LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.'s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports
Full Text Available Statistical procedures are proposed to describe, compare and forecast the behaviour of seasonal variations in two daily price series of Canary tomato exported to German and British markets, respectively, over the last decade. These seasonal patterns are pseudo-periodic as the length of the seasonal period changes frequently in dependence of market conditions. Seasonal effect at a day in the harvesting period is defined as a spline function of the proportion of the length of such a period elapsed up to such a day. Then, seasonal patterns for the two series are compared in terms of the area between the corresponding spline functions. The ability of these models to capture the dynamic process of change in the seasonal pattern is useful to forecasting purpose. Furthermore, an analytical tool is also proposed to obtain forecasts of the seasonal pattern in one of these two series from the forecasts of the seasonal pattern in the other one. These procedures are useful for farmers in developing strategies related to the seasonal distribution of tomato production exported to each market.
Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta
Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Albornoz, Facundo; Calvo Pardo, Héctor F.; Corcos, Gregory
Firms need to incur substantial sunk costs to break in foreign markets, yet many give up exporting shortly after their first experience, which typically involves very small sales. Conversely, other new exporters shoot up their foreign sales and expand to new destinations. We investigate a simple theoretical mechanism that can rationalize these patterns. A firm discovers its profitability as an exporter only after actually engaging in exporting. The profitability is positively correlated over ...
Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp
This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...
Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage
It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....
Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.
Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs
The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists
Cassiman, B.; Golovko, E.; Martinez-Ros, E.
We argue that the positive association found between firm productivity and exports in the literature relates to the firm's innovation decisions. Using a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms we find strong evidence that product innovation - and not process innovation - affects productivity and
This paper examines whether first-time exporters achieve productivity improvements through learning-by-exporting effects. The results suggest that starting exporting to North America/Europe has a strong positive effect on sales and employment growth, R&D activity, and productivity growth. On the other hand, starting exporting to Asia does not have any strong productivity enhancing effects, although it does tend to raise the growth rates of sales and employment and be associated with an increa...
Luis Castro; Ben Li; Keith E. Maskus; Yiqing Xie
This paper provides a direct test of how fixed export costs and productivity jointly determine firm-level export behavior. Using Chilean data, we construct indices of fixed export costs for each industry-region-year triplet and match them to domestic firms. Our empirical results show that firms facing higher fixed export costs are less likely to export, while those with higher productivity export more. These outcomes are the foundation of the widely-used sorting mechanism in the trade models ...
Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr
The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).
Jacques-Coper, Martín; Falvey, Mark; Muñoz, Ricardo C.
Crucial aspects of a strong thermally-driven wind system in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile during the extended austral winter season (May-September) are studied using 2 years of measurement data from the Sierra Gorda 80-m meteorological mast (SGO, 22° 56' 24″ S; 69° 7' 58″ W, 2,069 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). Daily cycles of atmospheric variables reveal a diurnal (nocturnal) regime, with northwesterly (easterly) flow and maximum mean wind speed of 8 m/s (13 m/s) on average. These distinct regimes are caused by pronounced topographic conditions and the diurnal cycle of the local radiative balance. Wind speed extreme events of each regime are negatively correlated at the inter-daily time scale: High diurnal wind speed values are usually observed together with low nocturnal wind speed values and vice versa. The associated synoptic conditions indicate that upper-level troughs at the coastline of southwestern South America reinforce the diurnal northwesterly wind, whereas mean undisturbed upper-level conditions favor the development of the nocturnal easterly flow. We analyze the skill of the numerical weather model Global Forecast System (GFS) in predicting wind speed at SGO. Although forecasted wind speeds at 800 hPa do show the diurnal and nocturnal phases, observations at 80 m are strongly underestimated by the model. This causes a pronounced daily cycle of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and bias in the forecasts. After applying a simple Model Output Statistics (MOS) post-processing, we achieve a good representation of the wind speed intra-daily and inter-daily variability, a first step toward reducing the uncertainties related to potential wind energy projects in the region.
Vasanczki, Luca Zs.
The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers
Steven G. Livingston
In this year's State of the Union Address, President Obama announced a National Export Initiative to double American exports over the next five years. He claimed that this could add two million jobs to the American economy. Could Tennessee actually double its exports over this period? And what would be the impact if it did?
A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs
Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen
This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity of f....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....
This paper examines whether first-time exporters achieve productivity improvements through learning-by-exporting effects. The results suggest that the start of exporting to North America/Europe has a strong positive effect on sales and employment growth, R&D activity, and productivity growth. On the other hand, the start of exporting to Asia does not have any strong productivity-enhancing effects, although it does tend to boost the growth rates of sales and employment and to be associated wit...
Andrew B. Bernard; J. Bradford Jensen
Exporting is often touted as a way to increase economic growth. This paper examines whether exporting has played any role in increasing productivity growth in U.S. manufacturing. Contemporaneous levels of exports and productivity are indeed positively correlated across manufacturing industries. However, tests on industry data show causality from productivity to exporting but not the reverse. While exporting plants have substantially higher productivity levels, we find no evidence that exporti...
Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt
in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...
Tim Atkin; Ellis Connolly
Growth in Australian exports was weaker than had been expected over the past 10 years across all major categories: resources, rural, manufactures and services. While exports of bulk commodities and liquefied natural gas (LNG) grew strongly in response to higher demand from Asia, this was partly offset by declines in exports of oil and processed metals. Non-resource exports have been adversely affected by the appreciation of the exchange rate and the ongoing rise in the share of global product...
Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.
Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael
This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...
De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick
estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....
Wei, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Z.
Studies have indicated a poleward shift of extratropical storm tracks and intensification of Arctic storm activities, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of dynamic effect on changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and activities on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait through ocean-sea ice model simulations. The model employed is the high-resolution Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), which was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.
A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as
In this paper, I have examined whether exporters benefit by exporting more, and also whether the productivity benefits from exporting more are heterogeneous across export destinations. I have conducted my own data collection field work and built a unique firm-level panel database of Czech manufacturing firms that includes data on the destinations of exports. I have found that firms do benefit from exporting more. However, my results also show that it is necessary to take into account export m...
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan
This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...
At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).
Using an unbalanced panel of about 260,000 Swedish firm-level observations over the period 1997-2006, this paper shows that half of the firms exporting goods are service firms that account for a substantial and increasing share of the total value from exports of goods. Between 1997 and 2006 this fraction increased from 25% to 34%. Previous research provides little systematic evidence of this extension of goods exports among service firms or the benefits of exporting. This paper shows that ser...
There are crucial differences between exporting to a lesser-known market and exporting to a well-known market. I define a well-known (lesser-known) market if exporters have complete (incomplete) information about importers' characteristics such as contract viability. This risk premium between a well-known market and a lesser-known market causes lower export volume to lesser-known markets. I find that government-supported export insurance policies can increase the total volume of exports ...
Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John
In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...
The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed
Philips, Roger A
An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software
This statistics of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and raw materials in 1980, compiled by Bundesamt for the Federal Minister of the Interior, shows a strong decrease of imports by 44.2% and a slight reduction of exports by 3.8%. The figures for 1979 are presented for comparison. (orig./UA) [de
Vincent Jerald Pacific
Carbon export from high elevation ecosystems is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Ecosystems in northern latitudes have become the focus of much research due to their potential as large sinks of carbon in the atmosphere. However, there exists limited understanding of the controls of carbon export from complex mountain catchments due to strong spatial and...
It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines
Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang
Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry...
Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus
Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)
One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered
In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)
Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic
dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...
A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management
David Collie; Roger Clarke
This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...
Lee, Li-Chin; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ting
Extreme increase of anthropogenic nitrogen (e.g. fertilizer and excretion) has altered the nitrogen cycling and terrestrial ecosystems. Taiwan located between eastern Asia and Oceania is the hotspot of global riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, including NH4, NO3, and NO2) export, but rarely documented comprehensively. Totally 50 catchments, covering 2/3 of this island, with different anthropogenic activities are involved in this study. The monthly sampling for NH4 and seasonal sampling for NO3 and NO2 supplemented with daily discharge are used to estimate the riverine DIN export. Meanwhile, the landscape characteristics, land-use, and population density are also used to discriminate the characteristics of riverine DIN export. Results showed that the observed riverine DIN concentration and yield vary from 17.7-603.5 μM and 575.0-15588.9 kg-N km-2 yr-1 corresponding to the increase of anthropogenic activities. The arithmetic mean of DIN concentration and yield are 126.7μM and 3594.7 kg-N km-2 yr-1, respectively. The unexpected high yields can attribute to abundant precipitation, heavy fertilizer application, and high population. For concentration variation, no significant variation can be found in the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments, whereas the strong dilution effect in the wet season is characterized in the intensively-disturbed catchments. Although there are some seasonal variations in concentration, the yields in wet season are almost doubled than that in dry season indicating the strong control of streamflow. For speciation, NH4 is the dominant species in intensively-disturbed catchment, but NO3 dominates the DIN composition for the pristine and agriculture-dominated catchments. Our result can provide a strong basis for supplementary estimation for regional to global study and DIN export control which is the aim of the Kampala Declaration on global nitrogen management. Keywords: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, anthropogenic nitrogen
Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang
Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies and learn......Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...
Jung Joo La
This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...
There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself
Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.
This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high
Wierts, Peter; Van Kerkhoff, Henk; De Haan, Jakob
This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high
This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...
Golovko, Elena; Bento, C.L.
Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies and learning
Jeannotte, T.; Mahmood, T. H.; Matheney, R.; Hou, X.
Nutrient export to streams and lakes by anthropogenic activities can lead to eutrophication and degradation of surface water quality. In Devils Lake, ND, the only terminal lake in the Northern Great Plains, the algae boom is of great concern due to the recent increase in streamflow and consequent rise in phosphorus (P) export from prairie agricultural fields. However, to date, very few studies explored the concentration (c) -streamflow (q) relationship in the headwater catchments of the Devils Lake basin. A robust watershed-scale quantitative framework would aid understanding of the c-q relationship, simulating P concentration and load. In this study, we utilize c-q relationships to develop a simple model to estimate phosphorus concentration and export from two headwater catchments of different size (Mauvais Coulee: 1032 km2 and Trib 3: 160 km2) draining to Devils Lake. Our goal is to link the phosphorus export model with a physically based hydrologic model to identify major drivers of phosphorus export. USGS provided the streamflow measurements, and we collected water samples (filtered and unfiltered) three times daily during the spring snowmelt season (March 31, 2017- April 12, 2017) at the outlets of both headwater catchments. Our results indicate that most P is dissolved and very little is particulate, suggesting little export of fine-grained sediment from agricultural fields. Our preliminary analyses in the Mauvais Coulee catchment show a chemostatic c-q relationship in the rising limb of the hydrograph, while the recession limb shows a linear and positive c-q relationship. The poor correlation in the rising limb of the hydrograph suggests intense flushing of P by spring snowmelt runoff. Flushing then continues in the recession limb of the hydrograph, but at a more constant rate. The estimated total P load for the Mauvais Coulee basin is 193 kg/km2, consistent with other catchments of similar size across the Red River of the North basin to the east. We expect
Japan is the leading supplier of sophisticated capital goods to East Asian countries. These goods embody advanced technologies and facilitate learning and productivity growth. Capital goods also represent 30%-40% of Japan's exports. This paper investigates the determinants of these exports. Results from dynamic ordinary least squares estimation indicate that exports depend on exchange rates, income in the importing countries, and downstream countries' exports to the rest of the world. Results...
Ruane, Frances; Siedschlag, Iulia; Murphy, Gavin
PUBLISHED This paper provides empirical evidence on Ireland?s export performance in the context of increased globalisation over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland?s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialised in fast growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Th...
Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.
Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (Purban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.
A statistical base of information on natural gas exports authorized under long-term licences to markets in the U.S. as of November 1, 1995, was provided. The first part of the report focused on the total licensed exports to the U.S. while the second part provided a breakdown of the licensed export volumes by U.S. market regions. The National Energy Board Act empowers the National Energy Board to issue licences and orders for the export of natural gas from Canada. Licences are issued for long-term periods (over 2 years) and orders for short-term periods (2 years or less). Each individual export licence contains terms and conditions including the duration of the licence, the point of export where the gas may leave Canada, and the maximum allowable volumes that may be exported daily, annually, and throughout the term of the licence. 17 figs
Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)
The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing
Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution
Framatome export expertise is discussed. Framatome can accept different types of contracts - for the supply of nuclear steam supply systems or for nuclear islands (both of which can be produced solely by Framatome) or for complete plants. Cooperation with the local industry is possible -this can involve technology transfer. Examples of exports in the following countries are given; Belgium (where there is close cooperation between Framatome and two major companies), South Africa (where Framatome has been involved in the building of a two-992 MWe unit at Koeberg), South Korea (where Framatome is building two-900 MWe nuclear islands in cooperation with Korean industry, Knu 9 and Knu 10) and China (where Framatome is to build two-1000 MWe class pressurized water reactors at Daya Bay). As well as supplying the French domestic nuclear market Framatome is a major force in the future of nuclear power in the world. (UK)
A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs
The main assets of KEPCO is its capacity to build nuclear power plants on-time and its important feedback experience in reactor exploitation. KEPCO manages thermal plants and all the nuclear plants operating in South Korea. In 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of 4 reactors in United Arab Emirates by KEPCO but since then no other major contract has been signed. The Korean export offer includes the APR1400 reactor that is a third generation reactor with a power output of 1400 MWe, 4 APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor) are being built in Korea. The offer includes also a second generation reactor: the OPR1000 (Optimised Power Reactor) with a power output of 1000 MWe. The OPR1000 has its origin in a technology transfer from Westinghouse. Only 12 OPR1000 are operating in the world and all are situated in Korea. KEPCO is developing a third generation of the OPR1000 reactor named the APR1000 intended for export. The Korean export strategy aims at emergent first-time buyer countries and asian countries. The Korean offer does not neglect niche markets like small reactors and research reactors. The SMART project is a reactor with an output of 300 MWth that will be able to produce electricity and desalinate water. The Korean export strategy relies on a strong cohesiveness and involvement between public and private actors in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)
A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).
Elena Vladimirovna Sapir
Full Text Available This article analyzes a diverse range of the enterprise’s export potential growth factors in emerging pharmaceutical clusters of Central European Russia. Classification and comparative analysis were used to identify export potential attributes (production, finance, labor and marketing, which have allowed to reveal the strong connection of cluster and regional factor groups with the results of export performance. The purpose of the study is to provide exports-seeking pharmaceutical companies with a set of tools to enhance their export potential. The hypothesis that the cumulative impact of the specified attributes leads to the strengthening of pharmaceutical cluster export potential and promotes an effective integration of the region in the world economic space, is developed and tested. The methodology combines the geo-economy-based theory with the theory of clusters competitive advantages. The impacts of export potential growth factors are estimated by using an econometric model based on math statistics. Thus, five Russian regional pharmaceutical clusters (Belgorod, Kaluga, Moscow, Oryol, Yaroslavl are shown. Findings identify an objective causal link between enterprise export potential growth and competitiveness factors of cluster origin (network business chains, production functions interconnectedness and flexibility, production localization. An action plan for the purpose of the maximum use of competitive advantages of the cluster organization for export activities of the entities of the pharmaceutical industry is developed. Conclusions and recommendations of the study are intended to enterprises in pharmaceutical industry and regions’ public authorities, implementing cluster development strategies. It is thus essential to improve marketing and organizational innovations, reduction of commercial expenses under the cluster environment, development of drugs production and delivery chains from R&D to end-users in order to enjoy greater
RUBÉN FERNÁNDEZ ORTIZ; JOSÉ IGNACIO CASTRESANA RUIZ-CARRILLO
The relevance of the perception of exports in the field of business management can have a key impact on the exporting behavior of SMEs. In particular, it can determine the decision to implement an export policy, as well as the policies applied to consolidate exports. This paper covers two main aspects. First, the extent to which managerial perceptions of exports affect the decision to export, and second, for these SMEs which are already exporters, we study the managerial perceptions that can ...
values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition......The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...
Shivneil Kumar Raj
Full Text Available Exports are vital for Fiji’s economy as it contributes significantly to its gross domestic product (GDP and economic growth. The export data over the years show very slow growth and is gradually increasing. Fiji’s GDP data show that GDP is gradually increasing. Thus, Fiji’s economic growth is also increasing at a steady rate. This study aims to measure the relationship between exports and economic growth in Fiji. A regression analysis on data collected for Fiji from 2000-2015 shows that there is a strong positive relationship between exports and economic growth. Thus, when exports increase, economic growth also increases. Potential sectors that can be further developed to boost Fiji’s exports are sugar, garment, tourism and agriculture. The government should restrict imports through import quotas, tariffs and embargoes and give subsidies and tax incentives to potential export sectors to boost domestic production and increase exports. The government’s motive is to increase export incentives and promote Fiji made products both locally and overseas. Thus, this leads to an increase in exports, improves the trade balance and economic growth. This research article was undertaken to carry out research to investigate the link between Fiji’s export and economic growth and highlight ways and potential sectors to increase Fiji’s export and reduce imports.
Voßwinkel, Jan; Birg, Laura
This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...
Alina Petronela NEGREA
The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...
Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...
For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs
Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)
This paper presents the situation of wind export markets and the principles of firming, shaping and moving. Firming means the conversion of uncertain second to second output into hourly deliveries. Firming of energy is used to make up the difference between the hourly schedule and actual output. Firming of capacity is setting aside generation to stand behind fluctuations in wind output within the hour. Shaping is to convert uncertain hour-to-hour output throughout the year into predetermined deliveries that meet consumer demand. Moving refers to BC's attempts to bring about the transport of clean energy to California. But there are transmission issues involved because the network lines to California are already fully subscribed. One solution would be for IPPs to purchase services from Powerex, or any other service provider, at opportunity cost. Another element is that the market price for wholesale electricity is lower than in recent years. It is safe to say that there are lots of uncertainties involved in wind exports.
van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.
The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil
export margin. For Rosneft, the Sakhalin-1 project is an opportunity to gain a competitive edge on Gazprom and develop export capacity for future gas projects. In fact, the fierce competition developing between projects is a struggle to obtain the status of the 'most efficient and high-tech player' in the Russian gas market. Winning is evidently highly dependent on a number of key decisions by the country's leadership-who serve as a sort of ultimate arbitrator in this battle. Russian leadership is actively campaigning for the launch of LNG projects, and, despite all the obstacles and high costs, some will be completed by the end of this decade. Delivery times and costs, though significant, are not critical. While the return-on-investment for these projects, worth tens of billions of dollars, may be delayed, there is no doubt that sooner or later-in 15 to 20 years-they will pay off. Moreover, their strategic value in the eyes of the government is immense. Given the typical completion times for such projects globally, one can say with high certainty that full capacity utilization by these projects should not be expected before 2020. Until then, therefore, any attempts to diversify exports with LNG will be unsuccessful. In the longer term, between 2020 and 2030, Russia has considerable potential to strengthen its influence on the LNG market. However, despite future possibilities, the government's current intention to achieve 10% of the global LNG market by 2020 and 20% by 2030 is unrealistic. There is a long and winding road ahead. Russian LNG success will strongly depend on the ability of Russian market players to build up relations with the different groups of foreign partners. In seeking to gain a strong position in the global LNG market, Russia will have to change more and more its gas industry regulatory framework, opening it up for competition and international cooperation
Porto, Guido G.
The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...
Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs
Cassiman, B.; Golovko, E.
Successful product innovation leads to the decision by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to enter the export market. We argue that in addition to a direct effect of innovation on exports, product innovation, through its effect on firm productivity, increases the likelihood of the firm entering the
Provides highlights of my recently published book Export Controls: A Contemporary History. Describes the roles played by multiple U.S. Government agencies and congressional oversight committees in this policymaking arena including the Commerce, Defense, State, and Treasury Departments. It also reviews the roles played by international government organizations such as the Missile Technology Control Regime, export oriented businesses, and research intensive universities.
This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs
Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari
begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive...
Li, Ting; Mao, Weijun; Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Yong
Since 1960s, Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research center of CAS have been developing the birefringent filters for China solar observatories, the most famous one in the world is the 0.15Å(0.12Å)/5324Å(4861Å) filter for the 35cm Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of the Huairou Solar Station of Beijing Observatory. The big success in the field of Lyot filter has been proved by the international solar physics circle, since 1988, Japanese and Korean astronomers have been paying a lot of orders for making Lyot filters from China, up to now we have exported 11 sets of such sophisticated optical instruments, they have been used for routine solar observations in the observatories and planetaria in the two countries. We also begin to repair old Lyot filters made by Germany and France from foreign countries, as India and Germany.
... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...
This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current
Alina Petronela NEGREA
Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.
Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....
Full Text Available The paper investigates the Macedonian export structure and export performance by using several indexes: product complexity, export sophistication, export diversity, and export ubiquity for the period 1995-2014. The empirical analysis is based on the application of product space methodology (based on network theory developed by Hidalgo et al. (2007 with data from UN comtrade database. Moreover, the paper analyzes the performance of metal industry and its productivity as one of the biggest exporting sector and investigates its capacity for further product diversification. The estimated results indicate that Macedonian export basket is highly concentrated (the top ten products have nearly half of the total country's export and more than 70 percent of the export goes to several countries and more importantly the export structure is composed of products with low complexity level. Additionally, the results show that the export structure is less diversified, making the economy very sensitive on the external shocks. On the other side, the analysis of metal industry performance indicates that this industry has comparative advantages (RCA=2.16 and more importantly it has strong capacity for further diversification by building new capabilities for production of more complexed products. So, the suggestion to policymakers in Macedonia is to be created an active industrial policy that will stimulate the structural transformation of metal industry towards products with higher value added.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.
Mirna Leko-Simic; Jasna Horvat
Export performance is today one of the most widely used measures of a company’s success, due to the globalization and market liberalization processes. The rather bad export performance of Croatian exporters can be explained by a number of factors, one of which is assumed to be the low level of risk taking propensity, which is one of the three major dimensions of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze company age, size and type of business as determinants of risk taking ...
If the last year and a half are any indication it would appear that the early 1990's will be to international trade what the early 1980's were to entrepreneurship. Embraced by the popular and business press and encouraged by the administration, exporting has become one of the most talked about topics in business today. As manufacturers, consultants and service providers we are continually told that to survive in the world marketplace we must think globally and compete aggressively. There can be no doubt that export markets, always an interesting sector of business, have become both more important and exciting in recent years. On January 1, 1993 the unified common market of the European Community will officially open for business. Although most of the significant changes in that market have already taken place or been agreed upon, this historic event - creating the single largest market among industrial nations - will undoubtedly have an effect on how we as exporters do business in Europe. The Free Trade Agreement with Canada has been in effect for over two years now and there have been and will continue to be many benefits for us. In developing and newly capitalist countries we can point to Czechoslovakia and Hungary as the first of several potentially lucrative markets. Mexico, in the spotlight due to the new Free Trade initiative, will be a strong new export market in our own backyard. And finally the so called mini-dragons of Southeast Asia cannot be ignored. Whether or not they choose to create a formal trading bloc, their ever increasing foreign reserves should be looked at with hungry, but cautious eyes. In this paper the author identifies a large and ever increasing world of customers beyond our national borders and identifies how those companies and individuals in the environmental products market can benefit greatly
Campa, Jose M.; Shaver, J. Myles
By exporting, firms sell in markets whose business cycles are not perfectly correlated, and so can be expected to have more stable cash flows. If companies are liquidity constrained, this stability of cash flows can provide exporters with certain advantages over firms that operate solely in a domestic market. For instance, under the existence of liquidity constraints, more stable cash flows should foster more stable capital investments. Moreover, the expectation of more stable future cash flo...
Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong
This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export
In developing the policy framework for the export of uranium, successive governments have been keenly aware that, in Australia, as in most countries, there has been considerable community interest and controversy surrounding the subject of uranium. When the Australian Labor Government was elected in 1983, it commissioned the Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) to report on Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. In particular, the report examined: (i) Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements, giving particular attention to the effectiveness of the bilateral and multilateral agreements and to the scope for strengthening these agreements, (ii) the opportunities for Australia through the conditions of its involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle to further advance the cause of nuclear non-proliferation having regard to the policies and practices of recipient countries, (iii) the adequacy of existing technology for the handling and disposal of waste products by consuming countries, and the ways in which Australia could further contribute to the development of safe disposal methods. (orig./UA) [de
The subject is discussed under the headings: UK plutonium production; US plutonium production; loss in reprocessing; finance value; military value; civil stock; separated stock; production and stocks; export consents; Non-Proliferation Treaty; IAEA safeguards; plutonium trade. (U.K.)
It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)
A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.
Hiller, Sanne; Kruse, Robinson
The European integration process has removed barriers to trade within Europe. We analyze which integration step has most profoundly influenced the trending behavior of export openness. We endogenously determine the single most decisive break in the trend, account for strong cross...
Holger Görg; Michael Henry; Eric Strobl
This paper investigates whether government support can act to increase exporting activity. We use a uniquely rich data set on Irish manufacturing plants and employ an empirical strategy that combines a nonparametric matching procedure with a difference-in-differences estimator in order to deal with the potential selection problem inherent in the analysis. Our results suggest that if grants are large enough, they can encourage already exporting firms to compete more effectively on the internat...
Rafael de Azevedo Calderon
Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.
A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs
On July 1, 2002, RTE and ELIA are setting up a joint mechanism with mutual recognition of monthly and daily allocations of export capacities on the France-Belgium interconnection. This mechanism modifies the applicable principles relating to the allocation and use of export capacities on the France-Belgium interconnection, set out in the access rules for imports and exports on the French public power transmission network (RTE). RTE hereby describes the new export capacity allocation mechanism for the France-Belgium interconnection ('allocation mechanism') now applicable to the legal entities who have signed a participation agreement to the access rules for imports and exports on the French public power transmission network for the purpose of acquiring and using export capacity on the interconnection between France and Belgium: 1. preamble; 2. definitions; 3. effective date and duration of the allocation mechanism; 4. contractual documents; 5. requirements to take part in the allocation mechanism (implementation of the 'one to one' rule and ensuring prerequisites, user contract effective date and duration, termination); 6. recording of export transactions (general recording procedure, specific provisions concerning monthly and daily export transactions (initialization of priority rights upon the coming into effect of the allocation mechanism, specific provisions concerning the allocation of new daily export transactions)); 7. capacity allocations (monthly allocation, daily allocations); 8. nomination of acquired capacities (monthly and daily capacities, applying the 'one to one' principle); 9. capacity guarantee; 10. liability. A model of user contract and a model of export transaction request are given in appendixes.
During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables
Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Kortelainen, Pirkko
NO3, Mn, Fe and SO4 act as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) modifying mineralization pathways and coupling biogeochemical cycles. Although single TEA concentrations and fluxes have been intensively studied, the factors regulating the simultaneous fluxes and molar ratios of TEAs are poorly elucidated. We studied the mean concentrations, exports and molar ratios of TEAs from 27 boreal catchments differing in land cover (percentage of agricultural land, peatland, forest and built-up area) in the years 2000-2011. TEA exports and molar ratios were strongly controlled by land cover and only little by atmospheric deposition. There were a great variability of the export of TEAs from different land cover classes. Fields produced the highest export of TEAs, particularly NO3. Peatland was linked to low NO3 and SO4 but high Fe exports. NO3, Mn and Fe exports from forests were low, SO4 having proportionally the highest export. Together, the percentages of field and peatland predicted 93%, 80%, 75% and 67% of the variation in the export of NO3, Mn, Fe and SO4, respectively. Our results showed that the export and molar ratios of TEAs in northern European boreal catchments are predominantly a function of land cover and catchment processes rather than atmospheric deposition. The variable export of TEAs having different availability and physical behavior may create different premises for anaerobic mineralization in downstream systems, which adds a new dimension to the link between terrestrial system, land use and environmental problems such as eutrophication and climate change.
Eppinger, Peter S.; Meythaler, Nicole; Sindlinger, Marc-Manuel
resilient to the crisis than those firms that restricted their sales to the domestic market. Finally, in contrast to exporters, non-exporters experienced a significant deterioration in their total factor productivity, which led to an overall decline in the productivity of a significant number of industries......We provide novel evidence on the micro-structure of international trade during the 2008 financial crisis and subsequent global recession exploring a rich firm-level data set from Spain. The analysis is motivated by the surprisingly strong export performance of Spain in the aftermath of the great...... no adverse effects of the financial crisis on foreign market entry or exit, but a considerable increase in the export intensity of firms after the financial crisis. Moreover, we find that those firms that entered the crisis as exporters (and continued exporting throughout the crisis years) were more...
Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull
The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....
... C. Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported or to be exported from... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the...)) (``IEEPA''). Specifically, Larrison was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...
.... Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported or to be exported from the United... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Chun (``Chun'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a) (1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such universal...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a)(1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such universal...
The article examines the Hong Kong export performance. A standard export demand formulation is used as the benchmark. Then, we investigate the effects of real exchange rate volatility, ¡§third¡¨ country competition, domestic wages and costs of imports from China on export volume. The study models the Hong Kong domestic exports and re-exports separately, compares the performance of exports to the rest of the world, the U.S. and Japan, and uses destination-and-export-type specific unit value in...
Kidder, Matthew Benjamin
This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...
Roberto Alvarez; Ricardo Lopez
This paper investigates whether exporting generates positive productivity spillover effects on other plants operating in the same industry and whether exporting affects productivity of plants in vertically related industries. Using plant-level data from Chile we find that exporters improve productivity of their local suppliers but not of plants that purchase intermediate inputs from them. We also find evidence of horizontal spillovers from exporting. Exporting by foreign-owned plants generate...
De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic
and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....
Brendan J Gray
One of the major criticisms of government export promotion schemes in many countries is that they tend to be poorly targeted. Awareness levels about export schemes among managers of companies at exporting or pre-exporting stages of internationalization are often quite low, and the perceived usefulness of schemes may decline as companies internationalize and their needs become more specific. One solution may be to develop a better understanding of the needs of managers who make export market d...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...
... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...
Full Text Available Based on data for the years 1995 to 2002, this paper has established a panel data model that reflects the relationship between China's foreign direct investment and China's exports, and regarding this, empirical analysis is made. The selected countries and regions include: Hong Kong of China, China's Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and the United States. We have found that the relationship between the accumulated FDI (FDE stock of different countries and regions in China and Chinese exports to the target countries is quite strong.
The presentation discussed the outlook for global thermal coal exports for the next decade. Seaborne thermal exports are projected to grow 50 percent within ten years. Indonesia and Australia will continue to dominate seaborne thermal production, and the United States and China will remain swing global thermal suppliers. In 2020, Indonesia and Australia will occupy a strengthened position as the main exporters of thermal coal. Mid-suppliers Russia, South Africa, and Colombia will increase production, but to a lesser extent. Domestic coal requirements will cause Vietnam's exports to decrease substantially. Indonesia, the largest thermal exporter, is expected to grow thermal exports by 54 percent by 2020, but the average quality is projected to decrease. The thermal exports of Australia, the second largest exporter, are projected to grow 90 percent by 2020. Latin American thermal exports are projected to grow 45 percent. For Southern Africa, thermal exports are projected to grow 40 percent by 2020, but domestic production is expected to be twice that of exports. Mozambique is expected to begin exporting in 2015. A cost overview was also presented for seaborne thermal coal exports. Low cost producers dominate the export market. Canada's operating margins are low relative to the world. Asian-Pacific producers will continue to lead and expand their production dominance in the thermal trade. Operating margins for thermal export producers are healthy in general. 14 figs.
With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal
.... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...
Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's) in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement e...
Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Poloee, Tayebeh Ghari
Full Text Available Background: In the area of exporting, in developing countries, including Iran, the concept of export readiness is unknown to many decision makers and field of activity of Iranian pharmaceutical companies have been limited to the domestic market. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to compare the export performance of ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies with their export readiness. Methods: In order to do this, the top ten of Iranian pharmaceutical companies were selected as the sample. The companies' export readiness was measured, and compared with their export volume as well as their export growth (as two factors for determining the export performance in five years, to practically check the model and find the strengths and weaknesses of these Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the export factors. Results: Base on the results of the study, the export readiness of these companies does not have significant correlation with companies' export volume in the current circumstances, but it can predict the export growth in the firm's export rate with 95% certainty. Conclusion: The most important thing is that according to the data collected in our study, most of these ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies are not ready to attend in exporting and international markets and only two companies were ready to export. It seems that making improvement in some variables like obtaining international standards, marketing and exporting education, having a transparent and documented plan and having the responsible person for export could increase export readiness of pharmaceutical companies.
Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina
This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...
Export taxes usage has recently risen. They are widely presumed to affect trade, but the lack of data has prevented a systematic evaluation of their trade effects. Based on a new dataset of tax rates at the product level, this paper estimates the distortionary trade effects of export taxes. The results, which are based on theory-consistent estimation of a structural gravity model, indicate that the elasticity of trade quantities to tax is -1.8 on average, rising to -5.5 for extractive sectors...
Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik
Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market
This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...
... Supervision of exportation. (a) Sales ticket withdrawals. Conditionally duty-free merchandise withdrawn under the sales ticket procedure for exportation shall be exported only under Customs supervision as...
Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji
In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.
Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.
part as "a hedge against technological surprise; 11 Foster (1973, passim). -17- The purpose of export controls is to delay the communist acquisi...sales of soybeans abroad), a nd (3) for other "national purposes" (a rationale never actually used , but one discussed recently in the Senate as
Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925
Andersen, Poul Houman
It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...
Debra D. Warren
Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...
Binette, André; Chernis, Tony; De Munnik, Daniel
Canadian exports have often disappointed since the Great Recession. The apparent disconnect between exports and the Bank of Canadafs current measure of foreign demand has created an impetus to search for an alternative. Based on a dynamic factor model (DFM) methodology, we use a broad range of international economic indicators (close to 300) to estimate external demand for Canadian exports. The new measure, Global Real Activity for Canadian Exports (GRACE), follows Binette et al. (201...
Juan Barboni; Nicolas Ferrari; Hanna Melgarejo; Adriana Peluffo
In this work, we analyze the effect of export destinations on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of manufacturing Uruguayan firms for the period 1997-2006. We study two effects: self-selection and learning by exporting. There is evidence of self-selection with a stronger effect for firms exporting to developed countries. Nevertheless, applying transition groups methodology in order to mitigate endogeneity issues, there is no evidence that exporting to developed countries enhances productivity th...
Britten, Gregory L.; Wakamatsu, Lael; Primeau, François W.
Carbon export from the Southern Ocean exerts a strong control on the ocean carbon sink, yet recent observations from the region demonstrate poorly understood relationships in which carbon export efficiency is weakly related to temperature. These observations conflict with traditional theory where export efficiency increases in colder waters. A recently proposed "temperature-ballast hypothesis" suggests an explanatory mechanism where the effect of temperature-dependent respiration is masked by variation in particle-ballast as upwelling waters move northward from Antarctica. We use observations and statistical models to test this mechanism and find positive support for the hypothesized temperature-ballast interactions. Best fitting models indicate a significant relation between export efficiency and silica-ballast while simultaneously revealing the expected inverse effect of temperature once ballast is accounted for. These findings reconcile model predictions, metabolic theory, and carbon export observations in the Southern Ocean and have consequences for how the ocean carbon sink responds to climate change.
This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific
The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de
... subject to the Regulations; or C. Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... (``Pendzich'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006...
... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to... investigation or review. (b) Time of receipt of benefit. In the case of export insurance, the Secretary normally...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...
... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond. ...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond. ...
... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 52.4682-5 Section 52.4682-5 Internal... (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-5 Exports. (a) Overview. This section provides rules relating to the tax imposed under section 4681 on ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) that are exported. In general...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft, as...
This paper evaluates the role of export destinations on productivity, employment, and wages of Turkish firms by comparing the performance of firms that export to low-income destinations and high-income destinations with firms that do not export. A combination of propensity score matching and difference-in-differences methods are employed on a rich set of firm observables, including sector,...
... export controls on these items. Although the Export Administration Act expired on August 20, 2001, the...-01] RIN 0694-AF73 Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control Classification 0Y521 Series--Biosensor Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security...
... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price as...
Full Text Available The present paper investigates the relationship between Competitive Intelligence (CI factors, characteristics, information sources, needs, requirements and the export intensity of exporting companies in South Africa. We establish whether there are significant differences between firms, grouped according to export intensity with respect to awareness, use, information sources and attitude towards CI activities. A questionnaire was developed and sent to exporting firms, resulting in a usable sample of 309 South African respondents. These firms are grouped according to export intensity, and CI practices between groups are compared. The results show that export intensive firms appear to be more aware and supportive of CI activities than less export intensive firms.
Kamran Azadi, A.; Yarmohammad, Mohammad H.
The paper analyzes Iran's oil export capacity and the factors affecting it. First, the local energy demand is reviewed and crude oil, with 5.7% annual growth rate, is introduced as a major source to respond to the increasing domestic energy demand. Then, the national plans for controlling the local demand and replacing oil with other types of energy carriers are reviewed to create a view over the future of local demand for crude oil in Iran. In the next step, crude oil production and exploration situation in Iran are investigated and the required increase in production to maintain the present level of export is calculated. By estimating the average capital expenditures for adding each barrel of new capacity to Iran's daily oil production, the necessary annual investment to compensate the production drop and domestic consumption growth for maintaining the export is introduced. Then, the future of oil export in Iran is predicted in three optimistic, reference, and pessimistic scenarios on the basis of the country's ability in managing the financial resources in upstream oil industry. Finally, domestic and foreign investment and the history of buyback contracts and their undeniable role in development of Iranian oil and gas projects are discussed. - Highlights: → We analyze Iran's oil export capacity and the factors affecting it. → With a focus on crude oil, local energy demand is reviewed. → Technical-economical aspects of crude oil production and exploration are investigated. → We review the investment-related activities in Iranian oil and gas industry. → Buyback contract is the most applicable financial mechanism in short to mid-term.
Martinović, Marija; Matana, Elena
This paper examines the influence of the perceived export barriers on export intensity. The survey was conducted on the sample of 100 Croatian manufacturers. Upon review of the literature 14 variables of the export barriers have been identified. The results reveal a negative relationship between the perceived export barriers on export intensity. Factor analyses were used to sort variables to 4 categories. This model introduced external environment factor, organization and commitment, governme...
Jensen, Kimberly L.; Davis, George C.
This study identifies barriers perceived by agricultural exporters and examines how these perceptions influence use of export market strategies. Ordered logit models are used to estimate effects of perceived barriers and firm characteristics on export market strategies. The results from these models show that perceptions about import restrictions influence use of diversification of exports across products, competition influences use of competitive export pricing, and overseas product regulati...
Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending......This paper presents an international trade model based on a market structure with monopolistic competition and age dependent quality and productivity in producing each product variety. Due to innovations new product varieties of a still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...
Nilsson, Desirée; Johansson, Börje
During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalisation as a catchword for an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalisation. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalisation that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalisation, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on ...
Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...
Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian
China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...
Katzoff, Judith A.
A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...
Costantini, Valeria; Crespi, Francesco
The pollution haven hypothesis affirms that an open market regime will encourage the flow of low-technology polluting industries towards developing countries because of potential comparative advantages related to low environmental standards. In contrast, the hypothesis suggested by Porter and van der Linde claims that innovating firms operate in a dynamic competitive situation which allows global diffusion of environmental-friendly technologies. Environmental regulation may represent a relevant mechanism through which technological change is induced. In this way, countries that are subject to more stringent environmental regulations may become net exporters of environmental technologies. This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of export flows of environmental technologies across different countries for the energy sector. Advanced economies, particularly the European Union, have increasingly focused on the role of energy policies as tools for sustaining the development path. The Kyoto Protocol commitments, together with growing import dependence on energy products, have brought attention to the analysis of innovation processes in this specific sector. The analysis uses a gravity model in order to test the determinants and the transmission channels through which environmental technologies for renewable energies and energy efficiency are exported to advanced and developing countries. Our results are consistent with the Porter and van der Linde hypothesis where environmental regulation represents a significant source of comparative advantages. What strongly emerges is that the stringency of environmental regulation supplemented by the strength of the National Innovation System is a crucial driver of export performance in the field of energy technologies. (author)
Luckman, Gary James
The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is a major operational unit within the Federal Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry of Australia. AQIS has a long history of dealing with irradiation issues, as many imported goods (non food) require disinfestation treatment, for which gamma irradiation is the most cost effective, suitable and efficient means. A ministerial decision was taken in April 1997 which authorised AQIS to oversee a trial of irradiation as a pre-shipment treatment for food to be exported from Australia, with several caveats. Any such treatment would be required to meet importing country requirements, it would be conditional on export certification and would be required to meet certain minimum international requirements established by the Codex Alimentarius. These include minimum and maximum dosage levels and labelling to indicate irradiation treatment has taken place. Strong interest has been generated by the announcement of this trial in a number of food industry segments, who are anxious to participate in the trial program. Further to the anticipated success of the export trial, AQIS is drafting suitable legislation which will allow exports of irradiated foodstuffs from a number of food categories, on an ongoing basis. (author)
Clarke, George R. G.
Many commentators have suggested that the internet is one of the forces driving globalization. This paper assesses one aspect of these claims, looking at whether internet access appears to affect the export performance using data from enterprises in low and middle-income economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The paper finds a strong correlation between exporting and internet access at the enterprise level. Moreover, this correlation remains after controlling factors that might affect ...
Schmidt, Fritz W.
Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments
Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries
Liu, Jialu; Goldstein, Don
China became a major player in renewable energy (RE) technology during the 2000s. Chinese solar PV cell and module makers quickly dominated global sales in that industry, while the country's wind turbine producers became poised for significant exports after capturing their rapidly growing home market. In countries like the US, Chinese RE technology strength has been met with claims of excessive governmental support of exports. This study examines to what extent Chinese firms' solar PV and wind technology successes have been enabled by policy supports, and whether those policies appear to have been driven by broader goals versus RE export promotion per se. The evidence suggests that governmental policy toward both wind and solar originated in a push for export-competitive Chinese companies. But the specifics differed substantially due to the particular requirements of building technological capabilities in each: export readiness necessitated substantial support for domestic installation of wind but not solar PV power. The findings also suggest that as the decade of the 2000s progressed, environmental goals played an increasing role alongside export promotion in motivating and shaping Chinese RE technology policies. - Highlights: ► Export policy in the rise of Chinese renewable energy technologies is studied. ► Policy supported wind turbine firms' capabilities via domestic uptake, not exports. ► Pre-2009 solar module exports enjoyed, but did not depend on, export subsidies. ► Renewables development also fit wider technology and environmental policy goals.
Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie; Lim, Joseph Anthony
This research aims to examine the sophistication of export portfolios of selected ASEAN and developed Asian economies. It aims to provide evidence on where exactly the ASEAN economies are in the context of exports sophistication and structural transformation. Results from the product space analysis indicate that although limited in product scope, there are prospects for ASEAN economies to converge to the level of the export sophistication of the developed Asian countries.
Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...
De Rosa, Donato
This paper examines the exporting behaviour of Russian manufacturers by considering the effects of firm characteristics and external conditions. Two measures of export behaviour are considered: the decision to export and the share of exports to developed markets. I find that specific exporting experience is the main determinant of both export status and destination. Contrary to studies for other countries, firm features, with the exception of firm size, are irrelevant for export status, while...
Based on New Brunswick Power's energy export experience over the past two decades, it appears that Canada could have a very special and unique opportunity to input into the US energy market over the coming decades. The CANDU reactor can offer one of these opportunities. Such business opportunities can be of very real benefit to both countries and to the particular regions involved. Like any other form of business, this one must be carefully planned and must be conducted in an environment conducive to the achievement of the objectives of the business
Jan Alexander Hiss
Full Text Available We performed a bioinformatical analysis of protein export elements (PEXEL in the putative proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A protein family-specific conservation of physicochemical residue profiles was found for PEXEL-flanking sequence regions. We demonstrate that the family members can be clustered based on the flanking regions only and display characteristic hydrophobicity patterns. This raises the possibility that the flanking regions may contain additional information for a family-specific role of PEXEL. We further show that signal peptide cleavage results in a positional alignment of PEXEL from both proteins with, and without, a signal peptide.
Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji
Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe.
Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A
This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.
Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs
De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic
We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....
Iten, R.; Oettli, B.; Jochem, E.; Mannsbart, W.
This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories. Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion
Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy
Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.
Sugiyama, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kanbe, Ayaka; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kurihara, Shin
Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment. We observed putrescine concentration in the culture supernatant was increased from 0 to 50 μm during growth of E. coli under neutral conditions. Screening for the unidentified putrescine exporter was performed using a gene knock-out collection of E. coli, and deletion of sapBCDF significantly decreased putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Complementation of the deletion mutant with the sapBCDF genes restored putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Additionally, the ΔsapBCDF strain did not facilitate uptake of putrescine from the culture supernatant. Quantification of stable isotope-labeled putrescine derived from stable isotope-labeled arginine supplemented in the medium revealed that SapBCDF exported putrescine from E. coli cells to the culture supernatant. It was previously reported that SapABCDF of Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae conferred resistance toantimicrobial peptides; however, the E. coli ΔsapBCDF strain did not affect resistance to antimicrobial peptide LL-37. These results strongly suggest that the natural function of the SapBCDF proteins is the export of putrescine. PMID:27803167
Sugiyama, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kanbe, Ayaka; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kurihara, Shin
Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment. We observed putrescine concentration in the culture supernatant was increased from 0 to 50 μm during growth of E. coli under neutral conditions. Screening for the unidentified putrescine exporter was performed using a gene knock-out collection of E. coli, and deletion of sapBCDF significantly decreased putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Complementation of the deletion mutant with the sapBCDF genes restored putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Additionally, the ΔsapBCDF strain did not facilitate uptake of putrescine from the culture supernatant. Quantification of stable isotope-labeled putrescine derived from stable isotope-labeled arginine supplemented in the medium revealed that SapBCDF exported putrescine from E. coli cells to the culture supernatant. It was previously reported that SapABCDF of Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae conferred resistance toantimicrobial peptides; however, the E. coli ΔsapBCDF strain did not affect resistance to antimicrobial peptide LL-37. These results strongly suggest that the natural function of the SapBCDF proteins is the export of putrescine. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
Ayla Ogus; Niloufer Sohrabji
The Turkish current account has been exploding in the last few years leading to concerns of a crisis. One of the primary factors identified in the rising deficits is the appreciating lira. In addition, income elasticity of exports and imports can also shed light on continuing trade deficits. In this paper we analyze exchange rate and income elasticity of Turkish imports and exports. We find a significant gap between domestic and foreign income elasticities (for exports and imports respectivel...
Full Text Available This paper gives a design of a methodology to evaluate the exporting potential of Empresa Porcina Santiago de Cuba. The information to realize this study was provided for the enterprises offices at provincial and municipal levels. The main results were: argue of the general procedure to evaluate the exporting potential in any enterprise, and the specific results of its application in the entity object of study, with the correspondent strategic plan of exports.
Lavos Coimbra, G.
The author proposes to set up a working group which should be responsible for the compilation of laws, procedures, and national policies for the nuclear importation and exportation in the supplying and receiving countries. Shared international views would simplify the flow of imports and exports between the countries. The author describes the different phases of exportation and importation of nuclear material are processed in her country, Brazil. (CW) [de
Northern Australia's live cattle exports to Southeast Asia have increased dramatically in recent years. In Australia's current political environment calling for greater domestic value-adding, the issue of potential trade-offs between Australia's live cattle and slaughtered beef exports are examined. From an investigation into the origins of Australia's live cattle export industry and the production and marketing of beef in Australia's major live cattle importing countries, it is concluded tha...
Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...
... Silcox, his representatives, assigns, agents or employees (the ``Denied Person''), may not, directly or... license, License Exception, or export control document; B. Carrying on negotiations concerning, or...
Uwe Boewer; Vasiliki Michou; Christoph Ungerer
Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall. Using a rich dataset of bilateral value-added exports of goods and services of 39 exporters and 56 importers for 18 sectors, we first estimate that Greece exports ? less than what regular international trade patterns would predict on basis of Greek GDP, the size o...
.... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...
Full Text Available This work aims to identify the relationship between marketing strategies of exporting Taquari Valley firms with the export performance and export market orientation. To achieve the goal sought proposed is the development of theoretical benchmark, made up items strategies for international marketing, export performance and export market orientation. In epistemological level was conducted a survey, applying for a questionnaire to a sample of 25 exporting companies that have industrial activities, chosen in a not probabilistic manner. Finally, it was observed that the key decisions on how to act in various markets in terms of strategies for international marketing - satisfaction with the internal market, international consistency, adaptation and localization level of the strategies - have relationship with the export market orientation and the export performance of studied companies.
Texas Child Care, 1993
Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…
Algeria is increasing its capacity to export natural gas in order to reinforce its strong position in the growing international market. The country's reserves are estimated at more than 3.6 trillion cu m. Algerian energy and development policy is based on a rational exploitation of this resource. A liquefield natural gas (LNG) pioneer, Algeria has one of the world's most important LNG production capacities. With a location encouraging export to nearby countries, Algeria has an important place in the world natural gas market and an exclusive role within its trading region. The effort will especially focus on southern Europe. The paper discusses Algeria's growing role in international markets, as well as local markets
Hiller, Sanne; Kruse, Robinson
-country heterogeneity and propose a new measure for the strength of trend breaks. Highly open economies gain from both, monetary and real integration. In sharp contrast, less open economies do not benefit from real integration and even suffer from monetary integration. The major milestones for France, Germany, Italy......The European integration process has removed barriers to trade within Europe. We analyze which integration step has most profoundly influenced the trending behavior of export openness. We endogenously determine the single most decisive break in the trend, account for strong cross...... and the Netherlands are the Euro introduction, the Maastricht Treaty, the Exchange Rate Mechanism I and the merge of EFTA and EEC to the European Economic Area, respectively. Our empirical results have important implications for inner-European economic development, as export openness feeds back into growth...
Rembauville, M.; Salter, I.; Blain, S.
In the Southern Ocean, numerous observations suggest a strong attenuation of the vertical carbon flux with depth. This is probably due to efficient particle reprocessing by zooplankton and high remineralization rates by active bacterial communities in productive areas. Resting spore formation by diatoms is an ecological strategy frequently observed in neritic productive areas. Until recently, the impact of this process on biogeochemical cycles and more specifically carbon export was neglected. We present chemical and diatom export fluxes from sediment trap deployments located in the vicinity of Subantarctic Islands: South Georgia, Crozet and Kerguelen. For each island system, an annual record of export is available in an HNLC site and a productive site. Carbon export appears to be low at the three sites (exported diatom community. We highlight the important contribution (40-60 %) of resting spores to carbon export at different depth horizons in the productive, naturally-fertilized areas, supporting their high transfer efficiency. This similar mechanism observed in the three island systems suggests that resting spore formation is a significant process driving carbon export in the Southern Ocean.
Full Text Available This paper examines the sources of Belarus’s export growth and decomposes export growth into extensive and intensive margins. This study also aims to determine export margins for intermediate and final goods and to determine the price and quantity components of the intensive export margin. In order to achieve the desired objectives, we use two methods for decomposing export growth, the count method and the export shares method. We analyse Belarus's export growth using export data at the HS-6 digit level for the 2004-2014 period. Our results show that Belarus's exports grew mainly due to growth in the price margin during the studied period 2004-2014. However, the extensive margin was important in export growth to some extent. Comparing the growth rate across final and intermediate goods reveals that although the share of final products in Belarus’s exports is not very big (18.9% in 2014, the average annual growth in exports of final products is higher than that of intermediate goods. Our investigation also shows that Belarus produces a wide range of commodities, but the share of the most of these commodities is not large; its exports depend on a restricted range of commodities. Moreover, most of the commodities are exported to Russia and Ukraine. Our results give us reason to assume that finding new markets for their new products is one of the main challenges for developing countries wishing to increase their exports by an extensive margin. This has important implications for how policy makers promote the trade and diversification of exports.
Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Poloee, Tayebeh Ghari
Background: In the area of exporting, in developing countries, including Iran, the concept of export readiness is unknown to many decision makers and field of activity of Iranian pharmaceutical companies have been limited to the domestic market. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to compare the export performance of ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies with their export readiness. Methods: In order to do this, the top ten of Iranian pharmaceutical companies were selected as the sa...
... Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of... Security 15 CFR Parts 730, 732, 734, et al. Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control Reform; Correction; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 192...
... the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control Reform; Revisions to License... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the... proposed to be amended in Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Personal...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Ali Amirnazmi, Register 63302-066, FCI... release and forfeit $81,277.37. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... number) or e- mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...
Therefore, the study examines the factors that determine export demand in Ghana for the period 1970 to 2011. Using Johansen cointegration methodology, export demand is cointegrated with real effective exchange rate, domestic export prices, world export prices and real world income. The export demand function exhibits ...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail or...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas...
Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier
Grodzinski, B.; Jiao, J.; Leonardos, E.D.
The ability of 21 C3 and C4 monocot and dicot species to rapidly export newly fixed C in the light at both ambient and enriched CO2 levels was compared. Photosynthesis and concurrent export rates were estimated during isotopic equilibrium of the transport sugars using a steady-state 14CO2-labeling procedure. At ambient CO2 photosynthesis and export rates for C3 species were 5 to 15 and 1 to 10 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, and 20 to 30 and 15 to 22 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, for C4 species. A linear regression plot of export on photosynthesis rate of all species had a correlation coefficient of 0.87. When concurrent export was expressed as a percentage of photosynthesis, several C3 dicots that produced transport sugars other than Suc had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis, comparable to those of C4 species. At high CO2 photosynthetic and export rates were only slightly altered in C4 species, and photosynthesis increased but export rates did not in all C3 species. The C3 species that had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis at ambient CO2 exported at rates comparable to those of C4 species on both an absolute basis and as a percentage of photosynthesis. At ambient CO2 there were strong linear relationships between photosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and concurrent export. However, at high CO2 the relationships between photosynthesis and export rate and between sugar synthesis and export rate were not as strong because sugars and starch were accumulated
Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.
Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between exports, imports, and economic growth in Panama. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1980 and 2015 was tested by using Johansen co-integration analysis of Vector Auto Regression Model and the Granger-Causality tests. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is no relationship between exports, imports and economic growth in Panama. On the other hand, we found that there is a strong evidence of bidirectional causality from imports to economic growth and from exports to economic growth. These results provide evidence that exports and imports, thus, are seen as the source of economic growth in Panama.
Full Text Available Yarn commodities and textile industries are the main export commodities of Central Java. Nevertheless, there are still some problems to face. The purpose of this research is to analyze the market share and competitive advantages position of the yarn commodities and the textile industries of Central Java in the world market. The Acceleration Ratio (AR and Trade Specialization Index (TSI are used to analyze the export competitiveness of the yarn commodities and the textile industries. The results obtained indicates that AR of the export of yarn commodities and textile industries of Central Java is greater than 1 (AR> 1. TSI of yarn commodities and textile industries in Central Java is 0.45 and has positive value. These results indicates that Central Java has a strong market share and tends to be a regional exporter of yarn and textile commodities in the world market.
In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes, with the ......In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes...... are appropriated and used in the wardrobes of informants. In this way, I point to discrepancies between the production and the dissemination of dress objects that take place in the fashion industry, and to the ways that people use and experience these objects in their everyday lives. In Part III, I conduct...
... Company. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Mexico. 3287 05/23/13 13-56-NG GDF SUEZ Gas NA... to export natural gas to Mexico and to export LNG to Mexico by vessel and by truck. BILLING CODE 6450... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During...
... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the Secretary...
Australia's uranium policy is that the mining and export of uranium only be permitted from the Nabarlek, Ranger and Olympic Dam Mines subject to strict safeguard conditions. In addition, the government has decided against the development of further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia, resulting in all uranium production being for export only
This paper examines locational factors that increase the odds of a firm's entry into export markets and affect the intensity of its participation. It differentiates between two different sources of spillovers: clustering of general economic activity and that of export-oriented activity. It also focuses on the effect of the business environment and that of institutions at the spatial unit o...
Mishra, Saurabh; Lundstrom, Susanna; Anand, Rahul
Can increasing sophistication in service exports lead to economic growth? Although services were historically produced primarily for domestic consumption, they are gradually becoming more productive, tradable and unbundled. The authors construct an index of "service exports sophistication" to document this phenomenon. Panel data estimations indicate a positive association between growth in...
Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints in SME Exporters. Zororo Muranda. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 89-107. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v30i1.6737.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...
S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.J. van Stel (André)
textabstractIn this paper the relationship between a country’s prevalence of new ventures and its rate of economic growth is investigated, while taking into account new ventures’ export orientation. It is generally acknowledged that new venture creation as well as export activity may both be
Fosse, Henrik Barslund
Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly tra...
Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne
This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk... “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal for...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...
Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
-country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...
Abstract: Exporting has been one of the fastest growing economic activities consistently exceeding the rate of growth in world economic output since the 1970s. Yet, in Uganda, the majority of firms seem to be either ambivalent or negative towards exporting. The study attempts to measure corporate managers' international ...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.56 Section 273.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.56 Exports. A universal waste...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be...
D. de Clercq (Dirk); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A.J. van Stel (André)
textabstractWe draw on the knowledge spillover literature to suggest that a country's proportion of export-oriented new ventures represents an outcome of knowledge spillovers that stem from foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade (export spillovers) as well as a source of knowledge
De Clercq, D.; Hessels, J.; van Stel, A.
We draw on the knowledge spillover literature to suggest that a country’s proportion of export-oriented new ventures represents an outcome of knowledge spillovers that stem from foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade (export spillovers) as well as a source of knowledge spillovers
The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting. This ...
... the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (Title II of Pub. L. 95-223, 91 Stat. 1626, October 28... forth in a new DEAR Export Clause. It is the contractor's responsibility to comply with all applicable laws and regulations regarding export-controlled items. This responsibility exists independent of, and...
