurial ties: Does it matter for survival?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.; Marsili, O.

    2015-01-01

    Founding a business may be inspired by close entrepreneurial ties, that is, business-owning relatives or friends. We analyze if and when such inspiration is associated with post-entry survival. Drawing on longitudinal data on 942 founders, we find a positive relationship only if founders start by

  14. Which Peers Matter : How Social Ties Affect Peer-group Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldin, O.; Valeeva, D.; Yudkevich, M.

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals’ social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence

  15. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  16. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    on-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separate-ly. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening...

  17. Preservation and Dissolution of the Target Firm's Embedded Ties in Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOur study builds on extant theory on embeddness to concentrate on the process of preservation and dissolution of the target firm’s embedded ties in acquisitions. We identify four critical areas - communication, idiosyncratic investments, inter-personal relations and, personnel turnover –

  18. Identification of proangiogenic TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) in human peripheral blood and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Mary Anna; De Palma, Michele; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Pucci, Ferdinando; Scielzo, Cristina; Zonari, Erika; Mazzieri, Roberta; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi

    2007-06-15

    Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), have been implicated in tumor progression. We recently described a lineage of mouse monocytes characterized by expression of the Tie2 angiopoietin receptor and required for the vascularization and growth of several tumor models. Here, we report that TIE2 expression in human blood identifies a subset of monocytes distinct from classical inflammatory monocytes and comprised within the less abundant "resident" population. These TIE2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) accounted for 2% to 7% of blood mononuclear cells in healthy donors and were distinct from rare circulating endothelial cells and progenitors. In human cancer patients, TEMs were observed in the blood and, intriguingly, within the tumors, where they represented the main monocyte population distinct from TAMs. Conversely, TEMs were hardly detected in nonneoplastic tissues. In vitro, TEMs migrated toward angiopoietin-2, a TIE2 ligand released by activated endothelial cells and angiogenic vessels, suggesting a homing mechanism for TEMs to tumors. Purified human TEMs, but not TEM-depleted monocytes, markedly promoted angiogenesis in xenotransplanted human tumors, suggesting a potentially critical role of TEMs in human cancer progression. Human TEMs may provide a novel, biologically relevant marker of angiogenesis and represent a previously unrecognized target of cancer therapy.

  19. TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

    2013-06-01

    A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch