McCarthy, Margaret Cain
"History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…
Foster, Charles R.
The voluntarism in Protestant theologies and practices has significantly shaped the education of lay and professional Protestant religious educators in networks of voluntary and academic training programs that through the years have emphasized the interdependence of pedagogical, religious/theological, and social science theories and practices.…
... For Dental Schools Teaching Resources ADEA weTeach® MedEdPORTAL Critical Thinking Skills Toolbox Resources for Teaching Policy Policy Topics Dental Education on the Opioid Epidemic Financing Dental Education Holistic ...
Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…
This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…
Ludwig, Merlin A.
Schools are experiencing pressure to integrate into school programs the educational concepts that society demands. Other factors affecting educational administration are (1) conflicts over control of schools, (2) lack of confidence in decision-makers, (3) reduction of the separation between policy-making and day-to-day administration through…
Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine
Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…
Browne, Dauna B.; Evans, Wayne H.
Colleges and universities have failed to meet the unique educational needs of Native American students, whose attrition rates are far in excess of those of other students. These students must come to terms with their cultural identity while functioning within the culturally alien framework presented by the school. Federally funded programs have…
Celluci, Tony; Larsen, Richard
Describes two courses utilizing modern American fiction, poetry, and drama in which vivid depictions of the disasters wrought by excessive drinking are found. Posits these as examples of how literature that addresses problems related to drinking and alcoholism can be used in a focused way in alcohol education. (LKS)
Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra
Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)
Conneely, Nancy; Hyslop, Alisha
For nearly a century, career and technical education (CTE) programs across the United States have focused on equipping students with technical and life skills to help them become productive citizens. This brief report presents the benefits of CTE.
This historical study explores how educators in the United States responded to the rise of fascism between the World Wars. By considering and then ultimately rejecting the fascist approach to education and philosophy, American educators defined democratic education in contrast to fascist/totalitarian approaches to education by rejecting…
Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…
Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Rasmussen, Palle; Lorenz, Edward
The knowledge-based and the learning economy perspectives have in common that they point to an inherent tendency toward a polarisation in labour markets between people with strong and people with weak educational foundation. On this background we discuss how a movement toward mode 2 learning may...
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Full Text Available This paper is focused on Progressivism, as a reaction against theAmerican traditional school in order to accomplish the purpose ofconnecting education to the realities imposed by the rapid changes of the American society. Progressivism was developed by John Dewey’s pedagogic theory, being based on Pragmatism, a specific American philosophy, and on instrumentalism, one of its variants to which John Dewey conferred its climax. Experience represented the core concept of his philosophy. After revising this philosophical current, the paper will deal with John Dewey’s pedagogic theory insisting on the method of solving problems as a general method of instruction. The importance of the two schools (Dalton Plan and Winnetka, both based on the progressive theory, will be highlighted. Progressivism opened a new era in American Education based on an active education, which took into account the students’ individualities, stimulatingteachers’ creativity and focusing on a practice based education.
Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.
This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…
Karp, Julie K; Weston, Christine M; King, Karen E
Blood transfusion is the most common procedure performed in American hospitals, and transfusions are commonly ordered by physicians without formal training in transfusion medicine. Several transfusion medicine curricula have been proposed, including those developed through the Transfusion Medicine Academic Awards (TMAA). To our knowledge, no comprehensive study has assessed how transfusion medicine is incorporated into undergraduate medical education. We conducted an online survey to determine the manner in which transfusion medicine is incorporated into American undergraduate medical education. The survey was e-mailed to administrators of medical education at all of the 129 American medical schools accredited by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Eighty-six (67%) of the 129 identified medical school administrators responded. Seventy-one (83%) of the 86 administrators reported that their undergraduate medical education curriculum provides didactic lectures in transfusion medicine, with 48% of medical schools providing 1 or 2 hours of lecture-based instruction. A minority reported small group sessions devoted to transfusion medicine topics. While a slim majority reported the availability of transfusion medicine electives, only one of 84 administrators reported that such a rotation is required. Seventy-six of 83 (92%) administrators were unfamiliar with either the 1989 or the 1995 TMAA transfusion medicine curricula. Transfusion medicine content in American undergraduate medical education is variable and the influence of the TMAA program on contemporary medical school curricula is questionable. Future efforts in this area should focus on standardizing and improving undergraduate medical education in transfusion medicine. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Carey, Kevin, Ed.; Schneider, Mark, Ed.
Three years after U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spelling's national commission on higher education, and nearly a decade after No Child Left Behind revolutionized k-12 accountability, there is little agreement on what accountability in higher education should look like. While more students are enrolling in (and failing to complete)…
White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…
Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B
Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was
Muhs, William F.; And Others
Literature reviews suggest that Mexican-American students place more emphasis on cooperation and group than on individual achievement. Education may be enhanced when teachers reinforce "successful behavior." Problems may arise using U.S.-based theories of "democratic" leadership styles because Mexican-American culture places emphasis on…
Goldenberg, Claude; Wagner, Kirstin
In the United States, bilingual education continues to provoke fierce debate. It seems that nearly everyone--from educators to policymakers to parents with school-age children to those without children--has a strong opinion on whether children with little fluency in English should be taught academic content in their home language as they learn…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Tax, Sol; Thomas, Robert K
Results of this Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsored research project in literacy training among the Cherokee Indians of Eastern Oklahoma indicate that alienation rather than lack of opportunity is the chief difficulty in American Indian education. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue "Linguistic-Cultural Differences…
Hill, Catharine B.
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
Nadia Paola Mireles Torres
Full Text Available The Open Educational Resources (OER movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and faces many challenges that need to be addressed. Some of these challenges include awareness raising and capacity development. But there is a bigger challenge to face: embracing openness as a core value and an institutional strategy. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the meaning of the term “open” in education and we analyze the challenges facing the OER in Latin American countries.
Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E
Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Charters, Alexander N.
A discussion of adult education in a changing American society is presented in the document. Section 1, Adult Education in American Society, examines societal changes and educational goals as well as the structure and organization of adult education programs. Section 2, The Delivery System of Adult Education, discusses: (1) the audience; (2)…
The American Nuclear Society has an extensive program of public educational outreach in the area of nuclear science and technology. A teacher workshop program provides up to five days of hands-on experiments, lectures, field trips, and lesson plan development for grades 6-12 educators. Curriculum materials have been developed for students in grades kindergarten through grade 12. A textbook review effort provides reviews of existing textbooks as well as draft manuscripts and textbook proposals, to ensure that the information covered on nuclear science and technology is accurate and scientifically sound
Lazerson, Marvin; Lazerson, Marvin
"Marvin Lazerson’s new book is exactly what is needed: a readable, cogent explanation of how the U.S. can have the best system of higher education in the world, but also a system that seems to be coming apart at the seams.” —Susan Fuhrman, President Teachers College, Columbia University, President of the National Academy of Education "In prose remarkable for its clarity and analysis remarkable for its fair-mindedness, this volume delivers a penetrating, nuanced account of American universit...
Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.
Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C
This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (ie, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, etc) presents both health risks and benefits for children and adolescents. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing the risk of exposure to mass media for children and adolescents.
In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…
Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Baum, Sandy; Kurose, Charles; McPherson, Michael
This overview of postsecondary education in the United States reviews the dramatic changes over the past fifty years in the students who go to college, the institutions that produce higher education, and the ways it is financed. The article, by Sandy Baum, Charles Kurose, and Michael McPherson, creates the context for the articles that follow on timely issues facing the higher education community and policy makers. The authors begin by observing that even the meaning of college has changed. The term that once referred primarily to a four-year period of academic study now applies to virtually any postsecondary study--academic or occupational, public or private, two-year or four-year-- that can result in a certificate or degree. They survey the factors underlying the expansion of postsecondary school enrollments; the substantial increases in female, minority, disadvantaged, and older students; the development of public community colleges; and the rise of for-profit colleges. They discuss the changing ways in which federal and state governments help students and schools defray the costs of higher education as well as more recent budget tensions that are now reducing state support to public colleges. And they review the forces that have contributed to the costs of producing higher education and thus rising tuitions. The authors also cite evidence on broad measures of college persistence and outcomes, including low completion rates at community and for-profit colleges, the increasing need for remedial education for poorly prepared high school students, and a growing gap between the earnings of those with a bachelor's degree and those with less education. They disagree with critics who say that investments in higher education, particularly for students at the margin, no longer pay off. A sustained investment in effective education at all levels is vital to the nation's future, they argue. But they caution that the American public no longer seems willing to pay more for
Full Text Available Today international community is united by the idea of world citizen education. Intensively developing American educational space is aimed at global human education, regardless of people’s place of residence. Understanding the fact, that modern education has to become international, leads to improving young people's ability to evaluate the effects of other human positions, different cultures. The article deals with the one of the most perspective trends of pedagogical researches – international education. This issue is understood as applied scientific and socio-educational activity. Its main task is the education of people who can interact cross-culturally. International education is deliberate and systematic effort to create the conditions for cross-cultural training. The aim and result of cross-cultural training is the developed ability of sensitive and competent interaction in different cultural contexts. The availability to interact across cultures is determined by the following components: productive interaction, positive interaction, ability to cultural transformation, multi subjective interaction. The article stresses, that in the process of cross-cultural interaction its participants need to achieve compliance (compatibility to a new cultural environment. Ability to cultural transformation, adaptation (compatibility with the environment of another culture serves the following criteria availability for crosscultural interaction. This aim can be reached in the process of education before the contacts with another culture.
It's no secret that organized labor and public education face a time of great uncertainty. Our country's current president and secretary of education, according to this author, have made clear their intent to support corporate greed at the expense of working people and their unions and to champion privatization schemes that undermine public…
This study examines the music of Chinese American heritage, as portrayed in American music education from the late 19th century to the present. Specifically, representative music education materials, such as "Music Supervisors Journal," "Music Educators Journal," graded music series textbooks, and other available resource materials, were traced…
Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Dugi, Rosemarie; Schmitz, Stevie
The American Indian presence in Montana enriches the state's culture. Educationally, however, there are gross disparities between academic performance of American Indian students when compared with the student population as a whole and with various ethnic/cultural subgroups. Montana's educational data mirror the Bureau of Indian Education national…
Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi
This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.
Neal, Mark; Finlay, Jim L.
To what extent is American business education "hegemonic" in the Arab world? To answer this, the authors examine whether Lebanese people exposed to American-style business education share the values implicit in their textbooks and teaching resources. Finding evidence for such values among Lebanese business students and working people…
Discusses the role of multicultural education in American education, examining Geneva Gay's book on culturally responsive teaching (which argues for culturally responsive teaching, with teaching having the moral courage to help make education more multiculturally responsive) and Sandra Stotsky's book (which argues that multicultural education is a…
O'Fallon, Brendan D; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars
The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans.
This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…
Desroches, Sarah J.
In this paper, I explore the possibility of social justice education as pedagogy of "attention" rather than simply pedagogy of "intention." Drawing on Gert Biesta's (2010) concept of "strong" education, I begin by explaining how the language of intention in social justice education relies on a discourse in which…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Rudd, Helena Virginia
This executive position paper proposes an innovative Career and Technical Pathway for secondary education. The Secondary Teacher Education Pathway (STEP) is a teacher education pathway for high school students who are interested in teaching as a profession. The goal of this Program is to increase the number of African American male teachers in…
Billingham, Chase M.; Kimelberg, Shelley McDonough
The meaning, measurement, and implications of "public opinion" have long been a source of debate. In this paper, we examine the extent to which the educational priorities of elites in the US reflect the educational priorities of the American public. To do so, we focus on one particular segment of the education policy-making elite --…
Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).
Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…
Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel
Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…
Smith, Peter J.
This document examines some of the currents, figures, and moments in U.S. art education. The text is organized in 12 chapters: (1) "The Beginnings of Education in the Visual Arts in America"; (2) "The Dismissal of Walter Smith: Historiographic Explanation, the American Art Scene, and Visual Arts Education in the Late Nineteenth…
O'Such, Twila G.; Goldberg, I. Ignacy
Surveyed were the views and opinions of 216 Education Division members of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) in an attempt to discover underlying satisfactions or dissatisfactions with the AAMD. (DB)
Over one-half of famous American authors with reputations for drunkenness were born between 1888 and 1900. Although college students of their generation seem to have been "drier" than earlier or later cohorts, many of the writers were already drinking heavily in college. Several reasons are suggested. After World War I, many fledgling authors spent time in Paris, becoming known as the "lost generation" and adding French and other drinking styles to their existing drinking patterns. Bohemian Americans during Prohibition found a resonance with the residual political symbolism of drinking in France as a statement of autonomy against the state. The community of expatriate writers provided a supportive environment for heavy drinking. In turn, the lost generation became a transmitter of new values concerning drinking to American culture in general. Their writings inadvertently promoted mass middle-class tourism to Paris in the late 1920s. Their lives and works strengthened the association between writing and drinking as a model for later literary generations. Both in written form and as films, their works conveyed an attractive image of drinking and often of drunkenness to the wider public. The decisive shift in drinking patterns among middle-class youth in the late 1920s ushered in a lasting change in the cultural position of drinking, as it became a cosmopolitan, progressive and eventually respectable behavior. At a minimum, the writers of the lost generation served as harbingers, carriers and catalysts of this change.
Molin, Paulette F.
The American Indian Educational Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University was formed to provide scholarship and other support to eligible students from state and federally recognized tribal groups on campus. During the reporting period, AIEOP worked to enhance American Indian participation at Hampton through a variety of means, including recruitment and retention of students, outreach activities, curatorial efforts, course instruction, and sponsorship of educational programs. Dr. Paulette F. Molin, a member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, served as the program's director.
Torres, Nadia Paola Mireles
The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in…
Waks, Leonard J.
This article critiques the report of President Obama's taskforce on educational technology, "Transforming American Education". It calls into question the claims of the authors that the proposed policy is "revolutionary", and then offers a point-by-point comparison between the report's recommendations and those derived from a perspective taking…
This is an analysis of entrepreneurship-education opportunities at various American community colleges, universities, and business schools. Roughly 100 institutions offer formal educational programs that focus on entrepreneurship; however, approximately 1,500 colleges offer courses in entrepreneurship and small-business management. Community…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis
Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…
Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.
Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…
Jacobs, Benjamin M.
The history of education is a worthwhile pursuit within the study of history writ-large, for education is a powerful cultural device that has been manipulated for a variety of social, political, and economic purposes. So, why is it the case that little work has been done to date on the history of American Jewish schooling? This article assesses…
Craft, Eleanor; Howley, Aimee
Background/Context: Disproportionate placement of African American students into special education programs is likely to be a form of institutional racism, especially when such placement stigmatizes students. If placement also fails to lead to educational benefits, the practice becomes even more suspect. Some studies have explored disproportionate…
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Higher education has an incalculable impact on society and the development of its citizens. In today's globalizing world, the responsibility of community colleges for producing high quality graduates with global competence cannot be ignored. The study reported here researches international education and provides insights of importance to community…
Camins, Arthur H.
U.S. education is at a transformational moment. The choices we make will determine whether our schools become collaborative and democratic or prescriptive and authoritarian. The policies proposed by the federal government for the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act will create some good schools for some students while…
The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…
The primary purpose of this essay is to further understanding of the relationship between social education programs in public schools in the United States and the health of its democracy. A secondary purpose is to encourage reflection on the condition of democracy in other countries and the adequacy of social education programs in these countries in preparing youths for democratic citizenship. Extant data on social education in American public schools are analyzed and discussed in relation ...
Gumbert, Edgar B.
The author presents a critique of twentieth-century behaviorism and humanism as educational theories. He argues that the techniques of both lead to unwarranted intervention in individual lives and ceaseless human engineering. (SK)
Jaffe, B. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Watt, S.; Apotsos, A. A.; Buckley, M. L.; Dudley, W. C.; Peck, B.
The 29 September 2009 tsunami caused 181 fatalities and displaced more than 5000 people on the islands of Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. This is the first tsunami to cause significant damage and fatalities on U.S. soil in more than 30 years. Scientists from around the world quickly mobilized to help document the tsunami water levels before this ephemeral data was forever lost as recovery activities and natural processes overtook the effected area. A USGS team collected data in American Samoa from October 6-22 and November 5-12, 2009. The tsunami was large, reaching elevations of greater than 15 m, however wave heights and devastation varied from village to village in American Samoa. Even within villages, some structures were completely destroyed, some flooded and left standing, and others barely touched. Wave heights, flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, and flow directions were collected for use in ground-truthing inundation models. The team also collected nearshore bathymetry, topography and reef flat elevation, sediment samples, and documented the distribution and characteristics of both sand and boulder deposits. Eyewitness accounts of the tsunami were also videotaped. One striking aspect of this tsunami was the abundance of indicators of strong return flow. For example at Poloa in the northwest of Tutuila, where the runup was greater than 11 m along a 300-m stretch of coast and flow depths exceeded 4 m, the coral reef flat was strewn with debris including chairs, desks, and books from a school. On land, River channels were excavated and new channels formed as return flow scoured sediment and transported it offshore. Possible causes for the strong return flow and the relation between the stength of the return flow, inundation distance, and runup in American Samoa are presented. These relationships and others based on data collected by field survey teams will ultimately reduce loss of life and destruction from tsunamis in the Pacific and
This study aimed to analyse reports prepared by American education specialists visiting Turkey from the Proclamation of the Republic till the end of the 1950's to inspect Turkey's education system. In accordance with this purpose, first, the foreign specialists' reports are briefly introduced chronologically and then American specialist reports…
American Federation of Teachers, 2002
This policy brief provides the context and the research supporting the American Federation of Teacher's call for universal early childhood education. It focuses on the current challenges the nation faces in achieving such a program; and it includes the signs of progress, a description of what other industrialized countries are doing, the features…
Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R
Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive…
In this article Leon Mones expresses his deep interest in the functional role of music in Western culture and particularly in the system of public education that has been designed to assure the survival and advancement of Western culture and the people who will live within it. In other words, he is interested in music as a dynamic experience in…
Lucas, Christopher J.
The roots of controversy surrounding higher education in the US extend deep into the past. This original, incisive history goes far in offering a needed sense of perspective on current debates over such issues as access, costs, academic quality, social equity, and curricula. Eminently readable and always lively, this timely historical account is…
Dorsey, Dana N. Thompson; Plucker, Jonathan A.
The deregulation movement has impacted the social, political, and economic landscape in the United States and continues to do so. In this article, we briefly summarize the general history of deregulation in this country and the meaning of deregulation within the specific context of education policy and reform. We focus on deregulation efforts…
... college graduates of any country across the globe by the year 2020. Educators and school employees must... democracy, and to succeed in college, career, and life. This week, let us reaffirm the importance of... sixteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord two thousand ten, and of the Independence of the United...
Wu, Tsu-Yin; Kao, John Y; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Tang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Judy; Lee, Janilla; Oakley, Deborah
Asian Americans are among the fastest growing population groups in the USA. Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer for this group, Asian Americans have low CRC screening rates. An established health promotion program, Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP), expanded to include community-based CRC education during 2005-2006. Using Asian-language media, HAAP promoted awareness throughout local Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American communities and recruited men and women over 50 years to attend health fairs at local community/cultural centers. Evaluation data from 304 participants in an evidence-based educational intervention showed significantly increased knowledge and attitudes about the importance of screening. Follow-up conducted between 6 and 12 months showed that 78% of those receiving the educational intervention had been screened in the last 12 months, compared with the 37% who had ever been screened with any of the tests prior to the study. This community-based health promotion program reached underserved populations and the educational intervention improved CRC screening rates. This and similar programs may help lower CRC mortality among Asian Americans.
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012
For decades Japan has remained at or near the top of international assessments of student learning; and in the past decade, students in Japan have become more engaged in learning. However, the government aspires to improve learning outcomes even further. "Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for…
Schwartz, A. Truman
This paper is a survey of context-based chemistry education in the United States. It begins with a very brief overview of twentieth-century chemistry texts and teaching methods, followed by a short description of a pioneering secondary school text. The major emphasis is on post-secondary instruction and the central case study is provided by Chemistry in Context, a university text intended for students who are not specializing in science. The paper is more concerned with strategies for curriculum reform than with educational research, and the emphasis is more pragmatic than theoretical. A chronological sequence is used to trace the creation of Chemistry in Context. This developmental account is overlaid with the curricular representations of Goodlad and Van den Akker. The Ideal Curriculum was the goal, but the Formal Curriculum was created and revised as a consequence of iteration involving perceptions of the users, the implementation of the curriculum, the experience of students and teachers, and formal and informal assessment of what was attained. The paper also includes descriptions of other, more recent, context-based college chemistry curricula. It concludes with a list of problems and unanswered questions relating to this pedagogical approach.
McClay, Wilfred M.
Americans are increasingly drawn to their own version of "muddling through," and are likely to view the process of reasoning from intellectual or moral principles with grave suspicion, if not outright hostility, as a form of undemocratic confinement. One sees this with especial clarity in today's institutions of higher education, in…
Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.
The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…
Morrissey, Patricia A.
This guide was written to acquaint educators with their legal responsibility in providing all individuals with disabilities--whether they be students, job applicants, employees, parents, or members of the community--with the same access and opportunities that are available to others. The guide explains legal requirements under the Americans with…
Conn, Earl Lewis
It was the purpose of this study to present an evolutionary history of the American Council on Education for Journalism (ACEJ) and to draw some conclusions about some issues now facing the council. Data for the study came from minutes of councils and associations involved in journalism accrediting, personal files, interviews, and other sources.…
Hermanowicz, Joseph C., Ed.
The academic profession, like many others, is rapidly being transformed. This book explores the current challenges to the profession and their broad implications for American higher education. Examining what professors do and how academia is changing, contributors to this volume assess current and potential threats to the profession. Leading…
Albert Shanker Institute, 2015
More than 60 years after the ruling in "Brown v. Board of Education" was handed down, its promise remains unfulfilled. In many respects, America's public schools continue to be "separate and unequal." Indeed, the growing re-segregation of American schools by race and ethnicity, compounded by economic class segregation, has…
Letizia, Angelo J.
Over the last 40 years, American institutions of higher education have been encouraged to align with the private sector by policymakers, think tank experts and businessmen in order to become more efficient and more accountable. In a wider sense, this new partnership may be evidence of what has been termed "disaster capitalism." In…
Schmitz Weiss, Amy; de Macedo Higgins Joyce, Vanessa; Saldaña, Magdalena; Alves, Rosental Calmon
This study seeks to examine the state of investigative journalism practices used in higher education in Latin America. Using a meta-theoretical framework called the Community of Practice (CoP), this study seeks to identify whether a particular learning practice exists in this region. Based on an online survey conducted on Latin American educators…
El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu
This article explores an Arab American community arts organization as a site for promoting youth civic participation and social activism. Studying a citizenship education project outside the school walls, and focusing on the arts as a medium for this work, foregrounds the role of the symbolic for engaging youth as active participants in democratic…
Mueller, Elisabeth E.
This paper describes the introduction of a sex education course into a private American school in Tunisia. The steps involved in the development of the project and curriculum are recorded. The impact of the project on receptive Tunisian authorities and its influence on change are discussed. (Author)
Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System" (2010) and "Reign of Error" (2013) represent a significant shift in the contemporary political dialogue on education reform. The once staunch supporter of national academic standards and market-based reforms, Ravitch reversed nearly every position she…
Kirby, Brenda J.; Michaelson, Christina
The purpose of this study was to examine American Catholics' attitudes regarding education about homosexuality. Participants were 1000 self-identified Catholic adults who were interviewed via telephone. The majority of respondents agreed that Catholic colleges should offer courses on human sexuality, although religious and political conservatives…
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Uriel Antonio Hurtado Arias
Full Text Available Lost educational proposals critical Latin American seems a quixotic action in the context of current political realities - economic neoliberal, where the call to the ephemeral and trivial market appears to be from Adorno and Horkheimer: the new “siren” or following the old thesis of Marx, “the new opium of the people”. This text intends to approach the thought of one of the initiators of the movement of popular education or education critic in Latin America; In fact, the teacher Simon Rodriguez (1769 - 1854
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Presidential Academies for American History and Civics Education; Congressional Academies for Students of American History and Civics Education AGENCY: Office of Innovation and... Presidential Academies for American History and Civics Education, and 34 CFR 75.261(c)(2), as it applies to the...
O'Connor, Jim E.
Recognition of the power of rivers to carve landscapes transformed geology and geomorphology in the late nineteenth century. Wide acceptance of this concept—then known as “fluvialism”—owes to many factors and people, several associated with exploration of western North America. Especially famous are the federal geographic and geologic surveys of the US Southwest with John Wesley Powell and Grove Karl Gilbert, which produced key insights regarding river processes. Yet earlier and less-known surveys also engaged young geologists embarking on tremendously influential careers, particularly the 1838–1842 US Exploring Expedition with James Dwight Dana and the 1853–1855 railroad surveys including John Strong Newberry. Informed but little constrained by European and British perspectives on landscape formation, Dana and Newberry built compelling cases for the erosive power of rivers, largely from observations in the US Pacific Northwest. They seeded the insights of the later southwestern surveys, Dana by his writings and station at Yale and his hugely influential Manual of Geology, published in 1863, and Newberry by becoming the first geologist to explore the dramatic river-carved canyons of the Southwest and then a forceful proponent of the federal surveys spotlighting the erosional landscapes. Newberry also gave Gilbert his start as a geologist. Although Dana and Newberry are renowned early American geologists, their geomorphic contributions were overshadowed by the works of Powell, Gilbert, and William Morris Davis. Yet Dana and Newberry were the first ardent American proponents of fluvialism, providing strong roots that in just a few decades transformed western geology, roots nourished in large measure by the geologically fertile landscapes of the US Pacific Northwest.
Full Text Available Optimal peak bone mass and bone health later in life are favored by a sufficient calcium intake in infancy, childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a new educational program created to monitor and to improve calcium and vitamin D intake in children. Nutritional habits in children were evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to assess the intake of calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and total caloric energy at baseline and after seven months of exposure to a unique educational program applied between November 2013 and May 2014 in 176 schoolchildren (48% male, 52% female attending the fourth and fifth grades of two selected primary schools in Florence, Italy. A significant increase of calcium (from 870 ± 190 to 1100 ± 200 mg/day, p < 0.05, and vitamin D (from 3.6 ± 1.53 to 4.1 ± 2 µg/day intake in children was documented after the educational program. The amount of specific foods important for bone health consumed, such as milk and vegetables, increased significantly, both in male and female children (p < 0.05. The proposed educational program appears to be effective in modifying calcium intake in children, with a significant increase in the consumption of dairy products and vegetables, but without a significant change in the total caloric intake.
Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia
To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.
van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic engagement. This paper discusses four central tasks of schooling and examines to what extent societal developments challenge education policy to deliver on the tasks at hand. Particular attention is given to the challenges Europe's strongly diversified educational systems are currently facing. Both the Netherlands and Germany, for example, have been offering vocationally-oriented pathways alongside traditional academic higher education for some time. But today's ongoing changes in job descriptions, mainly due to ever-accelerating technological developments, are causing a risk of skills obsolescence which can only be avoided by continuous upskilling and/or reskilling of a sufficiently flexible workforce. Overcoming differences of intelligence as well as differences of diverse socioeconomic, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds by way of education is another challenge, as is fostering "soft" skills and political awareness. This paper investigates the effectiveness of current education systems in preparing citizens for a functioning modern society.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP); Correction AGENCY: Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; correction. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.101A...
Deaf people have long held the belief that American Sign Language (ASL) plays a significant role in the academic development of deaf children. Despite this, the education of deaf children has historically been exclusive of ASL and constructed as an English-only, deficit-based pedagogy. Newer research, however, finds a strong correlation between…
Conclusions: Parental text messaging plus education, implemented in a community based setting, was strongly associated with vaccine completion rates among vaccine-eligible Mexican American children. Although pilot in nature, the study achieved an 88% series completion rate in the children of those who received the text messages, significantly higher than current vaccination levels.
Lencucha, Raphael; Mohindra, Katia
Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in North America. It is widely agreed upon that global health is an important aspect of an education in the health sciences and increasingly in other disciplines such as law, economics and political science. There is currently a paucity of studies examining the content of global health courses at the post-secondary level. The purpose of our research is to identify the content areas being covered in global health curricula in North American universities, as a first step in mapping global health curricula across North America. We collected 67 course syllabi from 31 universities and analyzed the topics covered in the course. This snapshot of global health education will aid students searching for global health content, as well as educators and university administrators who are developing or expanding global health programs in Canada and the United States.
Hu, D; Hannah, J; Gray, R S; Jablonski, K A; Henderson, J A; Robbins, D C; Lee, E T; Welty, T K; Howard, B V
To examine the relationship between obesity and lipoprotein profiles and compare the effects of total obesity and central adiposity on lipids/lipoproteins in American Indians. Participants were 773 nondiabetic American Indian women and 739 men aged 45 to 74 years participating in the Strong Heart Study. Total obesity was estimated using body mass index (BMI). Central obesity was measured as waist circumference. Lipoprotein measures included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Partial and canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between obesity and lipids/ lipoproteins. Women were more obese than men in Arizona (median BMI 32.1 vs. 29.2 kg/m2) and South Dakota and North Dakota (28.3 vs. 28.0 kg/m2), but there was no sex difference in waist circumference. Men had higher apoB and lower apoAI levels than did women. In women, when adjusted for center, gender, and age, BMI was significantly related to HDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, p HDL cholesterol (r = -0.23, p correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.30, p correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = -0.35, p HDL cholesterol decreased with waist circumference (r = -0.36, p correlation analysis, waist circumference received a greater weight (0.86) than did BMI (0.17) in women. However, the canonical weights were similar for waist (0.46) and BMI (0.56) in men. Only HDL cholesterol (-1.02) carried greater weight in women, whereas in men, triglycerides (0.50), and HDL cholesterol (-0.64) carried a large amount of weight. All the correlation coefficients between BMI, waist circumference, and the first canonical variable of lipids/lipoproteins or between the individual lipid/lipoprotein variables and the first canonical variable of obesity were smaller in women than in men. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol showed clinically meaningful changes with BMI and waist circumference in men. All
attention on how we were teaching science and mathematics to our young children. Later on in the mid-1960s, educational reformers emphasized reading...practical application of such knowledge to contemporary public policy issues. While the importance of teaching students about American history and...as they listen to the tape. This will strengthen their sight reading, increase their vocabulary, and sharpen their pronunciation . It also facilitates
Margolis, Alvaro; Gonzalez-Martinez, Francisco; Noboa, Oscar; Abbud-Filho, Mario; Lorier, Leticia; Nin, Marcelo; Silvariño, Ricardo; García, Sofía; Pefaur, Jacqueline; Greloni, Gustavo C; Noronha, Irene L; Lopez, Antonio; Ribeiro-Alves, María A; Tanús, Roberto; Fernández-Cean, Juan
A continuing medical education (CME) course was implemented for Latin American nephrologists in 2013. The topic was Immunopathology in native and transplanted kidneys. The course was given in Spanish and Portuguese. The activities included a distance education seven-week asynchronous online modality with multiple educational strategies. Thirty hours of study workload were estimated to complete the course. Four hundred and ninety-eight physicians coming from 18 countries registered for the course; 442 of them participated in it. Of those who participated, 51% received a certificate of completion and 29% a certificate of participation. Sixty-five percent of registrants participated in the case discussions. Eighty-six percent were very satisfied and 13% were satisfied. Lack of time to devote to the course was the main limitation expressed (62%), while Internet access or difficulties in the use of technology were considered by only 12 and 6% of participants, respectively. There was a significant increase in knowledge between before and after the course; the average grade increased from 64 to 83%. In conclusion, technology-enabled education demonstrated potential to become an instrument for Latin American nephrologists.
Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.
According to the Spellings Commission, the answer to the above question is yes. The commission declared that a crisis exists in American higher education. In their report published in 2005, they claim that colleges and universities are becoming less accessible and less accountable. They indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). The Spellings Report called for information about the quality and cost of college degrees. Authors, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college. Higher education in the United States is examined by these two authors. Josipa Roksa is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Education at the University of Virginia. She is currently serving as Special Advisor to the Provost and Associate Director of the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Richard Arum is an American sociologist who is currently professor of sociology and education at New York University. Arum is also a senior fellow at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Their research draws on transcript data, the Collegiate Learning Assessment, and survey responses from more than 2,300 undergraduates at twenty-four institutions in their first semester and again at the end of their second year. The analysis reveals that 45 percent of these students demonstrated no significant improvement in a range of skills--including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing--during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http
This report compares important aspects of American and Chinese dance education through the lens of the "Chinese Leadership in Arts Education" workshops organized by Brigham Young University in response to requests from Chinese arts educators to observe American arts education in practice as a benchmark for assessing the direction of…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and... American Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) in order...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Proposed Waivers...) 2007 under the Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary proposes... secondary school career and technical education programs. \\1\\ Section 116(a)(2) of the Carl D. Perkins...
Traeger, Lindsay L; Volkening, Jeremy D; Moffett, Howell; Gallant, Jason R; Chen, Po-Hao; Novina, Carl D; Phillips, George N; Anand, Rene; Wells, Gregg B; Pinch, Matthew; Güth, Robert; Unguez, Graciela A; Albert, James S; Zakon, Harold; Sussman, Michael R; Samanta, Manoj P
With its unique ability to produce high-voltage electric discharges in excess of 600 volts, the South American strong voltage electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) has played an important role in the history of science. Remarkably little is understood about the molecular nature of its electric organs. We present an in-depth analysis of the genome of E. electricus, including the transcriptomes of eight mature tissues: brain, spinal cord, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, Sachs' electric organ, main electric organ, and Hunter's electric organ. A gene set enrichment analysis based on gene ontology reveals enriched functions in all three electric organs related to transmembrane transport, androgen binding, and signaling. This study also represents the first analysis of miRNA in electric fish. It identified a number of miRNAs displaying electric organ-specific expression patterns, including one novel miRNA highly over-expressed in all three electric organs of E. electricus. All three electric organ tissues also express three conserved miRNAs that have been reported to inhibit muscle development in mammals, suggesting that miRNA-dependent regulation of gene expression might play an important role in specifying an electric organ identity from its muscle precursor. These miRNA data were supported using another complete miRNA profile from muscle and electric organ tissues of a second gymnotiform species. Our work on the E. electricus genome and eight tissue-specific gene expression profiles will greatly facilitate future research on determining the coding and regulatory sequences that specify the function, development, and evolution of electric organs. Moreover, these data and future studies will be informed by the first comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression in an electric fish presented here.
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Belitz, Christine; Keckler, Arliss
"Tribes Sharing Life" is an educational intervention about deceased organ donation for American Indian Tribal College and University (TCU) students. The classroom and web-based program was derived from cultural values and beliefs, and the Transtheoretical Model. The aim of this study was to develop and formatively evaluate the intervention for acceptability and satisfaction among advisory council members (n = 10) and TCU students (n = 22). Council evaluation results were strong. All items met the TCU student evaluation of the revised intervention resulted in overall mean scores that met criterion for acceptability and satisfaction. Tribes Sharing Life is a formatively evaluated intervention that should undergo efficacy testing.
Sarah L Szanton
Full Text Available Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20(th century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a "ceiling effect" associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination.We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%, with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5. We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence.These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities.
Szanton, Sarah L; Johnson, Brandon; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith
Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20(th) century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a "ceiling effect" associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal) in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%), with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5). We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities.
Freda, Margaret Comerford
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the readability of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) patient education brochures. Seventy-four brochures were analyzed using two readability formulas. Mean readability for all 74 brochures was grade 7.94 using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, and grade 10.1 with SMOG formula (P = .001). Using the SMOG formula, no brochures were of acceptably low (education brochures have acceptably low levels of readability, but at least half are written at higher than acceptable readability levels for the general public. This study also demonstrated statistically significant variability between the two different readability formulas; had only the SMOG formula been used, all of the brochures would have had unacceptably high readability levels. Readability is an essential concept for patient education materials. Professional associations that develop and market patient education materials should test for readability and publish those readability levels on each piece of patient education so health care providers will know if the materials are appropriate for their patients.
Juergensen, Miyoshi B.
This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Saddam, Widad Allawi; Ya, Wan Roselezam Wan
Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American…
Teranishi, Robert; Lok, Libby; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly
In 2013, the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE) and the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (WHIAAPI)--with support from ETS and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy (AAPIP)--began an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) data quality campaign.…
Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne
The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.
... provide substantial benefits for our country by, among other things, increasing college completion rates... role as the global leader in education, to strengthen the Nation by improving educational outcomes for African Americans of all ages, and to help ensure that all African Americans receive an education that...
Kelly, Matthew Gardner
This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…
Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E. I.; Vesna, E. B.
After five years experience in bringing American students to meet and learn with Russian students in Kamchatka and bringing Russian students to meet and learn with American students in Alaska, it is possible to make some generalizations about the problems and benefits this growing program. Some 200 students, including many from other countries besides the United States and Russian Federation, have now had this experience. The context of their collaboration is the International Volcanological Field School, sponsored by the University of Alaska Fairbanks, Kamchatka State University, and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and also a comparison of Mount St Helens, Bezymianny, and Shiveluch volcanoes under the National Science Foundation's Partnerships in International Research in Education, with important support from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Division. Elements of these two projects are adaptation to unfamiliar, harsh, and remote environments; intensive courses in Russian language, history, geography, and culture; and sharing of research and education experiences among students. The challenges faced by the program are: · Slow and complex visa processes. · Demise of a direct airline connection, necessitating round-the-world travel to go 3000 km. · Adequately communicating to students beforehand the need for physical fitness, mental fortitude in uncomfortable conditions, and patience when bad weather limits mobility. Benefits of the projects have been: · Experiences that students report to be career- and life-changing. · Much more positive perceptions of Russia and Russian people by American students and of America and Americans by Russian students. · Introduction to the "expedition style" volcanology necessary in challenging environments. · Development of long-lasting collaborations and friendships in the context of international science. Students often comment that hearing about what their peers have done or are doing in research at
Christianson, Mindy S; Ducie, Jennifer A; Altman, Kristiina; Khafagy, Ayatallah M; Shen, Wen
This study aims to understand the current teaching of menopause medicine in American obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A Web-based survey was e-mailed to all American obstetrics and gynecology residency directors, with a request that they forward it to their residents. Of 258 residency program directors contacted, 79 (30.6%) confirmed forwarding the survey. In all, 1,799 people received the survey, with 510 completions, for a response rate of 28.3%. Most residents reported that they had limited knowledge and needed to learn more about these aspects of menopause medicine: pathophysiology of menopause symptoms (67.1%), hormone therapy (68.1%), nonhormone therapy (79.0%), bone health (66.1%), cardiovascular disease (71.7%), and metabolic syndrome (69.5%). Among fourth-year residents who will be entering clinical practice soon, a large proportion also reported a need to learn more in these areas: pathophysiology of menopause symptoms (45.9%), hormone therapy (54.2%), nonhormone therapy (69.4%), bone health (54.2%), cardiovascular disease (64.3%), and metabolic syndrome (63.8%). When asked to rate the most preferred modalities for learning about menopause, the top choice was supervised clinics (53.2%), followed by case presentations (22.2%), formal lectures (21.3%), small groups (14.7%), Web-based learning (7.8%), and independent reading (5.2%). Only 20.8% of residents reported that their program had a formal menopause medicine learning curriculum, and 16.3% had a defined menopause clinic as part of their residency. It seems that some American residency programs do not fulfill the educational goals of their residents in menopause medicine. A curriculum would be beneficial for increasing knowledge and clinical experience on menopause issues.
Sitting Crow, Karen Paetz
The dynamics of Native American female leadership is becoming a more prevalent topic in the scholarly literature as more educated Native American women become visible in tribal higher education. This qualitative case study explored Native American female leadership, as a growing number of Native American women enter higher education and earn…
MANY SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO HAVE DIFFICULTIES WHICH RESULT FROM DIFFERING VALUES IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN AND AMERICAN CULTURES. THESE DIFFERENCES IN VALUES ARE EVIDENT IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, ECONOMIC POLICIES, HEALTH PRACTICES, POLITICAL ATTITUDES, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, AND FAMILY LIFE. A SECTION IS INCLUDED…
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Stevenson, Howard C.
Recommends sharing of ideas among the church and mental health systems when confronting the problem of education about teenage pregnancy in the African-American community. Specifies three decision steps in initiating dialogue between mental health educators and African-American pastors: acknowledging, networking, and developing relationships.…
Palmadessa, Allison L.
American institutions of higher education have served as a beacon of American idealism and identity since the foundation of the earliest universities. As the nation developed, higher education matured and continued to maintain a position of importance in the future of the nation. While the university has perpetuated a national cultural identity,…
Roche, George Charles
This book maintains that federal subsidies to higher education have allowed American colleges and universities to overstaff, overspend, and overbuild, creating an economic, academic, and moral crisis in higher education. The book argues that, although American colleges and universities are the envy of the world, government funding has subsidized…
Kohlman, Michael J.
This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…
For many Native American students, particularly those from reservations, the pursuit of higher education is a formidable concept to grasp. Poverty, rural isolation, and a myriad of social ills all take a role as demotivational factors that act as barriers between Native American students and a college education. On the other hand, family,…
Costa-Guerra, Leslie; Costa-Guerra, Boris
The Pueblo People of the Southwest face numerous challenges with reference to language issues. A substantial number of Native American students are placed into special education possibly due to different linguistic abilities. The over-identification of Native American students for special education programs may be due to the lack of knowledge as a…
Inaccurate and incomplete presentations of American education history in teacher education programs play a central role in the poor preparation of pre-service teachers. This article exemplifies how the praxis of late 19th and 20th century African descent educators--who viewed education as a vehicle for freedom and an affirmation of…
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.
We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…
Ingels, Justin B; Corso, Phaedra S; Kogan, Steve M; Brody, Gene H
Alcohol use poses a major threat to the health and well being of rural African American adolescents by negatively impacting academic performance, health, and safety. However, rigorous economic evaluations of prevention programs targeting this population are scarce. Cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted of SAAF-T relative to an attention-control intervention (ACI), as part of a randomized prevention trial. Outcomes of interest were the number of alcohol use and binge drinking episodes prevented, one year following the intervention. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) were used to determine the cost-effectiveness of SAAF-T compared to the ACI intervention. For the 473 participating youth completing baseline and follow-up assessments, the incremental per participant costs were $168, while the incremental per participant effects were 3.39 episodes of alcohol use prevented and 1.36 episodes of binge drinking prevented. Compared to the ACI intervention, the SAAF-T program cost $50 per reduction in an alcohol use episode and $123 per reduced episode of binge drinking. For the CEACs, at thresholds of $100 and $440, SAAF-T has at least a 90% probability of being cost-effective, relative to the ACI, for reductions in alcohol use and binge drinking episodes, respectively. The SAAF-T intervention provides a potentially cost-effective means for reducing the African American youths' alcohol use and binge drinking episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Natasha S.
This paper examines the need for more holistic, narrative-based research into the identities of museum educators. The author explores the increasing demands being placed on museum educators along with the substantial challenges experienced by these professionals amidst the changing climate of museums. Many museum educators feel that their museums'…
Melnick, M J; Sabo, D F; Vanfossen, B
This study examined the educational effects of interscholastic athletic participation on a national, stratified, probability sample of African-American and Hispanic boys and girls drawn from the High School and Beyond Study (U.S. Department of Education, 1987). This two-year longitudinal analysis was based on questionnaire data from 3,686 minority youth who were sophomores in 1980 and seniors in 1982. The independent variable was athletic participation, and the dependent variables included senior year popularity, extracurricular involvement, grades, achievement test performance, dropout rates, and educational expectations. The control variables were socioeconomic status, school location, and sophomore measures of the dependent variables. In general, athletic participation enhanced popularity and contributed to greater involvement in extracurricular activities. Sports participation was generally unrelated to grades and standardized test scores. Depending on school location (i.e., urban, suburban, rural), athletic participation was significantly related to lower dropout rates for some minority youth. High school athletic participation was unrelated to educational expectations in the senior year. These findings show that high school athletic participation was a social resource for many minority youth, but only a modest academic resource for others. Equally clear, however, is the fact that not all racial or ethnic groups reap the same benefits from sport. More importantly, these findings strongly suggest that high school sport should only be considered one of many institutional forces converging in the lives of American minority youth. To assign sport more significance than these findings call for is to run the risk of oversimplifying and trivializing the very complex psychosocial processes which attend high school athletic participation.
Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria
People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…
Suleiman, Mahmoud F.
This article presents relevant information about Arab American children as a guide for multicultural teachers. Given the alarming impact of cultural conditioning in American society, the previously invisible Arab Americans and their children have become visible in a negative way. Current cultural conditioning does not allow Arabs to see themselves…
Iñigo ARBIOL OÑATE
Full Text Available In the last half of the 20th century, the United States provided a strong centripetal leadership that brought the country to form an economy that remains the bedrock of the global financial system. America’s military superiority remains unrivaled. While far from perfect, the U.S. has the oldest democratic constitutional regime, as well as strong institutions and rule of law to accompany it, as Americans continue to enjoy an unmatched quality of life. In general the U.S. enjoys still a privileged position in the world today. For the last one hundred years, American foreign policy has rested on a commitment to use its power. Nevertheless, many criticize that over the last two decades, the U.S. has scaled down its presence, ambitions and promises in the world. Is the U.S. abnegating its leadership? Are U.S. national interests changing and refocusing towards home affairs? Or will the 21st century, due to fragile alternative powers (EU, China, Russia, … be again an American century?
Eltorai; P. Thomas; Yang; Daniels; Born
Context According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS’s online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommend...
Ashcroft, Judy Copeland
In American universities, early distance education needed both continuing education and academic departments for establishing institutional cooperation, developing quality standards, adapting to change, and finding a funding model. Today, the Internet and the need for additional revenue are driving new distance education models.
De La Trinidad, Maritza
This essay traces the bilingual education movement that began in Tucson through the efforts of local teachers, university faculty and educational leaders. It is argued that Mexican Americans and their allies played a crucial role in promoting the merits of bilingual education at the local, state and national levels. Their advocacy of…
Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn
This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…
Much of the scholarship around the workings of education policy has focused on the global West and has taken for granted the state's limited abilities in the control of policies as both text and discourse. Drawing upon policy texts from the Singapore Ministry of Education and ethnographic data collected in a Singapore school, this paper explores…
Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh
Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.
Valencia, Richard R.
This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…
Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.
Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.
Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.
Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.
This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…
Most of the basic features of the American higher education sector started to evolve during the latter half of the nineteenth century. In response to the deficient demand in higher education, the suppliers (higher education institutions) adopted various marketing strategies to stay afloat in the market. Such strategies not only contributed a great…
Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary; Teitell, Jennifer
Private schools have a long and important tradition in U.S. education and have been the focus of a great deal of political controversy in recent years. There is deep division among Americans over the desirability of using public funds to finance vouchers for private education--an issue that has become the leading educational goal of the Trump…
Killian, Janice L.; Wayman, John B.
The importance of music education in American schools is well established, with 93% of Americans agreeing that music should be a part of a well-rounded education (Harris, 2005). Students preparing to teach in the elementary classroom (elementary education majors) in American colleges and universities typically take a music class (sometimes two) as…
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic
Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang
This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…
...] Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for Continued Recognition as a National Accreditation Organization for Accrediting Entities To Furnish Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicare Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final...
...] Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for Continued Recognition as a National Accreditation Organization for Accrediting Entities To Furnish Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicare Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Proposed...
Haskins, Natoya H.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie; Sewell, Cheryl; Crumb, Lonika; Appling, Brandee; Trepal, Heather
Using phenomenological inquiry, this study explored the lived experiences and intersecting identities of 8 African American counselor educators who are mothers. Six themes were identified: race, professional strain, work-life balance, support, internalized success, and mothering pedagogy.
Contends that a pervasive relativistic philosophy, emphasizing supremacy of self-interest and self-expression and eliminating "middle-class values," upgrading, and standards, underlies the serious problems in American public education. (SK)
Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert
We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.
Nelson, Nancy J.
This article describes an education program initiated by African American prisoners in the Airway Heights Correction Center in Airway Heights, Washington. The purpose of the program was to help the inmates to make productive use of their time while incarcerated and to help lessen the high return rate of African American men to the prison. Although…
Beach, J. M.
This article puts forth 2 competing notions of the American Dream, 1 radical and 1 conservative (both put forth by Thomas Jefferson), as the basis for 2 competing public philosophies of American democracy and education. This article traces out the ecology of inequality that has determined the context of these 2 competing public philosophies,…
Nkabinde, Zandile P.
This article examines a personal journey of a foreign-born instructor in America'?s teacher preparation programs. As a foreign-born Black woman teacher educator I came to America to live the American Dream. The American dream to me was to complete graduate studies and to leave my mark as a teacher in teacher preparation programs. Fortunately that…
Gordon, Beverly M.
An emancipatory form of citizenship education is proposed, employing as its pedagogical base Afro-American cultural knowledge born out of the Black community's struggle against American capitalism and racism. The origins of this knowledge are examined and suggestions as to how it could be used in classroom activities are provided. (Author/RM)
Medina, Catherine; Luna, Gaye
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among school-aged students between the ages of 15 and 19. There is an increasing frequency of suicide and other self-destructive behaviors among Mexican American youth and students in special education classrooms for emotional and behavioral disabilities. Recognizing Mexican American youth in special…
El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu
Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…
Witte, Anne E.; Sequeira, Isabelle; Fonteyne, Charlotte
International business programs, universities with international students, and educators who seek to internationalize their teaching need to make informed decisions about teaching, testing, and assessment criteria. The infusion of American business curricula throughout the world as well as the need to train American business students for…
Fox, Ashley Leann Chance
American Sign Language (ASL) is ranked fourth among heritage languages taken by students in the United States. The number of ASL classes offered at the K-12 and Institutions of Higher Education are on the rise, yet the number of certified ASL teachers remains stagnant. This study examines the reasons why American Sign Language teachers choose to…
Socialization patterns from a Hawaiian-American community are described in terms of the strategies and tactics utilized by Hawaiian-American children in dealing with the contingencies set for them first by their parents and later by teachers in the public school. Despite poor scholastic performance from the standpoint of educators, the viewpoint…
Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill
This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…
Graham, Richard; And Others
The following lectures are included in this volume: Needed: "Turned on" Teachers; The Most Important Advantage; HILT: High Intensity Language Training; The Education Gap: Why Mexican American Children Fail in School; The Mexican American Heritage; The Invisible Poor: The World of the Migrant; and Emergence of the Mexican American. The…
Discusses the rural-urban dichotomy that regularly surfaces in educational history and argues that a full understanding of the role of cities is needed to overcome a rural romanticism that ill-serves public education policy. (CMG)
Full Text Available the article analyzes the history of the development and establishment of academic advising in the context of US higher education, defines the functions and features of the academic advising in the educational space.
Carpenter II, Dick M.
This study examines how U.S. presidents have defined the purpose of education. Presidential rhetoric about education in inaugural and State of the Union speeches was collected and examined. Throughout history, two purposes of education have gained the most attention?civic responsibility and economic efficiency?with emphasis shifting from civic…
Zhang, Yi; Serra Hagedorn, Linda
In an era of increasing global competition in education related markets, many higher education institutions in the United States have come to realize the need to market better for international students. Community colleges are no exception and have become increasingly active in recruiting international students using education agents. Using…
Ahearn, Eileen M.; Patterson, Jacqueline
Historical and contemporary special education in Japan and the United States are compared. Differences in societal acceptance of the handicapped, integration into regular education, educational finance, parental roles, governmental control, and staff training are highlighted. The authors' personal experiences demonstrating the influence of culture…
Bretones, Paulo S.; Jafelice, Luiz C.; Horvath, Jorge E.
This study reviews 10 years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" (RELEA), showing that the journal has become a valuable resource for publishing and highlights its pathway as scholarly journal. Furthermore, it is also a call to astronomy education specialists to consolidate their efforts considering similar journals…
Welsh, Cynthia Ann
Creating opportunities for all learners has not been common practice in the United States, especially when the history of Native American educational practice is examined (Bull, 2006; Chenoweth, 1999; Starnes, 2006a). The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) is an organization working to increase educational opportunity for American Indian students in science, engineering, and technology related fields (AISES, 2005). AISES provides pre-college support in science by promoting student science fair participation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe how American Indian student participation in science fairs and the relationship formed with their teacher affects academic achievement and the likelihood of continued education beyond high school. Two former American Indian students mentored by the principal investigator participated in this study. Four ethnographic research methods were incorporated: participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, search for artifacts, and auto-ethnographic researcher introspection (Eisenhart, 1988). After the interview transcripts, photos documenting past science fair participation, and researcher field notes were analyzed, patterns and themes emerged from the interviews that were supported in literature. American Indian academic success and life long learning are impacted by: (a) the effects of racism and oppression result in creating incredible obstacles to successful learning, (b) positive identity formation and the importance of family and community are essential in student learning, (c) the use of best practice in science education, including the use of curricular cultural integration for American Indian learners, supports student success, (d) the motivational need for student-directed educational opportunities (science fair/inquiry based research) is evident, (e) supportive teacher-student relationships in high school positively influences successful transitions into higher education. An
Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly
African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.
Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian
The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.
Widad Allawi Saddam; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya
Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American storytelling teaches people not to be isolated, and the key issues discussed in this paper are borrowed from the selected poems of Native American Luci ...
Francis, Shelley A; Lam, Wendy K; Cance, Jessica D; Hogan, Vijaya K
This study examines African American faith based leaders' attitudes and beliefs about providing HIV prevention education and services to adolescents. Using a convenience sample, we identified priority adolescent health issues, attitudes about abstinence messages, and willingness to provide and participate in HIV prevention. Leaders identified drugs, gangs, alcohol, sex, and pregnancy as priority health issues affecting youth in their institutions. Leaders' strongly preferred to emphasize abstinence messages. Although leaders were willing to provide youth with health education, they were not willing to discuss specific behaviors associated with HIV transmission. African American churches provide a venue to reach African American youth; however, there are limitations to relying on faith-based HIV prevention services. HIV prevention education should continue to be supplemented via parents, schools, and public health agencies.
Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483
Worth, Michael J., Ed.
This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…
Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V
The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.
Yan, Zi; Finn, Kevin; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bent, Lauren
Background: Peer education has the potential to promote health behaviors and cultural competence for both international and domestic college students. Purpose: The present study examined a peer education program aimed at promoting cultural competence and health behaviors among international and American students in a university setting. Methods:…
Bridges, Brian K.; Awokoya, Janet T.; Messano, Frances
Despite the importance of postsecondary education to the economic and social vitality of the U.S. and the individuals who pursue this academic goal, the educational pipeline to and through college is broken for communities of color, the fastest-growing segment of the population. This report offers a revealing glimpse of the American system of…
Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Washington, Ahmad
This study explored 11 African American doctoral students' perceptions of challenging experiences in counselor education programs. The authors identified the following themes using critical race theory: feelings of isolation, peer disconnection, and faculty misunderstandings and disrespect. Implications for counselor education programs and…
Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, NM.
The task of setting up and administering educational programs for the American Indian has been fraught with seemingly insurmountable problems and inbuilt frustrations for both the Indian population and the Federal Government. Many programs are now under way to increase Indian control of Indian affairs, including their own educational institutions.…
Bowen, Howard R.; And Others
Are our colleges and universities worth what they cost? For generations the American people have thought so. Recently, however, the public has become more skeptical toward higher education and other social institutions. Current knowledge of the consequences of higher education is substantial and is found in a vast literature derived mainly from…
Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Crawford, Paul T.
Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…
Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel Russell
The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the teaching experiences of African American physical education teacher candidates in secondary physical education programs at urban schools. The research design was explanatory multiple-case study situated in positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999). The participants were seven…
A review of the historical components of American Indian education (including missions, institutional histories, and tribal histories) was followed by an effort to identify in the literature specific problem areas accounting for the apparent failure of formal education systems imposed on Indians. Specific causal relationships for this failure were…
Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Manno, Bruno V.
During the last 50 years, American higher education has steadily grown in scale, wealth, and, stature. Despite its current status as the world's education superpower, however, it has begun to encounter public disapproval and consumer resistance. Colleges and universities have been able to ignore productivity concerns because a college education…
Strand, Katherine; Larsen, Libby
This article represents conversations with the American composer Libby Larsen in which she described her beliefs about music, music education, and the dilemmas that our current system faces as we seek to provide relevant and meaningful music education to our students. Our conversation explores such topics as cognitive psychology, music theory,…
From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…
Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda
In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…
Holland, Nicole E.
This investigation demonstrates the effect that peers have on students' academic engagement and educational aspirations. Forty-nine African American university students retrospectively discuss the manner by which their friends influenced their academic commitment and activity while in high school; their postsecondary education aspirations,…
McGaughy, Charis; Hopper-Moore, Greg; Fukuda, Erin; Phillips, Rachel; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Chadwick, Kristine
"Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education" outlines a study conducted by Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) that empirically identifies the characteristics of work at the college- and career-readiness level in English/language arts, science, and social sciences courses. Using a previously…
This essay is an exploratory history of American educators as viewed through the lens of disability studies. By this the author means that she is looking at the history of school teachers with disability as the primary marker of social relations, in much the same way that she and others have looked at the history of education through the primary…
Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…
Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.
Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…
Freeman, Richard B.
This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…
Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…
Wegner, Gregory R., Ed.
This essay identifies a set of research priorities that will enable those most responsible for U.S. higher education to shape the enterprise in more purposeful ways. The present discrepancy between ideals and realities makes it evident that higher education is less than it should be. The essay identifies three broad research priorities: (1)…
Piotrowski, J.; Jennings, N.A.; Linebarger, D.L.
As the availability of children's educational television has increased, initiatives to expand the educational impact of programs have emerged. One such initiative is experiential mediation, a form of mediation in which the viewer physically engages with materials designed to extend the program's
Rowland, Paul; Adkins, Carol R.
The Science and Mathematics for Indian Learners and Educators (SMILE) Project at Northern Arizona University provided science inservice training to K-8 teachers from Bureau of Indian Affairs schools on the Navajo reservation. The training aimed to increase and improve science instruction for Indian children and to connect science education to…
Educational Researcher, 1992
Presents a code of ethics to guide educational research, grouped in the following categories: (1) responsibilities to the field; (2) research populations, educational institutions, and the public; (3) intellectual ownership; (4) editing, reviewing, and appraising research; (5) sponsors, policymakers, and other users of research; and (6) students…
Sedlacek, William E.; Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.
This book provides a practical approach or model for eliminating racism in education. The model has been developed over several years and is based on research and direct experience in various types and levels of educational settings. This model for change is aimed primarily at whites and/or white-oriented institutions. The book deals with the…
The article deals with the problem of globalization impact on higher education system in the United Stated of America. It has been concluded that globalization as a phenomenon has been acquiring much significance in all the spheres, especially in higher education. Different views on the essence of globalization, especially in the context of higher…
As health care shifts from a fragmented system of disparate providers and payers into integrated managed systems, nurses and other health professionals are encountering tremendous changes. The environments in which nurses practice are becoming increasingly diverse, and the skills required to practice in these settings are becoming increasingly specific to the services offered and the patients served. Advances in health-related technologies call for enhanced knowledge and application of computing and other technical skills. Nurses are faced with complex ethical dilemmas created by rationing-of-health-care decisions and research advances such as the human genome project. Practicing nurses must continue to update their skills as their work environments adapt to reforms in health care delivery. Furthermore, nurses' practice will be influenced by changes in the regulatory system that will accompany multistate recognition of licensure. Over the years, the nursing educational system, through multiple entry and exit routes, has prepared nurses for the variety of settings in which health care is delivered. The nursing educational system must continue to produce the most qualified and prepared nurses to produce the most qualified prepared nurses to deliver cost-effective and quality care. Nurse educators must continue to analyze health care trends and create flexible curricula that provide individuals with the skills and knowledge needed for diverse settings. Furthermore, nurse educators must continue to offer continuing education for nurses as they fine-tune skills for new settings. Educational mobility in nursing is the vehicle by which nurses and aspiring nurses gain new knowledge and skills through formal and informal educational offerings. Educational mobility serves the public, the profession, and the individual nurse. Educational mobility should continue to focus on promoting high standards and maintaining the quality and integrity of baccalaureate and graduate
Full Text Available This work is based on the analysis of the public and private support to education and human capital development in two specific national contexts: the U.S. and Italy. Recent researches have firmly demonstrated the value of higher levels of education for socio-economic development, poverty reduction, higher incomes, employment and eliminating child labour, gender equality. The increased competition and globalization of economic activity, acceleration in technological and scientific knowledge, information revolution and more recently the worldwide economic recession continue to raise the value of education and training in preparing individuals for future employment, upgrading skills for greater workplace mobility, and underpinning wealth creation and economic development through human capital formation. The International Labour Organization (2010 has pointed out the key role played by higher levels of education and skills training in employment and social protection policies. In the Western world, the education industry is complex and diverse. It combines a dominant public sector of schools and universities and community colleges which educate the majority of students; a varied private sector mainly consists of nonprofit organizations that encompass some of the world's most elite education and scientific institutes. The importance of education for economic growth and development is well documented from a historical and economic standpoints. In this research we examine some evolving relationships between the marketplace, the state, and education institutions, knowing that the context of these relations has evolved strikingly in recent years, which have seen three major developments: a growing system differentiation, changing governance patterns, and a diminished direct involvement of governments in the funding and provision of education. Therefore, we are interested in understanding on one hand the possible evolution of the studied phenomenon, and
Samuel D Rocha
Full Text Available This essay is an extended reflection on the relationship between death and love expressed in a fragment from Song of Songs 8:6: «Strong as death is love». The passage will be analyzed through a Jewish, Orthodox, and Catholic exegesis and literary reflection. In particular, the essay describes the role of a particular form of love (eros within a particular form of education (education at the end of time. While eros has frequently been ignored or resigned to a purely sexualized role, we will look closely at Augustine’s eulogy of his mother, Monica, in the Confessions, suggesting that perhaps the most visceral expression of eros is to be found in the phenomenology of death. We will also draw on the phenomenological manifestation of death by looking to the rich description of dying provided by Leo Tolstoy in his novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych. Together these investigations of eros and education yield a «curriculum of death», which draws on the re-conceptualist notion of curriculum. Our claim is that this curriculum of death offers a sense of urgency and seriousness found lacking in schools today, where death abounds, but is rarely if ever addressed in a humanistic way. This final methodological emphasis on the humanities elucidates more directly and critically the role of research for a curriculum of death within the dominance of social science in the field of education.
Liang, Jia G.; Liou, Daniel D.
Historically, Asian American school administrators' experiences leading the K-12 educational system have been under-researched and under-theorized. Today, as the fastest growing population in the United States, Asian American educators' experiences and contributions can no longer be ignored in educational policy and research. Drawing on the…
Powers, Kristin M.
Extant survey data collected from 240 urban American Indian students were used to examine the impact of culture-based and universally accepted effective practices in education on American Indian educational outcomes. The results found that culture-based programs had a largely indirect effect, affecting students' educational outcomes via universal…
Saurbier, Ann L.
American post-secondary education faces unprecedented challenges in the dynamic 21st century environment. An appreciation of the higher education accreditation process, as a quality control mechanism, therefore may be seen as a significant priority. When American higher education is viewed systemically, the perceptions of quality held and…
Bonnstetter, Ronald J.
Skin cancer is increasing faster than any other form of cancer in the USA. There is a general lack of knowledge regarding the consequences of over-exposure to UV radiation. Thirty-percent of those living below latitude 37 degrees, will develop skin cancer during their lives. Peer pressure to be tan causes increasing numbers of young people to play solar roulette. This is just one of many topics that must be addressed in science programs. To set the stage for understanding the significance of this problem, the paper first discusses the current status of radiation education and nuclear energy education in the USA as well as specific radiation misconceptions held by both students and their teachers. The paper then describes; how cultural norms are increasing the risks, the science behind skin cancer, unavoidable and avoidable risk factors, and the factors that are increasing the incidence of skin cancer including the thinning of the ozone layer. The paper then reviews the current educational materials being developed and used to inform and influence our youth to the risks of sun exposure and the philosophy behind many of these endeavors. The paper concludes that the future is bright, if educational leaders recognize the opportunity to employ problem based learning experiences and address the National Science Education Standards by utilizing thinking skill development through such teaching approaches as the jurisprudential model and real world experiences. Radiation education is presented as a topic rich with personal and society issues and not just a scientific set of for our students to learn. The paper concludes with a case of tanning as a context for learning and a backdrop for teaching important educational concepts. (author)
Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Geer, I. W.; Hopkins, E. J.
A guiding principle of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program is that public scientific literacy is most effectively achieved through systemic change in the classroom. The AMS, partnering with NOAA, NSF, NASA, the US Navy, and SUNY Brockport, aims for greater public scientific literacy through its successful distance learning programs that convey to pre-college teachers and undergraduates the fundamentals of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The AMS DataStreme teacher-enhancement courses (Atmosphere, Water in the Earth System, and Ocean) have changed the way thousands of pre-college teachers teach and hundreds of thousands of students learn. Furthermore, teachers trained in this program are positioned to contribute to local and statewide curriculum reform. The AMS Online Weather Studies and Online Ocean Studies courses are providing tens of thousands of college undergraduates with engaging and highly motivational learning experiences. DataStreme courses are offered locally and feature mentoring of teacher participants whereas Online undergraduate courses are licensed by AMS for offering by colleges and universities. Integrated components of the AMS model are course website, investigations manual, and customized textbook. A portion of twice-weekly investigations is written to a near real-time situation and posted on the course website. Through its extensive experience with the DataStreme/Online programs, the AMS Education Program is now uniquely poised to assume a national leadership role in climate education by applying its proven teaching/learning model to climate education at the pre-college and undergraduate levels. The AMS model is ideally suited for delivering to teachers and students nationwide the basic understandings and enduring ideas of climate science and the role of the individual and society in climate variability and change. The AMS teaching/learning model incorporates an Earth system perspective, is problem focused, and
Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia
While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper explores what teachers can do to avoid potential lawsuits. Section 1 describes different types of laws for public and private schools. Section 2 discusses tort liability. Section 3 presents legal principles that apply to educators (in loco parents, intentional torts, strict liability, negligence, foreseeability, assigned duties,…
Palestini, Robert; Falk, Karen Palestini
This third edition expands coverage on such topics as the law and students with disabilities, confidentiality, sexual harassment, student searches and tuition vouchers. It also includes some new topics such as bullying, copyright law, and the law and the internet. Both public and nonpublic school educators are aware that courts, over the last…
Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.
We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…
Drezner, Noah D.
This monograph examines the philanthropic contributions of individuals through the existing literature and proposes future philanthropic and fundraising research that can help fill the theoretical void in the literature, thereby improving future research and fundraising in higher education. It covers the major approaches, topics, and theories…
The case method is a modern discipline of mind, based on classical models of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and well suited to the education of lawyers, whether in scholarly work or advocacy. It produces sharpness and speed of tongue and mind and a facility for precision, clarity, and quality of expression. (MSE)
Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.
Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…
Smith, Anne; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.
The 50th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision provides a critical opportunity to reflect on "Brown's" importance, impact, and the lessons it provides on achieving racial desegregation and its relationship to the progressive inclusion of students with disabilities into public schools across the United…
Kinsinger, Stuart; Soave, David
The purposes of this study were to survey Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited chiropractic colleges in North America and to describe curricular details on the teaching of bioethics. A custom-designed survey was sent to chiropractic colleges. Total number of contact hours, whether the ethics was a stand-alone course or integrated elsewhere, type of instructor, and if there was a required or recommended course text were queried. Of 19 surveys sent by mail, 15 surveys were returned. The average time in ethics instruction was 18.7 hours including lecture format, small group tutorial, and self-study. Chiropractic ethics education includes 8 areas of content (boundaries, law and jurisprudence, professionalism, basic ethic tenets/principles, ethical codes of conduct, prevention of financial and of sexual abuse, and resolving an ethical dilemma). Some colleges include content taught to students under the domain of law and jurisprudence. The results of this survey indicate that there are opportunities to further develop the educational ethics program at Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited colleges. All colleges currently offer bioethics teaching. An expanded role for this content is recommended so as to offer optimal benefit for students and practitioners. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzales, Sandra M.
This autoethnographic inquiry examines the intersection of elder epistemology and subtractive education, exploring how one "abuelita" countered her granddaughter's divestment of Mexican-ness. I demonstrate how the grandmother used "abuelita" epistemologies to navigate this tension and resist the assimilative pressures felt…
Hubert, Frank W. R.; And Others
This is the first publication in a series developed by the Programa de Educacion Interamericana designed to enrich and strengthen the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students in the field of intercultural education, with particular reference to Mexico and the republics of Central and South America. The project hopes to produce a…
Schlossman, Steven; And Others
Correctional education has thrived only in the context of a broader ideological consensus in favor of rehabilitation rather than punishment. This consensus has been far from the mainstream of correctional thinking in the United States during the 1980s. Modern advocates of prison industries are attempting to reinstate a once-operative principle.…
As detailed in the articles throughout this issue, the U.S. education system experienced a number of structural developments throughout the 20th century. These changes served to shift the landscape of decision-making authority in multiple areas of primary and secondary schooling. This article provides an international perspective on the changes…
Lawrence, Terry Anne
This literature review presents an overview of Christian higher education in the United States with particular attention to philosophical trends and their influence on institutions of Christian origin. This literature review is situated in the context of the discussion of the need, or lack thereof, for helping students integrate their faith with…
Almeida, M J
The invigoration of Latin American medical education during the past decade has been remarkable. The new initiatives which have taken place and the innovative programmes which have been enacted are analysed with reference to the seminal participation in international ventures. The analysis demonstrates that, while South American regional development was undeniably and profoundly influenced by the world movement in medical education, there has also been a reciprocal influence. South America has contributed notably to global action. The extent of the contribution by South America to the world movement, and the benefits gained in turn, make it self-evident that continuation of such bilateral exchange is crucial, and is to be energetically promoted.
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes exposure to violence in media, including television, movies, music, and video games, as a significant risk to the health of children and adolescents. Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed. Pediatricians should assess their patients' level of media exposure and intervene on media-related health risks. Pediatricians and other child health care providers can advocate for a safer media environment for children by encouraging media literacy, more thoughtful and proactive use of media by children and their parents, more responsible portrayal of violence by media producers, and more useful and effective media ratings.
Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.
Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras
This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…
Bowen, William G.; McPherson, Michael S.
American higher education faces some serious problems--but they are not the ones most people think. In this brief and accessible book, two leading experts show that many so-called crises--from the idea that typical students are drowning in debt to the belief that tuition increases are being driven by administrative bloat--are exaggerated or simply…
Walker, Joan M. T.
Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…
Hauptman, Arthur M.
Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…
Crosnoe, Robert; Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M; Wu, Nina
Concerted cultivation is the active parental management of children's educations that, because it differs by race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status, plays a role in early educational disparities. Analyses of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort ( n = 10,913) revealed that foreign-born Latina mothers were generally less likely to engage in school-based activities, enroll children in extracurricular activities, or provide educational materials at home when children were at the start of elementary school than were U.S.-born White, African American, and Latina mothers, in part because of their lower educational attainment. Within the foreign-born Latina sample, the link between maternal education and the three concerted cultivation behaviors did not vary by whether the education was attained in the United States or Latin America. Higher maternal education appeared to matter somewhat more to parenting when children were girls and had higher achievement.
Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng
Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.
Widad Allawi Saddam
Full Text Available Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American storytelling teaches people not to be isolated, and the key issues discussed in this paper are borrowed from the selected poems of Native American Luci Tapahonso: ‘The Holy Twins’ and ‘Remember the Things that you told.’ Keywords: folklore, narrating, Native American, oral tradition, storytelling
As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…
Scalice, D.; Sparrow, E. B.; Johnson, T. A.; Allen, J. E.; Gho, C. L.
One size does not fit all. This is especially true in education, where each learner meets new information from a unique standpoint, bringing prior experiences and understandings to the learning space. It is the job of the educator to be sensitive to these unique perspectives, and work with them to bring learners to new levels of knowledge. This principle is foundational to conducting science education with Native American communities, as they have a distinct history in the US, especially where education is concerned. Many scientists and educators at agencies like NASA are engaging in science education with Native communities across the US, and are approaching the work from varied prior experiences, levels of knowledge of the history of Native America, and desired outcomes. Subsequently, there are varied levels of success, and in some cases, oppressive patterns may be perpetuated. It is therefore the responsibility of the science educator to become informed and sensitized to the unique situation of Native Americans and their history with education and science. It is incumbent on science educators to ensure that the goals they have for Native youth are derived from the goals Native leaders have for their youth, and programming is co-created with Native partners. Toward supporting its science education community to do this, NASA's Science Mission Directorate has initiated a Working Group of individuals, teams, and organizations that are involved in science education with Native American communities via K-12 and/or tribal college programming, and/or grant-making. The purpose is to cultivate a Community of Practice through the sharing of information, knowledge, wisdom, ideas, experience, and best practices, and through the leveraging of resources, assets, and networks. The ultimate goal is the improvement and increased cultural competence of the programs implemented and managed by the group's members.
Lawrence O. Flowers
Full Text Available Despite the increase in online distant learning initiatives at many of the nation’s colleges and universities, collectively, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs continue to lag behind non-HBCUs in the development and implementation of online courses and programs. Data produced by the National Center for Education Statistics show that African American students are enrolled in significantly less distance education courses when compared with White students. In addition, there is a substantial disparity in the number of online science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM courses and programs when compared with online courses and programs in education, business, or the social sciences at HBCUs. The primary aim of this article is to examine data that explore African American students’ participation in distance education in STEM disciplines. Recommendations for future research are also discussed in this article.
Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.
Unlike many other Polynesian societies which acculturated rapidly after contact with Western cultures, Samoa remained remarkably resistant to cultural change. This stability seems to have occurred because Samoan society was able to redefine and incorporate into the fa'a Samoa, the Samoan way, those aspects of the Western contact culture which it found desirable or necessary to adopt. The transplanted American educational system was one of the few institutions which remained alien and apart from traditional Samoan culture. It was through this alien institution that television was introduced to American Samoa in 1964. This paper reviews the historical and cultural place of education in Samoan Society and examines the acculturative effects of educational television focusing on the period to 1973 when television was phased out as the central medium of educational instruction.
Full Text Available In this paper we reflect on the roles and responsibilities of academic leaders in encouraging faculty in mathematics departments to value contributions to mathematics teaching and learning. We discuss how academic leaders can and should use their perspective, position and influence to encourage productive dialogue between practitioners of mathematics and mathematics education; to use assessment of student learning as an opportunity to further this dialogue; and to value and reward work in mathematics teaching and learning in the hiring, evaluation, tenure, promotion, and merit processes.
Papayannakos, Dimitris P.
The structure of David’s Bloor argument for the Strong Programme (SP) in Science Studies is criticized from the philosophical perspective of anti-skeptical, scientific realism. The paper transforms the common criticism of SP—that the symmetry principle of SP implies an untenable form of cognitive relativism—into the clear philosophical issue of naturalism versus Platonism. It is also argued that the concrete patterns of SP’s interest-explanations and its sociological definition of knowledge involve philosophical skepticism. It is claimed, then, that the most problematic elements of SP reside primarily in philosophical skepticism. It is also claimed that this sort of criticism can be directed against other more radical, versions of constructivism in science and science education studies.
Bertran, Elizabeth A; Fritz, Heather; Abbas, Malak; Tarakji, Sandra; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Pociask, Fredrick D; Lysack, Catherine L; Arnetz, Judith; Jaber, Linda A
The purpose of this study was to better understand barriers and facilitators of diabetes self-management education (DSME) among Arab American patients with diabetes. Little is known about the impact of Arab culture on DSME. Arab American adults (N = 23) with medically managed diabetes participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. An Arabic-speaking, trained moderator conducted video-recorded sessions. Verbatim Arabic transcripts were translated into English. Transcripts underwent a qualitative content analysis approach. Arab American cultural traditions such as food sharing, religious beliefs, and gender roles both facilitated and at times impeded DSME. Patients also held conflicting views about their interactions with their providers; some participants praised the authoritative patient-physician relationship style while others perceived the gaps in communication to be a product of Arab culture. Participants expressed that lack of available educational and supportive resources are key barriers to DSME. Arab American culture affects DSM activities, and culturally sensitive educational resources are lacking. Development of DSME programs tailored to address relevant aspects of Arab culture might improve DSME outcomes in Arab American population. © 2015 The Author(s).
稲葉, 美由紀; Inaba, Miyuki
The number of international students coming into the U.S. for higher education is steadily rising. The ability of these students to perform well in their educational endeavors is related to their degree of success in adjusting to American popular and educational culture. This study uses a naturalistic perspective to understand the factors involved in the adjustment of international graduate students from India and Japan to American popular and educational culture. Implications of these result...
Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.
The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…
Haave, Neil C.
Capstone experiences have high educational impact with various approaches available for biology. However, no information exists regarding the pervasiveness of capstone courses in Canadian and American biology programs. This study surveyed the prevalence and character of biology capstone courses in the USA and Canada. The survey included a majority…
Henfield, Malik S.; Owens, Delila; Witherspoon, Sheila
The authors explored 11 African American doctoral students' perceptions of their experiences in counselor education programs, and their findings are presented. Using a phenomenological methodological framework, the authors investigated the various systems of support that students use as they navigate their respective programs. Human agency was the…
Subbiondo, Joseph L.
This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age,…
García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.
This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…
Mella, Hazel Roca
The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the model minority myth prevents "Asian Pacific American" ("APA") women from achieving the president or chancellor position in higher education institutions. This study explored the experiences of APA female leaders who are presidents and chancellors to discover…
Dollarhide, Colette T.; Mayes, Renae D.; Dogan, Sabri; Aras, Yahyahan; Edwards, Kaden; Oehrtman, J. P.; Clevenger, Adam
In this phenomenological study, the authors interviewed 4 African American male counselor educators about their social justice efforts. Resulting themes were lifelong commitment to social justice, reaction to resistance, professional and personal support, and the meaning of social justice work. Findings suggest that social justice work can…
A qualitative case study was conducted by examining the perceptions of fifth-grade African American girls about their experiences with science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and potential for STEM as a future career. As the United States suffers from waning participation across all demographics in STEM and a high level…
Drury, Darrel; Levin, Douglas
School-based management is a reinvention and countermovement to a broader historical trend to centralize and standardize American education. The present study represents one component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's project to investigate how schools in 12 member nations can most effectively respond to recent…
This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of ethnography…
Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.
Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…
African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…
Schneider, Omar; Neto, Amarílio Ferreira; da Silva Mello, André; dos Santos, Wagner; Votre, Sebastião Josué; Assunção, Wallace Rocha
This study investigates the American presence and influences in the physical education press to understand the way in which that presence influenced and contributed to the production of a sports culture in the first half of the twentieth century. As historical sources, the study uses periodicals in the field that were published in the period…
Wolfe, Brandon L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson
In this article, we present findings from a review and synthesis of historical and contemporary research to examine the concept of diversity leadership in higher education as it pertains to African American administrators at predominantly White colleges and universities. Through the use of critical race theory, we first argue that to understand…
Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…
Kang, Hokyung Paul
Through convenient purposeful sampling, 16 professors from North American Professors of Christian Education were recruited for this study. Through consulting key personnel in NAPCE a pool of participants were attained (n = 16). The findings from the research study revealed the elements contributing to the way that participants experienced and…
Roy, Shelly R.
This paper discusses the unique barriers and learning difficulties encountered by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean international students when they study at institutions of higher education in the US. These learning difficulties arise because of inability of some American professors to use discourse markers, summarize at the end of lectures, write…
Spence, Susie A.
Describes a program designed to help rural elderly African Americans acquire daily living skills, conducted in their homes to reduce transportation problems and increase participation. The design takes into account characteristics of the population, such as age, health, economic conditions, race, educational level, and support systems. (SK)
Douglas, Cynthia M.
This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…
Keene, Sara E.
The community college represents the only form of universal access to education, and is thus purported to be the gateway to low-income and minority students' realization of the "American Dream." That dream is growing more and more elusive for a substantial number of people. Instead of breaking down ethnic and class barriers to economic…
Public mass schooling was the major instrument used by the Americans in the performance of their mission to "civilize" Filipinos. Free primary education was implemented right after the islands' annexation in 1899 and was a critical component (alongside armed force) of the programme for their "pacification". For the elite,…
Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan
Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…
Golos, Debbie B.
Over time children's educational television has successfully modified programming to incorporate research-based strategies to facilitate learning and engagement during viewing. However, research has been limited on whether these same strategies would work with preschool deaf children viewing videos in American Sign Language. In a descriptive…
Kaba, Amadu Jacky
This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the…
Hale, Jon N.
This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…
Despite decades of research on racial disproportionality in special education, the underrepresentation of Asian Americans in services tends to be overlooked in policy and practice. Underrepresentation, however, raises the possibility of similar concerns about misidentification, bias, and racial inequality within schools as overrepresentation. Yet,…
David, Gary C.; Ayouby, Kenneth K.
This article examines a sample of educational source materials meant to be used to foster the inclusion of Arab American components in multicultural curriculum. Even though the materials examined can be thought of as good sources (in that they did not provide outright biased misinformation), the authors identify three general areas of concern: (a)…
A quantitative analysis of the admissions and graduation requirements guidelines of the special education doctoral programs at 20 top American universities was conducted. Admission requirements typically include an application fee, previous coursework GPA, previous field experience, GRE scores, TOEFL scores, professional writing sample(s), and…
Leal, Marco Aurelio Navarro
The aim of this paper is to explore the meaning of internationalization using some Latin American experiences of higher education, to identify two views of this activity and pose the need for reflection upon internationalization as a means that should correspond to pedagogical ends in the context of globalization. [For the complete Volume 15…
Lee, Candice Storey
Intercollegiate athletics, namely "big-time" athletics, is an enduring feature of American higher education. Its visibility is unmatched by other institutional activities, and its influence reaches far beyond the campus. College athletics' longevity insulates it from the likelihood of elimination, but it regularly earns criticism…
Weaver, Hilary N.
Surveys of 132 American Indian social workers, nurses, psychologists, and college students in those fields examined their experiences of professional education. Themes included extent of cultural content within professional training; types of support for indigenous identities; and struggles with stereotypes, institutional and faculty insensitivity…
Describes the existence of vitality in American Catholic higher education by showing that scholars are serious about research, literature, and teaching to serve their God and society. A selective bibliography lists an estimated 150 books, articles, and doctoral dissertations from 1987 to 1994. A list of relevant organizations and their serial…
Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan
This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…
The author contends there are many American myths operating in the schools at a subtle level which keep the poor and disadvantaged uncomplaining and apathetic. Basic adult education has not reached those most in need of it and does not deal with topics relevant to those people. Paulo Freire's approach of consciousness raising would reach that…
Boon, Ebru Tuncer
The purpose of this study was to explore the violin experiences of African American students at an Elementary School in northern Florida to consider the potential for culturally-responsive string education. The hermeneutical approach was used to answer the research questions: (1) What are the personal musical worlds of these African American…
Ott, Molly C.
This study contributes to the discussion around the value of a college degree and associated career advantages by considering how postsecondary education contributes to the attainment of the most powerful and prestigious positions in the American corporate world. Guided by a conceptual framework informed by status attainment, power elite, and…
Williams, Joseph M.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe
This qualitative study examined high-achieving urban African American high school graduates' (N = 5) retrospective appraisal of what K-12 students from high-risk urban areas need to succeed academically despite seemingly insurmountable social, financial, and educational barriers. Findings revealed 6 themes: shared responsibility for…
... college before receiving, respectively, a regular high school diploma or a college degree or certificate.... Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 (the Act) and that benefit Native Americans and Alaska... instruction and the connections that students have to universities, colleges, employers, and industries that...
Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole
African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…
McDaniel, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the role of multicultural education programs in moral development of schoolchildren in the USA. It is noted that one of the top priority tasks of school is the development of such traditional American values as freedom, democracy, racial and national tolerance and others. For this purpose some changes in educational programs are being made. It is highlighted that implementation of courses and programs of multicultural education has become an important part of the educational process. These programs are of interdisciplinary character and they are integrated into educational programs of moral and social disciplines. According to their aims and priorities all courses and programs of multicultural education are divided into three groups: content-oriented, person-oriented, and socially-oriented. The analysis of the results of their implementation makes it possible for the author to conclude that integration of the programs of multicultural education into the educational process makes great contribution to the moral development of American schoolchildren.
Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI
Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K
American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.
Aikins, Ross D.
The increasing prevalence of so-called cognitive-enhancing drugs is well documented in American higher education. There has been little historical analysis, however, specifically exploring the role of postsecondary institutions in this evolving drug narrative. This paper traces substance use and research trends in American higher education over…
Guerra, Manuel H.; And Others
The problem of retaining Mexican American students in institutions of higher education is reviewed in these 5 papers: "The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems" by Manuel H. Guerra; "Mexicanismo vs. Retention: Implications of Retaining Mexican American…
Faircloth, Susan C.
In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…
Scott, Sonya V.; Rodriguez, Louie F.
This study draws from a larger phenomenological study on African American academic persistence and career aspirations in education. This article highlights three African American males' experiences with concentrated forms of stereotype threat in teacher education. Their voices revealed dimensions of how power and privilege operate in teacher…
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.
Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…
Edson, Shauna Elizabeth; Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory
The total solar eclipse of 2017 was a high-profile opportunity for nationwide public education. Astronomy experts suddenly became vital sources of information for a lay population whose interest in the eclipse greatly surpassed expectations. At the National Air and Space Museum, we leveraged our relatively accessible location and particularly diverse audience to help thousands of people, from novices to enthusiasts, prepare to view the eclipse safely. The goal was to empower all people so they could experience this unique astronomical event, understand what was happening, and observe the Sun safely. Over the course of two years spent talking with the public about the eclipse, we encountered common misconceptions, worries about safety or liability, and people experiencing confusion or information overload. We developed guidelines for handling these challenges, from correcting misinformation to managing the sudden spike in demand for glasses just before August 21.In particular, we helped people understand the following essential points:- The total phase of the eclipse is only visible from a limited path.- The partial eclipse is visible from a large area outside the path of totality.- The eclipse takes up to three hours from start to finish, providing ample time for viewing.- The Sun can be observed safely using several methods, including but not limited to eclipse glasses.- The eclipse happens because the Moon’s orbit is taking it directly between the Sun and the Earth.- Eclipses do not happen every month because the Moon’s orbit is tilted with respect to the Earth's orbital plane.- Students in schools can safely view the eclipse, with proper protection and supervision, to prevent eye damage and minimize liability.Public education about the eclipse appears to have been successful, as evidenced by the large number of people who saw their first total solar eclipse and the absence of reported eye damage cases. Amidst the excitement, photographs, and stories that
Full Text Available Initiated by International Friendships Inc.(IFI in Cincinnati, that is a Christian community organization, the authors participated in a universal education activity, called “History Museum”, organized by the local people in Kentucky State of U.S.A. In the activity, the authors grasped some characteristics of American universal education and reflected some problems of the professional foundation teaching of Chinese postgraduates, especially of Chinese engineering postgraduates. Based on the above thinking, some suggestions of the teaching methods for the professional foundation courses of Chinese postgraduates are proposed. Furthermore, the authors hope the proposed methods would be good for improving the postgraduate education in China.
Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Hurtado, Sylvia
This policy brief is based on the edited book "The Magic Key: The Educational Journey of Mexican Americans from K-12 to College and Beyond" (Zambrana & Hurtado, 2015a), which focuses on the experiences of Mexican Americans in education. Drawing from an interdisciplinary corpus of work, the authors move beyond the rhetoric of progress…
Hawley, John B.; And Others
Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972…
Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J
Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global competencies. The purpose was to understand how international experiences can be enhanced in order to increase American STEM students' interest in study abroad programs and in earning advanced STEM degrees and to understand how to attract more foreign STEM students to study in the United States. Issues of particular focus were: the impacts of gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality on STEM students' motivation to participate in, and responses to study abroad programs, and the value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in borderless STEM education. Several different forms of multivariate analyses were performed on data from surveys at seven public and private colleges and universities in the Southern California area. The results indicated that among American students, greater value was placed on social and cultural experiences gained through studying abroad. In contrast, among foreign students greater value was placed on enhancement of their academic and professional development opportunities. American students whose study abroad included research experiences had a greater interest in international research and teaching in the future. Foreign graduate students majoring in computer science, engineering and biology are the most likely to seek opportunities to study and work in the US. Finally, ICTs were valued by American students as platforms for social interactions and by foreign students for facilitating professional networks. The analyses lead to several recommendations, including: STEM faculty should be made aware of the critical importance of their advising and mentoring in motivating students to choose to
Doumit, Gaby; Totonchi, Ali; Wexler, Andy; Gosain, Arun K
Over the past 10 years, the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons (ASMS) has continued to advance to meet its mission of being the premier organization to represent maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States. These advances are focused on education of its members, to include the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons basic course, the preconference symposium, the annual meeting, two basic maxillofacial courses per year, advanced maxillofacial courses, a boot camp for craniofacial fellows, a cleft course, quarterly webinars, sponsored fellowships, a visiting professorship, and the ASMS journal. In addition, the ASMS has continued to advance as the premier national organization representing maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States, thereby positioning the organization as a primary advocate for these surgical specialties. Outreach of the ASMS has grown over the past decade and now includes representatives to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation, the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the American Medical Association, and most recently a seat as a governor with the American College of Surgeons. The ASMS has also initiated an annual Summer Leadership Seminar to explore topics of relevance in a changing health care environment. The present report outlines the major initiatives of the ASMS over the past 10 years.
Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Lavner, Justin A; Bryant, Chalandra M; Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H
Enhancing communication as a means of promoting relationship quality has been increasingly questioned, particularly for couples at elevated sociodemographic risk. In response, the current study investigated communication change as a mechanism accounting for changes in relationship satisfaction and confidence among 344 rural, predominantly low-income African American couples with an early adolescent child who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Approximately 9 months after baseline assessment, intent-to-treat analyses indicated ProSAAF couples demonstrated improved communication, satisfaction, and confidence compared with couples in the control condition. Improvements in communication mediated ProSAAF effects on relationship satisfaction and confidence; conversely, neither satisfaction nor confidence mediated intervention effects on changes in communication. These results underscore the short-term efficacy of a communication-focused, culturally sensitive prevention program and suggest that communication is a possible mechanism of change in relationship quality among low-income African American couples.
Martin, Michelle Y; Pollack, Lori A; Evans, Mary B; Smith, Judith Lee; Kratt, Polly; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher D; Dignan, Mark; Cheney, Lydia C; Pisu, Maria; Liwo, Amandiy; Hullett, Sandral
to identify the information and stress-management topics of most interest to low-income, predominantly African American cancer survivors. descriptive, cross sectional. outpatient oncology clinic in a public hospital in Birmingham, Alabama. 25 patients with cancer; 12 were men, 22 were African Americans, and 16 had a 12th-grade education or less. patients ranked potential topics to be included in an educational curriculum. quantitative rankings of information and stress-management priorities. learning about cancer, understanding cancer treatments, relieving cancer pain, and keeping well in mind and body were the most highly ranked topics among those offered within the American Cancer Society's I Can Cope curriculum, which also included supportive topics such as mobilizing social support. The preferred stress-management topics were humor therapy, music therapy, meditation, and relaxation; lower-ranked topics included pet therapy and art as therapy. cancer survivors appear most interested in topics specific to their illness and treatment versus supportive topics. Stress management also received high rankings. nurses have a key role in providing patient education and support. Tailoring education programs may better target specific needs and improve the quality of cancer care of underserved patients.
Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Byung Joon
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) educational program in increasing HBV knowledge. Using a cluster randomized control trial to recruit participants from the community-based organization in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area; a total of 877 Asian American participants completed a self-administered pretest. HBV knowledge was the outcome measure. The intervention group received a 30-minute educational program. After the educational program, the intervention group completed a post-education survey. Six months after the education, all participants were followed by phone. The intervention group showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the control group at the 6-month follow-up (between-group difference was 1.44 for knowledge of transmission modes and 0.59 for sequelae, p education was much higher than that at the 6-month follow-up (4.18 vs. 2.07), p educational effect: Those older than 60 years reported the lowest scores in all three points. Findings suggest that this culturally integrated liver cancer educational program increased HBV knowledge. Differential strategies are needed to target age groups, separately educating those younger and those older. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative description of inclusive and special systems of education. On the basis of American and British studies are shown that modern scientists, voluntary organizations and parents of the disabled kids meet two problems: to prove that inclusion is necessary for children with special needs as the alternative to special education and to illustrate the real ways of inclusive education implementation into general educational process. The main goal of inclusive education is defined – to educate an absolutely full member of society by attracting all participants of education process to the general school activities. The author of the article points out that the professionals in the sphere of special education created and worked out a great amount of forms, methods and techniques of teaching which work with particular categories of children with special educational needs. This potential is useful and valuable from the point of view of inclusion which cannot succeed without the professional participation of specialists in different fields of pedagogy, psychology and rehabilitology.
Nelson, Adam R.
For this first "History of Education Quarterly Policy Forum," we invited participants in the special Plenary Session at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the History of Education Society (HES) in St. Louis to publish their remarks on the historical significance of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) at fifty. Organized and…
Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn
Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643
Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.
Vogel, Octavia; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca; Eschiti, Valerie; Samos, Markos; Wiener, Diane; Ohlander, Kerstin; Royals, Deborah
The Circle Of Life (COL) was first developed in 1991 as a breast health program through a partnership between the American Cancer Society and a committee of lay and professional volunteers in Oklahoma, with representation from Oklahoma American Indian tribal communities. In 2008, The Society was awarded funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to expand and enhance COL. Since then, The Society has engaged a variety of tribal health and education leaders and Society staff to comprise a COL advisory workgroup. The workgroup's mission was to make recommendations and provide guidance in the revision of COL. Four cultural values emerged from the engagement of the workgroup: (1) the value of visual communication, (2) the value of interconnected generations, (3) the value of storytelling, and (4) the value of experiential learning. These four concepts greatly shaped the revision of the COL educational tools and resources.
Despite recommendations by medical reformers that medical sociology be included in the curriculum, there is currently little evidence of a far-reaching integration of sociological perspectives in American medical education. Yet, support for the relevance of sociological knowledge has since the late 1960s helped to diffuse external pressures for change in health care and medical education. As a symbol of the communitarian commitment of the medical profession, claims in favor of the incorporation of sociological perspectives have thus occasionally, and largely unintentionally, served the public relations interests of biomedicine. However, the more recent interest in medical ethics has to some degree transformed medicine's educational agenda and the definition of medical 'human values'. Whereas the rhetorical expropriation of medical sociology primarily has concerned medicine's responsibility vis-à-vis society as a whole, the new medical ethics education signifies a return to a more individualistically oriented medical morality.
Finucane, Melissa L; McMullen, Carmit K
The purpose of this study was to identify the cultural values, traditions, and perceptions of diabetes risk and self-care among Filipino Americans in Hawaii with type 2 diabetes that facilitate or impede engagement in diabetes self-management behaviors and education classes. This qualitative study used 2 rounds of semistructured focus groups and interviews. Participants included 15 patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from a large health-maintenance organization in Hawaii and 7 health care and cultural experts recruited from the community. The taped and transcribed focus groups and interviews were coded thematically. Participants evaluated example materials for diabetes self-management education (DSME) with Filipino Americans. Several aspects of Filipino American culture were identified as central to understanding the challenges of engaging in self-management behaviors and DSME: (1) undertaking self-management while prioritizing the family and maintaining social relationships, (2) modifying diet while upholding valued symbolic and social meanings of food, (3) participating in storytelling in the face of stigma associated with diabetes, and (4) reconciling spiritual and biomedical interpretations of disease causality and its management. Respondents also emphasized the role of several qualitative aspects of perceived risk (eg, dread, control) in moderating their behaviors. Participants suggested ways to make DSME culturally relevant. Awareness of cultural values and qualitative aspects of perceived risk that influence Filipino Americans' engagement in diabetes self-care behaviors and classes may help to improve teaching methods, materials, and recruitment strategies.
Amini, Homa; Casamassimo, Paul S; Lin, Hsuan L; Hayes, John R
The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry's (AAPD) patient education brochures and compare their readability level with that recommended by health education experts. Readability for the 25 AAPD brochures was assessed using the: (1) Flesch-Kincaid formula; (2) Gunning Fog formula; and (3) Flesch reading ease formula. The results were compared to the reading level recommended by the experts. Mean readability for all 25 brochures was: (a) 9.1 (+/-1.8 SD) using the Flesch-Kincaid formula; (b) 9.2 (+/-1.5 SD) with the Gunning Fog formula; and (c) 53.0 (+/-12.2 SD) with the Flesch reading ease formula. Using the Flesch-Kincaid and Gunning Fog formulas, 88% and 92% of the AAPD patient education materials were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, respectively. Overall, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry patient education materials were difficult to read and written above the recommended level for the general public using accepted measures. Readability formulas may be used as a guide to help improve the reading ease of health education materials.
This study examines contradictions in the "American Dream" during the Great Recession: young adults maintained high educational aspirations, yet perceived little opportunity for their educational achievements to help them fulfil their dreams of financial prosperity and work stability. Based on in-depth interviews with 85 young college students and recent graduates, this study found that college enrolment was propelled by the recession, as a college degree, and often a graduate or professional degree, was perceived as an increasingly necessary credential. Despite these high educational aspirations, students and recent graduates were fearful about their capacity to find future work and they expressed concerns about the collapse of employment opportunity. Many were also wary of educational institutions, which they viewed as unable to prepare them for a shrinking job market. These perceptions reveal a contradiction in the "American Dream:" although young adults have high aspirations and achievements, they have lost confidence in the educational and work institutions upon which they must depend. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
McCloskey, Cindy B; Domen, Ronald E; Conran, Richard M; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Brissette, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita A; Raciti, Patricia M; Cohen, David A; Roberts, Cory A; Rojiani, Amyn M; Kong, Christina S; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Johnson, Kristen; Plath, Sue; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin
Competency-based medical education has evolved over the past decades to include the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System of resident evaluation based on the Milestones project. Entrustable professional activities represent another means to determine learner proficiency and evaluate educational outcomes in the workplace and training environment. The objective of this project was to develop entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education encompassing primary anatomic and clinical pathology residency training. The Graduate Medical Education Committee of the College of American Pathologists met over the course of 2 years to identify and define entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education. Nineteen entrustable professional activities were developed, including 7 for anatomic pathology, 4 for clinical pathology, and 8 that apply to both disciplines with 5 of these concerning laboratory management. The content defined for each entrustable professional activity includes the entrustable professional activity title, a description of the knowledge and skills required for competent performance, mapping to relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone subcompetencies, and general assessment methods. Many critical activities that define the practice of pathology fit well within the entrustable professional activity model. The entrustable professional activities outlined by the Graduate Medical Education Committee are meant to provide an initial framework for the development of entrustable professional activity-related assessment and curricular tools for pathology residency training.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Major Project in the Field of Education stresses renewed and intensive efforts by Latin American and Caribbean Island countries to provide the resources and training necessary to meet basic education needs by the year 2000. This document examines project achievements, innovations, and problems through 1986 in the areas of rural education,…
Lee, Young-Me; Florez, Elizabeth; Tariman, Joseph; McCarter, Sarah; Riesche, Laren
To understand the influential factors related to sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents and to evaluate common factors across successful sexual education programs for this population. Despite a rapid increase in cases of STIs/HIV among Asian-American populations, there remains a need for a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors related to risky sexual behaviors for this population. An integrative literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles and government resources were analyzed. Five influential factors were identified: family-centered cultural values, parental relationship, acculturation, gender roles, and lack of knowledge and information about sex and STIs. Only two sexual educational programs met the inclusion criteria and provided evidence towards effectiveness: Safer Choices and Seattle Social Development Project. The findings of this study indicate an urgent need for culturally sensitive sexual education programs that incorporate the identified influential factors, especially cultural values in order to reduce risky sexual behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; Chien, Lung-Chang
John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) is defined as a strong behavioral predisposition to cope with stressors in an effortful and determined manner. The well-known inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) has been hypothesized to be stronger for individuals who have high JHAC than those with low JHAC, suggesting that JHAC may place people with low SES at higher cardiovascular risk. Previous studies testing this hypothesis have presented mixed findings; therefore, this study was conducted to test the JHAC hypothesis by examining the main and interaction effects of SES and JHAC on cardiovascular risk (measured by BP and arterial stiffness [AS]). The sample was 102 Korean Americans (aged 21-60years). Measures included age, sex, body mass index, smoking, SES (measured by income and education), JHAC (measured by the 12-item JHAC Scale), BP, and AS. In terms of the SES measures, only education was significantly related to systolic BP (p=0.003), diastolic BP (p=0.001), and AS (peffects of education and JHAC on systolic BP and AS were also significant (p=0.019 and p=0.018, respectively), indicating that the inverse relationships of education to systolic BP and AS were more prominent in subjects with lower JHAC scores. Contrary to the JHAC hypothesis, JHAC may be associated with low cardiovascular risk in people with low education in certain groups. Studies are recommended to examine potential beneficial effects of JHAC on cardiovascular health in a larger sample and to identify their mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perrin, David H.