It is also becoming increasingly important for exporters to communicate the value they are exporting to their customers. This communication should command the social global aspects. If the social aspects are ignored in communicating the values, the business is destined to fail. The question will not be whether it will fail or ...
This presentation analyzed the current global wood pellet market and evaluated some of the forces currently driving market expansion. Global wood pellet production statistics were also presented. Large forest companies are now expanding into the energy sector and seeking to produce processing heat from biomass in addition to creating value-added products such as wood pellets, ethanol and electricity. The European biomass action plan has promised to increase production of energy from biomass from 4 per cent to 8 per cent by 2010. Various biomass boiler eco-directives have been established internationally, and some countries in Europe are now aggressively promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Biofuels mixing quotas have been established in various countries as well as tax relief plans for users of bio-fuels. As a result of these developments, along with various new directives, wood pellet consumption in Europe has increased from approximately 1 million tonnes in 2000 to 5 million tonnes in 2005. Consumption of wood pellets in Canada has increased only marginally in the same time period. While Canada currently exported 330,000 tonnes of wood pellets to Europe in 2006, it is expected that exports will increase to 800,000 tonnes by 2010. Other potential markets for Canadian wood pellets include South America, South Africa, Japan, and China. Production of wood pellets in China is expected to increase from current negligible production figures to approximately 50 million tonnes by 2020. Biomass research and development activities in Europe and North America are continuing to improve the calorific value of wood pellets and improve their mechanical strength. Researchers are also investigating methods of lowering wood pellet production costs. refs., tabs., figs
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the most important barriers faced by Romanians SMEs in the process of exporting. The research was based on a focus group including 12 managers from different exporting companies from Brasov. The most important barriers encountered by companies were linked to currency fluctuations, methods of payment, lack of specialized staff, lack of financial resources and a low level of government support. Results from the study revealed that companies should have access at financing in order to invest in new technologies and to create higher quality products that could meet the requirements of the foreign buyers. In order to reduce the export barriers, small and medium sized exporters should create partnerships for reducing the costs of promotion in foreign markets. The government should also increase its support by offering exporters access at financing and market information at lower costs.
Nuclear energy offers all possibilities to reduce the energy problems in the world which arise with the world-wide increasing population and the energy demand connected with it. The Federal Republic of Germany lives on the exports of refined technical methods which also include nuclear engineering. The exports of nuclear engineering should lead to a technology transfer with guidance and training on an equal basis between the industrial and developing countries. The preconditions of exporting nuclear-technical systems are a well-functioning domestic market and a certain support by the government, especially with regard to giving guarantees for the special exports risks of these big projects. On the other hand, exports are also needed in order to be able to continue providing high-level technology for the domestic market. (UA) [de
Bolaji Adesola Adesoye
Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of aggregate export demand in Nigeria using annual time series data between 1970 and 2013. The paper made use of the ordinary least square method to analyse the long-run relationship for the period under study. The empirical results confirm that there exists a unique and significant long-run equilibrium relationship among export volume, world income, crude oil price, domestic output, exchange rate and cost of doing business. The estimated results show that domestic income has the highest elasticity, followed by world’s output and cost of doing business, which all report positive relations. Other macroeconomic factors reported negative relationship with aggregate export volume. Thus, an important policy implication of our findings is that stabilizing Nigeria’s export earnings potential by counteracting the external factors that influence adversely the Nigerian exports such as crude oil price and cost of doing business.
Ciliberto, Federico; Jäkel, Ina Charlotte
In many countries, exports are highly concentrated among a few "superstar" firms. We estimate the export decisions of superstar firms as the result of a complete information, simultaneous, discrete choice, static entry game. We employ a dataset on the universe of Danish trade transactions by firm...... to export to a given market. Next, we run two counterfactual exercises. We show that failing to account for the strategic interaction among superstar exporters leads to: (i) overstating the probability that firms would start exporting to a market following tariff elimination by 8 percentage points; and, (ii......) overstating the probability that firms would stop exporting to a market if tariffs were imposed by 7.5 percentage points. We also show that competitive effects vary across export markets and competitors. This heterogeneity in the competitive effects implies that there exist multiple equilibria, both...
With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.
...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... promotional and marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-0005] Export Trade...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... to amend an Export [[Page 72325
Talis J. Putninš
This paper sheds light on Latvian exporters – how active they are, what challenges they face, what makes them succeed or fail. Our study draws on a survey of 503 medium-sized Latvian companies. We find that most medium-sized Latvian companies are exporters (either directly or indirectly) and for a typical exporting company, export turnover constitutes more than half of its total turnover. Exporting companies tend to be larger, younger and faster growing than their non-exporting counterparts. ...
Mora Rodriguez, P.
The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es
Capital goods exports exceed $3 trillion and are volatile. This paper estimates trade elasticities for capital goods exports. For the UK and the U.S., exports depend on exchange rates. For Germany and France they do not. For Japan, exports to non-Asian countries depend on exchange rates and exports to Asian countries depend on Asia's exports to the rest of the world. For all countries, capital exports depend on GDP in the importing countries. These results imply that U.S. exports tumbled in 2...
Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or
The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and empir......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical...... and empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...... productivity of exporters in proximity to the export-indifferent firm turns out to be lower than that of non-exporters, i.e. the productivity distributions overlap. The paper reviews empirical literature that reports non-positive exporter productivity premia in firm-level data and discusses implications...
This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.
Full Text Available A strategy is a general plan aimed to develop a business. Even export firm that wants to develop and prosper needs some form of strategy. A company's strategic fit with the trading environment has to be continuously reconsidered because it is likely to erode. Managers should be well informed in order to develop their judgment and understanding of the driving forces that shape the business environment. The greatest mistakes are made by exporters who think they know a foreign market as well as they know their local one, only to find after an ill-fated export launch, that they do not.
Full Text Available Romania carried on significant progresses in its intercession to fetch up the gaps towards the European Union concerning the services compartment, the balance of those being of almost 10% from the total Romanian export, during the first semester of 2007. In 2006, the export of services increased with 45% comparatively to the year before, consolidating the status of our country as a services exporter. The IT left its mark on the structure and organizing method of the tertiary compartment and ameliorated the form in which the services were performed in the context of enhanced electronic transfers.
Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)
One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.
Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand
This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions...... of offshorers and exporters increase in one country and decrease in the other country. This model outcome occurs when competition enhances in a country experiencing a decline in its costs of international trade. The fractions of offshorers and exporters certainly increase in a small open economy experiencing...
Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad
on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...... instead of in-house sourcing of multinational enterprises. The paper also suggests that over the sample period, where Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment, the role of export-platform FDI has increased significantly. ...
The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Protection of imports and exports of radionuclides, irradiation samples and sealed emitters above 1850 GBq show a slight decline by 11.8%, on the basis of activity, in imports and a somewhat higher rise by 21.6% in exports in 1990. Imports returned to the level of 1988 after having experienced an extraordinary rise in 1989. Exports were slightly better than in the previous year, but still considerably below the average of the past five years. (orig.) [de
Mohamad Dian Revindo
Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs are more constrained to export than their large counterparts and SMEs' limited participation in export market is more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Extant literature suggests that SMEs encounter a set of export inhibiting factors distinct to those faced by large firms and therefore accurate identification of export barriers is crucial in fostering SMEs export. This study investigates the export barriers faced by Indonesian SMEs. The evidences were collected from 271 exporting SMEs and 226 non-exporting SMEs in seven provinces in Jawa, Madura and Bali regions. The results show that the types and severities of export barriers perceived or encountered by SMEs vary across export stages and across products/industries. Further, export barriers can be distinguished by their general or specific nature. The policy and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)
Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra
instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....
This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.
Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon
In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... on mobilities theory (Urry 2007; Larsen et al. 2006) and practice theory (Schatzki 2001; Reckwitz 2002; Shove et al. 2012) this paper seeks to unfold a theoretical framework for understanding of the household’s mobility coping strategies and how these strategies are actualised and materialised into mobility...
Guo, Yuedong; Song, Changchun; Tan, Wenwen; Wang, Xianwei; Lu, Yongzheng
Permafrost thawing in peatlands has the potential to alter the catchment export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), thus influencing the carbon balance and cycling in linked aquatic and ocean ecosystems. Peatlands along the southern margins of the Eurasian permafrost are relatively underexplored despite the considerable risks associated with permafrost degradation due to climate warming. This study examined dynamics of DOC export from a permafrost peatland catchment located in northeastern China during the 2012 to 2014 growing seasons. The estimated annual DOC loads varied greatly between 3211 and 19 022 kg yr-1, with a mean DOC yield of 4.7 g m-2 yr-1. Although the estimated DOC yield was in the lower range compared with other permafrost regions, it was still significant for the net carbon balance in the studied catchment. There were strong linkages between daily discharge and DOC concentrations in both wet and dry years, suggesting a transport-limited process of DOC delivery from the catchment. Discharge explained the majority of both seasonal and interannual variations of DOC concentrations, which made annual discharge a good indicator of total DOC load from the catchment. As indicated by three fluorescence indices, DOC source and chemical characteristics tracked the shift of flow paths during runoff processes closely. Interactions between the flow path and DOC chemical characteristics were greatly influenced by the seasonal thawing of the soil active layer. The deepening of the active layer due to climate warming likely increases the proportion of microbial-originated DOC in baseflow discharge.
Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana
A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte
Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....
Jäkel, Ina Charlotte
Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....
Since the price collapse of 1986, the Australian Government has been deregulating its domestic crude oils, which since the late 1960s, have been allocated solely to Australian refiners at set prices, and where no crude oil was exported. This arrangement is now being dismantled, and has allowed export since 1983, with modest free-market sales since 1985. Much of the exported crude is currently from older, established fields, but with a number of new fields that have come into production recently, some of the newer streams are beginning to find their way to many distant parts of the refining world. There are five important Australian crude oils either now being, or likely to be, exported: Barrow Island and Gippsland crudes, which are produced from fields discovered in 1960s; and Jabiru, Jackson blend, and Northwest Shelf condensate, all coming to production during the last 5 years. This article discusses each of these oils.
Chemical manufacturers, importers, and exporters are required to operate within a system of allowances. This information will help those in the chemical industry understand their role in the phaseout of HCFCs in the United States.
..., agents or employees (the ``Denied Person''), may not, directly or indirectly, participate in any way in... export control document; B. Carrying on negotiations concerning, or ordering, buying, receiving, using...
Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)
Coudray, M.; Perrais, J.P.
Safety problems arising from exportation are especially handled through the French exportation of PWR stations. Regulations differ widely from one country to another. However, very large use of American regulations is made and frequently there is a tendency to harden such or such clause in the quotation. Industry must be ready to give satisfaction to such demands of customers. Sometimes also, it is a mere duplication of French stations which is above all looked for. In that case, it is the problem of using French regulations abroad which arises. Desirable changes in examination proceedings are analyzed together with a French regulation effort aiming to make easier the promotion of their use abroad. Finally, safety may be a factor of success for exportation attempts. It is shown how useless some outbiddings may be, but also how, on the contrary, speeding up of research and development effort towards specific safety problems in case of exportation, is to be promoted [fr
Rogers, W.L.; Bourgeacq, J.P.
This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented
Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Moore, J.L. Jr.
The way in which the Export-Import Bank operates in support of the United States nuclear industry noting particularly its flexibility in responding to changing needs and budget constraints is described. (author)
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...
Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie
Master thesis Business Administration- University of Agder, 2015 Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturi...
classification requests. For example, a product such as the Barbie Chat With Me walkie talkie could require referral because the first portable FM two-way...computers to Tier 4 countries— Iran , Iraq, North Korea, Cuba, Libya, and the Sudan—also require licenses (15 CFR Sec. 742.12(b)(4)(i)). Tier 4...Treasury exercises licensing jurisdiction for exports and re-exports to Iran and Iraq and for export to Libya. 11 Applications are returned to
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Australia has large uranium reserves and uranium is now the country's tenth largest export earner. The two operating projects, at Ranger and Nabarlek, produce approximately 4000 t per year. Details are given of the extent of the copper/uranium/gold/silver deposit at Roxby Downs, South Australia. Trade is now moving in favour of the suppliers, but there is still opposition to the mining and export of uranium. The Australian Labor Party platform includes phasing out uranium mining
Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, Karen
In this paper we analyze export sophistication based on a large panel dataset (2001–2015; 101 countries) and using various estimation algorithms. Using Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate the bias properties of estimators and show that GMM-type estimators outperform instrumentalvariable and fixed-effects estimators. Based on our analysis we document that GDP per capita and the size of the economy exhibit significant and positive effects on export sophistication; weak institutional quality exh...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292 Section 24.292 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be...
Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...
This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)
Fosse, Henrik Barslund
Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....
De Clercq, D.; Hessels, J.; van Stel, A.
textabstractWe draw on the knowledge spillover literature to suggest that a country's proportion of export-oriented new ventures represents an outcome of knowledge spillovers that stem from foreign direct investment (FDI) and international trade (export spillovers) as well as a source of knowledge spillovers (entrepreneurship spillovers). To test the hypotheses, we use macrolevel data from 34 countries during the period 2002-2005. We find that the relationship between FDI and international tr...
After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)
The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.
Volpi, G.; Salter, L.
Future export markets for renewable energies have enormous potential, yet business-as-usual investment trends will not achieve that potential, write Giulio Volpi and Liam Salter. They examine the role that Export Credit Agencies - which have provided essential support for exports in the conventional energy business - could play in aiding the renewables sector, characterized as it is by small- and medium-sized enterprises. This new role will require certain reforms - but without those reforms the Export Credit Agencies will simply not be providing relevant services to new technologies and new market players. (author)
Babiker Idris Babiker
Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.
Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.
Schleucher, J.; Vanderveer, P.J.; Sharkey, T.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Hexose export from chloroplasts at night has been inferred in previous studies of mutant and transgenic plants. The authors have tested whether hexose export is the normal route of carbon export from chloroplasts at night. The authors used nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish glucose (Glc) made from hexose export and Glc made from triose export. Glc synthesized in vitro from fructose-6-phosphate in the presence of deuterium-labeled water had deuterium incorporated at C-2, whereas synthesis from triose phosphates caused C-2 through C-5 to become deuterated. In both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.), Glc from sucrose made at night in the presence of deuterium-enriched water was deuterated only in the C-2 position, indicating that >75% of carbon is exported as hexoses at night. In darkness the phosphate in the cytosol was 28 mM, whereas that in the chloroplasts was 5 mW, but hexose phosphates were 10-fold higher in the cytosol than in the chloroplasts. Therefore, hexose phosphates would not move out of chloroplasts without the input of energy. The authors conclude that most carbon leaves chloroplasts at night as Glc, maltose, or higher maltodextrins under normal conditions.
The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey using quarterly data in period from 2003:Q1 to 2015:Q1. Hypothesis argues that there is causality relationship from real export to real Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Johansen cointegration test, Gregory-Hansen cointegration test, Toda-Yamamoto causality test, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS, Canonical cointegrating regression (CCR and Dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS methods were used in this study. Findings can be summarized as follows: a According to Johansen cointegration test there is no relationship among variables in the long-run whereas Gregory-Hansen cointegration test has determined relationship in the long-run; b According to Toda-Yamamoto causality test there is bidirectional causality between real export and real GDP. This finding proves the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey; c According to FMOLS, CCR, DOLS methods a 1% increase in the real export increases the real GDP by 1.5195%, 1.5552%, 1.3171% respectively in the long-run. These methods prove the validity of “Export-led Growth Hypothesis” for Turkey.
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export trade corporations. 1.970-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.970-1 Export trade corporations. (a) In general. Sections 970 through 972 provide in general that if a controlled foreign corporation is an export trade...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE'') (Application 84- 21A12). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...- 13A16). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... published in the Federal Register on August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51439). The original Export Trade Certificate of...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an amended export trade certificate of review to Florida Citrus Exports L.C. (``FCE'') (Application 94-4A007). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Florida...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (84-22A12) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade...
... C. Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported or to be exported from... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security [07-BIS-02] Action Affecting Export... proceeding against Ning Wen (``Wen'') pursuant to Section 766.3 of the Export Administration Regulations (the...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.80 Section 1493.80... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-23A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported, unless...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1493.470 Section 1493.470... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.470 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-24A12. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export. The...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799. The...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application 12-00005] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from Colombia Rice Export Quota, Inc. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall be...
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export licensing criteria. 110.42 Section 110.42 Energy... License Applications § 110.42 Export licensing criteria. (a) The review of license applications for export... licensing criteria in § 110.42(a). Exports of nuclear reactor components, as specified in paragraphs (5...
... export product; d. Establish target prices for sales of export product by its members in export markets, with each member remaining free to deviate from such target prices in its sole discretion; e. Subject... opportunities for sales of export product, including but not limited to selling strategies and pricing...
Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold
Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports and imports. 725.920 Section... on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.920 Exports and imports. (a) Exports. Persons who intend to export a microorganism identified in subpart M of this part, or in any proposed rule which...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Chemical imports and exports. 799.19 Section 799.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... General Provisions § 799.19 Chemical imports and exports. Persons who export or who intend to export...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the...
Czechoslovak space and mediated in it the interhuman, intercultural , economic, and political relations. Both successor states will have to create their...commodities has good prospects for export and that it will be possible to benefit from tourism and the favor- able geographical location of Slovakia
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
<strong>Keywords>: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP
Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi; Mohammad Hossein Forghani; Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee; Fatemeh Faghani
The purpose of the present paper is to examine effect of effect of appropriate marketing mix strategies on Iranian protein products export performance. 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion) were selected as marketing strategies. The data used to test the hypotheses were collected through an online standard questionnaire. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale between strongly agree and strongly Disagree. Reliability of questionnaire was measured using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The ...
... Export is a Delaware limited liability company with its principal place of business in Houston, Texas... studied, ``the U.S. was projected to gain net economic benefits from allowing LNG exports.'' \\12\\ TLNG..., net economic benefits increased as the level of LNG exports increased.'' \\13\\ TLNG Export states that...
... 13-03-NG ProGas USA Inc........ Order granting blanket authority to import/export natural gas from/to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These...
Bacha, Carlos José Caetano; SanJuan, Adriana E.
This paper makes an econometric analysis of the determinants of BrazilÂ’s pulp exports. The time period from 1980 to 2001 is considered for estimating a supply equation of pulp exports. Exogenous variables considered were: price of Brazilian exported pulp, production cost of Brazilian pulp, productive capacity, exchange rate between dollar and domestic currency and lagged pulp exports. It was observed that BrazilÂ’s pulp exports have responded little to price fluctuation; however, these expor...
Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...
Kennedy, C. D.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; DeMoranville, C. J.
The cranberry industry occupies a unique place in the history of southeastern Massachusetts, where commercial production of cranberries has existed for nearly two centuries. Currently, water quality represents one of the greatest challenges facing the industry, with federal regulations limiting the use of phosphorus (P) fertilizer via total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation. In response to environmental concerns, cranberry growers have decreased their annual P fertilizer application rates by a factor of four, from ~40 kg P ha-1 in the early 1970s to ~10 kg P ha-1 in 2013. Despite these industry-wide reductions, legacy P derived from periods of high P fertilizer application likely make cranberry farms non-point sources of P to surface water. In this study, concentrations and export of P were determined to characterize the sources and transport pathways of P in harvest floodwaters for four cranberry farms. Among the sites, a general pattern emerged of sharp increases in concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) and total particulate P (TPP) during the later part of the flood release. Differences in the exact timing of increases in TDP and TPP were interpreted to represent distinct transport pathways: (1) near-surface transport of TDP derived from soils, and (2) subsurface transport of TPP resulting from resuspension and erosion of ditch sediments. Values of total P (TP = TDP + TPP) export were relatively low for three sites (0.3-0.8 kg P ha-1) and high for one site (5.3 kg P ha-1). Export of TP from the high-P site accounted for roughly half of the annual value allocated to cranberry farms in a recent TMDL. Historical P fertilizer records from 2005-2013 showed similar present-day application rates among the sites (~10 kg P ha-1), but higher rates between 2005 and 2007 for the high-P site (30 vs. 10 kg P ha-1). Although other factors likely contribute, legacy P derived from past fertilizer applications imparts an important control on P export in cranberry
Nakamura, F.; Seo, J.; Fremier, A. K.
The fluvial export of large wood (LW) is almost impossible to measure at gauging stations in small watersheds, as its occurrence is generally associated with episodic and large flood events. However, in Japan, the annual stream transport volume of LW, as well as sediment volume to reservoirs, has been monitored by local reservoir management offices. The objectives of this study were to (1) elucidate the effects of precipitation variability regulating the LW and sediment export at the watershed scale, and (2) examine changes in LW and sediment export pattern along the latitudinal gradient of the Japanese archipelago. Annual precipitation was selected as one of the most important factors in explaining the variation in LW and sediment export at each reservoir site. In order to examine the precipitation intensity influencing LW and sediment export, we investigated not only an annual precipitation but also sums of daily precipitation equal to and greater than 10, 20, 30, "c , 80, 90 and 100 mm. The fluvial export of LW and sediment produced and redistributed by various disturbance processes (such as landslides, debris and snow avalanches, debris flows, floods, wildfires, windstorms and tree mortalities) should be highly variable according to a period with and without huge and infrequent precipitation events. This study showed that sum of daily precipitation equal to and greater than 40 mm as the most important variable explaining the variation in LW export. Amounts of LW fluvial export in southern and central Japan are probably influenced by typhoon events and localized torrential downpours. Thus, LW pieces stored on the channel floor were consistantly removed, and thereby fluvial export is supply-limited and its accumulation may be less than in northern Japan where fewer large precipitation events occur. This situation may be reflected in lower unit LW export in the low latitudinal zone than in the high latitudinal zone when compared at the same intensity. Conversely
Tantirigama, Mangalika; Lee, Minsoo; Sanyal, Amal
Literature presumes that exporters from small countries and particularly of primary products do not practice pricing-to-market (PTM) because of lack of market power. Out paper examines New Zealandâ€™s pastoral exports over 1988-2002 and finds strong evidence of PTM. Evidence rejects the hypothesis that New Zealand is a price taker in these markets. We find incomplete pass-through in sheep meat markets and more than complete pass-through in wool. The degree of PTM is more pronounced in meat an...
Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812353This study analyzed the degree of concentration in worldwide exports of forest products in the period rangingfrom 1961 to 2008. The data used are available at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO. The concentration was determined by the concentration ratio [HR (k], the Herfindahl-HirschmanIndex (HHI, Theil Entropy Index (E and the Gini index (G. The main conclusions were: The aggregateBrazilian share in the world exports of forest products is increasing over time; the most important sectors inthe aggregate world exports of forest products, in decreasing order, were pulp, lumber, paper and cardboard,wooden panels, saw and fire wood. According to Bain, the concentration ratio of the four and eight largestexporters of forest products is moderately low; the HHI and Theil Entropy (E show a reduction in theconcentration of world exports of forest products and greater competition among the countries that sell suchproducts; the Gini index indicates that despite the increase in export of forest products over the period ofanalysis, a smaller number of competitors concentrate increasingly larger shares of international exports of these products; summary indices (HHI, E and G indicated that increased competition has not led to a moreequitable distribution of forest products so as to bring down inequalities and concentration of profits in thesector; despite the downward trend in CR (4 and CR (8, there is an increase in G, probably because theeconomies of scale in the international trade have been held by few competitors; caution is recommendedin the analysis of summary indices (HHI, E and G which had better be checked jointly with the partialindices [CR (k] in order to avoid wrong conclusions; countries with a significant share in total exports, suchas Brazil, should seek business strategies to retain competitive advantages, especially those arising fromeconomies of scale.
Ahmed, Swarnali; Ruta, Michele; Appendino, Maximiliano
This paper analyzes how the exchange rate elasticity of exports has changed over time and across countries and sectors, and how the formation of global value chains has affected this relationship. The analysis uses a panel framework covering 46 countries over the period 1996-2012, and first finds evidence that the elasticity of manufacturing export volumes to the real effective exchange ra...
Achterbosch, T.J.; Rau, M.L.
The official veterinary export certificate is a comprehensive instrument to regulate risks of animal disease transmission in global food trade. This paper documents how veterinary health attestation by public veterinary service in the Netherlands prevents export impediments. In order to maintain the
Mendelowitz, A.I.; Watson, J.E.; Wood, S.E.; Logan, D.L.; Hinojosa, S.L.
The authors have reviewed U.S. Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) transactions involving chemicals exported to Iraq from January 1987 to August 1990. Specifically, the authors examined (1) whether there was any evidence that the Eximbank financed the export of dual-use chemicals to Iraq and (2) what the Eximbank`s role was in monitoring and controlling chemical exports. Results are based primarily on a review of documents provided to them by the Eximbank. They did not verify the Eximbank data or corroborate it with the records of the banks or exporters involved in the transactions. There was no evidence in the documents they reviewed to suggest that the Eximbank financed the export of dual-use chemicals (chemicals with both commercial and military applications that could be used for chemical weapons) -- as defined by the Department of Commerce -- to Iraq between January 1987 and August 1990. There were approximately 190 transactions between Iraq and the Eximbank during this period. They focused their review on the eight transactions involving pesticides and related products. The Eximbank has no responsibility or authority for monitoring or controlling the export of chemicals or any other commodities: the Departments of Commerce and State and the US Customs Service share those responsibilities. Nevertheless, the Eximbank has recently developed specific procedures to review applications for financing chemical exports. However, such procedures were not in place when the Eximbank approved the applications for seven of eight pesticide transactions that occurred between January 1987 and August 1990.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on... Administration (PECSEA) will meet on September 19 and 20, 2011, 10 a.m., at the Sofitel Hotel Miami, 5800 Blue... trade for national security and foreign policy reasons. Monday, September 19 Open Session 1. Export...
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)
Couch, James R
Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH), with the more severe headaches having migraine features and the less severe headaches fitting the definition of TTH. Some patients have pure chronic TTH and no migrainous features, and others have only migraine, but most have a mixed migraine-TTH pattern. New daily persistent headache, a CDH pattern that comes on over a few days, constitutes 9% to 10% of this group and is otherwise indistinguishable from CDH. Hemicrania continua (1% of CDH) appears to be unique in being absolutely responsive to indomethacin. Accurate diagnosis of CDH is critical to management, as all organic etiologies of chronic headache must be ruled out. Problems often associated with CDH and complicating the diagnosis are head injury or medication overuse (rebound-withdrawal headache). These accompanying issues must be recognized and treated appropriately in the management plan. Finally, psychiatric problems (unipolar depression, bipolar disease, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive/compulsive disorder) often accompany CDH, as they are comorbid with migraine. These conditions must be recognized and treated along with the headache itself for treatment to succeed fully. Treatment of CDH is multimodal. The cornerstone of therapy is the use of prophylactic antimigraine medications to prevent or modulate the next headache. Amitriptyline, topiramate, valproic acid, and gabapentin have all had class I studies showing effectiveness in reducing headache occurrence. Recent studies with botulinum toxin have also shown effectiveness in reducing the headache burden. Recognition and treatment of medication overuse headache (MOH) must
In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA) [fr
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.
In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs
Hunter, S R; Stokes, C S; Warland, R H
It has been suggested that unless the rapid increase in income in the oil-exporting countries is accompanied by more equitable distribution of modern goods and services, the impact on health, literacy, and fertility is likely to be negligible. This study represents an initial attempt to examine the possible effects of the oil-exporting status of nations on their income, quality of life, and fertility. Data from 150 countries were used, and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was utilized instead of traditional measures of development. Some findings are: 1) the variable showing the strongest direct relationship to fertility was physical quality of life (p=-.756) which is consistent with the distributional hypothesis; 2) per capita gross national product (GNP) and oil-exporting status showed weaker paths to fertility and their signs were in opposite directions; 3) per capita GNP showed a moderate negative relationship to fertility (p=-.171) while oil-exporting status had a positive path of about the same size (p= .155), thus per capita income and oil-exporting status had only about 1/5 the net relationship to fertility as did physical quality of life; 4) the indirect relationship of income as channeled through PQLI was over twice as large as the measured direct relationship, so that the importance of per capita GNP for lower fertility is primarily through its influence on the physical quality of life within a nation; 5) oil-exporting status was associated with lower physical quality of life and the latter was strongly related to higher fertility; and 6) in the long run, the relationship between oil-exporting status and quality of life should be positive. If separate analyses are conducted, the division should be made along an oil-exporter/non-exporter dichotomy, rather than a more developed/less developed country categorization. It is concluded that nations with relatively high life expectancies high levels of literacy, and low levels of infant mortality
Ross, D.S.; Shanley, J.B.; Campbell, J.L.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Likens, G.E.; Wemple, B.C.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A.E.