This paper addresses several of the challenges facing today's system of higher education, and discusses the implications of these challenges for the athletic training profession. Among the major challenges are cost, accountability, access, and value of a higher education. The paper next focuses on several issues about which athletic training…
Kang, Shin Ji; Jung, Seoyoon; Lee, Kyungwha
This paper articulates the challenges of the South Korean education system through a co-constructed narrative, employing duoethnographic methodology. The authors offer critical and contextualized perspectives on their personal and professional observations on the dysfunctional aspects of South Korean education including dehumanization and…
Eltorai, Adam E M; Sharma, Pranav; Wang, Jing; Daniels, Alan H
Advancing health literacy has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' (AAOS) online patient education materials serve as a tool to improve health literacy for orthopaedic patients; however, it is unknown whether the materials currently meet the National Institutes of Health/American Medical Association's recommended sixth grade readability guidelines for health information or the mean US adult reading level of eighth grade. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mean grade level readability of online AAOS patient education materials; and (2) to determine what proportion of the online materials exceeded recommended (sixth grade) and mean US (eighth grade) reading level. Reading grade levels for 99.6% (260 of 261) of the online patient education entries from the AAOS were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid formula built into Microsoft Word software. Mean grade level readability of the AAOS patient education materials was 9.2 (SD ± 1.6). Two hundred fifty-one of the 260 articles (97%) had a readability score above the sixth grade level. The readability of the AAOS articles exceeded the sixth grade level by an average of 3.2 grade levels. Of the 260 articles, 210 (81%) had a readability score above the eighth grade level, which is the average reading level of US adults. Most of the online patient education materials from the AAOS had readability levels that are far too advanced for many patients to comprehend. Efforts to adjust the readability of online education materials to the needs of the audience may improve the health literacy of orthopaedic patients. Patient education materials can be made more comprehensible through use of simpler terms, shorter sentences, and the addition of pictures. More broadly, all health websites, not just those of the AAOS, should aspire to be comprehensible to the typical reader.
Matallana, Diana; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Cano, Carlos; Reyes, Pablo; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A
To study the effect of education and language of response at the interview on performance in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) domains, we studied 2861 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) followed from 1993 to 1994 until 2004 to 2005. The MMSE was examined as total score (0-30) or divided into 2 global domains: (1) no-memory (score 0-24): Orientation, attention, and language; and (2) memory (score 0-6): working and delayed memory. Mean age and total MMSE were 72.7 years and 24.6 at baseline, and 81.7 years and 20.5 at 11 years of follow-up. Spanish-speaking participants had less education (4.1 vs 7.4 years, P memory, no-memory, and total MMSE compared with English-speaking participants. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, participants with more years of education performed better than those with less education, especially in total MMSE and no-memory domain. Spanish-speaking participants with 4 to 6 years of education had higher memory scores than those speaking English (estimate 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.14, P memory domain of the MMSE is less affected by education, it may be used along with other cognitive tests for early detection of cognitive decline in older populations with low education.
This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.
Hourigan, Mairéad; Leavy, Aisling M.
Teacher knowledge is a critical focus of educational research in light of the potential impact of teacher knowledge on student learning. The dearth of research exploring entry-level preservice teachers' geometric knowledge poses an onerous challenge for mathematics educators in initial teacher education (ITE) when designing experiences that…
Wehby, George L; López-Camelo, Jorge S
Objective We investigate gradients (i.e. differences) in infant health outcomes by maternal education in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela and explore channels related to father's education, household labor outcomes, and maternal health, fertility, and use of prenatal services and technology. Methods We employ secondary interview and birth record data similarly collected across a network of birth hospitals from the early 1980s through 2011 within the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC). Focusing on children without birth defects, we estimate gradients in several infant health outcomes including birth weight, gestational age, and hospital discharge status by maternal education using ordinary least squares regression models adjusting for several demographic factors. To explore channels, we add as covariates father's education, parental occupational activity, maternal health and fertility history, and use of prenatal services and technology and evaluate changes in the coefficient of maternal education. We use the same models for each country sample. Results We find important differences in gradients across countries. We find evidence for educational gradients in preterm birth in three countries but weaker evidence for gradients in fetal growth. The extent to which observed household and maternal factors explain these gradients based on changes in the regression coefficient of maternal education when controlling for these factors as covariates also varies between countries. In contrast, we generally find evidence across all countries that higher maternal education is associated with increased use of prenatal care services and technology. Conclusions Our findings suggest that differences in infant health by maternal education and their underlying mechanisms vary and are not necessarily generalizable across countries. However, the positive association between maternal education and use of prenatal services and technology is more
Violeta Vidaček - Hainš
Full Text Available Successful learning in higher education incorporates various factors related to knowledge, skills, habits, and motivation. Additionally, students’ personalities and self-efficacy may contribute to their adjustment, planning of activities, and achieving success. The objective of this paper is to analyze students’ needs for support services, which enhance the effectiveness of their learning environment at higher education institutions. Answers received from a sample of undergraduate freshmen at one American University and one Croatian University were analyzed and compared. The students from both countries agree that there is a need for developing self-reliance and personal responsibility in using support services, as well as for the timely and accurate information on availability of these services. Students’ suggestions and their desire to enhance effectiveness of their learning environment may be used in creating and improving support services in higher education institutions as well as training their staff.
This article describes the methodology, data analysis, and results for a pilot study investigating perceived self-efficacy of cognitive performance among Latino American elderly. The sample included 24 Latino American elderly. A 12-week quasi-experimental design was utilized. Participants were provided with weekly 2-hr art education sessions…
Even though the black community of antebellum New York City lived in a society that marginalized them socially and economically, they were intent on pursuing the basic privileges of American citizenship. One tactic African Americans employed to this end was the tenacious pursuit of education, which leaders believed would act both as an aid in…
Blackstone, Tondelaya K.
The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…
Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.
African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…
Eltorai, Adam E M; P Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H; Born, Christopher T
According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS's online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Ninety-nine articles from the "Broken Bones and Injuries" section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P related articles from the AAOS patient education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population.
Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The overall goal of this project is to establish a network of TCUs with essential advanced manufacturing (AM) facilities, associated training and education programs, and private sector and federal agency partnerships to both prepare an American Indian AM workforce and create economic and employment opportunities within Tribal communities through design, manufacturing, and marketing of high quality products. Some examples of high quality products involve next generation grid components such as mechanical energy storage, cabling for distribution of energy, and electrochemical energy storage enclosures. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is tasked to provide technical advising, planning, and academic program development support for the TCU/American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) Advanced Manufacturing Project. The TCUs include Bay Mills Community College (BMCC), Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC), Navajo Technical University (NTU), Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), and Salish Kooteani College. AIHEC and Sandia, with collaboration from SIPI, will be establishing an 8-week summer institute on the SIPI campus during the summer of 2017. Up to 20 students from TCUs are anticipated to take part in the summer program. The goal of the program is to bring AM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) awareness and opportunities for the American Indian students. Prior to the summer institute, Sandia will be providing reviews on curriculum plans at the each of the TCUs to ensure the content is consistent with current AM design and engineering practice. In addition, Sandia will provide technical assistance to each of the TCUs in regards to their current AM activities.
Flores, Juan Modesto
Two questions were investigated in this study: (1) Does the low socioeconomic Mexican American perceive himself as he is portrayed in literature? and (2) Are there relationships between educational achievement, perceived cultural characteristics, and the 7 specific themes: 1) ethnic isolation, 2) Spanish language, 3) fatalism, 4) present day…
Leah P. Hollis
Full Text Available Workplace bullying has a detrimental effect on employees, yet few studies have examined its impact on personnel in American higher education administration. Therefore, two central research questions guided this study: (a What is the extent of workplace bullying in higher education administration? and (b What is the cost of workplace bullying specifically to higher education administration? Participants from 175 four-year colleges and universities were surveyed to reveal that 62% of higher education administrators had experienced or witnessed workplace bullying in the 18 months prior to the study. Race and gender were not parameters considered in the sample. A total of 401 (n = 401 higher education respondents completed the instrument from various departments on a campus: academic affairs, student affairs, athletics, development/advancement, admissions/financial aid, information technology, arts faculty, sciences faculty, and executives. Employment disengagement served as the theoretical lens to analyze the financial cost to higher education when employees mentally disengage from organizational missions and objectives. With this lens, the study examined staff hours lost through employee disengagement and the associated costs.
A qualitative case study was conducted by examining the perceptions of fifth-grade African American girls about their experiences with science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and potential for STEM as a future career. As the United States suffers from waning participation across all demographics in STEM and a high level of underrepresentation of African American women in STEM, the proposed study examined data collected through open-ended interviews with fifth-grade African American girls to explore how their current experiences and perceptions might relate to the underrepresentation of African American women in the STEM fields. Participants were selected from Miracle Elementary School (pseudonym), and consisted of all five students in a small class of high-achieving fifth-grade girls. Data were collected through in-class observations and open-ended interviews, and were analyzed using computer content analysis. The most important key results threaded through the data were related to the importance and role of the teacher, the importance of math to students, the role of experimentation and discovery, and hands-on and personal experience. Future studies are encouraged to utilize longitudinal design to follow students from elementary to university level in an effort to develop and understand the perception, persistence, and experience of all girls in STEM programs.
Da Silva, A.
Full text: In the current century, networks have played an important role in the dissemination of experiences, information exchange and training of human resources for different area of expertise. The IAEA has encouraged in regions, through its member states, the creation of educational networks to meet rapidly and efficiently the dissemination and exchange of knowledge between professionals and students in the nuclear area. With this vision, the Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was established to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering nuclear knowledge transfer in the Latin American region. LANENT seeks to increase technical and scientific cooperation among its members in so far as to promote the benefits of nuclear technology and foster the progress and development of nuclear technology in areas such as education, health, the industry, the government, the environment, the mining industry, among others. By means of LANENT, the participating institutions of this network, devoted to education and training of professionals and technicians in the Latin American region, may have access to major information on nuclear technology so as to make their human resources broaden their nuclear knowledge. Moreover, this network seeks to communicate the benefits of nuclear technology to the public with the aim of arousing interest in nuclear technology of the younger generations. This paper will present and analyze results and initiatives developed by LANENT in Latin America. (author
Pickren, Wade E
Introduces the current issue of the American Psychologist, which examines the ramifications of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision and its sequelae over the last 50 years, with a special focus on the mixed role of psychological research and practice. Despite the great strides toward a more just society since May 17, 1954, inequities remain in schooling, in social relations, and in economic opportunity. How will history judge American psychology 50 years from now vis-a-vis the possibilities it helped create via Brown? The articles in this special issue suggest several important directions of research and action our field will need to take if the verdict of history is to be a positive one. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
Theresa Ann McGinnis
Full Text Available This article focuses on the ways an urban migrant education program becomes a space where middle school Khmer students can explore who they are as Khmer youth living in an urban American context. I discuss how the youth are able to take a transformative, interactional stance to the literacy and sign-making practices within the program. I argue that the Khmer youth’s identities are reflected within these literacy and expressive practices. Further, I suggest the experiences of these Khmer middle school children of agricultural workers provide rich examples of how immigrant youth draw on a variety of cultural resources (from urban American culture and from their own Khmer cultural inheritance in constructing layered identities.
Rassam, G.N.; Eisler, R.
North American fishery professionals? continuing education needs were investigated in an American Fisheries Society questionnaire sent to 111 senior fishery officials in winter 2000. Based on a response rate of 52.2% (N = 58), a minimum of 2,967 individuals would benefit from additional training, especially in the areas of statistics and analysis (83% endorsement rate), restoration and enhancement (81%), population dynamics (81%), multi-species interactions (79%), and technical writing (79%). Other skills and techniques recommended by respondents included computer skills (72%), fishery modeling (69%), habitat modification (67%), watershed processes (66%), fishery management (64%), riparian and stream ecology (62%), habitat management (62%), public administration (62%), nonindigenous species (57%), and age and growth (55%). Additional comments by respondents recommended new technical courses, training in various communications skills, and courses to more effectively manage workloads.
Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.
Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.
Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.
Background: In its communications, the European Commission stresses the importance of vocational education and endorses apprenticeship training. Educational systems that have dual tracks of academic alongside vocational learning routes have been shown to generate better labour market outcomes for school leavers and smooth the school-to-work…
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott
This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…
Breivik, Patricia Senn
This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…
Nora, Lois Margaret; Pouwels, Mellie Villahermosa; Irons, Mira
The American Board of Medical Specialties board certification has transformed into a career-long process of learning, assessment, and performance improvement through its Program for Maintenance of Certification (MOC). Medical educators across many medical professional organizations, specialty societies, and other institutions have played important roles in shaping MOC and tailoring its overarching framework to the needs of different specialties. This Commentary addresses potential barriers to engagement in work related to MOC for medical school (MS) and academic health center (AHC) educators and identifies reasons for, and ways to accomplish, greater involvement in this work. The authors present ways that medical and other health professions educators in these settings can contribute to the continuous improvement of the MOC program including developing educational and assessment activities, engaging in debate about MOC, linking MOC with institutional quality improvement activities, and pursuing MOC-related scholarship. MS- and AHC-based educators have much to offer this still-young and continually improving program, and their engagement is sought, necessary, and welcomed.
Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth
In the context of globalization and changing American demographics, it is becoming increasingly important to understand and communicate effectively with people from diverse cultural and racial/ethnic backgrounds. This article applies the framework of cultural variability and intercultural communication research literature to examine and highlight the different communication behaviors of Asians and non-Asians in the United States. The meanings of various verbal and nonverbal behaviors of Asian students are examined to clarify their communication patterns. Culture-based assumptions are identified, and measures to improve intercultural communication in nursing education are provided.
Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.
In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in
Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita
This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…
Self-esteem is often cited as an important personal competency for teachers. However, most self-esteem research, particularly within teacher education and music teacher education, is framed exclusively within a European-American context. Since individuals from different cultures may tend to think about themselves in diverse ways, and given the…
Merrill, Carolyn Ann
The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…
Donnor, Jamel K.
The purpose of this article is to advance Derrick Bell's (1992b) interest-convergence principle as an analytical lens for understanding the complex role of race in the educational experiences of African-American football student athletes. Currently, there is a scarcity of educational research that employs a critical theoretical perspective on race…
Bond, Vanessa L.
Renowned around the world, schools within the municipality of Reggio Emilia, Italy, have inspired North American early childhood educators for over 25 years. Despite the popularity and usage of the Reggio Emilia approach in the United States, music educators may find it unfamiliar. There is a lack of research that has discussed the use of music or…
Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Oselin, Sharon
Education is weakly related to employment for some groups of U.S. women. As such, it may be less of a resource for reducing gender inequality than commonly believed. Drawing on ethnographic field notes and in-depth interviews with Arab Americans, we recast the motivations and consequences of female education in terms of cultural schemas and…
Blanton, Carlos Kevin
This biographical study of Dr. George I. Sanchez, a leading Mexican American educator, intellectual, and activist from the 1930s through the 1960s, opens up the idea of compensatory education--the prevalent notion of the 1960s that schools use specialized instructional programs to combat the alleged cultural deprivation of some children,…
This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…
The dominance of biomedical science in medical education has been contested throughout the past century, with recurring calls for more social science and humanities content. The centrality of biomedicine is frequently traced back to Abraham Flexner's 1910 report, 'Medical Education in the United States and Canada'. However, Flexner advocated for a scientist-doctor, rather than a curriculum filled with science content. Examination of the discourses of science since Flexner allows us to explore the place of various knowledge forms in medical education. A Foucauldian critical discourse analysis was performed, examining the discourses of scientific medicine in Flexner's works and North American medical education articles in subsequent decades. Foucault's methodological principles were used to identify statements, keywords and metaphors that emerged in the development of the discourses of scientific medicine, with particular attention to recurring arguments and shifts in the meaning and use of terms. Flexner's scientist-doctor was an incisive thinker who drew upon multiple forms of knowledge. In the post-Flexner medical education reforms, the perception of science as a discursive object embedded in the curriculum became predominant over that of the scientist as the discursive subject who uses science. Science was then considered core curricular content and was discursively framed as impossibly vast. A parallel discourse, one of the insufficiency of biomedical science for the proper training of doctors, has existed over the past century, even as the humanities and social sciences have remained on the margins in medical school curricula. That discourses of scientific medicine have reinforced the centrality of biomedicine in medical education helps to explain the persistent marginalisation of other important knowledge domains. Medical educators need to be aware of the effects of these discourses on understandings of medical knowledge, particularly when contemplating
Williams, Joni S; Lynch, Cheryl P; Knapp, Rebecca G; Egede, Leonard E
Compared to American Whites, African Americans have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), experiencing poorer metabolic control and greater risks for complications and death. Patient-level factors, such as diabetes knowledge, self-management skills, empowerment, and perceived control, account for >90% of the variance observed in outcomes between these racial groups. There is strong evidence that self-management interventions that include telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training are effective at improving metabolic control in diabetes. Web-based home telemonitoring systems in conjunction with active care management are also effective ways to lower glycosylated hemoglobin A1c values when compared to standard care, and provide feedback to patients; however, there are no studies in African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM that examine the use of technology-based feedback to tailor or augment diabetes education and skills training. This study provides a unique opportunity to address this gap in the literature. We describe an ongoing 4-year randomized clinical trial, which will test the efficacy of a technology-intensified diabetes education and skills training (TIDES) intervention in African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM. Two hundred male and female AfricanAmerican participants, 21 years of age or older and with a glycosylated hemoglobin A1c level ≥ 8%, will be randomized into one of two groups for 12 weeks of telephone interventions: (1) TIDES intervention group or (2) a usual-care group. Participants will be followed for 12 months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that, among African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM, patients randomized to the TIDES intervention will have significantly greater reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c at 12 months of follow-up compared to the usual-care group. Results from this study will add to the current literature
Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian
How fast does biodiversity respond to climate change? The relationship of past and current climate with phylogenetic assemblage structure helps us to understand this question. Studies of angiosperm tree diversity in North America have already suggested effects of current water-energy balance and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic endemism, the concentration of unique lineages in restricted ranges, may also be related to glacial-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: (1) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages toward lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. (2) Long-term climate stability is associated with higher angiosperm endemism, while higher postglacial accessibility is linked to to more phylogenetic clustering and endemism in gymnosperms. (3) Factors linked to glacial-interglacial climate change have stronger effects on gymnosperms than on angiosperms. These results suggest that paleoclimate legacies supplement current climate in shaping phylogenetic patterns in North American trees, and especially so for gymnosperms.
Michelle M. Jacob
Full Text Available Despite legislation to increase educational success for racial and ethnic minorities in the USA, educational disparities persist. I examine this trend among Indigenous peoples in the state of Oregon, but extend it to education systems across the USA. In Oregon, American Indians have the poorest educational attainment of all racial and ethnic groups; only 55% of American Indians graduate on time. I examine this problem from a critical sociological perspective, answering the call for sociology to end its “complicity in the elimination of the native”. I argue education systems are extensions of settler colonial logics and power structures. I propose educational transformations built upon Indigenous cultural teachings, advocating that we follow an Indigenous educational framework that has as its foundation: (1 Indigenous elders’ instructions that education should teach us to be “real human beings”; (2 Indigenous teachings that invite us to engage in reflexivity to understand the “spirit” of our work; and (3 my own Yakama teachings on utilizing a decolonizing praxis within educational institutions. I conclude that American sociology needs to draw from Indigenous Studies scholarship to better understand and address the education inequalities facing Indigenous peoples in the USA.
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html
In the first half of the twentieth century, the training of American surgeons changed from an idiosyncratic, often isolated venture to a standardized, regulated, and mandated regimen in the form of the surgical residency. Over the three critical decades between 1930 and 1960, these residencies developed from an extraordinary, unique opportunity for a few leading practitioners to a widespread, uniform requirement. This article explores the transformation of surgical education in the United States, focusing on the standardization and dissemination of residencies during this key period. Utilizing the archives of professional organizations, it shows how surgical societies initiated and forced reform in the 1930s. It demonstrates the seminal and early role taken by the federal government in the expansion of surgical residencies through incentivized policies and, especially, the growth of the Veterans Administration health system after World War II. Finally, an examination of intra-professional debates over this process illustrates both the deeper struggles to control the nature of surgical training and the importance of residency education in defining the midcentury American surgeon. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mestenhauser, Josef A., Ed.; Ellingboe, Brenda J.
The 13 chapters of this book attempt to challenge assumptions about international education and urge comprehensive curricular changes involving integration of international and global education into all disciplines. Chapters are organized into three parts that address internationalization for the 21st century, multidisciplinary perspectives on…
Ma, Ziyu; Sandel, Brody Steven; Svenning, Jens-Christian
to recolonization to quantify glacial-interglacial climate variability. We found: i) Current climate is the dominant factor explaining the overall patterns, with more clustered angiosperm assemblages towards lower temperature, consistent with tropical niche conservatism. ii) Long-term climate stability...... and tropical niche conservatism. However, the role of glacial-interglacial climate variability remains to be determined, and little is known about any of these relationships for gymnosperms. Moreover, phylogenetic edemism, patterns of unique lineages in restricted ranges is also related to glacial......-interglacial climate variability and needs more attention. We used a refined phylogeny of both angiosperms and gymnosperms to map phylogenetic diversity, clustering and endemism of North American trees in 100-km grid cells, and climate change velocity since Last Glacial Maximum together with postglacial accessibility...
Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin
Medical educators develop student selection criteria and design curricula based on underlying assumptions about who is best suited to the profession and how these learners should be taught. Often these assumptions are not made explicit but instead are embedded in the words and phrases used to describe trainees and curricula. They may then be considered inevitable, rather than being seen as particular social constructs. Using Foucauldian critical discourse analysis methodology, the authors examined a major shift in language in the late 1950s in North American medical education texts. The discourse of the good doctor as a man of character, which had been present since the 1910 Flexner Report, was replaced by a new discourse of characteristics. Analysis of this sudden discursive shift shows a change in thinking about the medical trainee and learning environment from a personal journey of discovery to a dissectible set of component parts that could be individually measured and manipulated. Understanding the discursive effects of language that we use will allow medical educators greater insight into the implications and consequences of different constructions of important issues in medical education.
Shepherd, Lindsay M; Sly, Kaye F; Girard, Jeffrey M
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of sexual behavior and condom use in African American adolescents, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality and abstinence-only education to reduce adolescent sexual behavior and increase condom use. Participants included 450 adolescents aged 12-14 years in the southern United States. Regression analyses showed favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior and social norms significantly predicted recent sexual behavior, and favorable attitudes toward condoms significantly predicted condom usage. Self-efficacy was not found to be predictive of adolescents' sexual behavior or condom use. There were no significant differences in recent sexual behavior based on type of sexuality education. Adolescents who received abstinence-only education had reduced favorable attitudes toward condom use, and were more likely to have unprotected sex than the comparison group. Findings suggest that adolescents who receive abstinence-only education are at greater risk of engaging in unprotected sex. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alarcón, Renato D; Suarez-Richards, Manuel; Sarabia, Silvana
Medical education has incorporated psychiatric or mental health components more consistently during the last decades thanks to various factors such as: advances in neurobiological research; the increasing prevalence of mental disorders in global health; the increasingly close relationship between mental health and public health; comorbidities with medical conditions and the impact of sociocultural phenomena in clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Based on acquisition of core competencies and ethical principles of universal acceptance, the teaching process examined in this article proposes an education based on the provision of clinical experiences integrated throughout the collection of adequate information, the development of diagnostic capabilities, and exposure to a wide variety of forms of academic assessment of students and residents in training. The cultural components of psychiatric education receive special mention; we provide examples of their systematic integration with the acquisition of general skills. The teaching tools include theoretical and applied activities and supervision. Particular attention is paid to how the principles of modern psychiatric medical education, including cultural aspects and practice of holistic health care objectives, can and should be in effect in Latin American countries.
Public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States has been growing since the early 1990s. As part of the argument against bilingual education, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as a monolithic group clinging to their own language and culture and reluctant to assimilate into American society. Proposition 227, which officially ended bilingual education programs in California public schools, was passed on June 2, 1998. Race and ethnicity were reflected in the ...
Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Bossche, S.N.J van den; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify job characteristics that determine young employees' wellbeing, health, and performance, and to compare educational groups. Design/methodology/approach: Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and 2-wave longitudinal data (n=1,284), the paper
Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M
Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.
Beach, Steven R H; Barton, Allen W; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kogan, Steven M; Hurt, Tera R; Fincham, Frank D; Stanley, Scott M
African American couples (n = 331) with children, 89% of whom were married, were assigned to either (a) a culturally sensitive couple- and parenting-enhancement program (ProSAAF) or (b) an information-only control condition in which couples received self-help materials. Husbands averaged 41 years of age and wives averaged 39 years. We found significant effects of program participation in the short term on couple communication, which was targeted by the intervention, as well as over the long term, on self-reported arguing in front of children. Long-term parenting outcomes were fully mediated by changes in communication for wives, but not for husbands. For husbands, positive change depended on amount of wife reported change. We conclude that wives' changes in communication from baseline to posttest may be more pivotal for the couples' long-term experience of decreased arguing in front of children than are husbands' changes, with wives' changes leading to changes in both partners' reports of arguments in front of children. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C
The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.
Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401
Spencer, J. H. (Compiler)
Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 or 11 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society of Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program Description: College or university will be faculty members appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of general interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research project. The lecturers and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education or industry.
Spencer, John H. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)
NASA has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objectives were: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants institutions; (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Center. Program Description: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lectures and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, or industry.
Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne
As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.
Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.
The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater
Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both caregiver and child. The results supported the hypothesis: Caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists themselves compared with those who did not complete high school (e0.56=1.76, 95%CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e1.76=5.78, 95%CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e-0.31=0.74, 95%CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e-0.42=0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e-0.32=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111
Carlos J. Gil-Hernández
Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.
Foma, Mafomekong Ayuk; Saidu, Yauba; Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Jafali, James
Awareness of various aspects of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is essential for the prevention, management and control of the disease. However, several studies have consistently shown that awareness of DM in the general population is low. None of these studies, however, was conducted in The Gambia, even though the condition constitutes a major public health problem in the country. In this paper, we assessed the awareness of DM among diabetic patients attending the Medical Out-Patient Department (MOPD) of Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital (RVTH), Banjul. We interviewed 200 patients attending the MOPD of RVTH. We used a tool containing questions on patient's demographic characteristics and awareness of various aspects of DM including general knowledge on DM, causes, complications, management and prevention. Of the 199 patients who were aware of their condition, only 47% said they knew what DM is. Similarly, 53% of the study participants had no knowledge of the causes of DM and about 50% were not aware of the methods of prevention. 67% knew that DM can result to loss of sight while 46.5% knew that DM can cause poor wound healing. Few respondents knew that DM can lead to kidney failure (13.5%), skin sepsis (12.0%), heart failure (5.5%) and stroke (4.5%). Close to 50% of the respondent did not know how DM can be prevented. Level of education, duration of illness and knowledge of a family member with diabetes were important predictors of knowledge in our study. Our study shows that the majority of patients attending the MOPD have poor knowledge on several aspects of DM. Hence, there is need for conscious efforts towards improving the level of awareness through health education and promotion, not limited to the hospital but also within the general population, as part of strategies to prevent, manage and control DM.
James, Sylvia M.
Science education researchers are recognizing the need to consider identity and other sociocultural factors when examining causes of the science achievement gap for African American students. Non-school settings may hold greater promise than formal schooling to promote identities that are conductive to science learning in African Americans. This mixed-methods study explored the relationship between participation in out-of-school-time (OST) science enrichment programs and African American middle and high school students' racial and ethnic identity (RED, social identity as science learners, and achievement. Pre-post questionnaires used a previously validated model of REI combined with an original subscale that was developed to measure social identity as science learners. Case studies of two programs allowed for an analysis of the informal learning setting. The treatment group (N = 36) consisted of African American middle and high school students in five OST science programs, while the control group (N = 54) students were enrolled in science classes in public schools in the mid-Atlantic region. Results of a t-test of independent means indicated that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of REI or science identity. However, the treatment group earned significantly higher science grades compared to the control group, and an ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between science identity and the intention to pursue post-secondary science studies. Although not significant, MANOVA results indicated that students who participated in OST programs exhibited gradual increases in RD and science identity over time according to grade level and gender. Follow-up analysis revealed significant relationships between awareness of racism, gender, and length of time in OST programs. The case studies illustrated that a unique community of practice exists within the OST programs. Access to authentic science learning experiences, youth
Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Ip, Eddie H; Nguyen, Ha T; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A; Kirk, Julienne K; Quandt, Sara A
Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of our study was to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Cross-sectional. Rural North Carolina. Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, African American, American Indian) and sex (N=593). Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were "agree," "disagree" and "don't know." Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among African Americans, American Indians and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the symptoms and consequences domains compared to beliefs pertaining to causes and medical management. Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than ethnicity per se.
Weaver, Heather A.
When we look in depth at how the experience of education was represented in American culture, we find evidence of visual tropes representing evolving but persistent aspects of the experience of schooling, such as the performance of judgement, and the desire to know the world. These tropes were rendered in terms of pictorial conventions that went…
This investigation employs Disability Critical Race Studies as a theoretical framework to determine the interdependence of racism and ableism in school settings. African American male students with learning disabilities are queried about their interpretations of special education placement and labeling while attempting to secure educational…
Freeman, Tyrone McKinley
This historiographic essay urges a reappraisal of the revisionist view of philanthropy and African-American higher education in the nineteenth century as hegemonic by adopting agency as a theoretical framework to excavate the institutional histories and other primary sources on the northern black colleges--specifically Wilberforce University--for…
Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…
Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi
The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…
Willow, Anna J.
For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…
Williams, Joesph M.; Greenleaf, Arie T.; Albert, Tracey; Barnes, Erin F.
While the educational difficulties of African American students from low-income households are well documented and widely discussed in the literature, far less attention has been paid to students who succeed in school despite significant challenges such as poverty, housing instability, and food insecurity. A review of the literature identifies the…
The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…
Goodchild, Lester F.
This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…
Coogle, Constance L.
Advisors from universities, human services agencies, and Alzheimer's Association identified the educational needs of family caregivers; results were used to prepare training materials. Family caregivers who were trained, mostly African American and rural (n=106), increased knowledge of the disease and caregiving. Economic barriers to participation…
Sherwin, Gary H.; Schmidt, Stacy
Participant observations of two youth organizations identified more than 400 communications in which aggression served prosocial functions. Misinterpretation of these cultural communication codes could lead to overidentification of African American males in special education and, ultimately, correctional facilities. (Contains 41 references.) (JOW)
Erisman, Wendy; Looney, Shannon
This fact sheet presents a snapshot of important facts that are specific to the state of New York from the "Opening the Door to the American Dream: Increasing Higher Education Access and Success for Immigrants" report, which exposes systemic barriers that prevent immigrants from entering college and/or completing bachelor's degrees…
Hollis, Leah P.
Few studies have examined the extent of workplace bullying in American higher education; however, a 2015 study confirmed that 62% of respondents (n = 401) were affected by workplace bullying 18 months prior to the study (Hollis 2015). A closer examination of the women respondents (n = 281) revealed that 71% of the women in this subset faced…
Choi, Eunjung; Keith, Laura J.
Contemporary African-American classical composers Cedric Adderley, John Lane, and Trevor Weston intertwine strands of culture and individual experience to produce musical works whose distinct designs offer cultural resources that music educators can use to integrate diversity into instructional settings. Of special interest is their ability to…
Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine
The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…
DiPrete, Thomas A.; Buchmann, Claudia
While powerful gender inequalities remain in American society, women have made substantial gains and now largely surpass men in one crucial arena: education. Women now outperform men academically at all levels of school, and are more likely to obtain college degrees and enroll in graduate school. What accounts for this enormous reversal in the…
Boyd, Brian A.; Correa, Vivian I.
A conceptual framework was developed to provide proactive relationship building strategies for professionals in special education and the African American families they serve. Cultural clashes have occurred between the respective groups because of the dissimilar cultural and personal experiences that shape one group's perceptions of the other.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.
This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in…
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to chronicle paradigm shifts in American political science during the twentieth century and their influence on political scientists' perspectives on pre-collegiate citizenship education curriculum. Methodology: The research questions explored in this article are concerned with the history of political…
Titarchuk, Victor N.
This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2010. This binational school was founded as Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, business and economics as well as social work undergraduate academic…
Faiz, Melike; Dönmez, Cengiz
Over years, the meaning of citizenship has changed. This change has occurred as a result of the 21st century the era of technology as well as changing social perception. Marshall  stated that citizenship as members of society and all of these have equal civil, political, social rights and duties. "Citizenship education defined as any…
Merner, Laura; Tyler, John
Using the National Center of Education Statistics' Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), this report analyzes data on Native American recipients of bachelor's degrees among 16 physical science and engineering fields. Overall, Native Americans are earning physical science and engineering bachelor's degrees at lower rates than the…
Whitehead, Marquia V.
Researchers have noted that African American women are a triple jeopardy. They are discriminated against because of three aspects: class, race, and gender (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010). In terms of education, African American women have a long history of educating other individuals, even those outside of their race (Perkins, 2015), as well as…
King, LaGarrett J.
The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…
Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer
The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Kim, Miyong T
The purposes of the present study were (1) to explore the completion rate of advance directives (ADs) in a sample of Asian Americans and (2) to examine the direct and moderating effects of knowledge of AD, education, and acculturation in predicting AD completion. Education and acculturation were conceptualized as moderators in the link between knowledge and completion of ADs. Using data from 2609 participants in the 2015 Asian American Quality of Life survey (aged 18-98), logistic regression analyses on AD completion were conducted, testing both direct and moderating effects. The overall AD completion rate in sample was about 12%. The AD knowledge and acculturation independently predicted AD completion. No direct effect of education was found; however, it interacted with AD knowledge. The AD knowledge was more likely to be translated into completion in the group with higher education. The AD completion rate observed in the present sample of Asian Americans was much lower than that of the US general population (26%-36%). The interactive role of education helps to explain the gap between AD knowledge and completion and suggests intervention strategies.
Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skills: effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines.
O'Neil, Kevin M; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J
Recommendations for optimizing continuing medical education (CME) effectiveness in improving physician application of knowledge and psychomotor skills are needed to guide the development of processes that effect physician change and improve patient care. The guideline panel reviewed evidence tables and a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of CME developed by The Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Evidence Report). The panel considered studies relevant to the effect of CME on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skill development. From the 136 studies identified in the systematic review, 15 articles, 12 addressing physician application of knowledge and 3 addressing psychomotor skills, were identified and reviewed. Recommendations for optimizing CME were developed using the American College of Chest Physicians guideline grading system. The preponderance of evidence demonstrated improvement in physician application of knowledge with CME. The quality of evidence did not allow specific recommendations regarding optimal media or educational techniques or the effectiveness of CME in improving psychomotor skills. CME is effective in improving physician application of knowledge. Multiple exposures and longer durations of CME are recommended to optimize educational outcomes.
Lee, Jung-Ah; Nguyen, Hannah; Park, Joan; Tran, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Huynh, Yen
Families of ethnic minority persons with dementia often seek help at later stages of the disease. Little is known about the effectiveness of various methods in supporting ethnic minority dementia patients' caregivers. The objective of the study was to identify smartphone and computer usage among family caregivers of dementia patients (i.e., Korean and Vietnamese Americans) to develop dementia-care education programs for them. Participants were asked various questions related to their computer or smartphone usage in conjunction with needs-assessment interviews. Flyers were distributed at two ethnic minority community centers in Southern California. Snowball recruitment was also utilized to reach out to the families of dementia patients dwelling in the community. Thirty-five family caregivers, including 20 Vietnamese and 15 Korean individuals, participated in this survey. Thirty participants (30 of 35, 85.7%) were computer users. Among those, 76.7% (23 of 30) reported daily usage and 53% (16 of 30) claimed to use social media. A majority of the participants (31 of 35, 88.6%) reported that they owned smartphones. More than half of smartphone users (18 of 29, 62%) claimed to use social media applications. Many participants claimed that they could not attend in-class education due to caregiving and/or transportation issues. Most family caregivers of dementia patients use smartphones more often than computers, and more than half of those caregivers communicate with others through social media apps. A smartphone-app-based caregiver intervention may serve as a more effective approach compared to the conventional in-class method. Multiple modalities for the development of caregiver interventions should be considered.
The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse was the single largest public scientific outreach event of the last several decades. The astronomical community, from organizations like to the American Astronomical Society, to government agencies such as NASA, to the nation-wide amateur astronomy community all worked to raise awareness of this unique event that would be visible to every single inhabitant of the United States. This outreach, like the event itself, was unique in requiring education on not just the science of the event, but the societal nature as well. This included such variety of subjects as: 1) eye safety for millions of individuals, 2) the importance of traveling to totality, 3) transportation issues over mass travel to regions in totality, 3) lodging, food, and logistics information for communities in totality, 4) governmental emergency response, and much more. I interview a number of communities, city managers, event planners, and national park rangers after the eclipse to identify what were the most important education and outreach information they received leading up to the event to assess what we in the astronomical community did that was most effective and what could have been done better in retrospect. In particular, I look at the use of the solar eclipse "travel poster" campaign I designed for event organizers, chambers of commerce, universities, and national and state parks in the four years leading up to the eclipse. How were they used and were they effective in raising the public's awareness of community events across the country? The lessons learned will be important for planning for the next eclipse that touches the U.S. in less than seven years from now on April 8, 2024.
Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui
The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…
DeTample, Darrell R.
Most Americans misunderstand the terms "Arab" and "Muslim," while also casting Arabs and Muslims as threats to national security. These perceived threats have led to the justification of the oppression of Arab and Muslim Americans similar to other minority groups in the United States, as non-Arab and non-Muslim Americans have…
Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette, Ed.
In an attempt to rewrite American history incorporating "long hidden facts" pertinent to the American Indian, this book endeavors to relate the "truth in history" and make "humanity see itself face to face without fear and in spite of the pangs of conscience". Each of 7 chapters addresses a specific aspect of American history relevant to the…
Ghaderi, Iman; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lachapelle, Alexander; Paige, John
A clear understanding of simulation-based curricula in use at American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEIs) is lacking. A 25-question online survey was sent to ACS-AEIs. The response rate approached 60%. The most frequent specialties to use the ACS-AEIs are general surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (94%). Residents are the main target population for programming/training (96%). Elements of the ACS/Association of Program Directors in Surgery Surgical Skills Curriculum are used by 77% of responding ACS-AEIs. Only 49% of ACS-AEIs implement the entire curriculum and 96% have independently developed their own surgical skills curricula. "Home-grown" simulators have been designed at 71% of ACS-AEIs. Feasibility (80%), evidence of effectiveness (67%), and cost (60%) were reasons for curriculum adoption. All programs use operative assessment tools for resident performance, and 53% use Messick's unitary framework of validity. Most programs (88%) have financial support from their academic institute. Majority of ACS-AEIs had trainees evaluate their faculty instructors (90%), and the main form of such faculty evaluation was postcourse surveys (97%). This study provides specific information regarding simulation-based curricula at ACS-AEIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burhansstipanov, Linda; Harjo, Lisa; Kaur, Judith Salmon
American Indians (AIs) continue to have elevated cancer incidence and mortality, and most have issues accessing cancer screening services. During 2013-2014, Mayo and its partners created Native Cancer 101 Module 10 "Prevention and Early Cancer Detection" education workshop. A community-based AI organization implemented nine of these workshops during 2014-2015 via diverse venues. Nearly all participants eligible for at least one type of cancer screening participated in a workshop and consented to follow-up within 3 to 6 months to determine if screenings had been completed or scheduled. Native Cancer 101 Module 10 workshops were conducted with 150 community members of whom 6 had recently completed cancer screening (n = 144). The workshops had a 25.20% increase in knowledge, and 97.1% of subjects responded that they would recommend the workshop to their friends and family. Most (136 of 144) submitted a consent form to be contacted 3 to 6 months following the workshop. Patient navigators reached 86 (63.2%) of the consented participants in the follow-up calls after the workshop, and 63 (46.3%) self-reported that they had completed at least one cancer screening test for which they were eligible. The single implementation of the workshop influenced community participants' completion of cancer screening.
Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-
Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.
Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia
The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…
Education is the key to American competitiveness and a strong economy, and continued federal investment in education is needed in order to support improvements in student achievement and put American economy on the path to sustained growth. The United States must continue to invest in education in order to create a system that is more equitable…
Harrison, Danielle A.