Nitrogen export from small forested watersheds is known to be affected by N deposition but with high regional variability. We studied 10 headwater catchments in the northeastern United States across a gradient of N deposition (5.4 - 9.4 kg ha -1 yr -1) to determine if soil nitrification rates could explain differences in stream water NO 3 - export. Average annual export of two years (October 2002 through September 2004) varied from 0.1 kg NO 3 --N ha -1 yr -1 at Cone Pond watershed in New Hampshire to 5.1 kg ha -1 yr -1 at Buck Creek South in the western Adirondack Mountains of New York. Potential net nitrification rates and relative nitrification (fraction of inorganic N as NO 3 -) were measured in Oa or A soil horizons at 21-130 sampling points throughout each watershed. Stream NO 3 - export was positively related to nitrification rates (r 2 = 0.34, p = 0.04) and the relative nitrification (r 2 = 0.37, p = 0.04). These relationships were much improved by restricting consideration to the 6 watersheds with a higher number of rate measurements (59-130) taken in transects parallel to the streams (r 2 of 0.84 and 0.70 for the nitrification rate and relative nitrification, respectively). Potential nitrification rates were also a better predictor of NO 3 - export when data were limited to either the 6 sampling points closest to the watershed outlet (r 2 = 0.75) or sampling points <250 m from the watershed outlet (r 2 = 0.68). The basal area of conifer species at the sampling plots was negatively related to NO 3 - export. These spatial relationships found here suggest a strong influence of near-stream and near-watershed-outlet soils on measured stream NO 3 - export. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.
Assem Abu Hatab
Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have witnessed closer diplomatic relations between Egypt and Russia, which have led to significant growth in the countries’ bilateral agricultural trade. As a world-leading producer and exporter of oranges, these developments represent an opportunity for Egypt to promote its orange exports to Russia. Another emerging opportunity for Egypt to increase its share in the Russian market for imported oranges has been provided by import embargos imposed by Russia in recent years on agricultural and food commodities from several countries, creating a supply gap of around 25 % in the Russian orange market. To assess the competitiveness of Egyptian oranges and explore the potential export opportunities presented by the Russian market, this paper uses a Rotterdam import allocation model to analyse demand relationships among major orange suppliers to Russia during the period 1996–2014. The results show that in comparison with other orange suppliers, Egypt enjoys a strong comparative advantage in the export of oranges to Russia. The econometric results suggest that both Morocco and Egypt would benefit the most if Russia were to allocate a larger budget to the import of oranges. The expenditure elasticity estimates indicate that an increase in Russia’s demand for imported oranges would lead to increases in the quantity of Egypt’s orange exports, as well as in its share of the Russian orange market. Furthermore, cross-price elasticity estimates reveal that Egyptian oranges are substitutes for Turkish and South African oranges, implying that Russia has a tendency to switch to these two suppliers when Egyptian oranges become relatively expensive. In light of these results, the adoption of strategies to produce oranges sustainably and cost-effectively, upgrade the orange value chain, acquire processing technologies and enhance the technical and organisational capacity of farmers and exporters could be useful means for promoting
Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.
Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These net...
Roy, Jayjit; Yasar, Mahmut
While exporting firms and non-exporters have been compared across several dimensions, empirical comparisons on the basis of environmental performance are relatively few. Moreover, analyzing the environmental implications of firm-level exports is not trivial due to non-random selection into exporting. In this light, we examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency by resorting to an instrumental variables strategy based on a differencing approach (Pitt and Rosenzweig, 1990). Utilizing data from Indonesia, we find (i) exporting to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity) and (ii) concerns over endogeneity of exporting status to be relevant. - Highlights: • We examine the impact of exporting on firms' energy efficiency. • We employ cost share equations, firm-level data from Indonesia, and an instrumental variables strategy. • Exporting is found to reduce the use of fuels (relative to electricity).
Antonella Del Rosso
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1990 show a major rise by 46.3% in imports and a pronounced drop by 44.3% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of the statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched 3% to 10%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source materials, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de
Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalization of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...
Since the division of the former US Atomic Energy Commission's tasks, the regulation and control of import and export of nuclear materials and equipment has become the responsability of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The import and export of nuclear fuels, equipment and reactors are therefore subject to prior licensing by the Commission. This requirement aims to guarantee that such activities will not create serious hazards for defense and national safety, and that the exported products will not be diverted from their peaceful uses. The relevant applicable legal provisions are based on the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and on the detailed regulations issued by the Commission. Under the pressure of public opinion, there is a current tendency to restrict these activities because of the hazards they present, in particular during transport, until the Commission has completed all the necessary studies. (NEA) [fr
The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de
Constanta Aurelia Chitiba
Full Text Available Quality became the management imperative in the last time and will continue to be the key to success in the future. We often see the words “quality first”, and demands for quality invade every sphere of activity, from the motor vehicles we drive, to the domestic appliances we use, the food we eat and, of course, the products and services we import and export. Quality represents the goal of every business and it is focused on the customer. Satisfying the requirements of the customer is a dynamic activity: both customers and their needs are changing continuous and the suppliers have to recognize this. When it comes to international trade, no exporting country can afford to compromise on quality. The current global economic climate calls for export marketing and promotion efforts with assurances of superior and consistent quality in products and services, rather associated with lower prices.
Grimpe, Christoph; Belderbos, Rene
We examine first direct evidence on the occurrence of learning by exporting, using unique survey data for German innovating firms on the role of (foreign) customers and competitors as sources of ideas and impetus for innovation. Export intensive firms frequently benefit simultaneously from domestic...... learning and export learning – an issue that has been ignored in prior studies. Learning from foreign customers is more prevalent than learning from foreign competitors. Firms’ underlying innovation strategy appears as an important moderator of the propensity to learn and of the relationship between...... not adopted a leadership strategy benefit most from foreign competitor learning, as they are more likely to respond to competitive pressures abroad by product imitation....
Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan
Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...
Delaleau, Mildred; Borden, Katherine L. B.
Nuclear mRNA export plays an important role in gene expression. We describe the mechanisms of mRNA export including the importance of mRNP assembly, docking with the nuclear basket of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), transit through the central channel of the NPC and cytoplasmic release. We describe multiple mechanisms of mRNA export including NXF1 and CRM1 mediated pathways. Selective groups of mRNAs can be preferentially transported in order to respond to cellular stimuli. RNAs can be selected based on the presence of specific cis-acting RNA elements and binding of specific adaptor proteins. The role that dysregulation of this process plays in human disease is also discussed. PMID:26343730
Akhtar, W.; Akmal, N.; Shah, H.; Tahir, A.; Niazi, M.A.
This paper examines Pakistan's competitiveness in export of selected horticulture commodities by employing set of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and revealed competitive advantage indices with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders. (author)
This paper discussed Canada's attempt in international negotiations to gain credits for energy exports that may result in greenhouse gas emission reductions in the United States. It examined how well founded this position is from an environmental perspective and in terms of international equity and political reality. The author emphasized that the clean energy export issue does not provide a legitimate reason to delay Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and cautioned that further renegotiation of Kyoto targets for the first commitment period would not be practical and would jeopardize Canada's international standing. The author did note, however, that for the second commitment period, this issue could be reintroduced. Although the problem can potentially be resolved by granting credits to producers and exempting emissions, it was suggested that the most effective approach would be for countries to factor energy export considerations into their negotiating positions
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Why are some countries developing many energy efficiency innovations, while others are lagging behind? I argue that export orientation and electricity at low variable cost from nuclear and hydropower plants have an interactive effect on energy efficiency innovation. Export-oriented countries have strong incentives to invest in energy efficiency innovation, as they are in a position to export these technology innovations for global markets. But if inexpensive electricity is supplied in a country, the domestic demand for energy efficiency innovation is missing, and so the home market cannot serve as a springboard for international commercialization. I test this theory against international patent data on energy efficiency innovation in insulation, heating, and lighting for 22 OECD countries, 1991-2007. The statistical analysis indicates that export orientation has large positive effects on energy efficiency innovation in countries that do not rely on nuclear and hydroelectricity. - Highlights: → Export-oriented countries produce energy efficiency innovations. → Nuclear and hydropower reduce energy efficiency innovation. → Data on international patents from industrialized countries support the argument.
The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.
Developing countries with a nuclear programme are about a dozen according to information obtained by IAEA. They are a group hostile to any restriction imposed on nuclear technology export and consider that such restriction is contrary to the global concept of North/South co-operation which provides for transfer of advanced technology. In particular, they object to the fact that nuclear weapon states make use of Article 4 of the NPT. Industrialised countries are required to keep a balance between a regular and stable supply system and the assurance that exported nuclear installations and materials are placed under international control according to the IAEA Safeguards. (NEA) [fr
Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.
Kangur, Paavo, 1966-
Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Regnier, P.; Arndt, S.; Savenije, H.; Vanderborght, J.-P.
A fully transient model of a macrotidal estuary (The Scheldt) has been used to quantify silica and nitrogen filtering capacities and export fluxes to the coastal zone over a period of one year. Results show that in macrotidal estuaries, the seasonally-resolved nutrient fluxes are not only affected by in-situ biogeochemical transformations, but also by nutrient flux imbalances, which result from the time-lagged response of the scalar fields to hydrological perturbations. The estuarine nutrient retention reveals also a strong temporal variability, which is driven by the complex interplay between reaction and transport. As a result, the estuarine filtering capacities cannot be constrained by the freshwater residence alone and, thus, by empirical relationships that have been established between these two parameters. Furthermore, at the seasonal scale, the nutrient export fluxes to the coastal zone cannot be quantified from the riverine loads and the estuarine filtering capacities. More sophisticated approaches to estimate the functioning and response of macrotidal estuaries are thus needed and an alternative methodology, established on the premise that physical forcing mechanisms are the dominant controls on estuarine biogeochemistry at a series of hierarchically related system levels, is briefly outlined.
The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.
Santos, Isaac R; de Weys, Jason; Eyre, Bradley D
Daily observations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and manganese in an estuary downstream of a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) catchment provided insights into how floods and submarine groundwater discharge drive wetland metal exports. Extremely high Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations (up to 40, 374, and 8 mg L(-1), respectively) were found in shallow acidic groundwaters from the Tuckean Swamp, Australia. Significant correlations between radon (a natural groundwater tracer) and metals in surface waters revealed that metal loads were driven primarily by groundwater discharge. Dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al loads during a 16-day flood triggered by a 213 mm rain event were respectively 80, 35, and 14% of the total surface water exports during the four months of observations. Counter clockwise hysteresis was observed for Fe and Mn in surface waters during the flood due to delayed groundwater inputs. Groundwater-derived Fe fluxes into artificial drains were 1 order of magnitude higher than total surface water exports, which is consistent with the known accumulation of monosulfidic black ooze within the wetland drains. Upscaling the Tuckean catchment export estimates yielded dissolved Fe fluxes from global acid sulfate soil catchments on the same order of magnitude of global river inputs into estuaries.
Muhammad Azhar Ikram Ahmad
Full Text Available his article is about investigation of export-led growth and growth-led export hypotheses in case of Pakistan exports to top three exports partners namely: USA, UAE and UK. Time series data over the period of 1975 to 2012 has been used. Augmented dickey- fuller test has been used to check unit root within data. Co-integration among the variables has been explored by employing the Johansen's co integration technique. Granger causality test has been used to investigate nature causality among variables under investigation. Johansen's co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration among variables. As major portion of Pakistani exports approximately 30 percent is towards the top three exports partners, so the investigation of export-led growth and growth-led export hypotheses in case of Pakistan's exports to USA, UAE and UK can helpful for policy makers to adopt a suitable policy prescriptions which finally could lead to enhancement and improvement of exports relations with USA, UAE, and UK. This research can lead towards understanding about the dependency of exports and economic growth on each other.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr., Inmate Number 90986-279, USP Pollock, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 2099... address at: Inmate Number 90986-279, USP Pollock, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 2099, Pollock, LA 71467, and...
The workshop was conducted to bring together persons from government agencies and the US solar industry to initiate dialogue needed to create and implement programs facilitating the export of US solar technology, hardware, and services. A separate abstract was prepared for 23 individual presentations, all of which will appear in Energy Research abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificate. 322.30 Section 322.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificate. 322.6 Section 322.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the..., Baniameri may file an appeal of this Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security... (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706); 18 U.S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days from the date of this....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... this Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed... of this Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45 days....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...
Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090428048; Seitzinger, S.
We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.5 Exporter. “Exporter” means any...
The intuition is that East Asian countries have devoted significant amount of investment on education, health, infrastructure and these in turn created a better conducive atmosphere for FDI inflow. The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification ...
Perez-Martinez, Gaspar; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus; Dijl, Jan Maarten van; Smith, Hilda; Bron, Sierd
Broad-host-range plasmids carrying α-amylase or β-lactamase reporter genes lacking a signal sequence were used to select export elements from Lactococcus lactis chromosomal DNA that could function as signal sequences. Fragments containing such elements were identified by their ability to direct the
Bui, T.D.; Butz, Andreas; Kruger, Antonio; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Olivier, Patrick; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes
In this paper we introduce a method of exporting vector muscles from one 3D face to another for facial animation. Starting from a 3D face with an extended version of Waters’ linear muscle system, we transfer the linear muscles to a target 3D face.We also transfer the region division, which is used
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Anna Fermanova, 4708 Nocona Drive, Plano, TX 75024. On October 24, 2011, in the U.S. District... 24, 2016, Anna Fermanova, with a last known address at: 4708 Nocona Drive, Plano, TX 75024, and when...
Malaysia and Indonesia account for 90 percent of global exports of palm oil, forming one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. This article uses archival sources to trace how this cluster emerged from the rubber business in the era of British and Dutch colonialism. Specifically...
Cytoplasmic coat protein complexes perform central roles in sorting protein constituents within the endomembrane system. A new study reveals that the COPII coat operates through dual recognition of signals in a sorting receptor and its bound cargo to promote efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using a...
Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose
This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....
This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas
The author believes that the peaceful use of nuclear technology leads inevitably to the production of nuclear weapons, and that CANDU reactors are being bought by countries that are likely to build bombs. He states that exports of reactors and nuclear materials cannot be defended and must be stopped
Rademaker, Hanna; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Bohr, Tomas
produced near the tip of long needles cannot be exported efficiently, because the pressure required to drive vascular flow would exceed the greatest available pressure (the osmotic pressure). This basic constraint leads to the formation of an inactive region of stagnant fluid near the needle tip, which...
... Chile customs authority for that purpose) to CBP upon request. (b) Notification of errors in... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export requirements. 10.430 Section 10.430 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...
This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...
Richardson, Clarissa M E; Rice, Kenneth G
Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wolach, D. [Savage Industries Inc., UT (United States)
Initially describes the activities of Savage Industries Inc., a privately held materials and transportation systems company. Goes on to describe the development and start-up of the Los Angeles Export Terminal (LAXT), a world class coal export terminal.