For many decades, the social imbalances had a significant impact on the academic success of African Americans. High school completion rates for African American students were disproportionately lower when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. This purpose of this qualitative study was to display factors that contributed to African American…
McBain, Susan; And Others
This document lists issues in elementary and secondary education which were identified by a review of education journals and newspapers, including: Congressional Quarterly, Education Daily, Education U.S.A., Harvard Educational Review, National Journal, Newsweek, New York Times, Phi Delta Kappan, School Review, Time, Wall Street Journal, and…
Hoffman, Aubri S; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Housten, Ashley J; Leal, Viola B; Linder, Suzanne K; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Volk, Robert J
Colorectal cancer screening rates for African American patients remain suboptimal. Patient decision aids designed with an entertainment-education approach have been shown to improve saliency and foster informed decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an entertainment-education decision aid tailored for African American patients improved patients' decision making, attitudes, intentions, or colorectal cancer screening behavior. Eighty-nine participants were randomized to view 1) a patient decision aid video containing culturally tailored information about colorectal cancer screening options and theory-based support in decision making presented in an entertainment-education format or 2) an attention control video about hypertension that contained similarly detailed information. Participants met with their clinician and then completed follow-up questionnaires assessing their knowledge, decisional conflict, self-advocacy, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions. At 3 months, completion of screening was assessed by chart review. Viewing the culturally tailored decision aid significantly increased African American patients' knowledge of colorectal cancer screening recommendations and options. It also significantly reduced their decisional conflict and improved their self-advocacy. No significant differences were observed in participants' attitudes, norms, or intentions. At three months, 23% of all patients had completed a colonoscopy. Designing targeted, engaging patient decision aids for groups that receive suboptimal screening holds promise for improving patient decision making and self-advocacy. Additional research is warranted to investigate the effectiveness of such aids in clinical practices with suboptimal screening rates and on downstream behaviors (such as repeat testing). Cancer 2017;123:1401-1408. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Neff, J A; Prihoda, T J; Hoppe, S K
This study seeks to clarify the relevance of machismo to patterns of high maximum drinking among male drinkers. Specifically, the study describes the psychometric properties of a newly developed 7-item machismo measure, compares levels of machismo and self-esteem for a sample of Anglo, black and Mexican-American males, and examines both main and interaction effects of machismo, self-esteem and education as predictors of alcohol use in these racial/ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression analyses document interaction between race/ethnicity, machismo, self-esteem and education, which calls into question the presumed importance of machismo as a cultural element causing heavy drinking patterns among Mexican-American males.
Cristina Beatriz Fernández
Full Text Available In 1779, Eugenio Espejo, an author from Quito, wrote a dialogue using a pseudonym: El nuevo Luciano de Quito o despertador de los ingenios quiteños en nueve conversaciones eruditas para el estímulo de la literatura. In the Nuevo Luciano, two residents at Quito talked about a religious sermon and its style. The conversation continues on the colonial American education, the rethorical tradition, the educational contents and methods. They discuss the Jesuitical influence on the colonial educational system. Our purpose, then, will be to analyze these dialogue, the aesthetic debate, the criticism to those times education and the new system of knowledge suggested, a more rational, enlightened and modern system.
Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison
American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.
Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C
This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.
Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda
I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.
Stevenson, H C; Davis, G
AIDS video education is a major mode of providing information about the spread and prevention of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Very little has been written about the need for culturally salient messages in increasing the acquisition and retention of HIV/AIDS prevention information, even though there is considerable agreement that limited culturally sensitive information is reaching African-American youth. This investigation sought to ascertain the impact of a culturally similar AIDS video on the acquisition of AIDS knowledge and endorsement of HIV/AIDS prevention beliefs. This study randomly assigned classes of African-American teenagers to one of two treatment groups: culturally similar video (CSV) AIDS education and culturally dissimilar video (CDV) AIDS education. Results suggest that the CSV group demonstrated significant improvement in pre- to post- AIDS knowledge scores compared to the CDV group (using ANCOVA procedures). The intervention was not significant in demonstrating change in beliefs about prevention. Implications for the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs for inner-city African-American youth are discussed.
Choe, Sun; Lim, Rod Seung-Hwan; Clark, Karen; Wang, Regina; Branz, Patricia; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Deaf women encounter barriers to accessing cancer information. In this study, we evaluated whether deaf women's knowledge could be increased by viewing a graphically enriched, American Sign Language (ASL) cervical cancer education video. A blind, randomized trial evaluated knowledge gain and retention. Deaf women (n = 130) completed questionnaires before, after, and 2 months after viewing the video. With only a single viewing of the in-depth video, the experimental group gained and retained significantly more cancer knowledge than the control group. Giving deaf women access to the ASL cervical cancer education video (http://cancer.ucsd.edu/deafinfo) significantly increased their knowledge of cervical cancer.
Choe, Sun; Lim, Rod Seung-Hwan; Clark, Karen; Wang, Regina; Branz, Patricia; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Background Deaf women encounter barriers to accessing cancer information. In this study, we evaluated whether deaf women's knowledge could be increased by viewing a graphically enriched, American Sign Language (ASL) cervical cancer education video. Methods A blind, randomized trial evaluated knowledge gain and retention. Deaf women (n = 130) completed questionnaires before, after, and 2 months after viewing the video. Results With only a single viewing of the in-depth video, the experimental group gained and retained significantly more cancer knowledge than the control group. Conclusions Giving deaf women access to the ASL cervical cancer education video (http://cancer.ucsd.edu/deafinfo) significantly increased their knowledge of cervical cancer. PMID:19259859
Mercado, Aurea Adrias
The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the American College Test (ACT) that is widely used for student assessment in American colleges and universities can be used as a screening instrument at the University of the Philippines. The design utilized correlational and discriminatory techniques for data involving academic factors, and computer…
Lee, Sharon M.
Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)
With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the United States spent millions upon millions of dollars in a largely unsuccessful effort to close the academic achievement gap between American-Indian and some other ethnic minorities and mainstream Americans. NCLB's focus on teacher quality and evidence-based curriculum and…
Donovan, Elizabeth A.
Within the field of school psychology there exists literature for school psychologists working with specific ethnic and linguistic groups (Frisby & Reynolds, 2005; Tomes, 2011). The Arab American population is estimated to be 3.6 million (Arab American Institute, 2012). However, there is a paucity of school psychology research on Arab American…
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a group of intellectuals and Spanish scientists found it necessary to resume cultural relations with Latin American countries that had been Spanish colonies in the past. In order to do this, they promoted a school of thought called "Hispano-Americanism", which aimed to create a…
Yaoqi Zhang; Bin Zheng; Ge Sun; Peilei Fan Fan
Lawn has been used for landscaping, gardening, and beautification of homes and cities for a long time. The evolution of the lawn reflects important cultural and biophysical interactions between humans and nature. The American lawn, which was from Europe and has been a part of the American dream for home ownership and culture, has become an area going against nature for...
Dessel, Adrienne B.; Abu Ahmad, Manal Yazbak; Dembo, Robert; Ben Hagai, Ella
The violent and protracted Israeli-Palestinian conflict continues, and Jewish Americans play a significant role in influencing related US foreign policy as well as in promoting positive interactions with Palestinians globally. Diaspora populations have played an important role in international peace processes and American Jews are actively…
Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta
This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…
Creation and Dissemination of a Multispecialty Graduate Medical Education Curriculum in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: The North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Resident Education Committee Experiences.
Wheeler, Carol; Browner-Elhanan, Karen-Jill; Evans, Yolanda; Fleming, Nathalie; Huguelet, Patricia S; Karjane, Nicole W; Loveless, Meredith; Talib, Hina J; Kaul, Paritosh
The goal was to develop a multispecialty committee to address deficiencies in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) resident education through curricular development under the auspices of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A multispecialty North American committee was organized to develop short as well as long curricula in PAG through a combination of conference calls and face-to-face meetings. Content was guided by objectives of national accrediting organizations. The curricula used print as well as interactive electronic resources. After publication of the short and long curricula, a dissemination strategy was developed to present the information at national meetings. A curricular study was performed after introduction of the curriculum to evaluate its efficacy. Long-term plans for further curricular components and expansion of educational tools are ongoing. We gathered a diverse multispecialty group of doctors to collaborate on a unified educational goal. This committee developed and disseminated resident PAG curricula using a variety of learning tools. This curricular development and implementation can occur with a minimal financial burden. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charles H. Thompson is best known as the founder and the first editor-in-chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" (1932-1963). Throughout his career, Thompson sought to extend educational opportunity in ways that were "for the good of Negro education as a whole." His main concern was in educating future leaders for service in African American…
Jernigan, J. A.
This essay considers U.S. civics education policy in Puerto Rico from 1900 to 1904. Civics education in Puerto Rico during these years offers a particularly unique context for exploring education at the edge of empire during the dawn of the twentieth century. The article begins with a discussion of civics education in the United States around that…
Zhang, Wei; McCubbin, Hamilton; McCubbin, Laurie; Chen, Qi; Foley, Shirley; Strom, Ida; Kehl, Lisa
Focusing on Asian Americans, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawaii, this study contributes to the literature by examining (1) the geographical distributions of education in relation to self-rated general health at neighborhood levels, and (2) the individual variations in self-rated health by ethnicity and education at both individual and neighborhood levels. Using the 2007 Hawaii Health Survey with linked zip-code information, and applying GIS (Geographic Information System) and binary logistic regression models, this study found that (1) there are significant between ethnic differences in self-rated health in Hawaii, with Hawaiians being the most disadvantaged population compared to Japanese, Chinese, and Caucasians; (2) individual socioeconomic characteristics are all related to self-rated health, and education (in particular) mediates the Japanese vs. Hawaiian and Chinese vs. Hawaiian health differences; (3) the neighborhood level of education has an independent effect on self-rated health over and above individual characteristics for the whole sample and it partially mediates the between ethnic health differences; and (4) the relative importance of education to self-rated health is more significant and salient for Caucasians and Japanese/Chinese than for Filipinos and Hawaiians. In sum, this study not only demonstrates a geographical profile of health and education distributions in Hawaii, but also reveals significant mediating effects of education, at both individual and neighborhood levels, in explaining the between and within ethnic differentials in self-rated health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Katherine Clegg; Bone, Lee; Clay, Eric A; Owings, Kerry; Thames, Sean; Stillman, Frances
Young adults are generally overlooked in tobacco control initiatives, even though they are critical to sustained success. African American young adults who are not in higher education or working are particularly vulnerable to harmful tobacco use, given high smoking rates and limited access to cessation services. Guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, we sought to identify program and community-level strategies to reduce tobacco use among African American young adults in Baltimore. We describe the challenges and opportunities for integrating effective tobacco control into community-based education and job training programs for unemployed young adults. As part of a longstanding community-research partnership in Baltimore, we conducted fourteen semistructured key informant interviews with leaders from city government and education and job training programs for young adults. The research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination all included dialogue between and active contribution by both research and community partners. Interview data were structured into opportunities (mindset for change and desire for bonds with a trusted adult), challenges (culture of fatalism, tobacco as a stress reliever, and culture of tobacco use among young adults), and possible tobacco control solutions (tobacco education designed with and for program staff and participants and integration of tobacco issues into holistic program goals and policies). The emergent themes enhance our understanding of how tobacco is situated in the lives of unemployed young adults and the potential for building sustainable, community-based public health solutions.
White, Tarsha D.
Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…
Hoyt, DaVina J.
It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…
Mims, Barbara; Biordi, Diana L
This qualitative study is derived from interviews conducted during a larger quantitative study that examined facilitators and barrier to communication and negotiations in African American families whose teen daughters had one or more unwed teen pregnancies. Based on the larger study's findings that the education of the teens mother was a statistically significant factor in teen pregnancy, 17 robust interviews were analyzed in this study and sorted on variables of maternal education and teen pregnancies. From the analysis of the data, seven themes emerged. Findings indicated that almost all girls reported a lack of contact with a father and girls of higher educated mothers tended to have more supportive family structures than did girls of lower educated mothers. Most of the families rejected the teen pregnancy, although later some accepted the infant. In comparison to mothers with a higher level of education, mothers with a lower level of education leaned toward more absolutist and negative solutions without full discussions about ideas of sex with their teens. Discussion indicated the need for interventions based on negotiation principles and tactics.
Western impressions of Japanese education are examined. Various aspects of Japanese art education--e.g., government control, a centralized school system, and standardized curriculum--and Japanese attitudes toward conformity are discussed. (RM)
Self-determination and community control of education as envisioned in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 have been severely compromised, the author maintains. Flaws in the law and its administration are discussed. (MT)
Salvo, Susan; Shelton, Kaye; Welch, Brett
Online education is continuing to grow in popularity with students with more and more institutions offering fully online degrees. In addition, online education potentially offers a color free environment where students are less likely to be judged by race and treated more equally as this is one of the benefits of online education. However, African…
Wang, Jui-Ching; Humphreys, Jere T.
The teaching of multicultural music, and to a lesser extent popular music, has been the stated goal of music education policy makers for many decades. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to estimate the amount and percentage of time music education majors in a university teacher education program spent on 13 styles of music in history,…
Lu, Huaijuan; Kitt-Lewis, Erin
Significant financial resources are invested for Research and Learning Abroad Programs for Chinese nursing educators. These resources provide an opportunity to observe U.S. nursing education and bring "the lessons learned" back to China to create positive change to nursing education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paddock, Stanton M.
As journalism educators wrestle to keep programs up-to-date in an evolving news landscape, there is value in understanding how education in an early form of multimedia journalism--photography--came to be. Little attention has been paid to the intersection of journalism education and photojournalism. This subject furnishes a unique perspective on…
Murray, Frank B.
This narrative considers how well equipped today's teacher education students and faculty are to meet the demands of the new Common Core State Standards. Data from the Teacher Education Accreditation Council's national evaluation of teacher education programs gives a mixed picture that, while mostly encouraging, also reveals that some…
Nguyen Phuong Lan
Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs.
Today marks the beginning of the GalileoMobile Project, a two-month expedition to bring the wonder and excitement of astronomy to young people in Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Supported by ESO and partners, a group of astronomers and educators will travel through a region of the Andes Mountains aboard the GalileoMobile, offering astronomical activities, such as workshops for students and star parties for the general public. Professional filmmakers on the trip will produce a multilingual documentary capturing the thrill of discovery through science, culture and travel. The GalileoMobile is a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), which is a global celebration commemorating the first use of a telescope to view the Universe by the Italian astronomer Galileo four hundred years ago. The project will promote basic science education through astronomy by visiting schools and communities that have limited access to outreach programmes. The GalileoMobile will provide these underserved groups with hands-on activities and educational material from international partners. The van is fully equipped to offer unique sky-observing opportunities for young students and other locals, with star parties at night and solar observations during the day. The team will use various tools including IYA2009's handy Galileoscopes, which will be donated to the schools after the visits. By stimulating curiosity, critical thinking and a sense of wonder and discovery for the Universe and our planet, the GalileoMobile Project aims to encourage interest in astronomy and science, and exchange culturally different visions of the cosmos. Spearheading the initiative is a group of enthusiastic Latin American and European PhD students from the European Southern Observatory, the Max Planck Society, the University Observatory Munich, and the Stockholm University Observatory. This itinerant educational programme is intended to reach about 20 000 people during eight weeks in October
Benjamin, Ludy T; Crouse, Ellen M
In 1954, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (1896) that was the foundation of school segregation in 17 states and the District of Columbia. Brown is arguably the most important Supreme Court decision of the 20th century in terms of its influence on American history. Moreover, it has a special significance for psychology because it marked the first time that psychological research was cited in a Supreme Court decision and because social science data were seen as paramount in the Court's decision to end school segregation. This article describes psychologist Kenneth B. Clark's role in that case and the response of the American Psychological Association to scientific psychology's moment in a great spotlight.
In recent years, the internationalization of music education has become an important topic. Scholars of various research traditions try to find the best solutions for problems in music education theory and practice by taking a look at what other countries do. English as common language seems to facilitate this recent development. However, in spite…
Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940. In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.
Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.
Meyers, R.B.; Brody, M.; Dillon, J.; Hart, P.; Krasny, M.; Monroe, M.; Russell, J.; Wals, A.E.J.
This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are
Holzer, Harry J.
To improve the employment rates and earnings of Americans workers, we need to create more-coherent and more-effective education and workforce development systems, focusing primarily (though not exclusively) on disadvantaged youth and adults, and with education and training more clearly targeted towards firms and sectors that provide good-paying…
Markus, Hazel Rose
U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.
According to many scholars, classrooms in America are overwhelmingly authoritarian and undemocratic. They focus on fragmented knowledge that is disconnected from the students' lives. Proven reforms are resisted at all levels, and systematic progressive change is non-existent nearly a century after the progressive movement. Why is this so? The standard liberal outlook is that the schools are `broken' and `neglected', but that they have the potential, with reform, to be a major progressive force in society. This paper questions these assumptions through a review of the seminal educational-economic work by Bowles and Gintis: Schooling in Capitalist America. The major claim of this text is that our educational system's primary role is to mirror, support, stabilize, and reproduce the fundamentally hierarchical and undemocratic social relationships that exist in the majority of American workplaces. The major arguments and evidence of this text are reviewed, and implications for PER will be briefly mentioned.
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.
Adoption by women of dietary practices that are based on Dietary Guidelines for Americans (8) can promote improved general and reproductive health and can help prevent chronic disease. Additional guidance is indicated for helping prevent neural tube defects, iron deficiency anemia, and osteoporosis. The obstetrician-gynecologist plays an important preventive role by providing basic nutritional assessment; nutrition education; counseling concerning diet, weight, and exercise; and referral for special nutritional care as needed. The physician needs to be especially alert for serious nutrition-related problems such as eating disorders that pose a serious health risk and to stress the importance of good nutrition particularly to adolescent and elderly patients.
This article examines the intellectual and experiential journey of a South Asian American (SAA) feminist who teaches about race and anti-racist praxis in the United States. It starts with her struggles trying to teach about race through the lens of White privilege and ends by sharing her current teaching practices which foreground the concept of…
Ogbu, John U.
This study examines the way in which the position of blacks in the American system of caste or racial stratification contributes to their lower school performance. It explores the myths and stereotypes that support the caste system and shows how they are translated into practices by school personnel. It probes into the responses of the minority…
This article explores the extent to which Chinese school leaders espouse dichotomous or integrated Chinese and Anglo-American leadership and management preferences. Data are drawn from questionnaires completed by school leaders and from semi-structured interviews with individual school leaders from different parts of China. The exploratory study…
Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.
During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…
Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.
In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…
Turner, Steven C.
Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National…
Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia
This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…
America's civic community from the end of the Great Depression through the post World War II years was hardly rational or racially neutral in its uneven and unequal treatment of African Americans and other underrepresented groups. Conventional civic scholarship of the era has ignored the complexities of a racially segregated society that in theory…
An ethnographic study on a Japanese language tutoring programme for foreign children was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The investigation attempted to shed light on issues of language acquisition among Latin American children who attended three public primary schools in Japan. This article combines extensive participant observation and in-depth…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Kathy; Leung, Genevieve
This paper investigates Mandarin learning experiences of Chinese American teenagers from working-class families. Drawing on a subset of data from a larger ethnographic study, we focus on 14 middle schoolers who studied Mandarin as a heritage language at a socially engaging school with Mandarin as part of its official curriculum. The data highlight…
Breanna Gervais; Chase R. Voirin; Chris Beatty; Grace Bulltail; Stephanie Cowherd; Shawn Defrance; Breana Dorame; Raymond Gutteriez; Jessica Lackey; Candy Lupe; April B. Negrette; Natalya C. Robbins Sherman; Ruth Swaney; Kevin Tso; Marvin Victor; Royale Wilson; Kimberly Yazzie; Jonathan W. Long; Serra J. Hoagland
Native Americans have vital interests in promoting forest management decisions based on sound science and consistent with cultural values to sustain and conserve tribal natural resources. Advancing the next generation of natural resource professionals into key positions is essential to advance the self-determination of tribes; yet, there are unique challenges Native...
... American'' means an individual who is of a tribe, people, or culture that is indigenous to the United... from Dun and Bradstreet. A DUNS number can be created within one business day. If you are a corporate... points) 2. The extent to which the methods of evaluation include the use of objective performance...
Yan, Lu; Pei, Shaohua
International students attending American universities often receive confusing messages: on one hand, for their contribution to the U.S. economy and fostering of domestic students' multicultural awareness; on the other, they are often targets of hostility and bias on and off campus. This qualitative phenomenological study examined 12 international…
Commander, Nannette; Zhao, Yali; Gallagher, Peggy; You, Yongheng
Universities are seeking techniques that encourage students to become more globalised in their perspectives. One method of fostering globalisation is to incorporate cross-national asynchronous online discussions with students from different countries within courses. The purpose of this study was to explore if participation by American and Chinese…
This analysis of archival materials discovered at Fisk and Atlanta Universities examines the teaching careers of Aaron Douglas and Hale Woodruff, two African American artists who came to prominence during the New Negro Movement in the 1920s and taught at historically Black universities in the 1930s and 1940s. These artists had a profound influence…
As Latin American nations marshall their rapidly growing human and material resources, they frequently encounter organizational infrastructures which are incapable of supporting the rapid process of modernization. Yet, these inadequate infrastructures persist over time, leaving behind unrecoverable losses. Attempts to understand the problems of…