Schröder, Philipp; Trabold, Harald; Trübswetter, Parvati
The paper explores theoretically and empirically why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. We adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to ......) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) the TI share is independent from variable (distance-dependent) export costs.......The paper explores theoretically and empirically why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. We adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access...
This report examines the jurisdiction shift of two items, previously controlled by the State Department to the Department of Commerce, and the implications of this change to export licensing jurisdiction...
Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.
Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new
The new world oil market is distinguished by the level of uncertainty that surrounds trends in the price of crude oil. Although its influence has been diminished, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains a key player in this market and it is of interest to try to understand its current behaviour. A review is presented of OPEC market regulation, divergence and convergence around pricing issues, and OPEC's reactions to uncertainty, financing of additional production capacity and external competition, non-OPEC oil, alternative energy sources, and energy conservation. In the long term, OPEC has to choose, with the explicit and implicit accord of its other partners in the oil industry, between a relatively regulated market and a situation of total competition. There is the strong likelihood that in the future OPEC will not accept the role of unique regulator of the market and therefore of residual supplier when supply exceeds demand. 15 refs., 3 figs
Jouini, Nizar; Oulmane, Nassim; Peridy, Nicolas
The North African countries (NACs) production and export structure is suffering from double constraints: insufficient diversification along with excessively weak sophistication. This study establish a deeper link between diversification/sophistication on and growth in the NACs. The study assesses the impact of these variables on the growth of these countries so as to verify whether the current export structure is indeed a constraint to the economic development. The approach used consists in e...
Weitzel, Matthias; Tao, Ma
Quantification of CO2 emissions embodied in China's trade is important for an informed debate on whom to blame for the recent rise in Chinese emissions or the calculation of border carbon adjustments. Applying input output techniques, we calculate these emissions in (1) a standard model, (2) a regionally disaggregated model, taking into account that export production is concentrated in more advanced and more emission efficient provinces and (3) in a model with export processing, taking into a...
Unocal, one of the few foreign company operating in Bangladesh, has submitted in November 2001 a proposal of gas pipeline for the export of natural gas towards India and which should link the Bibiyana field to the main gas network of India: the Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline. However, the project of export of natural gas to India is a subject of controversy and the government has postponed several times its decision. (J.S.)
Mollaesmaeili Dehshiri, Hassan; Sharifi Renani, Hossein; Mirfatah, Maryam
The importance of governance, legislation, and guidance in achieving the economic growth and development is increasing day by day in scientific and political societies. Nowadays, due to high speed of science and technology production, trade and export promotion policies have a great importance and play a significant role in economic development. The economy of oil-exporting developing countries is largely dependent upon oil revenues which are mostly dominated by the governors. Therefore, the ...
Wills, Ian R.; Harris, Jane
Most foodstuffs have quality attributes that are difficult to determine prior to purchase. Thus quality assurance is an inherent problem in food exporting. Private quality assurance can succeed if exporters can credibly signal that they have much to lose from cessation of purchases. If exporters do not provide credible quality signals, and foreign importers judge food quality according to country of origin, honest exporters can suffer negative spillovers from others' cheating under either gov...
The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear energy and policy making in West Germany; the significance of nuclear exports for West Germany (industrial employment; table of reactors exported); the significance of the German role in international nuclear commerce (world politics; table of national shares in world nuclear exports); export policy of the Federal Government (adherence to IAEA safeguards; Non-Proliferation Treaty; international cooperation). (U.K.)
Jokela, H. (Harri); Niinikoski, E.-R. (Eija-Riitta); Muhos, M. (Matti)
Abstract The majority of the total value of exports comes from small, medium-sized, and large companies for the reason that they tend to be the principal target group in public-support actions related to exports. However, micro-sized enterprises are the numerically dominant group in every economy. During recent years, micro-enterprises’ barriers for exports have lowered due to global digitalization. As a result, micro-enterprises’ share of total exports has increased rapidly in many countr...
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Trabold, H.; Trübswetter, P.
The paper explores the question of why trade intermediaries (TIs) are frequently used as agents for exports to some countries but not to others. First, we adapt a standard intra-industry trade model with variable export costs (e.g. transport) and fixed export costs (e.g. market access) to include......) higher market access costs increase the TI share, (ii) smaller export markets feature a larger TI share, (iii) network effects are important determinants of trade intermediation....
Chin Hee Hahn
This study examines the relationship between exporting and various performance measures including total factor productivity, using the annual plant-level panel data on Korean manufacturing sector during the period of 1990 to 1998. The two key questions examined are whether exporting improves productivity (learning) and/or whether more productive plants export (self-selection). This study provides evidence supporting both self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects, with both effects bein...
This series of slides draws a picture of the training offerings in export control within the framework of the International Nonproliferation Export Control Program. These courses are organized around 3 topics: licensing, enterprise outreach and enforcement. There are about 10 courses, a brief content of their curricula is given. The goal of these courses is not to make participants into export control experts or trade analysts, but enable them to properly take export controls into account. (A.C.)
Templer, Pamela H.; Toll, Jonathan W.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Raciti, Steve M.
We found that up to 52 ± 17% of residential litterfall carbon (C) and nitrogen (N; 390.6 kg C and 6.5 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) is exported through yard waste removed from the City of Boston, which is equivalent to more than half of annual N outputs as gas loss (i.e. denitrification) or leaching. Our results show that removing yard waste results in a substantial decrease in N inputs to urban areas, which may offset excess N inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application and pet waste. However, export of C and N via yard waste removal may create nutrient limitation for some vegetation due to diminished recycling of nutrients. Removal of leaf litter from residential areas disrupts nutrient cycling and residential yard management practices are an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling, which could contribute to spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems that are either N limited or saturated within urban ecosystems. - Highlights: • We monitored yard waste bags for one complete fall yard waste collection season. • 52% of residential litterfall C and N is exported annually from the City of Boston. • Litterfall export may create nutrient limitation hotspots in urban ecosystems. • C and N export through litterfall collection modifies urban biogeochemical cycling. - Litterfall removal leads to C and N export from urban ecosystems and disrupts nutrient cycling, showing that this activity is an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling
Crabb, Brendan S; de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Gilson, Paul R
It is somewhat paradoxical that the malaria parasite's survival strategy involves spending almost all of its blood-stage existence residing behind a two-membrane barrier in a host red blood cell, yet giving considerable attention to exporting parasite-encoded proteins back across these membranes. These exported proteins are thought to play diverse roles and are crucial in pathogenic processes, such as re-modelling of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and mediating the export of a major virulence protein known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), and in metabolic processes such as nutrient uptake and solute exchange. Despite these varied roles most exported proteins have at least one common link; they share a trafficking pathway that begins with entry into the endoplasmic reticulum and concludes with passage across the vacuole membrane via a proteinaceous translocon known as the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). In this commentary we review recent advances in our understanding of this export pathway and suggest several models by which different aspects of the process may be interconnected. 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for processing. 10.9 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.9 Articles exported for processing. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in this...
Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.
Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s
..., and § 1.101 of this chapter; or (3) The drug is being exported to Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan.... (d) Insulin and antibiotics. New insulin and antibiotic drug products may be exported for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Import and export requirements. 312.110 Section...
The present paper deals with 1) statutory requirements for export and import licensing of nuclear reactors and fuels; 2) regulations and procedures to issuance of exportlicenses; 3) environmental impact of export licensing; 4) licensing of reactor equipment; 5) recent restrictions on imports and exports of nuclear fuels. (RW) [de
... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than certification...
A structured literature review was undertaken to encapsulate export barriers, the role of the South African government in the export process, and the SADC agreement. The findings of the reviewed literature form the basis of the survey that led to the compilation of the research primary data. The results indicate that export ...
Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala
There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.
Brakman, S; Sterken, E
The small country assumption affects the modelling of the export demand and export price equations. A large (monopolistic) country can set its export price as a mark-up over marginal cost, because it has market power. In contrast, small countries have to deal with competition which forces prices
Export is increasingly seen as an important route for entrepreneurial firms to realize their growth potential. Consequently, a better understanding of the determinant factors for export performance of the firm is of great importance for firms’ success and expansion in the export markets. In
Export is increasingly seen as an important route for entrepreneurial firms to realize their growth potential. Consequently, a better understanding of the determinant factors for export performance of the firm is of great importance for firms’ success and expansion in the export markets. In this
Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.; Wessel, Christoph
We study the impact of exchange rate risk upon export production within an emerging economy lacking in currency forward markets. However there exists a financial asset whose price is correlated with the relevant foreign currency. We present conditions under which export production is stimulated when the hedging device becomes more effective. In any case the exporting firm benefits from imperfectly hedging exchange rate risk.
..., through Wen Enterprises--a business run by Lin out of her own home--caused exports of electronic... subject to the Regulations; or C. Benefitting in any way from any transaction involving any item exported... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-9A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review for the Latin American ] Multichannel Advertising Council..., U.S. Department of Commerce, received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001) to amend an export trade certificate of review previously issued to Aerospace Industries Association... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (88-13A16) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (10-1A001) to Amend the export trade certificate of review issued to alaska longline cod commission, application... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade...
... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association (Application 85-16A18). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association...
..., the mission of the DECs is to facilitate the development of an effective local export assistance... assistance partners to leverage available resources. Selection Process: Each DEC has a target membership of... the local community, ability to influence the local environment for exporting, interest in export...
Harold W. Wisdom; James E. Granskog; R. J. Peeler
Exports of wood products from the South have risen sharply since the mid 1970's. Lumber shipments are the largest export group, while panel products have exhibited the fastest growth. Hardwood logs, wood chips, and prefabricated wooden structures have been the primary contributors to the growth of roundwood and miscellaneous wood product exports. Western Europe...
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This publication provides instructors with materials for an export management specialist (EMS) training program. The objective of the training program is to assist companies in reaching their export goals by educating current and potential managers about the basics of exporting. It provides a foundation for considering international trade and for…
... Parts 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, and 130 ] Export Control Reform Transition Plan... the President's export control reform initiative, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC..., items not subject to the export control jurisdiction of the ITAR are subject to the jurisdiction of the...
This paper investigates the consequence of export earnings instability on growth in Tanzania. Applying time-series econometric technique on annual data for the period 1968-2008, a long-run relationship between export instability and growth is confirmed to be negative for aggregate exports. However, the relationship is ...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 97-11A003] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of Application No. 97-11A003 of an Amended Export Trade... Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the Association for the Administration of...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 12-00005] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Rice Export Quota, Inc. (``COL-RICE'') (Application 12-00005). SUMMARY: On August 28, 2012, the U.S...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 85-17A18] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S..., Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (OCEA), has issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 89-5A018] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice...
In South Africa the export sector is frequently accorded a special role in encouraging faster economic growth. Nonetheless, a question that remains unresolved is whether higher export growth indeed leads to higher economic growth and what particular role exports may play within the overall economic growth process of the ...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 12-00002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest Foods... Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest Foods, Inc (``SunWest).'' This notice summarizes the...
... and 774 [Docket No. 0907271167-91198-01] RIN 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical... clarifies language concerning the de minimis provisions of the Export Administration Regulations and certain... Items The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) generally do not apply to items that were made and are...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-2A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-3A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Alaska Longline... Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC...
Export growth is integral to Ethiopia's development agenda. But, notwithstanding various trade policy reforms, exports have not lived up to expectations. This paper examines the gap between Ethiopia's actual and potential exports and the extent to which country-specific social, political and institutional factors have impacted ...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 13-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import and export permits. 21.21 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.21 Import and export... must have a permit to import or export migratory birds, their parts, nests, or eggs. You must meet the...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 87-9A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Independent Film and Television Alliance (``IFTA...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-11A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America on...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 12-00004] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``COLOM-PEQ)'') (Application 12-00004). SUMMARY: On August 14, 2012, the U.S...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application 12-00002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review SunWest Foods..., Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-10A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace... an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries of America on September 27...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 13-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade...
This article compares the energy content in manufacturing exports in a set of 30 advanced and emerging economies and examines its evolution from 1995 to 2005, combining information from the OECD input–output matrices and international trade data in 17 manufacturing sectors. In addition, the article suggests a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects, presenting results according to technological categories. The article concludes that Brazil, India and, mostly, China, present a high energy content in manufacturing exports, which has increased from 1995 to 2005. Conversely, many advanced economies, notably in Europe and North America, which showed energy contents below the world average in 1995, reinforced their position as exporters with relatively lower energy usage. The contribution of export structure and energy efficiency effects to explain differences in the energy content of exports draws attention to the situation of China. This country increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods. This effect was reinforced by the stronger export specialization in high-tech products and hindered by a comparatively lower specialization in medium-high-tech products. - Highlights: ► We compare the energy content in manufacturing exports in advanced and emerging economies. ► We suggest a methodology to disentangle export structure and sectoral energy efficiency effects. ► Large emerging economies present high energy content in manufacturing exports. ► China increased its relative energy usage in the exports of all technological categories of goods.
Creusen, H.; Smeets, R.
This paper has two aims. First, we uncover some salient components of fixed export costs, which play a crucial role in recent heterogeneous firms models of international trade. Second, we investigate whether the importance of these fixed export costs varies with the size of a firms export product
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 99-5A002] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to California Almond Export Association, LLC (``CAEA'') (Application 99-5A002). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...
...-01] RIN 0694-AE93 Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration... review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 10-2A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Alaska Longline... Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') on May 7, 2012. This is the...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of Export....247-51 Evaluation of Export Offers. As prescribed in 47.305-6(e), insert the following provision: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water terminals...
The impact of exports on growth has for a long time enmeshed in controversy partly due to both positive and negative effects empirically established in the literature. Still, most studies in developing countries have left detailed examination of exports' components and domestic institutions unexplored in the export-growth ...
... 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... section of Export Control Classification Number 2B001 and the other is in the Technical Note on Adjusted... language regarding certain performance criteria of turning machines covered by Export Control...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-11A01] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review... of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application 12-00004] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (COLOM-PEQ). SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 92-12A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 89-4A018] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false For export only. 112.8 Section 112.8..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.8 For export... States shall apply to such biological product if exported from the United States except as otherwise...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 87-9A001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to..., has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales for export. 48.4041-16 Section 48.4041-16... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-16 Sales for export. (a) General rule. In order for a sale to be exempt from tax under section 4041 as a sale for export, it is...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 12-00001] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Panama Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``PAN-PEQ'') (Application 12-00001). SUMMARY: On June 25, 2012, the U.S. Department...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [Application No. 84-24A12] Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to... application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice summarizes the...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign export permits. 20.64 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.64 Foreign export permits. No... such birds are accompanied by export permits, tags, or other documentation required by applicable...